WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant breeding technique

  1. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques.

  2. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  3. Concepts and strategies of organic plant breeding in light of novel breeding techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, Edwin; Messmer, Monika M.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a set of guiding principles for the evaluation of breeding techniques by the organic sector over time. The worldwide standards of organic agriculture (OA) do not allow genetic engineering (GE) or any products derived from genetic engineering. The

  4. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  5. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  6. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  7. Analysing patent landscapes in plant biotechnology and new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Claudia; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio; Thangaraj, Harry

    2013-02-01

    This article aims to inform the reader of the importance of searching patent landscapes in plant biotechnology and the use of basic tools to perform a patent search. The recommendations for a patent search strategy are illustrated with the specific example of zinc finger nuclease technology for genetic engineering in plants. Within this scope, we provide a general introduction to searching using two online and free-access patent databases esp@cenet and PatentScope. The essential features of the two databases, and their functionality is described, together with short descriptions to enable the reader to understand patents, searching, their content, patent families, and their territorial scope. We mostly stress the value of patent searching for mining scientific, rather than legal information. Search methods through the use of keywords and patent codes are elucidated together with suggestions about how to search with or combine codes with keywords and we also comment on limitations of each method. We stress the importance of patent literature to complement more mainstream scientific literature, and the relative complexities and difficulties in searching patents compared to the latter. A parallel online resource where we describe detailed search exercises is available through reference for those intending further exploration. In essence this is aimed at a novice patent searcher who may want to examine accessory patent literature to complement knowledge gained from mainstream journal resources.

  8. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  9. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  10. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants. Technique used for radiation induced mutant in begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-03-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by el-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-el-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author).

  11. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  12. Next Generation Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Van 11-14 november 2012 vond in de Reehorst de conferentie ‘Next Generation Plant Breeding’ plaats. Tijdens deze bijeenkomst kwamen de grote uitdagingen van de toekomstige plantenveredeling aan de orde: de opkomst van nieuwe sequencing-technieken, de bijbehorende enorme hoeveelheid gegevens die gepr

  13. Next Generation Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Van 11-14 november 2012 vond in de Reehorst de conferentie ‘Next Generation Plant Breeding’ plaats. Tijdens deze bijeenkomst kwamen de grote uitdagingen van de toekomstige plantenveredeling aan de orde: de opkomst van nieuwe sequencing-technieken, de bijbehorende enorme hoeveelheid gegevens die

  14. Next Generation Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Van 11-14 november 2012 vond in de Reehorst de conferentie ‘Next Generation Plant Breeding’ plaats. Tijdens deze bijeenkomst kwamen de grote uitdagingen van de toekomstige plantenveredeling aan de orde: de opkomst van nieuwe sequencing-technieken, de bijbehorende enorme hoeveelheid gegevens die gepr

  15. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  16. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  17. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  18. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  19. Future perspectives of in vitro culture and plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2015-01-01

    Conventional breeding and plant improvement increasingly become inadequate to keep up with progression and high quality demands. Thus biotechnological techniques are more and more adopted. Initially, biotechnological tools have supported conventional breeding by in vitro culture techniques......, comprising micropropagation, speeding up multiplication and improving uniformity. Also, crossing barriers of incompatible plants have been overcome using in vitro methods and embryo rescue techniques in wide hybridization approaches. Marker-assisted breeding is employed for targeted selection of DNA...... fragments from parental plants in respect to identification of desired characteristics in offspring or among hybrid plants. Phylogeny-assisted breeding and knowledge about genetic relationships support the ability to develop new hybrids. Finally, chemical and radiation induced mutagenesis are established...

  20. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  1. Organic plant breeding and propagation : concepts and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Key-words : crop ideotype, genetic diversity, integrity of plants, intrinsic value, isophenic line mixture varieties, organic plant breeding, organic farming, organic propagation, participatory plant breeding, variety characteristics, seed-b

  2. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    ethically between these approaches, often relying on ambiguous concepts such as ‘naturalness’. We argue that a virtue-based approach can be used to explicate the assumptions behind such distinctions that are relevant for scientific and public discourse, and support a conclusion that there are ethical......The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... to the dominant scientific view, the main concerns are issues of biosafety that are dealt with through risk assessment. Thus, the techniques are ethically equivalent and only the resulting product is of interest. In parts of the societal and philosophical discourse, however, there are attempts to distinguish...

  3. Plant breeding with marker-assisted selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Sussumu Sakiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, molecular marker studies reached extraordinary advances, especially for sequencing and bioinformatics techniques. Marker-assisted selection became part of the breeding program routines of important seed companies, in order to accelerate and optimize the cultivar developing processes. Private seed companies increasingly use marker-assisted selection, especially for the species of great importance to the seed market, e.g. corn, soybean, cotton, and sunflower. In the Brazilian public institutions few breeding programs use it efficiently. The possible reasons are: lack of know-how, lack of appropriate laboratories, few validated markers, high cost, and lack of urgency in obtaining cultivars. In this article we analyze the use and the constraints of marker-assisted selection in plant breeding programs of Brazilian public institutes

  4. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial at...

  5. Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Dons, J.J.M.; Overwalle, van G.; Raven, H.; Arundel, A.; Eaton, D.; Nelis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is

  6. Breeding business : the future of plant breeding in the light of developments in patent rights and plant breeder's rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Dons, J.J.M.; Overwalle, van G.; Raven, H.; Arundel, A.; Eaton, D.; Nelis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant breeding serves an important public interest. Two intellectual property (IP) systems are relevant for the protection of innovations in this sector: plant breeder's rights and patent rights. Some exemptions play an important role in plant breeding, such as the 'breeder's exemption', which is un

  7. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  8. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  9. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  10. Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. "Effectoromics" has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems.

  11. Understanding crop genetic diversity under modern plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing crop yield while at the same time minimizing crop failure for sustainable agriculture requires a better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. This review identifies knowledge gaps and shows the need for more research into genetic diversity changes under plant breeding. Modern plant breeding has made a profound impact on food production and will continue to play a vital role in world food security. For sustainable agriculture, a compromise should be sought between maximizing crop yield under changing climate and minimizing crop failure under unfavorable conditions. Such a compromise requires better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. Efforts have been made over the last three decades to assess crop genetic diversity using molecular marker technologies. However, these assessments have revealed some temporal diversity patterns that are largely inconsistent with our perception that modern plant breeding reduces crop genetic diversity. An attempt was made in this review to explain such discrepancies by examining empirical assessments of crop genetic diversity and theoretical investigations of genetic diversity changes over time under artificial selection. It was found that many crop genetic diversity assessments were not designed to assess diversity impacts from specific plant breeding programs, while others were experimentally inadequate and contained technical biases from the sampling of cultivars and genomes. Little attention has been paid to theoretical investigations on crop genetic diversity changes from plant breeding. A computer simulation of five simplified breeding schemes showed the substantial effects of plant breeding on the retention of heterozygosity over generations. It is clear that more efforts are needed to investigate crop genetic diversity in space and time under plant breeding to achieve sustainable crop production.

  12. Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ A new breeding program" Creating new middle breeding materials by utilizing new techniques", cooperated by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS)", started in Hangzhou, China in 1999.The study led by Dr Kunihiro Y. (Japan) and Dr QIAN Qian (China) now advances smoothly.

  13. Artificial Breeding Techniques of Whitmania pigra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Nan; Xu; Ziliang

    2014-01-01

    The artificial breeding technology for juvenile of Whitmania pigra was introduced in the paper,including selection of sites and water quality,construction of spawning pool,hatching pool and escape proof facilities,key technology of leech selection,feeding,cocoon hatching,juvenile feeding and management.

  14. Simulation Modeling in Plant Breeding: Principles and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer

    2007-01-01

    Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.

  15. Call for Papers--Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Plant Breeding (ISSN 1923-8266, online, http://mpb.sophiapublisher.com/) is an open access and peer reviewed journal, which publishes original research papers involving the transgenic breeding and marker assisted breeding in plants.

  16. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation.

  17. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding.

  18. Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Xiang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    of new breeding techniques (NBTs) for rewilding, a process involving the reintroduction of properties from the wild relatives of crops, as a method to close the productivity gap. The most efficient methods of rewilding are based on modern biotechnology techniques, which have yet to be embraced...

  19. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  20. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  1. Induction of Parthenogenesis in Plants and Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Chun-hong; LI Wen-li; WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; XIE Zhao-hui; HU Yan-yu; WANG Xu-dong

    2003-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a kind of reproductive mode by which the egg develops into embryo without fertilization and grows into plant finally. This article summarizes the advances of inducing parthenogenesis in plants in relation to induction methods, affecting factors and the studies in embryology. In addition, the application of parthenogenesis in breeding is also discussed.

  2. Application of bioinformatics in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, D.; Leunissen, J.; Atanassov, A.; Nenov, A.; Dimov, G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of plant genomics is to understand the genetic and molecular basis of all biological processes in plants that are relevant to the specie. This understanding is fundamental to allow efficient exploitation of plants as biological resources in the development of new cultivars with improved qua

  3. Breeding and Cultivation Technique of Ditian 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbin YAN; Linsheng SHAO; Junhua WANG; Yonggang CHENG; Ruigang WANG; Xu PANG; Haiying LIANG; Xuebiao ZHANG; Peimin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Ditian 6 is super sweet corn hybrid. Its parents are inbred line 201-2 and 769 respectively. It was certificated by Variety Certification Committee of Shanxi Province in 2013. Ditian 6 participated in regional trials of Shanxi Province in 2010 and 2011. The average fresh ear yield is 14257. 5 kg / ha. Its growth period is 81 d,belonging to the early variety. It has obvious advantages if it is early cultivated. The kernel is yellow,and the quality reaches a high level. In the early or late market,it has significant economic benefits. The variety has strong resistance to disease and adversity,with wide adaptability,high and stable yield. It can be planted in the areas where accumulated temperature is above 2300℃.

  4. Microbiome selection could spur next-generation plant breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbours in different plant tissues i.e the ‘plant microbiome’, form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont’. The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding.

  5. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  6. Using semantic web technology to accelerate plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chibon, P.Y.; Carreres, B.M.; Weerd, de H.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Finkers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    One goal within plant breeding is to find the causal gene(s) explaining a given phenotype. Semantic web technology brings opportu- nities to integration data and information accross spread data sources. Chebi2gene and Marker2sequence are two applications relying on this se- mantic web technology to

  7. 谷子理想株型育种研究初报%A Preliminary Study on Breeding of Ideal Plant in Millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宏山

    2009-01-01

    To further increase millet yield, the ideal plant in millet has become the goal of high yield breeding for millet. Taking crossbreeding or dynamic breeding technique as dominant and technologies such as modern selection or system selection as subsidiary, progenies with ideal plant are selected by using new germplasms such as Lilvgu and Lizigu with the significant difference in plant type to other cultivars as parents. The genetic characteristics of new germplasms in breeding are also emphatically analyzed to summarize the breeding experience of ideal plant, which has been proved that the combination of ideal plant and heterosis utilization is one of the important ways to raise millet yield breakthrough.

  8. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  9. Computer, Video, and Rapid-Cycling Plant Projects in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student projects involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-cycling Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video projects improved the rating of the…

  10. Status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for mutation breeding in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapade, A.G.; Nazarea, T.Y.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Marbella, L.J.; Nato, A.Q.; Coloma, C.B. Jr.; Asencion, A.B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon (Philippines)

    2002-02-01

    This paper summarizes the status of biotechnology with emphasis on molecular techniques for plant breeding in the Philippines. Several molecular and in-vitro culture techniques are integrated in plant breeding for crop improvement at PNRI, UPLB, IRRI and PhilRice. At IRRI, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD, PCR techniques, RFLP and RAPD were developed to establish high density molecular maps, determine breadth and diversity of germplasm and characterize alien introgression. The molecular maps have identified DNA sequence of resistance genes of HYVs and NPTs to abiotic and biotic stresses, the major achievement is the development of high density molecular maps in rice with at least 2000 markers. The biotechnology program at PhilRice for varietal improvement includes: (1) utilization of molecular marker technology such gene mapping of desired traits in rice, analysis of genetic relationships of germplasm materials and breeding lines through DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity studies and development and application of marker aided selection for disease resistance (RTD and BLB); (2) application of in-vitro techniques in the development of lines with tolerance to adverse conditions; (3) molecular cloning of important genes for RTD resistance; (4) genetic transformation for male sterility and resistance to sheath blight and stem borers; and (5) transfer of disease resistance from wild species to cultivated varieties. In IPB, molecular markers:microsatellites or SSR, AFLP and RGA are being used for mapping and diversity studies in coconut, mango, banana, mungbean, corn and tomato. Mutation breeding at PNRI using gamma radiation has resulted in the development of crop varieties with desirable traits. The use of AFLP coupled to PCR is being used to study polymorphism in plant variants of radiation-induced mutants of rice, pineapple and ornamentals. (author)

  11. Mutagenesis as a tool in plant genetics, functional genomics, and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Per; Chawade, Aakash; Larsson, Mikael; Olsson, Johanna; Olsson, Olof

    2011-01-01

    Plant mutagenesis is rapidly coming of age in the aftermath of recent developments in high-resolution molecular and biochemical techniques. By combining the high variation of mutagenised populations with novel screening methods, traits that are almost impossible to identify by conventional breeding are now being developed and characterised at the molecular level. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the various techniques and workflows available to researchers today in the field of molecular breeding, and how these tools complement the ones already used in traditional breeding. Both genetic (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes; TILLING) and phenotypic screens are evaluated. Finally, different ways of bridging the gap between genotype and phenotype are discussed.

  12. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients.

  13. Path-dependency in plant breeding: challenges facing participatory reforms in the Ethiopian Sorghum Improvement Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Participatory plant breeding (PPB) seeks to involve farmers more closely in crop improvement in order to improve breeding impact. While PPB aims to reform breeding practice, there has been little analysis of the current practice breeding institutions. Such an analysis is necessary, both to

  14. Genetic resources: the basis for sustainable and competitive plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lourenço Nass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are the fuel for breeding, which in the search for higher yield and adapted genotypes, manipulates genes in order to meet the needs of farmers, and especially, of the current market. However, the use of accessions available in germplasm banks is low. Topics discussed in this paper emphasize the importance of plant genetic resources, and warn about problems related to genetic vulnerability; also, they discuss about aspects of costs involved in conservation and suggest recommendations for strengthening the area in Brazil.

  15. Tempo and mode in plant breeding system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Emma E; Igić, Boris

    2012-12-01

    Classic questions about trait evolution-including the directionality of character change and its interactions with lineage diversification-intersect in the study of plant breeding systems. Transitions from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are frequent, and they may proceed within a species ("anagenetic" mode of breeding system change) or in conjunction with speciation events ("cladogenetic" mode of change). We apply a recently developed phylogenetic model to the nightshade family Solanaceae, quantifying the relative contributions of these two modes of evolution along with the tempo of breeding system change, speciation, and extinction. We find that self-incompatibility, a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization, is lost largely by the cladogenetic mode. Self-compatible species are thus more likely to arise from the isolation of a newly self-compatible population than from species-wide fixation of self-compatible mutants. Shared polymorphism at the locus that governs self-incompatibility shows it to be ancestral and not regained within this family. We demonstrate that failing to account for cladogenetic character change misleads phylogenetic tests of evolutionary irreversibility, both for breeding system in Solanaceae and on simulated trees. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Xiang, Wen; Anyshchenko, Artem; Falhof, Janus; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Olsen, Lene Irene; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kappel, Klemens; Palmgren, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Organic farming is based on the concept of working 'with nature' instead of against it; however, compared with conventional farming, organic farming reportedly has lower productivity. Ideally, the goal should be to narrow this yield gap. In this review, we specifically discuss the feasibility of new breeding techniques (NBTs) for rewilding, a process involving the reintroduction of properties from the wild relatives of crops, as a method to close the productivity gap. The most efficient methods of rewilding are based on modern biotechnology techniques, which have yet to be embraced by the organic farming movement. Thus, the question arises of whether the adoption of such methods is feasible, not only from a technological perspective, but also from conceptual, socioeconomic, ethical, and regulatory perspectives.

  17. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  18. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang Ryol; Kwak, Sang Soo; Kwon, Seok Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    - tSOD1, cytosolic CuZnSOD cDNA was cloned from tobacco cDNA library by PCR. To develop the under-producing the transgenic plants, the vectors were constructed using by antisense and co-supressing technology. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed that over 60% of kanamycin-resistant plants were introduced the foreign gene by PCR and transformed one copy through Southern blot analysis. - In an attempt to identify marker genes for gamma irradiation of plants, expression patterns of diverse genes upon gamma irradiation of young tobacco plants were investigated. With the knowledge of distinctive expression patterns of diverse genes, irradiation-indicating marker plants could be developed by engineering and monitoring multiple radiation-responsive genes. Additionally, a gamma irradiation-responsive NtTMK1 receptor-like kinase gene was molecular biologically characterized. -Uranium reductase gene (Cytochrome C3) and radiation resistance gene (recA) have been cloned from Desulfovibrio and Deinococcus radiodurans. -Two plant transformation vectors (pCYC3 and pDrecA) have been constructed. - Tobacco transgenic plants of have been obtained. 52 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  19. Germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) marker-trait association identification in plant breeding: a challenge for plant biotechnological breeding under soil water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Xu, Xue-Xuan; Shao, Hong-Bo; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

    2010-09-01

    In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification and marker assisted selection (MAS). However, results have been modest. This has been due to several factors including absence of tight linkage QTL, non-availability of mapping populations, and substantial time needed to develop such populations. To overcome these limitations, and as an alternative to planned populations, molecular marker-trait associations have been identified by the combination between germplasm and the regression technique. In the present preview, the authors (1) survey the successful applications of germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) molecular marker-trait association identification in plants; (2) describe how to do the GRC analysis and its differences from mapping QTL based on a linkage map reconstructed from the planned populations; (3) consider the factors that affect the GRC association identification, including selections of optimal germplasm and molecular markers and testing of identification efficiency of markers associated with traits; and (4) finally discuss the future prospects of GRC marker-trait association analysis used in plant MAS/QTL breeding programs, especially in long-juvenile woody plants when no other genetic information such as linkage maps and QTL are available.

  20. Plant hormone interactions: innovative targets for crop breeding and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Veselov, Dmitry S; Arkhipova, Tatyana N; Davies, William J

    2012-05-01

    Here we highlight how both the root and shoot environment impact on whole plant hormone balance, particularly under stresses such as soil drying, and relate hormone ratios and relative abundances to processes influencing plant performance and yield under both mild and more severe stress. We discuss evidence (i) that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene act antagonistically on grain-filling rate amongst other yield-impacting processes; (ii) that ABA's effectiveness as an agent of stomatal closure can be modulated by coincident ethylene or cytokinin accumulation; and (iii) that enhanced cytokinin production can increase growth and yield by improving foliar stay-green indices under stress, and by improving processes that impact grain-filling and number, and that this can be the result of altered relative abundances of cytokinin and ABA (and other hormones). We describe evidence and novel processes whereby these phenomena are/could be amenable to manipulation through genetic and management routes, such that plant performance and yield can be improved. We explore the possibility that a range of ABA-ethylene and ABA-cytokinin relative abundances could represent targets for breeding/managing for yield resilience under a spectrum of stress levels between severe and mild, and could circumvent some of the pitfalls so far encountered in the massive research effort towards breeding for increases in the complex trait of yield.

  1. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  2. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  3. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  4. Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

    2010-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Consumers & plant genomics : the positioning and acceptance of a new plant breeding practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den T.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative developments in technology, such as the emergence of genomics as a plant breeding practice, hold the potential to change the supply side of the market. The success of these practices not only depends on the improved efficiency and effectiveness it brings, but also on how well they are ali

  6. Consumers & plant genomics : the positioning and acceptance of a new plant breeding practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den T.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative developments in technology, such as the emergence of genomics as a plant breeding practice, hold the potential to change the supply side of the market. The success of these practices not only depends on the improved efficiency and effectiveness it brings, but also on how well they are

  7. Unused natural variation can lift yield barriers in plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gur

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural biodiversity is an underexploited sustainable resource that can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated plants with novel alleles that improve productivity and adaptation. We evaluated the progress in breeding for increased tomato (Solanum lycopersicum yield using genotypes carrying a pyramid of three independent yield-promoting genomic regions introduced from the drought-tolerant green-fruited wild species Solanum pennellii. Yield of hybrids parented by the pyramided genotypes was more than 50% higher than that of a control market leader variety under both wet and dry field conditions that received 10% of the irrigation water. This demonstration of the breaking of agricultural yield barriers provides the rationale for implementing similar strategies for other agricultural organisms that are important for global food security.

  8. Cisgenesis: an important sub-invention for traditional plant breeding companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern plant breeding is highly dependent on new technologies to master future problems. More traits have to be combined, frequently originating from wild species. Traditional breeding is connected with linkage drag problems. The crop plant itself and its crossable species represent the traditional

  9. METHOD OF SKETCHES IN ARCHAEOGENETICS AND BREEDING OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The issues associated with visualization images of the examined object and the method of sketches or visual notes have been discussed in the article. The images of lagenaria (bottle, shape pumpkins or gourds in works of art and agrobotanic illustration as a research tool have been selected, with the aim to conduct a visual analysis of the morphological characteristics of bottle gourd for further application of the knowledge gained in archaeogenetics and plant breeding. The article presents images of plants of lagenaria for the period from 1311 to 2014 years. Visual analysis of the morphological characteristics of lagenaria on the basis of visual notes allowed us to identify several key points: the polymorphism of fruits and different duration of the vegetation period, particularly of the reproductive system, which is characterized by different proportions of male and female flowers, the presence of pollinators, night flowering, fruit pubescence on the first stages of development, polymorphism seeds, features maturation based on the size and weight of the fetus. Understanding the range of individual development allows the breeder to submit a complete selection issue, search for new signs will touch the ancient forms of the object, diseases, pests, images which have remained only on the pictures. In our opinion, the method of visual notes can be successfully used in the educational process because it stimulates creativity and cognitive activity of students to search for information about the studied object and its reflection

  10. [The application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangchun, Zhou; Yongzhong, Xing

    2016-03-01

    Plant genome can be modified via current biotechnology with high specificity and excellent efficiency. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system are the key engineered nucleases used in the genome editing. Genome editing techniques enable gene targeted mutagenesis, gene knock-out, gene insertion or replacement at the target sites during the endogenous DNA repair process, including non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), triggered by the induction of DNA double-strand break (DSB). Genome editing has been successfully applied in the genome modification of diverse plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum. In this review, we summarize the application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding. Moreover, we also discuss the improving points of genome editing in crop precision genetic improvement for further study.

  11. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches.

  12. Plant breeding in the turn of the millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Borém

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming happened about 10,000 years ago, independently and diffusely in several places in the world. Plant breeders were responsible for genetic progress in a number of crop species. It included hybrids, the introgression of wild species genes and also the Green Revolution, which started in the 1960's with the cereals. The varieties developed by breeding, along with the use of new crop technology (fertilization, soil tillage, etc. changed the status of some countries from importers to exporters of food. In the turn of the millennium,, plant breeding, faces new challenges in a globalized world, but it has new tools to deal with them. Notwithstanding the present contributions of plant breeding and crop management, its future contributions may be even greater. The partnership being developed between plant breeding and biotechnology will assure a more consistent and predictable genetic progress. Current contributions of biotechnology have arrived for many crops in different places of the world. Varieties developed by transformation are grown in large acreage in some countries. Some concerns have also arisen from the use of GMOs. For example, the introgression of a gene for insect resistance 4 into many different species could result in an undesirable endemic risk, here called interespecific biotechnological vulnerability. Another concern is that biotechnology race may create yield plateaus in programs using genes pyramiding for all new traits made available by biotechnology, resulting in what is called genetic gridlock. Nevertheless, the benefits of using biotechnology will substantially enhance the contributions of plant breeding to human lifeA transição da fase de coleta e caça para a agricultura ocorreu há cerca de dez mil anos independentemente e em vários locais no mundo. Naquela época iniciou-se a domesticação da maioria das espécies cultivadas, dando início às atividades agrícolas. Os

  13. The Power of CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Genome Editing to Speed Up Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu X. Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing with engineered nucleases enabling site-directed sequence modifications bears a great potential for advanced plant breeding and crop protection. Remarkably, the RNA-guided endonuclease technology (RGEN based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9 is an extremely powerful and easy tool that revolutionizes both basic research and plant breeding. Here, we review the major technical advances and recent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for manipulation of model and crop plant genomes. We also discuss the future prospects of this technology in molecular plant breeding.

  14. The Power of CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Genome Editing to Speed Up Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqin; Le, Hien T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases enabling site-directed sequence modifications bears a great potential for advanced plant breeding and crop protection. Remarkably, the RNA-guided endonuclease technology (RGEN) based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is an extremely powerful and easy tool that revolutionizes both basic research and plant breeding. Here, we review the major technical advances and recent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for manipulation of model and crop plant genomes. We also discuss the future prospects of this technology in molecular plant breeding. PMID:28097123

  15. Organic agriculture requires process rather than product evaluation of novel breeding techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Verhoog, H.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Haring, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In organic agriculture the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is banned. Recently, two novel breeding techniques have been developed, i.e., cisgenesis and reverse breeding, both of which are based on gene technology but should raise less moral concerns from the public. Whether the products

  16. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  17. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Kantar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWR are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap and asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L. were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups, geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  18. Technique of wheat breeding for efficiently utilizing soil nutrient elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继云; 刘秀娣; 周伟; 孙建华; 童依平; 刘文杰; 李振声; 王培田; 姚树江

    1995-01-01

    500 wheat varieties were grown and screened,and 18 of them with better characters identified inthe low phosphorus,low zinc,low boron soil and in contrast with the control(appilied with N,P,Zn andB).A few varieties showed able to efficiently utilize P,Zn or B in soil,and it has been demonstrated by theanalysis that their roots can secrete more organic acids making the soil pH around the roots decrease.Six or-ganic acids in the roots of four representative varieties were analysed,their contents were of difference amongthe varieties and had a positive correlation with the yield of the varieties in low nutrition soil.All theabove-mentioned provided the scientific basis of crop breeding for efficient utilization of soil nutritions.

  19. Use of radiation for plant breeding in Japan: results and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. [National Institute of Agricultural Resource, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1966, as the first breeds by radiation mutation in Japan, `Reimei`, a rice variety with increased lodging resistance by short culm mutation and Raiden`, an early variety by mutation of soybean obtained by extreme late variety with nematoda resistance were bred and registered in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Since these characteristics of `short culm` and early maturing` have a comparatively high mutation rate and ease of selection, among seed propagation crops many kinds of those varieties improved to have either of these characteristics or both of them at the same time by mutation breeding are bred. In Japan, varieties bred by use of mutation breeding count 107 (as of April 1998). Among crops, that with the most varieties is chrysanthemum, which has 20 varieties and the next is rice with 15 varieties. The other 38 varieties of crops such as grains, beans, industrial crops, vegetables, flowering plants, flowering trees and fruit trees, mutation breeding varieties are widely bred. Among mutagens used, gamma ray holds 80%. The recent development in the research of DNA recombination is amazing and plant bodies which have introduced useful genes which other plants have are being obtained. Radiation mutation breeding, however, has the advantages of breeding new varieties by improving only one or two characteristics of excellent races. Radiation mutation breeding and DNA recombination technologies, therefore, may need to be utilized separately according to respective purposes. In the future, for radiation mutation breeding, mutants with quality characteristics which others do not have, corresponding to the diverse demand on agricultural products must come to be required. On the other hand, by the crops like banana for which ordinary breeding is almost impossible, the expectation for radiation mutation breeding will be more and more heightened. In addition, the accumulation of studies on controlling the direction of mutation which has been regarded

  20. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  1. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and...

  2. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantar, M.B.; Sosa, C.C.; Khoury, C.K.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bernau, V.; Kane, N.C.; Marek, L.; Seiler, G.; Rieseberg, L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and

  3. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...

  4. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  5. Designing Graduate-Level Plant Breeding Curriculum: A Delphi Study of Private Sector Stakeholder Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…

  6. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  7. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written.

  8. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  9. Translational genomics for plant breeding with the genome sequence explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Jeong, Haneul; Satyawan, Dani; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2016-04-01

    The use of next-generation sequencers and advanced genotyping technologies has propelled the field of plant genomics in model crops and plants and enhanced the discovery of hidden bridges between genotypes and phenotypes. The newly generated reference sequences of unstudied minor plants can be annotated by the knowledge of model plants via translational genomics approaches. Here, we reviewed the strategies of translational genomics and suggested perspectives on the current databases of genomic resources and the database structures of translated information on the new genome. As a draft picture of phenotypic annotation, translational genomics on newly sequenced plants will provide valuable assistance for breeders and researchers who are interested in genetic studies.

  10. Natural transformation in plant breeding - a biotechnological platform for quality improvement of ornamental, agricultural and medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Himmelboe, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    Compactness is a desirable trait in ornamental plant breeding because it is preferred by producers, distributors and consumers. Presently, in ornamental plant production growth of many potted plants is regulated by application of chemical growth retardants, several of which are harmful to both......, decreased plant height, short internodes, reduced apical dominance and changes in flower characteristics. Several of these traits improve ornamental plant quality and may also benefit characteristics useful in agricultural field crops. In addition, a number of regenerated plants derived from hairy roots...

  11. Transgenerational response to stress in plants and its application for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilichak, Andriy; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of reports indicate that plants possess the ability to maintain a memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and even transmit it faithfully to the following generation. Some of the features of transgenerational memory include elevated genome instability, a higher tolerance to stress experienced by parents, and a cross-tolerance. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clear, a likely contributing factor is the absence of full-scale reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape during gametogenesis; therefore, epigenetic marks can occasionally escape the reprogramming process and can be passed on to the progeny. To date, it is not entirely clear which part of the epigenetic landscape is more likely to escape the reprogramming events, and whether such a process is random or directed and sequence specific. The identification of specific epigenetic marks associated with specific stressors would allow generation of stress-tolerant plants through the recently discovered techniques for precision epigenome engineering. The engineered DNA-binding domains (e.g. ZF, TALE, and dCas9) fused to particular chromatin modifiers would make it possible to target epigenetic modifications to the selected loci, probably allowing stress tolerance to be achieved in the progeny. This approach, termed epigenetic breeding, along with other methods has great potential to be used for both the assessment of the propagation of epigenetic marks across generations and trait improvement in plants. In this communication, we provide a short overview of recent reports demonstrating a transgenerational response to stress in plants, and discuss the underlying potential molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon and its use for plant biotechnology applications.

  12. Invasion Success by Plant Breeding Evolutionary Changes as a Critical Factor for the Invasion of the Ornamental Plant Mahonia aquifolium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Christel Anne

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity and cause significant economic costs. Studying biological invasions is both essential for preventing future invasions and is also useful in order to understand basic ecological processes. Christel Ross investigates whether evolutionary changes by plant breeding are a relevant factor for the invasion success of Mahonia aquifolium in Germany. Her findings show that invasive populations differ from native populations in quantitative-genetic traits and molecular markers, whereas their genetic diversity is similar. She postulates that these evolutionary changes are rather a result of plant breeding, which includes interspecific hybridisation, than the result of a genetic bottleneck or the releases from specialist herbivores.

  13. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  14. Intellectual property rights, international trade and plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Seed is the physical embodiment of the invention of the plant breeder. Plant varieties thus constitute a special form of innovation, and an assessment of intellectual property right (IPR) systems needs to take this into account. This thesis concentrates on IPRs but breeders do have a number of means

  15. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  16. Comparison of collinearity mitigation techniques used in predicting BLUP breeding values and genetic gains over generations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eatwell, KA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques and of two computational numerical precisions on the genetic gains in breeding populations. Multiple-trait, multiple-trial BLUP selection scenarios were run on Eucalyptus grandis (F1, F2 and F3) and Pinus patula (F1 and F2) data, comparing...

  17. BreedVision — A Multi-Sensor Platform for Non-Destructive Field-Based Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Mentrup, Daniel; Möller, Kim; Wunder, Erik; Alheit, Katharina; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias; Müller, Joachim; Rahe, Florian; Ruckelshausen, Arno

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the food and energy security of an increasing World population likely to exceed nine billion by 2050 represents a major challenge for plant breeding. Our ability to measure traits under field conditions has improved little over the last decades and currently constitutes a major bottleneck in crop improvement. This work describes the development of a tractor-pulled multi-sensor phenotyping platform for small grain cereals with a focus on the technological development of the system. Various optical sensors like light curtain imaging, 3D Time-of-Flight cameras, laser distance sensors, hyperspectral imaging as well as color imaging are integrated into the system to collect spectral and morphological information of the plants. The study specifies: the mechanical design, the system architecture for data collection and data processing, the phenotyping procedure of the integrated system, results from field trials for data quality evaluation, as well as calibration results for plant height determination as a quantified example for a platform application. Repeated measurements were taken at three developmental stages of the plants in the years 2011 and 2012 employing triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack L.) as a model species. The technical repeatability of measurement results was high for nearly all different types of sensors which confirmed the high suitability of the platform under field conditions. The developed platform constitutes a robust basis for the development and calibration of further sensor and multi-sensor fusion models to measure various agronomic traits like plant moisture content, lodging, tiller density or biomass yield, and thus, represents a major step towards widening the bottleneck of non-destructive phenotyping for crop improvement and plant genetic studies. PMID:23447014

  18. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Luca

    2014-06-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  19. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Comai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  20. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P., E-mail: delahaye@ganil.fr; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galatà, A.; Patti, G. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC–Université Grenoble Alpes–CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 Blvd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, PB 35 (YFL), 40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wenander, F. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  1. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose.

  2. Intellectual property rights for agriculture in international trade and investment agreements: A plant breeding perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.; Tripp, R.

    2006-01-01

    The agricultural sector, and in particular plant breeding, is one area where this flexibility of intellectual property rights (IPR) is quite broad. This note argues that policymakers need to pay close attention to the role that IPRs can play in agricultural development by providing incentives for

  3. Climate Change Effects to Plant Ecosystems - Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    were identified for possible use in breeding of climate resilient cultivars and SNP-markers that link to traits favourable in changed environments. Basic knowledge of plant response to multifactor climate treatments has been added as well as data on numerous genotypes modeling the impact of climate...

  4. Fantasy Seed Company: A Role Playing Game for Plant Breeding Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant breeding as well as procedures and issues of seed companies are skills students studying agronomy need to acquire. Simulation games can be effective teaching tools in developing higher-order thinking skills of students. The "Fantasy Seed Company" game was developed to create motivated learners by allowing students to run a mock…

  5. Effectors as Tools in Disease Resistance Breeding Against Biotrophic, Hemibiotrophic, and Necrotrophic Plant Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.; Oliver, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of

  6. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  7. Fantasy Seed Company: A Role Playing Game for Plant Breeding Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant breeding as well as procedures and issues of seed companies are skills students studying agronomy need to acquire. Simulation games can be effective teaching tools in developing higher-order thinking skills of students. The "Fantasy Seed Company" game was developed to create motivated learners by allowing students to run a mock…

  8. How to effectively deploy plant resistances to pests and pathogens in crop breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifi Abdolabad, A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Food shortage is currently a serious worldwide problem, and the fact that it will become an even greater problem in the coming decades underscores the necessity for more translational research in plant sciences that is directed towards crop breeding. Biotic stresses are important determinants of red

  9. Deciphering plant-pathogen communication: fresh perspectives for molecular resistance breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Parker, Jane E

    2003-04-01

    Activation of local and systemic plant defences in response to pathogen attack involves dramatic cellular reprogramming. Over the past 10 years many novel genes, proteins and molecules have been discovered as a result of investigating plant-pathogen interactions. Most attempts to harness this knowledge to engineer improved disease resistance in crops have failed. Although gene efficacy in transgenic plants has often been good, commercial exploitation has not been possible because of the detrimental effects on plant growth, development and crop yield. Biotechnology approaches have now shifted emphasis towards marker-assisted breeding and the construction of vectors containing highly regulated transgenes that confer resistance in several distinct ways.

  10. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  11. Recent Progress Using High-throughput Sequencing Technologies in Plant Molecular Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Gao; Guidong Yue; Wenqi Li; Junyi Wang; Jiaohui Xu; Ye Yin

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing is a revolutionary technological innovation in DNA sequencing.This technology has an ultra-low cost per base of sequencing and an overwhelmingly high data output.High-throughput sequencing has brought novel research methods and solutions to the research fields of genomics and post-genomics.Furthermore,this technology is leading to a new molecular breeding revolution that has landmark significance for scientific research and enables us to launch multi-level,multifaceted,and multi-extent studies in the fields of crop genetics,genomics,and crop breeding.In this paper,we review progress in the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to plant molecular breeding studies.

  12. 地石榴苗扦插繁育及移栽技术%Ficus tikoua Bur Cuttage Breeding and Transplanting Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奎建蕊; 赵安洁; 陶耀明; 潘志贤; 钱坤建; 纪中华

    2014-01-01

    This thesis talked about researches on the cutting method of Ficus tikoua, the temperature and humidity, the fertilizer, lighting during its breeding time, its seedling breeding management, as well as its transplanting techniques based on the geographical environment of Kunming Airport. It also introduced a set of seedling breeding techniques for large amounts of Ficus tikoua seedlings to grow quickly in greenhouses. In the research, we have already bred 2,300,000 healthy Ficus tikoua seedlings, which were used for the landscape greening on the plane parking apron. We also explored the standard of cutting breeding and seedling planting techniques, which provides technical basis for the breeding and transplanting of Ficus tikoua. In the meanwhile, it provides fine seedlings for regional ecological environment. This is of great importance for exploring the breeding of plants that can conserve soil and water in weak ecological areas.%结合昆明机场的地理环境和地石榴的生理特性,对地石榴扦插方法、繁育期间温湿度控制、肥水及光照炼苗管理、病虫草害防治及移栽技术进行分析研究,提出一套大棚地石榴大批量快速繁苗管理技术,并已成功繁育出230万株无病的地石榴壮苗,供机场停机坪裸露平地的景观绿化使用。探索研究出地石榴的扦插繁育及苗木栽培技术标准,为规范地石榴的繁育生产及移栽提供技术依据。

  13. Be-Breeder - Learning: a new tool for teaching and learning plant breeding principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fritsche-Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Be-Breeder application is an on-line tool constructed through the R software for the purpose of assisting in some of the main genetic and statistical analyses related to the area of plant breeding. In addition, Be-Breeder provides a section called “Learning”, which in a simple click-point manner allows explanation of theories related to the effect of inbreeding, population structure, qualitative and quantitative traits, heterosis, population size, effect of selection, and composition of hybrids. Be-Breeder is available for network use on the website of the Allogamous Plant Breeding Laboratory (Laboratório de Melhoramento de Plantas Alógamas of ESALQ-USP through the link: http://www.genetica.esalq.usp.br/alogamas/R.html.

  14. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  15. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  16. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  17. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Seven Chinese Indigenous Pig Breeds and Three Exotic Pig Breeds Using the DNA Differential Display Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-gang; XIONG Yuan-zhu; DENG Chang-yan

    2006-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships of seven Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Meishan, Erhualian, Hezuo, Bamei, Qingping, Tongcheng, and Huainan) and three exotic pig breeds (Large White, Landrace, and Duroc) were analyzed using the DNA differential display technique by means of eight primer combinations. A total of 123 reproducible bands were used to calculate mean Nei's gene diversity, and mean Shannon's information index for each pig population. Based on these the Nei's standard genetic identity and distance were estimated, which was used to construct a dendrogram tree for the 10 pig breeds. The experimental results obtained and the method used in this study for evaluating the genetic diversity and relationships of pigs were also discussed.

  18. A Study on Breed Technique of Wolfberry Seedling%枸杞苗木繁育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景华军

    2012-01-01

    枸杞苗木繁育技术包括有性繁殖和无性繁殖。有性繁殖主要是种子育苗,用于杂交育种中新种质材料的繁育;无性繁殖主要包括嫩枝扦插、硬枝扦插和组织培养技术,是目前枸杞生产中普遍采用的苗木繁育技术。文章对枸杞苗木繁育技术进行了研究,对枸杞种子育苗和嫩枝扦插育苗的关键技术进行了阐述。%The breed techniques of wolfberry seedling include sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.Sexual reproduction include seeds breeding mainly,used as breed technique in the hybridization breeding of new wolfberry germplasms.Asexual reproduction mainly include softwood cutting,hardwood cutting and tissue culture,is popular as wolfberry breed technique at present.The paper detailed for the critical techniques of wolfberry seedling breed technique and softwood cutting technique.

  19. Virtual Plants Need Water Too: Functional-Structural Root System Models in the Context of Drought Tolerance Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Ndour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sustainable agricultural model is one of the great challenges of the coming years. The agricultural practices inherited from the Green Revolution of the 1960s show their limits today, and new paradigms need to be explored to counter rising issues such as the multiplication of climate-change related drought episodes. Two such new paradigms are the use of functional-structural plant models to complement and rationalize breeding approaches and a renewed focus on root systems as untapped sources of plant amelioration. Since the late 1980s, numerous functional and structural models of root systems were developed and used to investigate the properties of root systems in soil or lab-conditions. In this review, we focus on the conception and use of such root models in the broader context of research on root-driven drought tolerance, on the basis of root system architecture (RSA phenotyping. Such models result from the integration of architectural, physiological and environmental data. Here, we consider the different phenotyping techniques allowing for root architectural and physiological study and their limits. We discuss how QTL and breeding studies support the manipulation of RSA as a way to improve drought resistance. We then go over the integration of the generated data within architectural models, how those architectural models can be coupled with functional hydraulic models, and how functional parameters can be measured to feed those models. We then consider the assessment and validation of those hydraulic models through confrontation of simulations to experimentations. Finally, we discuss the up and coming challenges facing root systems functional-structural modeling approaches in the context of breeding.

  20. Influence of outliers on accuracy estimation in genomic prediction in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaghvirou, Sidi Boubacar Ould; Ogutu, Joseph O; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2014-10-01

    Outliers often pose problems in analyses of data in plant breeding, but their influence on the performance of methods for estimating predictive accuracy in genomic prediction studies has not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluate the influence of outliers on the performance of methods for accuracy estimation in genomic prediction studies using simulation. We simulated 1000 datasets for each of 10 scenarios to evaluate the influence of outliers on the performance of seven methods for estimating accuracy. These scenarios are defined by the number of genotypes, marker effect variance, and magnitude of outliers. To mimic outliers, we added to one observation in each simulated dataset, in turn, 5-, 8-, and 10-times the error SD used to simulate small and large phenotypic datasets. The effect of outliers on accuracy estimation was evaluated by comparing deviations in the estimated and true accuracies for datasets with and without outliers. Outliers adversely influenced accuracy estimation, more so at small values of genetic variance or number of genotypes. A method for estimating heritability and predictive accuracy in plant breeding and another used to estimate accuracy in animal breeding were the most accurate and resistant to outliers across all scenarios and are therefore preferable for accuracy estimation in genomic prediction studies. The performances of the other five methods that use cross-validation were less consistent and varied widely across scenarios. The computing time for the methods increased as the size of outliers and sample size increased and the genetic variance decreased. Copyright © 2014 Ould Estaghvirou et al.

  1. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2011-01-01

    contemporary gene pool. The cultivars were grown at two different locations to assess the potential for breeding for improved degradability. The straws exhibited much variation in degradability ranging from 258 g kg1 to 407 g kg1 of dry matter. The heritability for degradability was estimated to 29% indicating...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a lack...... of correlation between degradability and grain yield indicated that straw degradability may be improved through breeding without serious negative effect on grain yield....

  2. Enhancing Accuracy of Plant Leaf Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have become an important source of energy, and are a fundamental piece in the puzzle to solve the problem of global warming. Living beings also depend on plants for their food, hence it is of great importance to know about the plants growing around us and to preserve them. Automatic plant leaf classification is widely researched. This paper investigates the efficiency of learning algorithms of MLP for plant leaf classification. Incremental back propagation, Levenberg–Marquardt and batch propagation learning algorithms are investigated. Plant leaf images are examined using three different Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP modelling techniques. Back propagation done in batch manner increases the accuracy of plant leaf classification. Results reveal that batch training is faster and more accurate than MLP with incremental training and Levenberg– Marquardt based learning for plant leaf classification. Various levels of semi-batch training used on 9 species of 15 sample each, a total of 135 instances show a roughly linear increase in classification accuracy.

  3. Plants with genetically modified events combined by conventional breeding: an assessment of the need for additional regulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilacinski, W; Crawford, A; Downey, R; Harvey, B; Huber, S; Hunst, P; Lahman, L K; MacIntosh, S; Pohl, M; Rickard, C; Tagliani, L; Weber, N

    2011-01-01

    Crop varieties with multiple GM events combined by conventional breeding have become important in global agriculture. The regulatory requirements in different countries for such products vary considerably, placing an additional burden on regulatory agencies in countries where the submission of additional data is required and delaying the introduction of innovative products to meet agricultural needs. The process of conventional plant breeding has predictably provided safe food and feed products both historically and in the modern era of plant breeding. Thus, previously approved GM events that have been combined by conventional plant breeding and contain GM traits that are not likely to interact in a manner affecting safety should be considered to be as safe as their conventional counterparts. Such combined GM event crop varieties should require little, if any, additional regulatory data to meet regulatory requirements.

  4. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

  5. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  6. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II allows controlled mobilisation of retrotransposons for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Michael; Lanciano, Sophie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Daccord, Nicolas; Mirouze, Marie; Bucher, Etienne

    2017-07-07

    Retrotransposons play a central role in plant evolution and could be a powerful endogenous source of genetic and epigenetic variability for crop breeding. To ensure genome integrity several silencing mechanisms have evolved to repress retrotransposon mobility. Even though retrotransposons fully depend on transcriptional activity of the host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) for their mobility, it was so far unclear whether Pol II is directly involved in repressing their activity. Here we show that plants defective in Pol II activity lose DNA methylation at repeat sequences and produce more extrachromosomal retrotransposon DNA upon stress in Arabidopsis and rice. We demonstrate that combined inhibition of both DNA methylation and Pol II activity leads to a strong stress-dependent mobilization of the heat responsive ONSEN retrotransposon in Arabidopsis seedlings. The progenies of these treated plants contain up to 75 new ONSEN insertions in their genome which are stably inherited over three generations of selfing. Repeated application of heat stress in progeny plants containing increased numbers of ONSEN copies does not result in increased activation of this transposon compared to control lines. Progenies with additional ONSEN copies show a broad panel of environment-dependent phenotypic diversity. We demonstrate that Pol II acts at the root of transposon silencing. This is important because it suggests that Pol II can regulate the speed of plant evolution by fine-tuning the amplitude of transposon mobility. Our findings show that it is now possible to study induced transposon bursts in plants and unlock their use to induce epigenetic and genetic diversity for crop breeding.

  7. Prediction of Genetic Values of Quantitative Traits in Plant Breeding Using Pedigree and Molecular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossa, José; Campos, Gustavo de los; Pérez, Paulino; Gianola, Daniel; Burgueño, Juan; Araus, José Luis; Makumbi, Dan; Singh, Ravi P.; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Yan, Jianbing; Arief, Vivi; Banziger, Marianne; Braun, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The availability of dense molecular markers has made possible the use of genomic selection (GS) for plant breeding. However, the evaluation of models for GS in real plant populations is very limited. This article evaluates the performance of parametric and semiparametric models for GS using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays) data in which different traits were measured in several environmental conditions. The findings, based on extensive cross-validations, indicate that models including marker information had higher predictive ability than pedigree-based models. In the wheat data set, and relative to a pedigree model, gains in predictive ability due to inclusion of markers ranged from 7.7 to 35.7%. Correlation between observed and predictive values in the maize data set achieved values up to 0.79. Estimates of marker effects were different across environmental conditions, indicating that genotype × environment interaction is an important component of genetic variability. These results indicate that GS in plant breeding can be an effective strategy for selecting among lines whose phenotypes have yet to be observed. PMID:20813882

  8. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alice Kujur; Maneesha S Saxena; Deepak Bajaj; Laxmi; Swarup K Parida

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world’s food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern –omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  9. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  10. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  11. The fate of peasant-friendly plant breeding in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The peasantry played a central role in National Socialist ideology, as both a source of racial strength and a foundation of the economy. In this paper I explore the extent to which the regime's policies actually favored peasant farming. The first section looks at the overall character of agricultural policy and demonstrates that although peasant farmers were targeted for special assistance from 1933 until 1936, they were neglected thereafter as the economy geared up for war. In the second section I focus upon a particular set of policies—-the regime's attempts to promote the use of high-quality seed—-and show that while farmers as a whole probably gained from these measures, peasants appear not to have benefited differentially. In the third section I examine agricultural officials' attempts to establish a "division of labor" between public-sector plant breeding institutions and commercial breeders. I demonstrate that although the former had been successfully developing new varieties specifically designed for peasant farmers since the turn of the century, this work was henceforth to be curtailed so as not to "compete" with the private sector. In the conclusion I argue that neither the regime's policies on plant breeding nor the highly centralized character of agricultural policy-making can be regarded as specifically fascist.

  12. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  13. Using modern plant breeding to improve the nutritional and technological qualities of oil crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Denis J.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades have seen huge advances in our understanding of plant biology and in the development of new technologies for the manipulation of crop plants. The application of relatively straightforward breeding and selection methods made possible the “Green Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s that effectively doubled or trebled cereal production in much of the world and averted mass famine in Asia. During the 2000s, much attention has been focused on genomic approaches to plant breeding with the deployment of a new generation of technologies, such as marker-assisted selection, next-generation sequencing, transgenesis (genetic engineering or GM and automatic mutagenesis/selection (TILLING, TargetIng Local Lesions IN Genomes. These methods are now being applied to a wide range of crops and have particularly good potential for oil crop improvement in terms of both overall food and non-food yield and nutritional and technical quality of the oils. Key targets include increasing overall oil yield and stability on a per seed or per fruit basis and very high oleic acid content in seed and fruit oils for both premium edible and oleochemical applications. Other more specialised targets include oils enriched in nutritionally desirable “fish oil”-like fatty acids, especially very long chain !-3 acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, or increased levels of lipidic vitamins such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienes. Progress in producing such oils in commercial crops has been good in recent years with several varieties being released or at advanced stages of development.

  14. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  15. CrossRef Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F

    2016-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam c...

  16. Controllable Alternating Magnetic Technology Research for Inducing Plants Breeding on Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-wen HU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Controllable alternating induction magnetic field generation technology which induces plant seeds to breed on floor space has been developed. The incentive ferrite induction coil is used in the device to produce induced magnetic field. The common AC-DC-AC topology was adopted for the variable frequency power supply, realizing the VF. AC-DC-AC AC power inverter circuit adopts SPWM inverter frequency modulation and voltage regulation mode, realizing the effect of sinusoidal variable. In order to improve the conversion efficiency of the system electrical energy to magnetic energy, the RLC series resonant circuit is chosen in the circuit of output magnetic field. The induction magnetic field in the air gap is the work area for seeds experiment. Its adjustable frequency range: 20~200Hz, adjustable field range: 0~500Gs. The experimental study of rice seeds shows that different magnetic environment has a significant impact on the biological characteristics of rice seeds.

  17. New Insights on Plant Salt Tolerance Mechanisms and Their Potential Use for Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Moez; Ebel, Chantal; Ngom, Mariama; Laplaze, Laurent; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, where water scarcity and inadequate drainage of irrigated lands severely reduce crop yield. Salt accumulation inhibits plant growth and reduces the ability to uptake water and nutrients, leading to osmotic or water-deficit stress. Salt is also causing injury of the young photosynthetic leaves and acceleration of their senescence, as the Na(+) cation is toxic when accumulating in cell cytosol resulting in ionic imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. To cope with salt stress, plants have evolved mainly two types of tolerance mechanisms based on either limiting the entry of salt by the roots, or controlling its concentration and distribution. Understanding the overall control of Na(+) accumulation and functional studies of genes involved in transport processes, will provide a new opportunity to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food security in arid regions. A better understanding of these tolerance mechanisms can be used to breed crops with improved yield performance under salinity stress. Moreover, associations of cultures with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could serve as an alternative and sustainable strategy to increase crop yields in salt-affected fields.

  18. New Insights on plant salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez HANIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is a major threat to agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, where water scarcity and inadequate drainage of irrigated lands severely reduce crop yield. Salt accumulation inhibits plant growth and reduces the ability to uptake water and nutrients, leading to osmotic or water-deficit stress. Salt is also causing injury of the young photosynthetic leaves and acceleration of their senescence, as the Na+ cation is toxic when accumulating in cell cytosol resulting in ionic imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. To cope with salt stress, plants have evolved mainly two types of tolerance mechanisms based on either limiting the entry of salt by the roots, or controlling its concentration and distribution. Understanding the overall control of Na+ accumulation and functional studies of genes involved in transport processes, will provide a new opportunity to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food security in arid regions. A better understanding of these tolerance mechanisms can be used to breed crops with improved yield performance under salinity stress. Moreover, associations of cultures with nitrogen-fixing bactéria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could serve as an alternative and sustainable strategy to increase crop yields in salt affected fields.

  19. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merijn R. Kant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests.

  20. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Wayne W.; Burton, Glenn W.

    2000-06-25

    We developed fundamental methods and techniques for transferring germplasm from wild to cultivated species. Germplasm transferred included diverse cytoplasms, new genes for pest resistance, genes controlling dry matter yield and apomixis. Some of the germplasm has been shown to be valuable in plant breeding and has been incorporated into commercial cultivators.

  1. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Wayne W.; Burton, Glenn W.

    2000-06-25

    We developed fundamental methods and techniques for transferring germplasm from wild to cultivated species. Germplasm transferred included diverse cytoplasms, new genes for pest resistance, genes controlling dry matter yield and apomixis. Some of the germplasm has been shown to be valuable in plant breeding and has been incorporated into commercial cultivators.

  2. Breeding technique for initializing global coupled climate model for decadal climate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Defining the uncertainties at the starting day of a hindcast is still problematic and there is no well established method from weather forecasting, which could be applied directly by the decadal forecast community. The success of proper initialization depend mainly on finding of the locations and strengths of uncertainties, which develop and grow fastest with the forecast time. One method widely used for a short and medium range forecast is the Bred Vectors (BV) technique. Here, we test the BV for a long-range, inter-annual, seasonal and decadal forecast. The applied a-priori random noise is bred over the time iteratively until the nonlinear fastest growing errors are extracted. The growth rates of these non-linearly filtered instabilities appear to approach the leading Lyapunov exponents (Toth and Kalnay, 1993) if the BV process is continued over a longer time period. Targeting decadal prediction we search only for the slowest modes of the ocean physical processes, and expect the disturbances to grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the ACC and ENSO regions. Therefore we implemented a BV variant which determines local BV around an almost fixed in time oceanic state. The breeding technique is build around the MPIOM-ESM coupled model at T31L31/GR30L40 resolution. Perturbations are applied on the ocean temperature, salinity, meridional and zonal components of the velocity. The metric used to scale the disturbed fields is taken to be the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions. Also this weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the growths rates of the fastest growing error modes. The method and the breeding application are still in a testing phase. However, the first bred vectors are analyzed and the most sensitive regions in the ocean responsible for inter-annual to decadal variability are localized. A refinement of the scaling procedure of the amplitude of the

  3. Public research in plant breeding and intellectual property rights: a new call for new institutional policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using intellectual property rights (IPRs) in public sector breeding, and the potential impact on breeding strategies and on the costs and benefits. The paper is based on a study on the impact of IPRs in the breeding industry in developing countries. There are three

  4. Public research in plant breeding and intellectual property rights: a new call for new institutional policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using intellectual property rights (IPRs) in public sector breeding, and the potential impact on breeding strategies and on the costs and benefits. The paper is based on a study on the impact of IPRs in the breeding industry in developing countries. There are three

  5. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity; the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model. Genot

  6. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model.

  7. Towards a GME ensemble forecasting system: Ensemble initialization using the breeding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Keller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative forecast of precipitation requires a probabilistic background particularly with regard to forecast lead times of more than 3 days. As only ensemble simulations can provide useful information of the underlying probability density function, we built a new ensemble forecasting system (GME-EFS based on the GME model of the German Meteorological Service (DWD. For the generation of appropriate initial ensemble perturbations we chose the breeding technique developed by Toth and Kalnay (1993, 1997, which develops perturbations by estimating the regions of largest model error induced uncertainty. This method is applied and tested in the framework of quasi-operational forecasts for a three month period in 2007. The performance of the resulting ensemble forecasts are compared to the operational ensemble prediction systems ECMWF EPS and NCEP GFS by means of ensemble spread of free atmosphere parameters (geopotential and temperature and ensemble skill of precipitation forecasting. This comparison indicates that the GME ensemble forecasting system (GME-EFS provides reasonable forecasts with spread skill score comparable to that of the NCEP GFS. An analysis with the continuous ranked probability score exhibits a lack of resolution for the GME forecasts compared to the operational ensembles. However, with significant enhancements during the 3 month test period, the first results of our work with the GME-EFS indicate possibilities for further development as well as the potential for later operational usage.

  8. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  9. Molecular breeding to create optimized crops: from genetic manipulation to potential applications in plant factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eHiwasa-Tanase

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems.

  10. Mitochondrial genes reveal cryptic diversity in plant-breeding frogs from Madagascar (Anura, Mantellidae, Guibemantis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Richard M; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Richards, Christina M; Cannatella, David C; Vences, Miguel

    2007-09-01

    One group of mantellid frogs from Madagascar (subgenus Pandanusicola of Guibemantis) includes species that complete larval development in the water-filled leaf axils of rainforest plants. This group consists of six described species: G. albolineatus, G. bicalcaratus, G. flavobrunneus, G. liber, G. pulcher, and G. punctatus. We sequenced the 12S and 16S mitochondrial rRNA genes ( approximately 1.8 kb) from multiple specimens (35 total) of all six species to assess phylogenetic relationships within this group. All reconstructions strongly supported G. liber as part of the Pandanusicola clade, even though this species does not breed in plant leaf axils. This result confirms a striking reversal of reproductive specialization. However, all analyses also indicated that specimens assigned to G. liber include genetically distinct allopatric forms that do not form a monophyletic group. Most other taxa that were adequately sampled (G. bicalcaratus, G. flavobrunneus, and G. pulcher) likewise consist of several genetically distinct lineages that do not form monophyletic groups. These results suggest that many of the recognized species in this group are complexes of cryptic species.

  11. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Dwivedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.

  12. Genetic divergence and its implication in breeding of desired plant type in coriander -Coriandrum sativum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy germplasm lines of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. of diverse eco-geographical origin were undertaken in present investigation to determine the genetic divergence following multivariate and canonical analysis for seed yield and its 9 component traits. The 70 genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters depending upon the genetic architecture of genotypes and characters uniformity and confirmed by canonical analysis. Seventy percent of total genotypes (49/70 were grouped in 4 clusters (V, VI, VIII and IX, while apparent diversity was noticed for 30 percent genotypes (21/70 that diverged into 5 clusters (I, II, III, FV, and VII. The maximum inter cluster distance was between I and IV (96.20 followed by III and IV (91.13 and I and VII (87.15. The cluster VI was very unique having genotypes of high mean values for most of the component traits. The cluster VII had highest seeds/umbel (35.3 ± 2.24, and leaves/plant (12.93 ± 0.55, earliest flowering (65.05 ± 1.30 and moderately high mean values for other characters. Considering high mean and inter cluster distance breeding plan has been discussed to select desirable plant types.

  13. Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired fea

  14. Separation of plant membranes by electromigration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, H; Bauer, J; Weber, G

    1999-02-05

    The review focuses on the multiple separating regimes that offers the free flow electrophoresis technique: free flow zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, free flow step electrophoresis. Also, the feasibility to apply either interval or continuous flow electrophoresis is evaluated. The free flow zone electrophoresis regime is generally selected for the separation of cells, organelles and membranes while the other regimes find their largest fields of applications in the purification of proteins and peptides. The latter regimes present the highest resolution efficiency. Therefore, a large part of this review is devoted to the applicabilities of these different regimes to the purification of organelles and membrane vesicles at the preparative scale. Recent developments, both in instrumentation and procedures, are described. The major achievements in plant membrane fractionation obtained with free flow electrophoresis are outlined. The related procedures are both analytical and preparative: they separate tonoplast and plasma membrane simultaneously from the same homogenate, they discriminate for one type of membrane vesicles of opposite orientation, and process large quantities of membrane material by reason of the continuous flow mode. Recent advances using electromigration techniques that permit confirmation of the dynamic state of membranes, characterisation of complex membrane-dependent functions and discovery of new membrane-localised activities are presented.

  15. The effects of prairie management techniques, burning and mowing, on Iowa grassland breeding bird communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report investigates the effects of burning and mowing on the grassland breeding bird community of Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in central Iowa. Two...

  16. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  17. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  18. Expressing the public value of plant genetic resources by organising novel relationships: The contribution of selected participaory plant breeding and market-based arrangements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Leeuwis, C.; Jiggins, J.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of successful collaboration in participatory plant breeding (PPB) between farmers and maize breeders in southwest China, and release of new improved varieties and hybrids, it was realised that their conservation objectives could not also be secured unless farmers had

  19. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Mussambê (Cleome spinosa Jacq aiming at the plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from Cleome genus in Capparaceae family are used as medicinal and ornamental plants. The aim of this work was to study the fl oral biology and the reproductive mechanisms of C. spinosa to the plant breeding. Anthesis occurred between 17:30 to 18:30. The anthesis process is intimately related to climatic conditions. The main flower visitors were bees (Apis, Bombus, butterflies and bats (Glossophaga. Cleome spinosa presents mating system with predominance of outcrossing over the self-crossing, what it can evidences the wide reproductive flexibility of this species and emphasize the genetic variability, which is essential for evolution.

  20. New Crop Breeding Technique from Source-path-sink Theory%从作物的源流库理论展望新型育种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霄

    2015-01-01

    综述了源流库理论的进展,着重描述了维管束作为流的通道不仅能够运输营养物质而且转运不同种类的生物信号。结合最新的研究进展,针对反向育种中染色体非重组和染色体消除两个重要步骤,展望了利用维管束转运基因沉默信号实现花器官染色体操作的技术,为反向育种技术提供新的思路。%Crop production is a process of photosynthates transportation from source to sink. The movement of photosynthates in plant vascular bundle could drive the movement of plant signaling molecules, such as hormone, transcription factor, peptides and RNAi. In reverse-breeding programs, two key steps including inhibition of chromosome recombination and selective elimination of chromosome could be manipulates by these signal. Recent advances in identifying these long-distance signals targeting flower tissues can be applied to reverse-breeding technique.

  1. Mini core germplasm collections for infusing genetic diversity in plant breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D Upadhyaya*, Devvart Yadav, Naresh Dronavalli, CLL Gowda, and Sube Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are essential components to meet future food security needs of world. Crop germplasm diversitycontributes to developing improved crop cultivars aimed at increasing crop productivity. The large size of germplasmcollections, coupled with unavailability of detailed data and information, has resulted in low use (<1% of germplasmleading to a narrow genetic base in many crops. The miniaturization of crop collections with almost full representation ofgenetic diversity in the form of mini core (~1% of the entire collection approach is an effective methodology to enrichand enhance crop improvement programs. The concept and process of developing mini core at The International CropsResearch Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT has been recognized worldwide as an “International PublicGood” (IPG. The mini core provides a means for accessing the larger collections for further exploration and also helps inproper assessment of genetic diversity and population structure and for association mapping and targeted gene mining.Use of mini core approach will lead to greater utilization of diverse germplasm for developing broad-based cultivars,especially in the context of climate change. Many national programs have shown immense interest in evaluating minicore as reflected by the supply of 114 sets of mini core of chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, sorghum, pearl millet, foxtailmillet and finger millet to researchers in 14 countries. Scientists have been able to identify new and diverse sources ofvariation for morpho-agronomic, quality, biotic, and abiotic stress resistance traits in various crops. The molecularcharacterization of the mini core will further enhance its use in plant breeding programs.

  2. Bringing the voice of consumers into plant breeding with Bayesian modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, L.M.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Gremmen, B.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Improving flavour quality traits in fruit breeding calls for innovative consumer-oriented product development. This paper explores the potential of marker-assisted breeding from genomics and consumer-based quality-improvement models from marketing, and exploits the progresses at both sides as techno

  3. Plant Sexual Systems and a Review of the Breeding System Studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Isabel Cristina; Lopes,Ariadna Valentina; Sazima, Marlies

    2006-01-01

    • Backgrounds and Aims The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studi...

  4. Every partridge counts, successful techniques used in the captive conservation breeding programme for wild grey partridge in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1998 and 2001 the last remaining wild grey partridge (Perdix perdix population in Ireland faced imminent extinction with an estimated spring population of 4–6 pairs, and an autumn population of 22–24 birds. A captive breeding programme began in 2002 with two pairs of grey partridge. In the most successful year in 2010, 39 pairs produced a total of 510 chicks. Average chick survival rate was 65.13%. At 88.9 the highest chick survival rate was achieved in 2011. Chick survival of parent–reared birds in captivity is defined by the number of juveniles surviving at age six weeks: similar to estimations used for wild populations of grey partridge. Family coveys were released in late summer to early autumn. In most instances the entire family cohort was released as one unit. However, in coveys of twenty or above, an average of five parent–reared poults were held back as breeding stock for the following year. In early spring of the following year, birds held back were paired with single males or females trapped from the wild. The techniques we used were traditional and labour intensive but highly effective. We recommend that other grey partridge recovery projects should consider captive breeding using the methods employed in this programme to compliment other game management methods used.

  5. Seasonal Selection Preferences for Woody Plants by Breeding Herds of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in a Woodland Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Viljoen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate dynamics of elephant herbivory, we assessed seasonal preferences for woody plants by African elephant breeding herds in the southeastern part of Kruger National Park (KNP between 2002 and 2005. Breeding herds had access to a variety of woody plants, and, of the 98 woody plant species that were recorded in the elephant's feeding areas, 63 species were utilized by observed animals. Data were recorded at 948 circular feeding sites (radius 5 m during wet and dry seasons. Seasonal preference was measured by comparing selection of woody species in proportion to their estimated availability and then ranked according to the Manly alpha (α index of preference. Animals demonstrated a selection preference in feeding on woody vegetation, and Grewia hexamita, Grewia bicolor, Grewia flavescens, and Grewia monticola were selected consistently more over all seasons. In addition, our results indicate that elephant herds have a low preference for at least some of the woody species prone to extirpation and that feeding preferences for woody plants do not account for the association of elephants and riparian fringe habitat.

  6. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  7. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools. Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding

  8. Contribution and perspectives of quantitative genetics to plant breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Ribeiro Barrozo Toledo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how quantitative genetics has contributed to the huge genetic progress obtained inplant breeding in Brazil in the last forty years. The information obtained through quantitative genetics has given Brazilian breedersthe possibility of responding to innumerable questions in their work in a much more informative way, such as the use or not of hybridcultivars, which segregating population to use, which breeding method to employ, alternatives for improving the efficiency of selectionprograms, and how to handle the data of progeny and/or cultivars evaluations to identify the most stable ones and thus improverecommendations.

  9. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  10. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Chapman, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30–100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5–1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304

  11. A direct comparison of remote sensing approaches for high-throughput phenotyping in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tattaris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT and a vegetation index (NDVI, to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30-100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5-1m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 x 2.4 m due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency.

  12. Estimation of genealogical coancestry in plant species using a pedigree reconstruction algorithm and application to an oil palm breeding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Samper, Patrick; Denis, Marie; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Fernández, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Explicit pedigree reconstruction by simulated annealing gave reliable estimates of genealogical coancestry in plant species, especially when selfing rate was lower than 0.6, using a realistic number of markers. Genealogical coancestry information is crucial in plant breeding to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values. The approach of Fernández and Toro (Mol Ecol 15:1657-1667, 2006) to estimate genealogical coancestries from molecular data through pedigree reconstruction was limited to species with separate sexes. In this study it was extended to plants, allowing hermaphroditism and monoecy, with possible selfing. Moreover, some improvements were made to take previous knowledge on the population demographic history into account. The new method was validated using simulated and real datasets. Simulations showed that accuracy of estimates was high with 30 microsatellites, with the best results obtained for selfing rates below 0.6. In these conditions, the root mean square error (RMSE) between the true and estimated genealogical coancestry was small (0.9) and a low RMSE (pedigree data were scarce. The estimated genealogical coancestries were highly correlated (>0.9) with the molecular coancestries using 100 markers. Reconstructed pedigrees were used to estimate effective population sizes. In conclusion, this method gave reliable genealogical coancestry estimates. The strategy was implemented in the software MOLCOANC 3.0.

  13. What should students in plant breeding know about the statistical aspects of genotype × Environment interactions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, Van Fred A.; Bustos-Korts, Daniela V.; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    A good statistical analysis of genotype × environment interactions (G × E) is a key requirement for progress in any breeding program. Data for G × E analyses traditionally come from multi-environment trials. In recent years, increasingly data are generated from managed stress trials, phenotyping

  14. FISH applications for genomics and plant breeding strategies in tomato and other Solanaceous crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.; Bai, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of advanced fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies for genomics and breeding of tomato and related Solanum species. The first part deals with the major determinants of FISH technology: (1) spatial resolution, which depends on the diffraction limit of the

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci in plant breeding populations : Use of parental haplotype sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Beavis, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Applied breeding programs evaluate large numbers of progeny derived from multiple related crosses for a wide range of agronomic traits and for tens to hundreds of molecular markers. This study was conducted to determine how these phenotypic and genetic data could be used for routinely mapping quanti

  16. The potential of effector-target genes in breeding for plant innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawehns, F.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of infectious crop diseases that are caused by fungi and oomycetes urge the need to develop alternative strategies for resistance breeding. As an alternative for the use of resistance (R) genes, the application of mutant susceptibility (S) genes has been proposed as a potentially

  17. MT BB: Tomato cultivar for practical classes of plant genetics and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT BB cultivar originated from a backcross program which aimed at adding two recessive mutations that alter leaf architecture(potato leaf – c and flower color (white flower – wf to Micro-Tom cultivar, which is a tomato miniature. MT BB was developedfor use in practical classes of genetics and breeding in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

  18. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  19. Propagation Characteristics and Seedling Breeding Techniques of Gynostemma pentaphyllum%绞股蓝的繁殖特性和育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小列; 彭秀建; 张显卓; 刘世彪

    2011-01-01

    绞股蓝是富含人参皂苷类物质的药食两用植物,其繁殖方式有无性繁殖、有性繁殖和组织培养.综述了绞股蓝的3种繁殖方式及其相应的育苗技术.自然营养繁殖和人工营养繁殖(地下茎分株、地上茎和叶的扦插及藤蔓压条)是绞股蓝无性繁殖的主要方式,有性繁殖即用种子进行繁殖,组织培养主要包括以茎尖、茎段和花芽为外植体的组培方式.绞股蓝的育苗技术为绞股蓝人工栽培提供了充足的种苗.%Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a kind of edible and medicinal plant which rich in ginsenoside: it has three propagation ways that includes asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction and tissue culture. The three propagation ways of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, and its corresponding seedling breeding techniques were summarized as follows: the natural vegetative reproduction and the artificial vegetative reproduction, which including rhizome ramet, cutting of stem and leaf, and layering of vine, were the main ways of asexual reproduction for Gynostemma pentaphyllum; the sexual reproduction is using seeds to propagate; the tissue culture mainly is using stem shoot, stem and flower bud as explant. Therefore, seedling breeding techniques provide enough seedlings for artificial cultivation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

  20. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  1. A review of the latest concepts in molecular plant pathology and applications to potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-evolution between pathogens and plants has led to the development of a range of constitutive and inducible resistance mechanisms that help plants survive pathogen attack. Different models have been proposed to describe the plant immune system. The most popular current model indicates that plants ...

  2. A review of imaging techniques for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-24

    Given the rapid development of plant genomic technologies, a lack of access to plant phenotyping capabilities limits our ability to dissect the genetics of quantitative traits. Effective, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have recently been developed to solve this problem. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, a variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of complex traits related to the growth, yield and adaptation to biotic or abiotic stress (disease, insects, drought and salinity). These imaging techniques include visible imaging (machine vision), imaging spectroscopy (multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing), thermal infrared imaging, fluorescence imaging, 3D imaging and tomographic imaging (MRT, PET and CT). This paper presents a brief review on these imaging techniques and their applications in plant phenotyping. The features used to apply these imaging techniques to plant phenotyping are described and discussed in this review.

  3. Germplasm and breeding research of tea plant based on DNA marker approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage worldwide.Tea production contributes greatly to the economy and the job opportunities for many countries in Asia and Africa.Meanwhile,the germplasm of tea,with a huge potential for the future of the whole tea industry,is presently one of the most valuable and fundamental materials for tea breeding and tea biotechnology.DNA molecular markers have been proven to be robust and valuable approaches in the studies of genetic diversity and variation,molecular identification,molecular phylogenetics,genetic stability and integrity of tea germplasm,and the genetic linkage map for breeding of tea.In this paper,a brief prospect on the molecular marker studies of tea has been summarized.The purpose is to provide an effective way for undertaking a massive tea germplasm appraisal and evaluation,to develop new applicable and cheap DNA markers,to establish a high density genetic linkage map and analyze the agronomically important QTLs,and finally,to facilitate the marker assisted early selection and shorten breeding procedures in tea.

  4. Imaging techniques for elements and element species in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Becker, J Sabine

    2012-05-01

    Revealing the uptake, transport, localization and speciation of both essential and toxic elements in plants is important for understanding plant homeostasis and metabolism, subsequently, providing information for food and nutrient studies, agriculture activities, as well as environmental research. In the last decade, emerging techniques for elemental imaging and speciation analysis allowed us to obtain increasing knowledge of elemental distribution and availabilities in plants. Chemical imaging techniques include mass spectrometric methods such as secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF), and so forth. On the other hand, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) based on synchrotron radiation is capable of in situ investigation of local atomic structure around the central element of interest. This technique can also be operated in tandem with SRXRF to image each element species of interest within plant tissue. In this review, the principles and state-of-the-art of these techniques regarding sample preparation, advantages and limitations, and improvement of sensitivity and spatial resolution are discussed. New results with respect to elemental distribution and speciation in plants revealed by these techniques are presented.

  5. Control techniques for invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are recognized as a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. These species should be managed based on local and regional environmental conditions. Control techniques were tested for ten invasive species in Santa Catarina State: the trees Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia catappa, and shrubs and herbs Rubus fruticosus, Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, and Tradescantia zebrina. Treatments applied for trees were cut stump, frill and girdling or ring-barking followed by herbicide application, while the other species were treated with foliar spray, application of herbicide on the root system, cut stump and herbicide injection. The active ingredients tested were Triclopyr, Glyphosate, and the combination of Triclopyr + Fluroxipyr in concentrations from 2 to 6%, according to the species. The cut stump method was efficient for all of the woody species, while ring-barking and frilling followed by herbicide application and basal bark application resulted in different levels of efficiency for the species tested. The most efficient method for herbs and shrubs was foliar spray, and the least efficient methods were cut stump and herbicide injection.

  6. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  7. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  8. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle and analyze raw data from multiple laboratories and study groups whose research interests revolve around a common or closely related trait. However, although such data sets are widely available for secondary analysis, their heterogeneous nature often precludes their direct combination and joint exploration. Integration of phenotype information across multiple studies and databases is challenging due to variations in the measurement instruments, endpoint classifications, and biological material employed by each investigator. In the present work, we demonstrate how Rasch measurement model can surmount these problems. The model allows incorporating data sets with partially overlapping variables, large numbers of missing data points and dissimilar ratings of phenotypic endpoints. The model also enables quantifying the extent of heterogeneity between data sets. Biologists can use the model in a data-mining process to obtain combined ratings from various databases and other sources. Subsequently, these ratings can be used for selecting desirable material or (in combination with genotypic information for mapping genes involved in the particular trait. The model is not limited to genetics and breeding and can be applied in many other areas of biology and agriculture.

  9. Use of an in vitro adventitious bud technique for mutation breeding of Begonia x hiemalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roest, S.; van Berkel, M.A.E.; Bokelmann, G.S.; Broertjes, C. (Instituut voor Toepassing van Atoomenergie in de Landbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1981-06-01

    An in vitro propagation of two genotypes of Begonia x hiemalis was achieved through adventitious shoot formation on (sub) cultured leaf-disc explants and subsequent transplantation to soil of explant-parts with adventitious shoots. After irradiation of detached leaves with different doses of X-rays and two cycles of adventitious shoot formation on in vitro (sub) cultured leaf-disc explants, plantlets were produced. About 30% of these plants was mutated with respect to e.g. the colour, size and form of the leaves and flowers. The great majority of the mutants (98.5%) proved to be solid (non-chimeric).

  10. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Lemoine

    Full Text Available Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp. host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in

  11. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  12. Plant glandular trichomes as targets for breeding or engineering of resistance to herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Alba, J.M.; Escobar-Bravo, R.; Schuurink, R.C.; Kant, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant's secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by

  13. Stable isotope techniques in plant water sources:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes widely exist in various kinds of natural water.Plants have to cope with various water sources:rainwater,soil water,groundwater,sea water,and mixtures.These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios).Because there are relative abundance variations in water,and plant roots do not discriminate against specific water isotopes during water uptake,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water within plants provide new information on water sources,interactions between plant species and water use patterns under natural conditions.At present,the measurement of δD,δ18O composition of various potential water sources and stem water has become significant means to identify plant water sources.Based on previous studies,this review highlights recent advances such as theory basis,methodology,as well as different spatial and temporal scales,and existed questions and prospects.Stable isotope techniques for estimating plant water sources have provided valuable tools for conducting basic and applied research.Future studies emphasize the modification of preparing methods,isotope technique combined with other measurements,and aerial organs of plant water source should be en-couraged.

  14. Optimizing the number of progenies and replications in plant breeding experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís da Silva Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A determination criterion was proposed for the number of replications, r, and of evaluated progenies, Nr, given P experimentalplots, with Nr=P/r, and n progenies to be selected; its application was discussed in the selection of progenies of bulk populations,derived from two homozygous parents. For a known heritability at the plot level, h20, there is a critical n below which the gain isgreater with selection evaluating P/(r+1 progenies in r+1 than P/r progenies in r replications. Different h20 scenarios were simulatedin the F2 and F∞ generations, assuming no dominance. It was demonstrated that at any h20 , if n > 18.5% of P, larger gains are obtainedby assuming Nr = P, showing that the augmented block design could be used in the early stages of breeding programs. The higher h20,the higher must be the selection intensity to justify the use of additional replications.

  15. Plant sexual systems and a review of the breeding system studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isabel Cristina; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Sazima, Marlies

    2006-02-01

    The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studies of Caatinga species. The sexual systems of 147 species from 34 families and 91 genera occurring in three Caatinga areas in north-eastern Brazil were analysed and compared with worldwide studies focusing on reproductive biology of different tropical communities. The frequency of hermaphrodite species was 83.0 % (122 species), seven of these (or 4.8 % of the total) being heterostylous. Monoecy occurred in 9.5 % (14) of the species, and andromonoecy in 4.8 % (seven). Only 2.7 % (four) of the species were dioecious. A high percentage of hermaphrodite species was expected and has been reported for other tropical ecosystems. With respect to the breeding system studies with species of the Caatinga, the authors' data for 21 species and an additional 18 species studied by others (n = 39) revealed a high percentage (61.5 %) of obligatory self-incompatibility. Agamospermy was not recorded among the Caatinga studied species. The plant sexual systems in the Caatinga, despite the semi-arid climate, are similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high rainfall levels, except for the much lower percentage of dioecious species. The high frequency of self-incompatible species is similar to that reported for Savanna areas in Brazil, and also for dry (deciduous and semideciduous) and humid tropical forest communities.

  16. A review of inversion techniques related to the use of relationship matrices in animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faux, P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthèse bibliographique des techniques d'inversion impliquées dans l'utilisation de matrices de parenté en amélioration animale. En amélioration animale, les effets génétiques sont habituellement prédits par l'utilisation de modèles mixtes. Pour n'importe quel effet génétique, les modèles mixtes nécessitent l'inversion de la matrice de covariance associée à cet effet. Cette matrice est égale à la matrice de parenté associée, multipliée par le composant de la variance génétique également associé à cet effet. Etant donné la taille de nombreux systèmes d'évaluations génétiques, établir l'inverse de ces matrices de parenté peut s'avérer couteux d'un point de vue computationnel. Dans cette synthèse bibliographique, notre objectif est de passer en revue les techniques qui facilitent l'inversion de matrices de parenté utilisée en amélioration animale pour la prédiction des types d'effets génétiques suivants : effet additif, effet gamétique, effet dû à la présence de loci marqués de caractères quantitatifs, effet de dominance et différent effet d'épistasie. Les règles de construction de la matrice et les algorithmes d'inversion sont détaillés pour chaque matrice de parenté. Dans la discussion finale, nous esquissons un cadre théorique commun à la plupart des techniques d'inversion passées en revue. Deux contraintes computationnelles ressortent de ce cadre théorique : l'établissement de la matrice de dépendances entre niveaux de l'effet et celui de certaines parties (diagonales ou bloc-diagonales de la matrice de parenté à inverser.

  17. Breeding of Mungbean Variety Elv No.4 and Its Cultivation Technique%绿豆鄂绿4号的选育及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏伟; 万正煌; 李莉; 刘昌燕; 伍广洪

    2015-01-01

    The variety Elv No.4 was bred by Institute of Food Crops, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was certifi-cated and registered by Hubei Committee for Crop Variety Registration in 2009. This variety has high-yielding, drought-toler-ant, compact plant type and adaptive extensive characters. This paper introduces the breeding of this mungbean variety and its cultivation techniques.%鄂绿4号是湖北省农业科学院粮食作物研究所选育的绿豆[V igna radiata(L.)Wilczek]品种,2009年通过湖北省农作物品种审定委员会审定。该品种产量高、熟期适中、植株直立、适于机械化收获,适宜在湖北省及同类型生态地区种植。介绍了鄂绿4号的选育过程、特征特性及配套栽培技术。

  18. Where are we now as we merge genomics into plant breeding and what are our limitations? Experiences from RosBREED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.; Weebadde, C.; Peace, C.; Main, D.; Bassil, N.V.; Coe, M.; Fazio, G.; Gallardo, K.; Gasic, K.; Luby, J.; McFerson, J.; De Weg, Van E.; Yue, C.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of apple, peach, and diploid strawberry - one member of each of the three main fruit-producing branches of the Rosaceae tree - were available in 2010. Despite this achievement, virtually none of this genomics knowledge was being used to assist breeding efforts of the

  19. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Wayne R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis using olive varieties and breeding progenies identify candidate genes involved in plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José eGonzález Plaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2,252 differentially expressed genes associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  2. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  3. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  4. Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lifen; Cao, Yinghao; Xia, Zhihui; Jiang, Guanghuai; Liu, Guozhen; Zhang, Weixiong; Zhai, Wenxue

    2013-01-01

    Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by th...

  5. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources.

  6. Tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of Indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-10-15

    Snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, which cause endemic fasciolosis among cattle population of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Control of snail population by molluscicides is one of the effective methods to control fasciolosis. In the present study molluscicidal activity of tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of different Indian breeds of cow Sahiwal, Geer and Tharparkar with Annona squamosa seed powder, Ferula asafoetida root latex, Azadirachta indica oil and Camellia sinensis leaves have been tested against Lymnaea acuminata. It was noted that the toxicity of tertiary combination (1:1:5) of cow urine kept for 15 days in sunlight or laboratory condition with different plant products were highly toxic against snail L. acuminata. 96 h LC50 of tertiary combinations with Sahiwal urine kept for 15 days in sunlight with A. squamosa, F. asafoetida, A. indica oil and C. sinensis were 35.47 mg L(-1), 37.13 mg L(-1), 33.66 mg L(-1), respectively higher than the Geer and Tharparkar. The toxicity of Sahiwal urine kept for 15 days in laboratory condition with A. squamosa and C. sinensis (96 h LC50 28.28 mg L(-1)) was more potent than the all other combinations. Cow urine in combination with plant product can be used for effective control of snail.

  7. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules. PMID:28119705

  8. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of an orchid model plant candidate: Erycina pusilla apply in tropical Oncidium breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Pan

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental plant but the study of its functional genomics is difficult. Erycina pusilla is a fast-growing Oncidiinae species. Several characteristics including low chromosome number, small genome size, short growth period, and its ability to complete its life cycle in vitro make E. pusilla a good model candidate and parent for hybridization for orchids. Although genetic information remains limited, systematic molecular analysis of its chloroplast genome might provide useful genetic information. By combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and next-generation sequencing (NGS, the chloroplast (cp genome of E. pusilla was sequenced accurately, efficiently and economically. The cp genome of E. pusilla shares 89 and 84% similarity with Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Phalanopsis aphrodite, respectively. Comparing these 3 cp genomes, 5 regions have been identified as showing diversity. Using PCR analysis of 19 species belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily, a conserved deletion was found in the rps15-trnN region of the Cymbidieae tribe. Because commercial Oncidium varieties in Taiwan are limited, identification of potential parents using molecular breeding method has become very important. To demonstrate the relationship between taxonomic position and hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, 4 DNA regions of 36 tropically adapted Oncidiinae varieties have been analyzed. The results indicated that trnF-ndhJ and trnH-psbA were suitable for phylogenetic analysis. E. pusilla proved to be phylogenetically closer to Rodriguezia and Tolumnia than Oncidium, despite its similar floral appearance to Oncidium. These results indicate the hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, its cp genome providing important information for Oncidium breeding.

  9. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part III. Panallergens and breeding of hypoallergenic cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-04-01

    In addition to major allergens, also minor allergens, i.e. panallergens have been shown to be responsible for many IgE cross-reactions even between unrelated pollen and plant food allergen sources. It can be explained also by cross-allergenicity underlying the T cell response to conserved regions of panallergens. In this article, we focus on known panallergens which presently comprise a few protein families, including non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) (PR-14), thaumatin like proteins (TLP) (PR-5), profilins, and polcalcins. Food allergy has an impact on the quality of life of an allergic patient. The way of developing novel plant cultivars with decreased allergenicity and possibility of down-regulating the expression of an allergen by genetic modification are discussed.

  10. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10...

  11. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties.

  12. Virus Elimination from Ornamental Plants Using in vitro Culture Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for numerous epidemics in different crops in all parts of the world.As a consequence of their presence great economic losses are being incurred. In addition tothe development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization ofviruses, substantial attention has also been paid to biotechnological methods for their eliminationfrom plants. In this review article, the following biotechnological in vitro culture techniquesfor virus elimination from ornamental plants are presented: meristem culture, thermotherapy,chemotherapy, cryotherapy or a combination of these methods. The plant species,as well as the type of virus determine the choice of a most suitable method. The state ofthe art in investigation of virus elimination from Impatiens sp. in Serbia is summarized.

  13. Pollination and breeding system of the enigmatic South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae): rodents welcome, but not needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbhahn, N; Steenhuisen, S-L; Olsen, T; Midgley, J J; Johnson, S D

    2017-09-01

    Unrelated plants adapted to particular pollinator types tend to exhibit convergent evolution in floral traits. However, inferences about likely pollinators from 'pollination syndromes' can be problematic due to trait overlap among some syndromes and unusual floral architecture in some lineages. An example is the rare South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae), which has highly unusual brush-like inflorescences that exhibit features of both bird and rodent pollination syndromes. We used camera traps to record flower visitors, quantified floral spectral reflectance and nectar and scent production, experimentally determined self-compatibility and breeding system, and studied pollen dispersal using fluorescent dyes. The dark-red inflorescences are usually monoecious, with female flowers maturing before male flowers, but some inflorescences are purely female (gynoecious). Inflorescences were visited intensively by several rodent species that carried large pollen loads, while visits by birds were extremely rare. Rodents prefer male- over female-phase inflorescences, likely because of the male flowers' higher nectar and scent production. The floral scent contains several compounds known to attract rodents. Despite the obvious pollen transfer by rodents, we found that flowers on both monoecious and gynoecious inflorescences readily set seed in the absence of rodents and even when all flower visitors are excluded. Our findings suggest that seed production occurs at least partially through apomixis and that M. thomii is not ecologically dependent on its rodent pollinators. Our study adds another species and family to the growing list of rodent-pollinated plants, thus contributing to our understanding of the floral traits associated with pollination by non-flying mammals. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  16. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  17. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  18. Numerical study of regional environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Bai, Yu

    2013-09-01

    In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance, this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City, Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta, and computes the environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city, as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods. On the basis of the computations, this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing, and assess the environmental impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry. The results of our study indicate that, the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen, and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus. A comparison between our research findings and the existing farming scale in Putian reveals that, in certain parts of the city, ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees. Specifically, Chengxiang District is severely overburdened, Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening, Licheng District is virtually overburdened, and Xiuyu, Xianyou, and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.

  19. Numerical study of regional environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Peng; Yu Bai

    2013-01-01

    In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance,this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City,Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta,and computes the environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city,as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods.On the basis of the computations,this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing,and assess the environmental impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry.The results of our study indicate that,the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen,and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus.A comparison between our research findings and the existing fanning scale in Putian reveals that,in certain parts of the city,ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees.Specifically,Chengxiang District is severely overburdened,Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening,Licheng District is virtually overburdened,and Xiuyu,Xianyou,and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.

  20. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  1. Advances in plant proteomics-key techniques of proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin RUAN; Huasheng MA; Shiheng WANG; Ya XIN; Lihua QIAN; Jianxing TONG; Jie WANG

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of genome sequen-cing of model plants,such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana,the era of functional plant genomics has arrived which provides a solid basis for the develop-ment of plant proteomics.We review the background and concepts of proteomics,as well as the key techniques which include:(1) separation techniques such as 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis),RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) and SELDI (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization) protein chip; (2) mass spectrometry such as MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight- mass spectrometry) and ESI-MS/MS (elec-trospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectro-metry); (3) Peptide sequence tags; (4) databases related to proteomics; (5) quantitative proteome; (6) TAP (tandem affinity purification) and (7) yeast two-hybrid system.In addition,the challenges and prospects of pro-teomics are also discussed.

  2. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  3. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  4. 云环境下作物育种信息化模型研究%Research on Information Model of Plant Breeding under Cloud Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠强; 王开义; 赵向宇; 李民赞

    2017-01-01

    在种业体制改革和兼并重组加速推进、行业集中度大幅提升的大背景下,开展育种技术创新、加强资源交流与联合育种是广大中小型育种企业提升核心竞争力的必然选择。为此,首先介绍了国内作物育种信息管理软件的应用现状,对云环境下开展作物育种信息化建设的优势进行了深入分析;接着,以中小型育种企业育种信息化为业务基础,研究云服务模式与作物育种信息管理业务的契合点,提出了云环境下的作物育种信息化模型。模型充分考虑了作物育种信息管理平台在云服务模式下的个性化、一体化及差异性等特点,支持精量播种机、测产测水等农机设备的统一对接平台、面向用户特征的多层次服务提供策略和基于数据挖掘的作物育种决策支持等方案,对广大中小型育种企业、高校科研院所育种团队及专业测试机构等开展信息化建设,实现资源共享、协同育种与联合测试,进而推进现代种业全面均衡发展,具有借鉴意义。%Under the background of seed industry structure restructuring,merger and reorganization accelerating and in-dustry concentration increasing,to carry out breeding technology innovation, strengthen the resources exchanging and joint breeding is the inevitable choice of majority of small and medium enterprises to enhance the core competitiveness. Firstly, introduced currently application status of domestic plant breeding information management software,and discussed the ad-vantages of information technology under the cloud environment. Next,researched the meeting point between cloud service mode and plant breeding information management business based on information of small and medium breeding enterpri-ses,and proposed plant breeding information model under cloud environments. This model fully considered personaliza-tion,integration,differentiation and other features of plant

  5. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Enyi, G.G. Nasr, M. Burby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day, 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with ‘Microsoft Excel’ shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4 unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  6. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyi, G.C.; Nasr, G.G.; Burby, M. [University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day), 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day) plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with 'Microsoft Excel' shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  7. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating ...

  8. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance. Technical progress report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, W.W.; Burton, G.W.

    1991-09-01

    Methods and techniques for transferring germplasm from wild to cultivated species are being developed. The transferred germplasm is being shown to be valuable in plant breeding and in cultivar development. Forty cytoplasms from the wild grassy subspecies monodii (primary gene pool) of Pennisetum glaucum are being tested for cytoplasmic effects on morphological characteristics and forage yield. A`-genome chromosomes from P. purpureum (secondary gene pool) have been transferred to cultivated pearl millet. The A`-chromosome derived lines have been developed into excellent male pollinator lines to produce a new high quality, high yielding grain hybrid for the US. Significant progress is being made in transferring the genes controlling apomixis (to produce true-breeding hybrids) from the tertiary gene pool to cultivated pearl millet. Backcross-4 plants are more pearl millet-like and reproduce by apomixis. New genome combinations have been produced in the apomixis genes transfer program which demonstrate the impact of apomixis on speciation and evolution.

  9. Tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of Indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail Lymnaea acuminata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Shiv; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    .... In the present study molluscicidal activity of tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of different Indian breeds of cow Sahiwal, Geer and Tharparkar with Annona squamosa seed powder, Ferula...

  10. Breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and efficiency of extraction techniques for immature stages in terra-firme forest in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; de Queiroz, Raul Guerra; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Information on natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies is scanty, due to the difficulties of isolation of immatures from the soil where they occur. The present study investigated breeding sites in several microhabitats in a "terra-firme" forest in Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil. Results on the efficacy of different extraction techniques used for isolating sand flies, and the temperature and the pH of the samples collected, are presented. Samples of soil and organic matter from different microhabitats, processed by floatation-sieving, direct examination, Berlese-Tullgren, and emergence cages, revealed, for the first time in Amazonas, breeding sites in five microhabitats (tree bases, unsheltered forest floor, soil from under fallen logs, soil from under roots, and palm-tree bases). Overall, 138 immatures and 29 newly emerged adults were recovered from these microhabitats. The abundance of immatures in samples close to tree bases was significantly higher than in more open sites not adjacent to tree bases. Floatation-sieving and direct examination were the most effective techniques for immature extraction and survival, respectively. Eleven species of the genus Lutzomyia s.l. were identified, with Lutzomyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia georgii Freitas & Barrett being the most abundant. Differences in the specific composition and relative abundance of the immature and adult sand flies on tree bases suggest that breeding sites may be distant from resting or aggregation sites of adults. The pH, which revealed a slightly acidic soil, as well as the temperature, did not show any significant correlation with the number of immature sand flies collected.

  11. High-throughput phenotyping of large wheat breeding nurseries using unmanned aerial system, remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighattalab, Atena

    Wheat breeders are in a race for genetic gain to secure the future nutritional needs of a growing population. Multiple barriers exist in the acceleration of crop improvement. Emerging technologies are reducing these obstacles. Advances in genotyping technologies have significantly decreased the cost of characterizing the genetic make-up of candidate breeding lines. However, this is just part of the equation. Field-based phenotyping informs a breeder's decision as to which lines move forward in the breeding cycle. This has long been the most expensive and time-consuming, though most critical, aspect of breeding. The grand challenge remains in connecting genetic variants to observed phenotypes followed by predicting phenotypes based on the genetic composition of lines or cultivars. In this context, the current study was undertaken to investigate the utility of UAS in assessment field trials in wheat breeding programs. The major objective was to integrate remotely sensed data with geospatial analysis for high throughput phenotyping of large wheat breeding nurseries. The initial step was to develop and validate a semi-automated high-throughput phenotyping pipeline using a low-cost UAS and NIR camera, image processing, and radiometric calibration to build orthomosaic imagery and 3D models. The relationship between plot-level data (vegetation indices and height) extracted from UAS imagery and manual measurements were examined and found to have a high correlation. Data derived from UAS imagery performed as well as manual measurements while exponentially increasing the amount of data available. The high-resolution, high-temporal HTP data extracted from this pipeline offered the opportunity to develop a within season grain yield prediction model. Due to the variety in genotypes and environmental conditions, breeding trials are inherently spatial in nature and vary non-randomly across the field. This makes geographically weighted regression models a good choice as a

  12. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  13. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  14. Electromagnetic techniques for industrial plant process measurements and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramanti, M. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. di Elaborazione della Informazione)

    1992-04-01

    In recent years, new real time non-destructive measuring techniques have been developed based on the use of miniaturized components capable of generating, amplifying and elaborating microwave signals (within the range of tenths of a volt and hundreds of milliamps). All these techniques for the measurement of typical process parameters or the non-destructive testing of materials are based on the interaction of radiation with the material or system under examination and make use of the most modern types of data acquisition technology. This article surveys the sensors and measuring instruments which make use of electromagnetic radiation to acquire information concerning the properties of an examined material or system based on their interactions with electromagnetic fields. A few applications are illustrated, e.g., the measurement of unburnt coal in power plant fly ash, the measurement of the quantity of solid particles present in fluidized beds and the verification of the properties of dielectric materials. In each case, the optimum degree of resolution of these devices is made evident.

  15. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Huaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Results Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM, and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA

  16. Application of next-generation sequencing for rapid marker development in molecular plant breeding: a case study on anthracnose disease resistance in Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Li, Chengdao; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G

    2012-07-17

    In the last 30 years, a number of DNA fingerprinting methods such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, DArT, have been extensively used in marker development for molecular plant breeding. However, it remains a daunting task to identify highly polymorphic and closely linked molecular markers for a target trait for molecular marker-assisted selection. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is far more powerful than any existing generic DNA fingerprinting methods in generating DNA markers. In this study, we employed a grain legume crop Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) as a test case, and examined the utility of an NGS-based method of RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) sequencing as DNA fingerprinting for rapid, cost-effective marker development tagging a disease resistance gene for molecular breeding. Twenty informative plants from a cross of RxS (disease resistant x susceptible) in lupin were subjected to RAD single-end sequencing by multiplex identifiers. The entire RAD sequencing products were resolved in two lanes of the 16-lanes per run sequencing platform Solexa HiSeq2000. A total of 185 million raw reads, approximately 17 Gb of sequencing data, were collected. Sequence comparison among the 20 test plants discovered 8207 SNP markers. Filtration of DNA sequencing data with marker identification parameters resulted in the discovery of 38 molecular markers linked to the disease resistance gene Lanr1. Five randomly selected markers were converted into cost-effective, simple PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis using marker genotyping data and disease resistance phenotyping data on a F8 population consisting of 186 individual plants confirmed that all these five markers were linked to the R gene. Two of these newly developed sequence-specific PCR markers, AnSeq3 and AnSeq4, flanked the target R gene at a genetic distance of 0.9 centiMorgan (cM), and are now replacing the markers previously developed by a traditional DNA fingerprinting method for marker

  17. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  18. Spectral unmixing techniques for retrieving plant foliar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, Kostas; Sykioti, Olga; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Kyparissis, Aris

    2010-05-01

    In this study two novel approaches for supervised and semi-supervised hyperspectral unmixing are applied in the unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA data, in order to monitor seasonal land cover changes - in particular plant foliar coverage. Foliar coverage variations are directly linked to seasonal changes of the ecophysiological status of a plant (i.e. growth status, pigment concentrations, LAI etc). The high potential of using hyperspectral satellite data in monitoring plant biochemical and structural characteristics is important in ecophysiological studies. A reliable and efficient method to extract leaf and/or canopy information from a mixed pixel significantly contributes towards this direction. In this study, the development of two efficient algorithms in spectral unmixing enables the detection and mapping of leaf contribution to the overall pixel spectra and its seasonal variations. For this purpose, leaf spectra measured in the field, simultaneously to satellite acquisitions, are included in the endmember data set. The proposed unmixing techniques are performed on ground reflectances, assuming knowledge of the number and spectral signatures of the objects present in the images. An efficient estimation for their corresponding fractions in the pixels of the image is developed, based on a recently proposed maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) method. By exploiting the constraints naturally imposed to the problem, closed form expressions are derived for the statistical parameters required by the MAP estimator. In the semi-supervised scenario, we assume that a spectral library is given, containing spectral signatures of multiple endmembers. The objective in the latter case, is (a) to determine how many and which endmembers are present in the mixed pixel under study and (b) to use the selected endmembers to estimate the corresponding abundance fractions - especially the abundance of foliar coverage. The approach is based on a properly modified weighted l1-regularized least

  19. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  20. 薄荷属植物选种育种研究进展%Research progress on seed selection and breeding of Mentha's plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 谢文申

    2012-01-01

    综述了薄荷属植物挥发性成分的主要化学类型及近年来国内外薄荷属植物在选种育种方面的研究进展及发展趋势.希望对促进我国现阶段薄荷属植物的选育种工作有所帮助.%In this paper, the main chemical types of the volatility components in Mentha are summarized, and the research progress and developing tendency on seed selection and breeding of the plants are reviewed.

  1. Laboratory techniques in plant molecular biology taught with UniformMu insertion alleles of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    An undergraduate course - Laboratory Techniques in Plant Molecular Biology - was organized around our research application of UniformMu insertion alleles to investigate mitochondrial functions in plant reproduction. The course objectives were to develop students’ laboratory, record keeping, bioinfor...

  2. From Mendel's discovery on pea to today's plant genetics and breeding : Commemorating the 150th anniversary of the reading of Mendel's discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; K Varshney, Rajeev; K Singh, Vikas; Coyne, Clarice J; Domoney, Claire; Kejnovský, Eduard; Warkentin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This work discusses several selected topics of plant genetics and breeding in relation to the 150th anniversary of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. In 2015, we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory of evolution was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's theory of heredity relies on equality and stability throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuous variation and "soft" heredity; Mendel espoused discontinuous variation and "hard" heredity. Thus, the combination of Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of natural selection was the process that resulted in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology. Although biology, genetics, and genomics have been revolutionized in recent years, modern genetics will forever rely on simple principles founded on pea breeding using seven single gene characters. Purposeful use of mutants to study gene function is one of the essential tools of modern genetics. Today, over 100 plant species genomes have been sequenced. Mapping populations and their use in segregation of molecular markers and marker-trait association to map and isolate genes, were developed on the basis of Mendel's work. Genome-wide or genomic selection is a recent approach for the development of improved breeding lines. The analysis of complex traits has been enhanced by high-throughput phenotyping and developments in statistical and modeling methods for the analysis of phenotypic data. Introgression of novel alleles from landraces and wild relatives widens genetic diversity and improves traits; transgenic methodologies allow for the introduction of novel genes from diverse sources, and gene editing approaches offer possibilities to manipulate gene in a precise manner.

  3. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  4. Importância, problemas e perspectivas do melhoramento visando resistência a viroses em plantas Importance, problems and perspectives of plant breeding concerning resistance to viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lia Barbieri

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available As viroses são um sério problema para a agricultura, podendo se tomar um fator limitante para o desenvolvimento de determinadas espécies. Medidas de controle, como a eliminação dos vetores, o uso de material sadio, a rotação de culturas e a erradicação de plantas infectadas são apenas soluções temporárias. A mais eficiente estratégia de controle envolve o uso de cultivares melhoradas para resistência ao vírus ou a seu vetor. A reduzida disponibilidade de fontes de resistência pode ser aumentada através da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, que traz novas perspectivas para o melhoramento de plantas resistentes a viroses.Virus diseases are a serious problem to agricuiture, can be a limitant factor to normal development of some crops. Control measures, like vectors elimination, healthy material use, culture rotation and infected plants eradication, are only transient solutions. The more efficient approach for control involves plant breeding resistant to virus or its vector. Reduced availability of resistance source can be increased through recombinant DNA technology, which brings new breeding perspectives to virus resistant crops.

  5. DNA assembly for plant biology: techniques and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2014-06-01

    As the speed and accuracy of genome sequencing improves, there are ever-increasing resources available for the design and construction of synthetic DNA parts. These can be used to engineer plant genomes to produce new functions or to elucidate the function of endogenous sequences. Until recently the assembly of amplified or cloned sequences into large and complex designs was a limiting step in plant synthetic biology and biotechnology. A number of new methods for assembling DNA molecules have been developed in the last few years, several of which have been applied to the production of molecules used to modify plant genomes.

  6. Overview of Prairie Planting Techniques and Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    spring, late spring, or early summer. Most warm- season grasses, legumes and many composites do well in late spring plantings. In Kentucky , research...developed and proven by the NRCS for specific geographic regions of the country. Native grass seed (and often wildflower seed) is sold on a pure live...vernal pools are examples of fragile areas within a larger prairie ecosystem. These areas often have many rare species of plants and animals in

  7. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David; Katrompas, Alexander M.; Parikh, Neel J.

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  8. Advances on breeding technology of medicinal plants Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge%药用植物丹参繁育技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾彩凤; 马晓莉; 秦桂芳; 魏志东; 李向阳

    2016-01-01

    丹参( Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.)是临床治疗心血管系统疾病的常用中药。由于生产中长期的只种不选引起品种退化,导致药材产量和品质均有较大程度下降。为改良丹参的药材种质,提高产量和药用成分含量,确保临床用药质量,有关丹参的品种选育与繁殖技术的研究报道不断推陈出新。从良种选育、田间管理措施与组织培养技术等方面,对近年来药用植物丹参的品种培育与繁殖现状展开综述,为实现丹参的规范化种植,提高中药材产量和药用成分含量提供技术依据,对进一步推动丹参植物资源开发的现代化进程提供借鉴。%Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.is commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as a traditional Chinese medicine .The yield and quality of medicinal materials declined greatly for long-term variety degeneration because of variety breeding .Large of researches reported constantly about cultivation and breeding technology of Salvia miltiorrhiza to improve the quality ,output and effective composition content of Salvia miltiorrhiza and en-hance the clinical efficacy .Advances on cultivation and breeding technology of Salvia miltiorrhiza,such as variety breeding ,field cultivation and tissue culture technology of medicinal plants in recent years are summarized in or -der to provide technical basis for standardized cultivation ,high output and effective composition content of Salvia miltiorrhiza,and promote the development modernization process of Salvia miltiorrhiza.

  9. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  10. Micropropagation and cryopreservation: alternative techniques for conserving plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources of vegetatively propagated crops are maintained as growing plants and are often at risk of loss from disease, and environmental hazards. Micropropagation and cryopreservation are used for backup of the temperate fruit, nut and specialty crops held at the National Clonal Germplasm R...

  11. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  12. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  13. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  14. Distal tibial tuberosity translation using TTA implants for the treatment of patella alta in large breed dogs. Surgical technique and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, L C; Pike, F S; Aiken, S W

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellar luxation frequently occurs in dogs resulting in lameness with increasing incidence in large breed dogs. Patella alta has been defined as a patellar ligament length to patellar length ratio that is greater than two and may predispose to patellar luxation. To describe the surgical technique for stabilization of the distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement plates and the clinical outcomes with follow-up for clinical cases of dogs. Dogs that were presented with the complaint of patellar luxation and that were concurrently diagnosed with patella alta and were greater than 20 kg in body weight underwent surgery using a tibial tuberosity advancement plate to stabilize the osteotomy. Radiographic assessment of A:PL distance (the ratio of the proximal aspect of the patella to the femoral condyle [A] to the patellar length [PL]), L:P ratio (ratio of the length of the patellar ligament to the diagonal length of the patella), and owner assessment were obtained. Eleven stifles in nine dogs underwent surgical correction with a mean preoperative L:P ratio of 2.47. There were no complications and the lameness resolved clinically. The mean A:PL ratios preoperatively (2.6 ± 0.22) and postoperatively (2.1 ± 0.25) were significantly different (p = 0.0003). All owners were satisfied with the outcome and all dogs had a resolution of lameness with no recurrence of patellar luxation. Stabilization of distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement implants to correct patella alta in large breed dogs was feasible and resulted in good clinical outcome.

  15. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  16. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.

    2003-01-01

    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  17. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of disease tolerant lines of hotpepper by using radiation and interspecific hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Su; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul [Nongwoo Seed Co., Suwon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To obtain disease resistant mutant lines, 6 inbred lines were hotppepers were irradiated with 250Gy of gamma ray and crossed between cultivar and wild species. 1) 4500 M{sub 1} plants were cultivated for obtaining M{sub 2} seed in 6 inbred lines of hotpeppers irradiated with 250 Gy of gamma ray. 2) Crossability was not generally existed among interspecific crosses, crossability between C. annum and C. chacoense was successful except crosses between C. annum, C. pubescens and C. eximium. 3) The embryo disected 45 days after pollination was suitable for embryo culture. 4) Hybrid plants were obtained from the embryo culture of the combination between C. annum and C. chacoense, while abnormal hybrid plants occurred from the combination between C. annum and C. baccatum. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Efficient Plant Supervision Strategy Using NN Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Rolle, Jose Luis Calvo; Castelo, Francisco Javier Perez

    Most of non-linear type one and type two control systems suffers from lack of detectability when model based techniques are applied on FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. In general, all types of processes suffer from lack of detectability also due to the ambiguity to discriminate the process, sensors and actuators in order to isolate any given fault. This work deals with a strategy to detect and isolate faults which include massive neural networks based functional approximation procedures associated to recursive rule based techniques applied to a parity space approach.

  19. Workshop phenotyping, genotyping, breeding, reproduction techniques and evaluating alternative crop species for adaptation to climate change - State-of-art and opportunities for further cooperation, 27-28 October 2016, Wageningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, te D.

    2016-01-01

    The workshop highlighted opportunities, gaps, needs and priorities for novel breeding techniques like phenotyping for resilience under climate change. Starting with four key presentations, the scene was set from the perspectives of policy, end-users and science, accompanied by an overview of phenoty

  20. Workshop phenotyping, genotyping, breeding, reproduction techniques and evaluating alternative crop species for adaptation to climate change - State-of-art and opportunities for further cooperation, 27-28 October 2016, Wageningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, te D.

    2016-01-01

    The workshop highlighted opportunities, gaps, needs and priorities for novel breeding techniques like phenotyping for resilience under climate change. Starting with four key presentations, the scene was set from the perspectives of policy, end-users and science, accompanied by an overview of phenoty

  1. Novel techniques and findings in the study of plant microbiota: search for plant probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlec, Aleš

    2012-09-01

    Plants live in intimate relationships with numerous microorganisms present inside or outside plant tissues. The plant exterior provides two distinct ecosystems, the rhizosphere (below ground) and the phyllosphere (above ground), both populated by microbial communities. Most studies on plant microbiota deal with pathogens or mutualists. This review focuses on plant commensal bacteria, which could represent a rich source of bacteria beneficial to plants, alternatively termed plant probiotics. Plant commensal bacteria have been addressed only recently with culture-independent studies. These use next-generation sequencing, DNA microarray technologies and proteomics to decipher microbial community composition and function. Diverse bacterial populations are described in both rhizosphere and phyllosphere of different plants. The microorganisms can emerge from neighboring environmental ecosystems at random; however their survival is regulated by the plant. Influences from the environment, such as pesticides, farming practice and atmosphere, also affect the composition of microbial communities. Apart from community composition studies, some functional studies have also been performed. These include identification of broad-substrate surface receptors and methanol utilization enzymes by the proteomic approach, as well as identification of bacterial species that are important mediators of disease-suppressive soil phenomenon. Experience from more advanced human microbial studies could provide useful information and is discussed in the context of methodology and common trends. Administration of microbial mixtures of whole communities, rather than individual species, is highlighted and should be considered in future agricultural applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some critical considerations on rice high-yielding breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lihong

    2007-01-01

    Views and comments concerning rice highyielding breeding in China had been touched upon:(1) historical development of rice breeding in China and its prominent contributions recounted;current challenges evolved from rapid population increase,erosion of key natural resources and socioeconomic changes envisaged;(2) concept of extra or super high-yielding rice breeding and related ideas embraced nowadays in the main rice-producing countries assessed;the conception of so-called superrice in China could have been misled and misunderstood,and no substantial genetical differences could be affirmed yet between superrice and modern high-yielding rice;(3) two strategical approaches of rice production and breeding in China would have been persistent in the construction of most favorable-to-growth rice fields to plant rice varieties with high-yielding potentiality as well as renovation and rejuvenation of less favorable rice fields to plant most adaptableto-ecoenvironment varieties with promising productivity;in addition,breeding for rice varieties compatible with the specific rice regions ridden by adverse ecoenvironments;(4) overview of the relationship between the development of genetical researches and the perspective of rice breeding;integration of the classical genetical principles and breeding methods and techniques wherefrom with molecular biotechniques underscored.Finally,appeal to the breeders to adhere to due attentions to the development of genetics and promote pragmatism and traditional ethic solemnly so as to live up to implementing the national rice breeding mandates.

  3. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  4. Advances in molecular marker techniques and their applications in plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Milee; Shrivastava, Neeta; Padh, Harish

    2008-04-01

    Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in plants. Since the entire plant kingdom cannot be covered under sequencing projects, molecular markers and their correlation to phenotypes provide us with requisite landmarks for elucidation of genetic variation. Genetic or DNA based marker techniques such as RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), SSR (simple sequence repeats) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) are routinely being used in ecological, evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of plant sciences. These techniques are well established and their advantages as well as limitations have been realized. In recent years, a new class of advanced techniques has emerged, primarily derived from combination of earlier basic techniques. Advanced marker techniques tend to amalgamate advantageous features of several basic techniques. The newer methods also incorporate modifications in the methodology of basic techniques to increase the sensitivity and resolution to detect genetic discontinuity and distinctiveness. The advanced marker techniques also utilize newer class of DNA elements such as retrotransposons, mitochondrial and chloroplast based microsatellites, thereby revealing genetic variation through increased genome coverage. Techniques such as RAPD and AFLP are also being applied to cDNA-based templates to study patterns of gene expression and uncover the genetic basis of biological responses. The review details account of techniques used in identification of markers and their applicability in plant sciences.

  5. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease resistan

  6. An express route to perfection: Ornamental plant breeders have the tools at their disposal to expedite breeding for specific traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants inherit traits the same way Gregor Mendel observed in his famous experiments with peas in the 1800s. Breeders select parents with one or more desirable traits and then look for superior combinations of these traits in their offspring. Seedlings must be rigorously evaluated for the desirable...

  7. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease

  8. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  9. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pujari, Jagadeesh D.; Rajesh Yakkundimath; Abdulmunaf. Syedhusain. Byadgi

    2016-01-01

    Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system) using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identi...

  10. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a new guide regulatory guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive,......

  11. Determination of optimal doses of radiation for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals; Determinacion de dosis optimas de radiacion para el mejoramiento de seudocereales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gomez P, L. [Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima (Peru)]. e-mail: jgj@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    With the purpose of promoting the use of the radiations for the plant breeding of pseudo cereals, it was determined a simple and economic method that allows the quick selection of radiation dose that induce in the vegetable organisms the changes wanted. For it it was work with quinua seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) an Andean pseudo cereal that, due to their nutritious and physiologic characteristics it is considered by the FAO like one of the foods of the future and for the NASA like an organism that is good to remove the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and at the same time, to generate food, oxygen and water for the crew during the space missions of long duration and that it has already improved by means of the radiation application. The proposed method consists on the evaluation, of the embryonic structures (radicule, hypocotyl and cotyledons) in the irradiated seeds as well as of the development of root, primary shaft and true leaves in the plants. The changes in the growth, form, number and color of the structures as well as the time of appearance of each one, allow to predict the morphological changes and inclusive some physiologic ones that will have the mature organisms, so that in only three weeks it is possible to select the doses more appropriate. (Author)

  12. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...

  13. A simple technique for removing plant polysaccharide contaminants from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, N; Adams, R P

    1991-02-01

    A survey of the inhibitory effects of various plant polysaccharides on DNA restrictions (HindIII and EcoRI) revealed that neutral polysaccharides (arabino-galactan, dextran, gum guar, gum locust bean, beta-glucan, inulin, laminaran, mannan and starch) were not very inhibitory. In contrast, acidic polysaccharides (carrageenan, dextran sulfate, gum ghatti, gum karaya, pectin and xylan) were very inhibitory, even at low concentrations. The Elutip-d (RPC-5 type resin) was evaluated for removal of the inhibitory polysaccharides. Used alone or in combination with a phenol/chloroform wash, it proved effective in removing the polysaccharide so that HindIII digestion was possible, except in the cases of carrageenan and dextran sulfate. In addition, the genomic DNA extracts from live oak (Quercus virginiana) and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) were sufficiently purified so that the DNAs could be restricted with both EcoRI and HindIII.

  14. RESPONSE OF SELECTED LOCAL PLANTAIN CULTIVARS TO PIBS (PLANTS ISSUS DE BOURGEONS SECONDAIRES TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah DZOMEKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint to plantain production has been inadequate healthy planting materials at the time of planting. Several technologies for multiplying healthy planting materials exist but could not meet farmers’ demand. A study was conducted to assess the performance of various landraces plantain to plants issus de bourgeons secondaires (PIBS technique. Five cultivars of Musa sapientum (Apantu (False Horn, Asamienu (True Horn, Oniaba (intermediate French plantain and FHIA-21 (tetraploid hybrid plantain were tested to determine their response to the PIBS technique. Sword suckers of each cultivar with weight of between 0.2-0.5 kg were prepared and buried in fine sawdust in a humidity chamber built using transparent polyethylene sheets. Results at harvest showed that removal of rooted sprouts started three weeks after planting and every week thereafter for eight weeks. The intermediate French plantain cultivar (Oniaba produced the least average number (about 20 of healthy planting. Apantu (False Horn produced an average of about 75 healthy planting materials. The hybrid FHIA-21 on the other hand generated an average of about 85 healthy planting materials. Asamienu (True Horn produced the highest healthy seedlings of about 90 healthy planting materials. The results revealed that the leaf scar carries a primary bud at the intersection of each leaf sheath and several eyes along the entire length of the leaf sheath which could not have developed into suckers. However, with this technique the eyes could be activated to sprout as healthy planting materials. The technique proved as an efficient method of multiplying healthy planting materials for plantain and could thus be recommended for adoption not only by peasant farmers but also to others who could become commercial seed producers. But there will be a need for certification guidelines for seed growing systems.

  15. Random amplified marker technique for plants rich in polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Tripta; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    More than 10,000 publications using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) or related arbitrary marker techniques have been published in two decades of its inception in 1990. Despite extensive use, RAPD technique has also attracted some criticisms, mainly for lack of reproducibility. In the light of its widespread applications, the objective of this chapter is to (1) provide a protocol for RAPD assay, (2) identify the potential factors affecting the optimization of the RAPD assays, and (3) provide proper statistical analysis to avoid false positives. It is suggested that after proper optimization, the RAPD is a reliable, sensitive, and reproducible assay having the potential to detect a wide range of DNA variations. Analyses of the relevant fragments generated in RAPD profile allow not only to identify some of the molecular events implicated in the genomic instability but also to discover genes playing key roles in genetic evolution and gene mapping. RAPD markers will continue to be boon for genetic studies of those organisms where yet no sequence information or scanty information is available.

  16. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: a successful participatory model with collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long st

  17. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: a successful participatory model with collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long

  18. Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, B.; Hnát, V.; Plaček, V.

    1998-06-01

    The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation induction time (OIT) is determined. For each cable which is subject to the assessment of the lifetime, the correlation of OIT with elongation at break and the correlation of elongation at break with the cable service time has to be performed. A reliable assessment of the cable lifetime depends on accuracy of these correlations. Consequently, synergistic effects well known at this time - dose rate effects and effects resulting from the different sequence of applying radiation and elevated temperature must be taken into account.

  19. computing techniques for production scheduling in Corrugator manufacturing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Velásquez D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrugator scheduling problem is a difficult problem due to a wide variety of parameters and optimisation objectives that have to be accounted for and the relationships among them. Majority of solution techniques proposed so far only deal with minimizing either, the trim waste or pattern changes, this paper proposes a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to optimize the WPL objective (weighted planning level and the cost objectives. Computational experiments were conducted and results were compared against the current shop scheduling method used at a real-life corrugator manufacturing facility. A series of experiments were also conducted to determine the evolutionary algorithm parameters. The improvement on performance metrics encourages us to actually implement the algorithm at the factory

  20. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  1. Elemental imaging at the nanoscale: NanoSIMS and complementary techniques for element localisation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R M

    2012-04-01

    The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.

  2. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  3. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  4. Not only emerging technologies are at risk: The case of mutation breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    plants. Unlike crop cultivars developed by newer techniques such as genetic engineering, mutation-bred cultivars are not subject to special types of horizontal regulation in any UN country. Based on representative survey data (N = 1000), public attitudes towards mutation breeding were compared....... One technology where such a latent crisis potential has often been suspected is mutation breeding. Mutation breeding is a standard technique in the development of new crop cultivars, known since the 1930s, typically involving the use of ionizing radiation to induce alterations in the genomes of crop...... with attitudes towards several other agricultural and food biotechnologies in terms of evaluative extremity, strength, and structure. Among the technologies included in the survey, mutation breeding was by far the most negatively evaluated one (substantially more so than genetic engineering). At the same time...

  5. Plant breeding and in situ utilization of palm trees Melhoramento genético e utilização in situ de palmeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rivas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The palm tree family (Arecaceae is constituted by approximately 3000 species mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. As a source of a variety of products they contribute to the world and local economies, and also to peoples lifestyles. Historically their use has been based on wild populations, but also on local domestication. Very few species are subject of plant breeding programs and are cultivated in the world. This is the case of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, in which investment and development consortiums invest high sums. Another kind of crop is the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera, which was domesticated thousand of years ago and whose success is based in the export of a fine product with worldwide recognition. In this case the production is based on traditional varieties and has very incipient breeding programs. A third group of palms includes those species from which products are obtained and manufactured for local development. The objective of this literature review is to contribute in the analysis of opportunities and weaknesses to investing in domestication and plant breeding programs in those palm trees with a recognized productive value.A família das palmeiras (Arecaceae é constituída por aproximadamente 3000 espécies, distribuídas principalmente nos trópicos e subtrópicos. Como fonte de uma variedade de produtos, contribuem para a economia mundial e local, e também para o modo de vida de várias pessoas. Historicamente, seu uso tem sido baseado em populações silvestres, mas também em domesticações locais. Muito poucas espécies estão submetidas a programas de melhoramento genético e são cultivadas a nível mundial. Este é o caso da palmeira de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, na qual consórcios de investimento e desenvolvimento investem altas quantias de dinheiro. Outro tipo de palmeira cultivada é a tamareira (Phoenix dactylifera, a qual foi domesticada milhares de anos atrás e cujo sucesso est

  6. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  7. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  8. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  9. Advances and Prospects in Breeding Japonica Rice for Super High Yield in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-fu; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, advances and prospects in breeding japonica rice for super high yield in the northern China were analyzed comprehensively in terms of breeding theories, techniques and practices. The author holds that developing and spreading super rice is an important way to enhance the overall yielding ability of japonica rice and attaining immense expansion of rice production. After theories and technical guidelines for super rice breeding were formulated, which involved the creation of new plant morphology and strong hybrid vigor through crossing indica with japonica subspecies, the optimization of combination of desirable traits via multiple crossing or backcrossing, the assemblage of favorable genes and the integration of ideal plant morphology with the utilization of vigor-major breakthroughs have been made in conventional breeding of japonica super rice. A batch of new super rice varieties marked by superior rice quality and high disease resistance, such as Shennong 265, Shennong 606, and Jijing 88, etc., have been developed and released. In comparison with the advancement in conventional breeding of super rice, progress in hybrid japonica super rice breeding is slower because of climatic and ecological constraint in northern China. Therefore, solving the contradictions between vigor and growth duration, between yield and rice quality, and boosting vastly seed production are still serious challenges for breeders of hybrid japonica rice. Physiological and genetic problems in japonica super rice breeding are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Not only emerging technologies are at risk: The case of mutation breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    plants. Unlike crop cultivars developed by newer techniques such as genetic engineering, mutation-bred cultivars are not subject to special types of horizontal regulation in any UN country. Based on representative survey data (N = 1000), public attitudes towards mutation breeding were compared...

  11. New report on the bionomics of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings of immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites, without the presence of aquatic plants or other submerged plant tissue are reported. METHODS: A systematic scooping technique to collect specimens was used at the breeding site. RESULTS: Immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Anopheles rangeli, An. evansae and Culex sp. were collected from areas of the hydroelectric power station of São Salvador, State of Goiás. CONCLUSIONS This is a novel finding relating to the bioecology of Cq. venezuelensis, a species of medical interest that has been found naturally infected with arboviruses, including Oropouche and West Nile virus.

  12. A study of residence time distribution using radiotracer technique in the large scale plant facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchagarun, S.; Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Sukrod, K.; Khoonkamjorn, P.

    2017-06-01

    As the demand for troubleshooting of large industrial plants increases, radiotracer techniques, which have capability to provide fast, online and effective detections to plant problems, have been continually developed. One of the good potential applications of the radiotracer for troubleshooting in a process plant is the analysis of Residence Time Distribution (RTD). In this paper, the study of RTD in a large scale plant facility using radiotracer technique was presented. The objective of this work is to gain experience on the RTD analysis using radiotracer technique in a “larger than laboratory” scale plant setup which can be comparable to the real industrial application. The experiment was carried out at the sedimentation tank in the water treatment facility of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). Br-82 was selected to use in this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. NH4Br in the form of aqueous solution was injected into the system as the radiotracer. Six NaI detectors were placed along the pipelines and at the tank in order to determine the RTD of the system. The RTD and the Mean Residence Time (MRT) of the tank was analysed and calculated from the measured data. The experience and knowledge attained from this study is important for extending this technique to be applied to industrial facilities in the future.

  13. 当归新品种窑归1号的选育及栽培技术%Breeding Selection and Cultivation Techniques of Angelica sinensis(Olive)Diels New Variety Yaogui No.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何银生; 廖朝林; 由金文; 张美德; 王华; 郭汉玖; 艾伦强; 刘海华

    2013-01-01

    The breeding process,characteristics,yield and integrate performaces of Yaogui No.1 were summarized,the cultivation techniques were introduced,in order to provide preferences.%总结了窑归1号的选育经过、特征特性、产量及综合表现,并介绍了其栽培技术要点,以供参考。

  14. Mapping element distributions in plant tissues using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D; Kopittke, Peter M; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is allowing substantial advances in several disciplines of plant science by allowing the in situ examination of elements within plant tissues. Continual improvements in detector speed, sensitivity, and resolution are increasing the diversity of questions that can be addressed using this technique, including the in situ analysis of elements (such as nutrients or toxicants) within fresh and hydrated tissues. Here, we describe the general principles for designing and conducting experiments for the examination of elemental distributions in plant material using micro-XRF.

  15. An improved technique for obtaining well-spread metaphases from plants with numerous large chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, J M; Ríos-Lara, L L; Tapia-Campos, E; Barba-Gonzalez, R

    2017-01-01

    Preparations that contain well-spread metaphase chromosomes are critical for plant cytogenetic analyses including chromosome counts, banding procedures, in situ hybridization, karyotyping and construction of ideograms. Chromosome spreading is difficult for plants with large and numerous chromosomes. We report here a technique for obtaining cytoplasm-free, well-spread metaphases from two Amaryllidaceae species: Sprekelia formosissima (2n = 120) and Hymenocallis howardii (2n = 96). The technique has three main steps: 1) pretreatment to cause chromosome condensation, 2) dripping onto tilted slides coated with a thin layer of pure acetic acid and 3) application of steam and acetic acid to produce cytoplasmic hydrolysis, which spreads the chromosomes.

  16. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting) in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during 2002 and 2003. Among the planting techniques, the best performance for the yield formation and economic evaluation was noted for transplanting on flat during both years. Chinese parachute planting technology also showed very promising results in most of the parameters. Direct seeding on ridges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting during both cropping seasons. The findings concluded the feasibility of parachute planting technology along with traditional rice transplanting on flat over all other planting techniques being practiced in the area.

  17. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Safdar BALOCH

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during 2002 and 2003. Among the planting techniques, the best performance for the yield formation and economic evaluation was noted for transplanting on flat during both years. Chinese parachute planting technology also showed very promising results in most of the parameters. Direct seeding on ridges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting during both cropping seasons. The findings concluded the feasibility of parachute planting technology along with traditional rice transplanting on flat over all other planting techniques being practiced in the area.

  18. Lily breeding research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    At the Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO) in Wageningen lily breeding research in the Netherlands is concentrated. To this end sources of germplasm (genetic material) are maintained in a lily species and cultivar collection. Research is done on long term storage of this c

  19. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Lazzarotto

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients, or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils. Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22% at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  20. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  1. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage of electro...

  2. Exploring Genetic Diversity in Plants Using High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    Food security has emerged as an urgent concern because of the rising world population. To meet the food demands of the near future, it is required to improve the productivity of various crops, not just of staple food crops. The genetic diversity among plant populations in a given species allows the plants to adapt to various environmental conditions. Such diversity could therefore yield valuable traits that could overcome the food-security challenges. To explore genetic diversity comprehensively and to rapidly identify useful genes and/or allele, advanced high-throughput sequencing techniques, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, have been developed. These provide practical solutions to the challenges in crop genomics. Here, we review various sources of genetic diversity in plants, newly developed genetic diversity-mining tools synergized with NGS techniques, and related genetic approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis and genome-wide association study.

  3. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  4. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  5. Estimation of essential and trace elements in some medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, K. Nomita [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India)], E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.com; Sarma, H. Nandakumar [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques are employed for the determination of essential and trace elements in some commonly used medicinal plants of north east India. Light elements such as Na, Mg, Al and P are determined by PIGE while medium Z elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr are determined by PIXE. Analysis is performed on pellets (thick targets) prepared using powders of the specimens which, in turn, are obtained following a series of processing steps. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants, with the contents of Mn and Zn being notably large in certain specimens. Medicinal properties possessed by these plants have been correlated with their elemental distribution.

  6. Damage and deterioration mechanism and curing technique of concrete structure in main coal cleaning plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Heng-lin; ZHAO Cheng-ming; SONG Lei; MA Ying; XU Chun-hua

    2009-01-01

    Concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants have been rebuilt and reinforced in the coal mines of the Shanghai Da-tun Energy Sources Co. Ltd., the first colliery of the Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd. and the Sanhejian mine of the Xuzhou Mining Group Co. Ltd. In these projects, the operating environment and reliability of concrete structures in the main plants of the three companies were investigated and the safety of the structures inspected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made on the spe-cial natural, technological and mechanical environments around the structures. On the basis of these analyses, we discuss the long-term, combined actions of the harsh natural (corrosive gases, liquids and solids) and mechanical environments on concrete structures and further investigated the damage and deteriorating mechanisms and curing techniques of concrete structures in the main coal cleaning plants. Our study can provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the reliability of concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants.

  7. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  8. 基因组编辑技术在植物基因功能鉴定及作物育种中的应用%The application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周想春; 邢永忠

    2016-01-01

    Plant genome can be modifiedvia current biotechnology with high specificity and excellent efficiency. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly inter-spaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system are the key engineered nucleases used in the genome editing. Genome editing techniques enable gene targeted mutagenesis, gene knock-out, gene in-sertion or replacement at the target sites during the endogenous DNA repair process, including non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), triggered by the induction of DNA double-strand break (DSB).Genome editing has been successfully applied in the genome modification of diverse plant species, such asAra-bidopsis thaliana,Oryza sativa, andNicotiana tabacum. In this review, we summarize the application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding. Moreover, we also discuss the improving points of genome editing in crop precision genetic improvement for further study.%利用生物技术可以对植物基因组进行高效、精准、特异的修饰.锌指核酸酶(Zinc finger nucleases,ZFN)、转录激活样效应因子核酸酶(Transcription activator-like effector nucleases,TALEN)、成簇规律间隔短回文重复序列(Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,CRISPR)/Cas9(CRISPR-associated 9)是目前基因组编辑技术应用中的关键工程核酸酶.通过产生DNA双链断裂(Double-strand breaks,DSBs)激活植物内源修复途径(包括非同源粘性末端连接和同源重组修复),基因组编辑技术可以实现对靶位点的定点突变、缺失或者基因的插入与替换.基因组编辑已经被广泛地应用到各种植物的基因组修饰中,如拟南芥、水稻、烟草等.本文主要概述了基因组编辑技术在植物基因功能鉴定及作物遗传育种中的应用,并对其未来在作物精准改良中需要完善的相关问题进行了探讨.

  9. REAL TIME PULVERISED COAL FLOW SOFT SENSOR FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS USING EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raja Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverised coal preparation system (Coal mills is the heart of coal-fired power plants. The complex nature of a milling process, together with the complex interactions between coal quality and mill conditions, would lead to immense difficulties for obtaining an effective mathematical model of the milling process. In this paper, vertical spindle coal mills (bowl mill that are widely used in coal-fired power plants, is considered for the model development and its pulverised fuel flow rate is computed using the model. For the steady state coal mill model development, plant measurements such as air-flow rate, differential pressure across mill etc., are considered as inputs/outputs. The mathematical model is derived from analysis of energy, heat and mass balances. An Evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using on-line plant data. Validation results indicate that this model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of steady state coal mill dynamics. This coal mill model is being implemented on-line in a 210 MW thermal power plant and the results obtained are compared with plant data. The model is found accurate and robust that will work better in power plants for system monitoring. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  10. Indication of the Expression of Transgene in Rice Plant Based on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technique Ⅱ-Growth Monitoring of Samples in the Contrast Experiment%Indication of the Expression of Transgene in Rice Plant Based on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technique Ⅱ——Growth Monitoring of Samples in the Contrast Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ru; CHEN Jin-song; YUAN Ding-yang; LIN Hui; TAN Yan-ning; YUE Yue-min

    2011-01-01

    Since the complication of monitoring and evaluating the problems about the transgenic expression and its impacts on the receptor in the transgenic crop breeding and other relevant evaluated works, the authors in the present work tried to assess the differences of spectral parameters of the transgenic rice in contrast with its parent group quantitatively and qualitatively, fulfilling the growth monitoring of the transgenic samples.The spectral parameters (spectral morphological characteristics and indices) chosen are highly related to internal or external stresses to the receipts, and thus could be applied as indicators of biophysical or biochemical processes changes of plant. By ASD portable field spectroradiometer with high-density probe, fine foliar spectra of 8 groups were obtained. By analyzing spectral angle and continuum removal, the spectral morphological differences and their locations of sample spectra were found which could be as auxiliary priori knowledge for quantitative analysis. By investigating spectral indices of the samples, the quantitative differences of spectra were revealed about foliar chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid content. In this study both the spectral differences between transgenic and parent groups and among transgenic groups were investigated. The results show that hyperspectral technique is promising and a helpful auxiliary tool in the study of monitoring the transgenic crop and other relevant researches. By this technique, quantitative and qualitative results of sample spectra could be provided as prior knowledge, as certain orientation, for laboratory professional advanced transgenic breeding study.

  11. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  12. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  13. Introduction of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy as an Advanced Technique for Plant Biopolymers Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R.; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M.; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  14. CRYOTHERAPY: A NEW TECHNIQUE TO OBTAIN GRAPEVINE PLANTS FREE OF VIRUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN CARLOS BETTONI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Through in vitro tissue culture techniques it is possible to propagate high quality nursery plants faster. Cryotherapy is a promising tool, based on in vitro culture techniques, for achieving in a short time, high frequency of regenerating plants free of viruses. The objective of this review is to present and analyze the results of research conducted in cryotherapy methods based on cryopreservation protocols for recovery of cultivars free of micro-organisms with potential agronomic interest. The main methods employed in cryotherapy are encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet vitrification, which are based on the immersion of preconditioned shoot tips in liquid nitrogen, followed by their recovery in vitro on to culture media for regeneration of healthy plantlets. Improvements to cryotherapy protocols used for grapevine are still needed, since there are variations in response according to the genotype. The published research mostly relates to Vitis vinifera and the few studies applied to other species show that the protocols need to be improved. This specificity goes beyond species, with different responses among cultivars, limiting the broader application of the technology. On the other hand, traditional methods used for virus removal from infected plant materials also have limitations and therefore investment in research for the development and application of cryopreservation techniques is highly justified, considering its efficiency and low-cost, once the protocols are developed. High frequency of virus-free plants among regenerants within a short time frame is the most desirable aspect of cryotherapy. Therefore, these advantages make the technique a promising tool for institutions mandated to the development of high-health planting materials with high genetic and agronomic potential for viticulture.

  15. In vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation of antiviral medicinal plants using a vector-based assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimone, C O; Grunwald, T; Wildner, O; Nchinda, G; Tippler, B; Proksch, P; Uberla, K

    2005-01-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly being projected as suitable alternative sources of antiviral agents. The development of a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic screening technique could contribute to rapid identification of potential bioactive plants and also to the standardization and/or pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiling of the bioactive components. Recombinant viral vectors (lentiviral, retroviral and adenoviral) transferring the firefly luciferase gene were constructed and the inhibition of viral vector infectivity by various concentrations of plant extracts was evaluated in HeLa or Hep2 cells by measuring the changes in luciferase activity. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in parallel on HeLa or Hep2 cells stably expressing luciferase. Amongst the 15 extracts screened, only the methanol (ME) and the ethyl acetate (ET) fractions of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea specifically reduced lentiviral and adenoviral infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. Further, chromatographic fractionation of ET into four fractions (ET1-ET4) revealed only ET4 to be selectively antiviral with an IC50 in the 20 microg ml(-1) range. Preliminary mechanistic studies based on the addition of the extracts at different time points in the viral infection cycle (kinetic studies) revealed that the inhibitory activity was highest if extract and vectors were preincubated prior to infection, suggesting that early steps in the lentiviral or adenoviral replication cycle could be the major target of ET4. Inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 was also observed at a 10-fold lower concentration of the extract. The vector-based assay is a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation technique for antiviral medicinal plants. The technique has successfully demonstrated the presence of antiviral principles in R. farinacea. Potential anti-HIV medicinal plants could rapidly be evaluated with the reported vector-based technique. The lichen, R. farinacea could represent a lead source of antiviral

  16. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN). Both techniques are used to model a relationship between the aggregator portfolio state and requested ramp power to the longevity of the delivered flexibility. Using validated individual household models, a smart controlled aggregated virtual power plant...... is simulated. A hierarchical market-based supply-demand matching control mechanism is used to steer the heating devices in the virtual power plant. For both the training and validation set of clusters, a random number of households, between 200 and 2000, is generated with day ahead profile scaled accordingly...

  17. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  18. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh D.Pujari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identified, and quantified in the initial stages. The color and texture features have been used in order to work with the sample images of plant diseases. Algorithms for extraction of color and texture features have been developed, which are in turn used to train support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN classifiers. The study has presented a reduced feature set based approach for recognition and classification of images of plant diseases. The results reveal that SVM classifier is more suitable for identification and classification of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops.

  19. Translocações cromossômicas entre trigo e centeio: uma alternativa ao melhoramento Chromosomes translocations between wheat and rye: an alternative to plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Casassola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Translocações são rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais que envolvem segmentos cromossômicos de extensão variada pertencentes a cromossomos homólogos ou não homólogos. Tanto a ocorrência natural quanto a induzida de translocações tem possibilitado um avanço no melhoramento varietal, uma vez que esses segmentos translocados podem carregar genes de resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos. O centeio é uma espécie da famíla Triticeae muito utilizada para transferência de genes para o trigo como, por exemplo, genes de resistência às ferrugens da folha e do colmo e também genes que favorecem o rendimento, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade de grãos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi o de revisar as principais translocações envolvendo o trigo e o centeio, no qual se verificou, a partir dos dados analisados, que as translocações envolvendo os cromossomos 1 e 2 mostraram-se mais vantajosas para o rendimento de grãos em trigo e que as demais foram importantes, principalmente, na transferência de genes de resistência a estresses. Portanto, essa estratégia tem demonstrado efetividade na busca de novos genes que favorecem o cultivo de trigo e sua utilização vem crescendo grandemente nos últimos anos.Translocations are structural chromosomal rearrangements which involve segments with different length belonging to homologous or non homologous chromosomes. Either natural or induced occurrence of translocations have been enabled an improvement in the plant breeding, when these translocated segments carry resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stress. Rye is a grass largely used to transfer genes to wheat such as resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and genes that support the wheat yield, either in grain quantity or in quality. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the main translocations involving wheat and rye, which demonstrated, from the data analyzed, that translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 2 were

  20. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  1. Non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique and its applications to the research of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tong; Xu Yue; Li Peng; Yu Shangguan; Yin Liping

    2007-01-01

    The process of various ions and molecules getting into and out of cells is critical for plant survival. The non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) is a non-invasive method to obtain the information of ions/molecules across membranes in plant. This technique can measure the absolute concentration of ions and molecules, and also their fluxes and directions of movement.The samples to be analyzed can be a single cell, a piece of tissue, a whole organ and even an intact seedling. This article reviews the recent progress made in plant physiology by using this technique and discusses its potentials in future studies on plant physiology.

  2. Controlled Breeding Techniques to Accelerate Rooting of Poplar Floral Cuttings by Warming the Flowerpots%杨树花枝盆栽加温促进生根人工杂交育种技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔄胜军; 王志英; 苏晓华; 刘巍; 王胜东; 杨志岩

    2013-01-01

    Species such as Populus deltoides Bartr. which are difficult to root and have a long period of seed maturation are not amenable to controlled crossing using floral cuttings in water culture. A controlled breeding technique were studies involving accelerating rooting of floral cuttings by warming the flowerpot using a constant water temperature and at the same time keeping flower buds in dormancy by low temperature environment. The floral cuttings were planted in flowerpots with soil and grown in a cool (3℃) room, the pots being soaked in water at 3 different temperatures. After 25 days, the pots with the floral cuttings were moved to the greenhouse for controlled crossing. The floral cuttings of P. deltoides with internal soil temperature of 22℃ were much superior to the others. Not only did it ease maintaining the vigor of floral cuttings, but also result in more and better seeds, which had 25. 5 root hairs, root length of 31. 8 cm and root weight of 16. 9 g on average. The ones with 18℃ treatment had 12 root hairs, 10. 4 cm root length and 2. 7 g root weight on average, and the ones with 14℃ treatment had 2. 2 root hairs, 4. 2 cm root length and 0. 4 g root weight on average. Efforts to improve rooting of P. deltoids by warming the flowerpot proved to be successful in controlled crossing with species of sections Aigeiros and Tacamahaca. All the floral cuttings in soils at 22℃ produced seeds (100% ) , with an average of 1 800 seeds per floral cutting. 60% floral cuttings at 18 X treatment survived, but the flowers fell because the cuttings had so weak root hairs that they were not enough to support blooming, with an average of 1 000 seeds per fruited cutting. Of those at 14℃ treatment, 20% of cuttings produced seeds, with an average of 500 seeds per fruited cutting, and 80% of the floral cuttings were infected by canker. Other female parents such as P. x canadensis showed similar results to P. deltoides, but floral cuttings of section Tacamahaca have

  3. Innovative combination of spectroscopic techniques to reveal nanoparticle fate in a crop plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Stein, Ricardo J.; Fayard, Barbara; Pouyet, Emeline; Villanova, Julie; Magnin, Valérie; Pradas del Real, Ana-Elena; Trcera, Nicolas; Legros, Samuel; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of our century. Its development leads to an increasing use of nanoparticles and thus to their dissemination. Their fate in the environment is of great concern and especially their possible transfer in trophic chains might be an issue for food safety. However, so far our knowledge on this topic has been restricted by the lack of appropriate techniques to characterize their behavior in complex matrices. Here, we present in detail the use of cutting-edge beam-based techniques for nanoparticle in situ localization, quantification and speciation in a crop plant species (Lactuca sativa). Lettuce seedlings have been exposed to TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, micro-particle induced X-ray emission coupled to Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy on nuclear microprobe, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The benefits and drawbacks of each technique are discussed, and the types of information that can be drawn, for example on the translocation to edible parts, change of speciation within the plant, detoxification mechanisms, or impact on the plant ionome, are highlighted. Such type of coupled approach would be an asset for nanoparticle risk assessment.

  4. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  5. A new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Yu; She, Chao Wen; Hu, Zhong Li; Xiong, Zhi Yong; Liu, Li Hua; Song, Yun Chun

    2004-08-01

    In this study, a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique was developed in plants. The technique combined 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with software analysis including three-dimensional imaging after deconvolution. Clear multiple and adjacent DAPI bands like G-bands were obtained by this technique in the tested species including Hordeum vulgare L., Oryza officinalis, Wall & Watt, Triticum aestivum L., Lilium brownii, Brown, and Vicia faba L. During mitotic metaphase, the numbers of bands for the haploid genomes of these species were about 185, 141, 309, 456 and 194, respectively. Reproducibility analysis demonstrated that banding patterns within a species were stable at the same mitotic stage and they could be used for identifying specific chromosomes and chromosome regions. The band number fluctuated: the earlier the mitotic stage, the greater the number of bands. The technique enables genes to be mapped onto specific band regions of the chromosomes by only one fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) step with no chemical banding treatments. In this study, the 45S and 5S rDNAs of some tested species were located on specific band regions of specific chromosomes and they were all positioned at the interbands with the new technique. Because no chemical banding treatment was used, the banding patterns displayed by the technique should reflect the natural conformational features of chromatin. Thus it could be expected that this technique should be suitable for all eukaryotes and would have widespread utility in chromosomal structure analysis and physical mapping of genes.

  6. Effectiveness of Low-Cost Planting Techniques for Improving Water Availability to Olea europaea Seedlings in Degraded Drylands

    OpenAIRE

    Valdecantos Dema, Alejandro; Fuentes Delgado, David; Smanis, Athanasios; Llovet López, Joan; Morcillo Juliá, Luna; Bautista Aguilar, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, poor soil fertility, and structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. At two experimental semiarid sites, we evaluated a variety of low-cost planting techniques in order to increase water availability to plants. Treatments included various combinations of traditional planting holes; water-harvesting microcatchments; stone or plastic mulches; small waterproof sheets to in...

  7. Cisgenesis, a new tool for traditional plant breeding, should be exempted from the regulation on genetically modified organisms in a step by step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Modern potato breeding requires over 100,000 seedlings per new variety. Main reasons are (1) the increasing number of traits that have to be combined in this tetraploid vegetatively propagated crop, and (2) an increasing number of traits (e.g., resistance to biotic stress) originates from wild speci

  8. Apricot Breeding at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krška

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the apricot-breeding program in the Horticultural Faculty in Lednice, that has been developed since 1981, is to obtain new adaptable cultivars, which combine most of the valuable biological traits. Standard breeding techniques, such as crossing by emasculation and hand pollination, self-pollination and open pollination, were employed. A total of 1.154 crossings were produced from more than 110 different parents. So far more than 20,000 seedlings have been obtained, of which about 13,000 have already been evaluated. The most interesting selections were grafted and planted in trial orchards (we now have more than 650 elite genotypes. Ten of these have already been registered, and further promising new hybrids have been submitted for registration and law right protection (Betinka, Candela, Sophia and Adriana. The basic prerequisite for the initiation of the breeding program was a large collection of genetic resources, established and gradually supplemented since the 1970s. At the present time, we preserve and manage more than 300 accessions of apricot trees. In the frame of the descriptive work of the genetic resources and in order to use in breeding, a collection of apricots has been evaluated. We selected the genotypes and characters relating to an increased level of adaptation to the environment.

  9. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict and control the complicated interactions of the processes. Numerous control techniques (algorithms and control strategies (structures have been suggested to regulate WWTP; however, it is difficult to make a discerning performance evaluation due to the nonuniformity of the simulated plants used. The main objective of this paper is to present a benchmark of an entire biological wastewater treatment plant in order to evaluate, through simulations, different control techniques. This benchmark plays the role of an activated sludge process used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen from domestic effluents. The development of this simulator is based on models widely accepted by the international community and is implemented in Matlab/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc. platform. The benchmark considers plant layout and the effects of influent characteristics. It also includes a test protocol for analyzing the open and closed-loop responses of the plant. Examples of control applications in the benchmark are implemented employing conventional PI controllers. The following common control strategies are tested: dissolved oxygen (DO concentration-based control, respirometry-based control and nitrate concentration-based control.

  10. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  11. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  12. Tanqimeng,a Famous Scientist and Professor of Horticultural Plant Breeding%著名园艺植物育种学家谭其猛教授研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓继光

    2011-01-01

    Tanqimeng,born in Jiaxing County,Zhejiang province in 1914 and died in 1984,was a famous scientist of horticultural plant breeding,educationist of agriculture,the sole tutor of doctor candidates in the first domestic vegetable breeding subjects,founder of the Chinese vegetable breeding textbook piling,and once taught as associate professor in Fudan University and did as professor in Shenyang Agricultural College.After graduated from Zhejiang University's agronomy department in 1934,Professor Tan remained at the university as a teacher.Afterwards,he was invited by Wugengmin,a professor,to teach as assistant at the horticultural department of Northwest Agricultural and Forestry Training School and then part-time head of the school's horticultural farm.After the War of Resistance against Japan broke out,Professor Tan passed through many provinces,such as Zhejiang,Yunnan and Gansu,from then on devoting all his life to the science of vegetable genetic breeding.He firstly made the investigation into the breed resources and seed selections,disseminating 19 fine breeds of seven kinds of vegetables and crossbreeding four distinctive tomato breeds.In his research on the Chinese cabbage crossbreeding Professor Tan first discovered the Chinese cabbage inbred late in the system and male sterile lines,thus cultivating a large number of fine combinations of different Chinese cabbage breeds and disseminating them to thousands of hectares all over the country.In his research on the distant hybridization of vegetables of the mustard family and fruit trees,Professor Tan summarized many effective breeding methods.Meanwhile,Professor Tan developed a research on the law of genetic variation of relevant properties and made significant progress.%谭其猛(1914-1984),浙江嘉兴人,著名园艺植物育种学家和农业教育家,是国内首批蔬菜育种学科唯一的博士研究生导师,蔬菜育种学教材的奠基人,历任复旦大学副教授、沈阳农学院教授1

  13. Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Woody Plants with Deep-Planting Technique for the Potential Environmental Management of Carcass Burial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Hwan Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar (Populus euramericana and willow (Salix alba, by employing the deep-planting technique for the enhanced removal of N and P for the soil affected by leachate. For this, pot trials to assess N and P removal efficiency of poplar and willow in liquid manure-applied soil, and pilot-scale column experiments to evaluate the suitability of the deep-planting technique for the enhanced phytoremediation of deep soil layer were conducted. The results of this study showed that poplar and willow removed N and P from soils effectively while surviving under deep-planting conditions. Notably, compared to the surface planted roots, the roots of the deep-planted poplar and willow could transfer significant amounts of N and P leachate from the deep soil layer to the rhizosphere, from where it can be absorbed by the plants. For the first time, the use of poplar or willow plants are recommended by employing the deep-planting technique for the successful remediation of carcass burial sites.

  14. Study of operation optimization based on data mining technique in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LIU Jizhen; GU Junjie; NIU Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    The determination of operation optimization value is very important for economic analysis and operation optimization in power plants.The operation optimization value determined by traditional methods usually cannot reflect the actual running states correctly in power plants with the increase in running time.Based on a large amount of history data stored in power plants,a way of operation optimization by applying data mining technique is proposed.The structure of operation optimi-zation based on data mining is established and the fuzzy association rule mining algorithm is introduced to find the operation optimization target value to guide the operation in power plants.Based on the actual local data in a 300 MW unit,the operation optimization value in typical load ranges is found out by data mining to provide better adjustment guidance in industry process.Experimental results show that the determination of operation optimization value based on data mining can improve the efficiency and decrease the emission of pollutants.

  15. Characterization of plant food allergens: an overview on physicochemical and immunological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Andrea; Egger, Matthias; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Erler, Anja; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Himly, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Allergy to plant-derived foods is a highly complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild oral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening systemic conditions. This heterogeneity in clinical manifestations has been attributed to different properties of allergenic molecules. Based on this fact, symptom elicitors were grouped into class I and pollinosis-associated class II food allergens, but clear distinction is rather ambiguous. Moreover, mechanisms underlying food sensitization are not fully understood yet, and food allergy management most often relies on patient's compliance to avoid suspected foods. Therefore, recent efforts aim at the investigation of plant food allergies at the molecular level. This review provides an overview on currently available techniques for allergen characterization and discusses their application for investigation of plant food allergens. Data obtained by an array of physicochemical analyses, such as allergen structure, integrity, aggregation, and stability, need to be linked to results from immunological methods at the level of IgE and T-cell reactivity. Such knowledge allows the development of computational algorithms to predict allergenicity of novel foods being introduced by biotechnological industry. Furthermore, molecular characterization is an indispensable tool for molecule-based diagnosis and future development of safer patient-tailored specific immunotherapy in plant food allergy.

  16. Research and Demonstration on Seedling Breeding Techniques of Red Oil Toona%红油椿苗木繁育技术研究与示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹庆珍; 谷成铜; 张立永; 王国华; 郄丽娟; 赵付江

    2015-01-01

    After three years of experiment and demonstration for this project,cutting seedlings technology and container seeding technology of red oil toona were studied.The annual average of 300 000 strains seeded.Thick and survival rate of red oil toona sprouts and the quantity of red oil toona sprouts for green-house cultivation were guaranteed.In the three methods of asexual reproduction, the split-root method is best,followed by the plug root method,again cutting method,the survival rates were respectively 95%, 87%,81%.Insert root method to choose 0.5-2.5 cm diameter and 15-20 cm length root is the most appro-priate.Cutting method to choose the 1.0-2.0 cm diameter and 15-20 cm length branch is the most appro-priate.The long cuttings are better than the short cuttings.The thick cuttings are better than the thin cut-tings. Methods and techniques of nursing seedlings in nutrition bowl are determined.Seeds of red oil toona soak in cold water 24 h and sprout around 25℃. Greenhouse temperature is 20-22℃ during the day and 15℃ around at night. Seedling is planted when it has 6-8 true leaves.Planting density in open field is 120 000 strains/hm2. Seedling is promoted to grow mainly during June to July. Pinching when seedling has 60-100 cm high in late June.Seedling is controlled to grow mainly after September.%历经3 a的试验示范,研究出红油椿的扦插育苗技术、容器实生苗育苗技术,年平均育苗量30万株,且椿苗粗壮、成活率高,解决了红油椿棚室栽培批量用苗的问题。在无性繁殖的3种方法中,分根法效果最好,其次是插根法和插枝法,成活率分别为95%、87%和81%。利用插根法进行繁殖时选择粗度0.5~2.5 cm、长度15~20 cm的根为宜,利用插枝法进行繁殖时选择粗度1.0~2.0 cm、长度15~20 cm的枝条为宜,且长插穗的扦插效果优于短插穗,粗插穗的扦插效果优于细插穗。确定了温室营养钵实生苗育苗的方法与技术:凉水浸种24

  17. Design of Critical Control Systems for Non-Minimum Phase Plants via LTR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tadashi; Ono, Takahiko

    An application of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) technique to critical control systems design is proposed for non-minimum phase plants. The controller structure is chosen as the Davison type integral controller with the Kalman filter. First, a critical control system is designed on the assumption that the state of the minimum phase part of the plant can be used for the feedback. A quadratic performance index with tuning parameters is used for determining the partial state feedback gain matrix. Second, the Kalman filter gain matrix is determined such that the output feedback controller performs as in the partial state feedback controller. The formal partial loop recovery procedure using the Riccati equation is adopted for this purpose. The proposed design method requires much simpler numerical search than the conventional one-step approach. An illustrative design example is presented.

  18. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  19. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  20. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  1. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  2. Influence of Continuous Drought on Nectar Secreting of Nectar Plant and Optimization of Bee Breeding Technology%持续干旱对蜜源植物泌蜜的影响及养蜂技术优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉生; 张学文; 卢焕仙; 张祖芸; 赵洪木; 夏培康

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of three years continuous drought on flowering and nectar secreting of nectar plant, corresponding bee breeding technologies were adopted to improve economic benefits of beekeeping.From July 2009 to June 2012, a tracking survey was conducted to six kinds of nectar plant (common vetch, pomegranates, lobular eucalyptus, wild ageratum, loquat and Elsholtzia rugulosa Hemsl), and then the situations of flowering and nectar secreting of each nectar plant during three years were compared.According to the comparison results, corresponding breeding technologies for bee were chosen.The results showed that flowering and nectar secreting of major nectar plants were influenced greatly by continuous drought, but complementary nectar plants secreted nectar relatively good for suitable temperature and no heavy rain and wind.Therefore, if adopting corresponding breeding technologies in continuous drought years, it also can obtain a good economic benefit.%为了了解云南省持续3年干旱对蜜源植物开花流蜜的影响,采取相应的蜜蜂饲养技术提高养蜂经济效益.2009年7月~2012年6月对苕子、石榴、小叶桉树、野藿香、枇杷、野坝子6种蜜源植物进行跟踪调查,对比每一种蜜源植物3年开花流蜜情况,并对蜜蜂采取相应的饲养管理技术.结果表明:主要蜜源植物开花泌蜜受到很大的影响,辅助蜜源植物反而因温度适合,没有大雨或大风的影响而流蜜相对较好.这说明在持续干旱年份只要采取相应的饲养技术,即可获得很好的经济效益.

  3. Primay Report on the Breeding and Selection of Several New Annanl and Biennial Ornamental Plants%一、二年生草花新品种的选育初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小敏; 齐鸣

    2001-01-01

    通过引进国外的原始材料和国内优良的地方品种,对一串红(属)、硫华菊等几种传统的重要花卉用多代单株选择法和集团混合选择法进行选育,选育出 12类 22个优秀的株系;此外,还对鬼针草、南荠菜等 5个新种花卉进行选育,选育出了性状表现良好的 6个株系。所优选的品种(株系)经品种栽培试验证明具有较高的观赏价值,可以推广应用。%Through introuducing foreign original materal and domestic excellent local varieties, to select and breed to Salvia, Cosmos and other several traditional important plants in multi- generation single plants selection and group mixture selection ways. Get 12 sorts and 22 excellent clones. In the same time, to select and breed to Thymophylla, Arabis and other new varicties, selected 6 clones. All these clones are worth popularizing widespread.

  4. Tritium management and anti-permeation strategies for three different breeding blanket options foreseen for the European Power Plant Physics and Technology Demonstration reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Franza, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santucci, A.; Tosti, S. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three breeding blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

  5. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  6. Evaluation of the new vacuum infiltration vitrification (viv) cryopreservation technique for native Australian plant shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnekotter, Bryn; Whiteley, Susan E; Turner, Shane R; Bunn, Eric; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2015-01-01

    The application of a vacuum during the incubation in cryoprotective agents such as PVS2 allows for increased penetration, reducing total incubation times required before vitrification and post-cryopreservation regeneration is achieved. This study compared a conventional droplet-vitrification protocol to the new vacuum infiltration vitrification protocol in four Australian plant species. The new vacuum infiltration vitrification applied an 80 kPa vacuum during incubations in loading solution and PVS2. Infiltration of the cryoprotective agents into shoot tips was determined by differential scanning calorimetry measuring ice formation in the thermographs comparing a range of loading solution and PVS2 incubation times. The application of the vacuum infiltration vitrification technique resulted in a significantly reduced PVS2 incubation time for cryogenic survival and regeneration for all four species, reducing the time needed to adequately protect shoot tips by half to a quarter when compared to a conventional droplet-vitrification technique.

  7. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  8. Are we ready for back-to-nature crop breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Michael G; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Falhof, Janus; Olsen, Lene Irene; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kappel, Klemens; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Pagh, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable agriculture in response to increasing demands for food depends on development of high-yielding crops with high nutritional value that require minimal intervention during growth. To date, the focus has been on changing plants by introducing genes that impart new properties, which the plants and their ancestors never possessed. By contrast, we suggest another potentially beneficial and perhaps less controversial strategy that modern plant biotechnology may adopt. This approach, which broadens earlier approaches to reverse breeding, aims to furnish crops with lost properties that their ancestors once possessed in order to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. What molecular techniques are available for implementing such rewilding? Are the strategies legally, socially, economically, and ethically feasible? These are the questions addressed in this review.

  9. Inducing Fungus-Resistance into Plants through Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Shabir Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Plant diseases are caused by a variety of plant pathogens including fungi, and their management requires the use of techniques like transgenic technology, molecular biology, and genetics. There have been attempts to use gene technology as an alternative method to protect plants from microbial diseases, in addition to the development of novel agrochemicals and the conventional breeding of resistant cultivars. Various genes have been introduced into plants, and the enhanced resistance against f...

  10. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M. [Pune Univ., Chemistry Dept., Pune (India)

    1997-08-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author).

  11. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  12. Odour emissions from a waste treatment plant using an inverse dispersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the in situ emission rate of pollution sources can often not be done directly. In the absence of emission measurements, the emission rate of the source can be assessed by an inverse dispersion technique using ambient concentration measurements and meteorological parameters as input. The dispersion model used is the Austrian regulatory Gaussian model. The method is applied to a thermal waste recycling plant. Seven chemical species (butyl acetate, benzene, ethyl acetate, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene and α-pinene), are identified as odorants and measured over a period of 1½ years in the prevailing wind direction leeward of the plant. The overall odour emission rate is calculated by adding the odour emission rate of all single species, using the individual odour threshold concentration. The estimated odour emission rates range between 206 and 8950 OU s -1, caused by the wide variety of the odour thresholds of the seven species. The higher value is in the upper range of odour emission rates of modern thermal treatment plants for waste.

  13. Conservation priorities of useful plants from different techniques of collection and analysis of ethnobotanical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F.P. de Lucena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes three methods of data analysis to verify which one would be more appropriate to get information aiming the conservation, selecting the use value (VU inventory in situ and conservation property index (IPC. It was developed in in Northeast Brazil, via interviewed householders (46 informants. The VU was calculated considering only the effective use of plants; the inventory in situ was made through the frequency of species occurrence in homes; and the IPC combining ethnobotanical and phytossociological data. It was observed a similar cast of the indicated species by VU and inventory in situ, being different from the IPC cast. As this study sought to analyze the best technique for species identification which were needing conservationist actions, and obtained different results among the chosen methods. It has been suggested the use of methods that unite in their analysis both ethnobotanical and ecological aspects, like in the plants list from the priority index of conservation, which demonstrated to be more efficient to identify rare species in the local vegetation. The VU and the inventory in situ are more efficient to identify the most known and used species in the communities, however without analyzing these plants in the local vegetation.

  14. Follow up of the evolution of a soil-plant system using the neutrongraphic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.; Crispim, V.R.; Lima, C.T.S., E-mail: luciano_rural@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: clima@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Ferreira, F.J., E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the Brazilian northeast region, where semiarid climate prevails the soil low humidity, restricts the growth of the roots in the soil most superficial layer. A soil-plant system consisting of aluminum pots filled with soil similar to that found in the semiarid regions was designed to follow the growth of corn and soy roots. There, the seeds are planted together with artificial seeds of hydrogel and agave, which store part of the water from irrigation and later release it in conformity with the search of the roots. Nondestructive tests through the Thermal Neutron Radiography technique were conducted, exposing for 90 minutes the soilplant system, to the neutron flux from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta/IEN/CNEN reactor. An Industrex M radiographic film from Kodak and a gadolinium sheet converter, in close contact inside an aluminum chassis, were used to obtain the neutron radiography image. Lead plates, 1 mm thick, or aluminum plates, 1 cm thick, were placed to shield the gamma radiation of the neutron beam and thus allow a better visualization of the roots inside the soil. After expositions, the radiographic films were developed and the neutron radiographic images were digitalized with a Coolpix 995 Nikon camera. The neutron radiographic images were also digitally processed using the Image Pro Plus program, version 6.2. the use of lead and aluminum filters and with the use of digital processing techniques, allowed the visualization of the main and secondary roots, even when hidden by 10 mm thick humid soil. (author)

  15. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  16. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  17. PLANT SPACING AND WEED MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES INFLUENCE WEED COMPETITIVENESS OF DRUM SEEDED RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Sandeep Nayak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct wet seeded-rice sown through drum seeder, a potential wise rice production system in the present-day scenario, is subject to severe weed infestation and, therefore, development of a sustainable weed management strategy is crucial for its wide spread adoption. The present study was conducted in kharif 2012 at department of agronomy division with NLR-33358 (SOMASILA using six planting densities under five weed management conditions. The plant spacing tried were: 20cm x 7cm, 20 cm x 10.5 cm, 20 cm x 14 cm, 20 cm x 17.5 cm and 20 cm x 24.5cm and 20 cm x15cm. with a plant density of 71, 47, 35, 28, 20 and 33 hills m-2, respectively and five weed management practices viz., weedy check (W1, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (W2, cono weeding at 20 and 40 with modified cono weeder (W3, pre-emergence application of anilofos @ 0.375 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of 2, 4 D sodium salt @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 20-25 DAS (W4, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i ha-1 30 DAS ( W5. . The experiment was laid out in strip- plot design with three replications assigning weed management techniques in vertical factor and plant spacing in horizontal factor. Direct wet seeded rice field was infested with 12 and 22 weed species, kharif -2012 season having Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria aescendens, Cyperus iriaand Eleusine indicaas the predominant weeds. Rice spacing exerted significant influence on both weed pressure and yield performance of crop. With the increase in plant spacing weed dry matter decreased but rice yield increased. In this season, among different plant densities, the highest density of 71 hills m-2(D1 resulted in minimum weed density, weed drymatter, and more number of tillers m-2 and maximum drymatter production at all stages of plant growth. closest spacing resulted in maximum weed suppression, but among various rice

  18. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  19. A Confocal Technique Applicable to Studies of Cellular pH-related Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Bing Li; Zhi-Hui Gao; Xiao-Yan Zhou; Hui-Bo Ren; Min Xie; Yi-Juan Fan; Jian-Fang Hu; Wen-Suo Jia

    2008-01-01

    pH may act as a crucial signal In both animal and plant cells. It Is very difficult to monitor pH signals and this has largely hindered progress in the investigation of pH signaling, particularly systematic pH signaling. Here, we report the development of a confocal technique to monitor leaf apoplastic pH in intact plants, which Is particularly suitable for the studies on root to shoot signaling. A variety of different pH indicators and plant species were tested. It was found that different pH indicators, for example, 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluoresce (BCECF), SNARF-4F 5-(and-6). carboxylic acid (SNARF) and DM-NERF (NERF), were of different properties, and to successfully monitor pH at a sub-cellular level, the comparability between the pH indicator and plant species must be involved according to their suitable pH range and loading characteristics. The loading characteristics of different pH indicators differ with different plant species, cell types and their developing stages. No matter what methods were adopted, BCECF and SNARF could not be loaded specifically in the leaf apoplast in sunflower, tomato, and Comelina communis L. In contrast, regardless of the methods adopted, NERF could be loaded efficiently and specifically in the leaf apoplast in C. communis, but not in other plants. In Co comrnunis, the determination coefficient for In vitro and in situ calibration of NERF was very high, which was respectively 0.9951 and 0.991 6, and therefore, the adoption of NERF together with C. communis could construct an ideal experimental system that Is suitable for the investigation of pH systematic signaling. Ratio image analysis demonstrated that the leaf apoplastic pH was about 5.5 in non-stressed conditions, and water deficit could trigger an increase in pH by about half a pH unit, which is the first evidence to directly indicate that pH Is able to act as a systematic signal under water deficit conditions.

  20. Application of plant molecular breeding in improving cassava germplasm%植物分子育种技术在改良木薯种质方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 田益农; 黄惠芳; 彭靖茹; 侯学文

    2013-01-01

    木薯是热带、亚热带地区的重要粮食作物和经济作物.培育出生产性状更加优良的木薯品种,是推进木薯产业更快更好发展的重要基础.分子育种技术在培育优良木薯品种方面具有传统育种技术不可比拟的优势.该文介绍了近年来在提高植物抗寒性与病虫害抗性、降低氰苷含量、提高淀粉含量及组成、改变储存物种类、防止木薯收获后变质等方面的研究进展,以便在这些研究进展的基础上,利用植物分子育种技术加快获得具有抗逆能力提高、品质改良、产量增加、耐储藏等优良特性的木薯新品种.%Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food and economic crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Breeding elite cassava cultivars is the most important foundation of cassava industry. Plant molecular breeding has obvious advantages compared to the traditional breeding. The advances in application of molecular approaches to improve cold tolerance,pest, pathogen and herbicide resistance, reduce cyanogens level, improve starch content, change storage composition,and alleviate post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava were discussed to promote the cultivation of elite cassava cultivars with stress-resistant increased, quality, production and storage tolerance improved characteristics.

  1. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  2. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanisana Devi, R.K., E-mail: bhanisanark@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (NCCCM), Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  3. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  4. Cutting Propagation and Breeding Techniques of Prunus campanulata%福建山樱花扦插繁殖育苗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小英

    2015-01-01

    Breeding experiments of non treated cuttings of P .campanulata ,cuttings of different materials and dif‐ferent substrates ,hormones were conducted .Result shows that P .campanulata with management of non treated cuttings + fully enclosed ,whose survival rate are the same after treated with ABT ;Roots increase with the increase of thickness of the cuttings by adopting different materials ;the effects of the physical properties of the matrix and nutrition on rooting are great by treating with different matrices and different concentrations of NAA ;moderate con‐centration of La2 (SO4 ) 3 and IBA have improve significant promotion on increasing the survival rate by using differ‐ent treatment liquid;the survival rate are the most highest by adopting hardwood cuttings treated with NAA .%通过对福建山樱花采用无处理扦插,不同材料扦插和不同基质、激素对插条进行处理后再扦插的繁育技术试验,结果表明:福建山樱花无处理扦插且采用全封闭式管理,与ABT生根粉处理后成活率相当;不同材料的扦插,随插条粗度的增加,发根数量增多;不同基质及不同浓度NAA处理的扦插,基质的物理性状及营养对生根效果影响极大;不同处理液处理的扦插,中等浓度的La2(SO4)3和IBA对提高成活率有显著促进作用,用萘乙酸处理的硬枝扦插成活率最高。

  5. Impedance Flow Cytometry: A Novel Technique in Pollen Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heidmann, Iris; Schade-Kampmann, Grit; Lambalk, Joep; Ottiger, Marcel; Di Berardino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An efficient and reliable method to estimate plant cell viability, especially of pollen, is important for plant breeding research and plant production processes. Pollen quality is determined by classical methods, like staining techniques or in vitro pollen germination, each having disadvantages with respect to reliability, analysis speed, and species dependency. Analysing single cells based on their dielectric properties by impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has developed into a comm...

  6. 场区绿化情况对种鹅产蛋性能的影响%Effect of Tree Planting in Factory Area on Laying Performance of Breeding Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炎坤; 崔锦; 王鑫磊; 姜东凤

    2012-01-01

    Through the comparison of effects of planting trees on breeding geese's laying performance in 4 breeding geese farms, it showed that the geese farm of better afforestation could provide cool living environment so that the laying period was prolonged and egg production increased (P0. 05). The result shows that the reduction of temperature is an effective action to prolong laying period and increase egg production.%通过对鹅舍前后和运动场内不同绿化情况的4个种鹅场鹅群产蛋性能的对比,发现绿化效果好的鹅场由于在春末和夏初能够为鹅群提供凉爽的生活环境,而使其产蛋期明显延长,而且产蛋数量也显著增加(P<0.05);但是,在春末和夏初种蛋的受精率和孵化率相对较低.在低温季节鹅场绿化情况对鹅群的产蛋量、种蛋受精率和孵化率没有显著影响(P>0.05).说明降低环境温度是延长鹅群产蛋期和提高产蛋量的有效措施.

  7. Phytoestrogens and avian reproduction: Exploring the evolution and function of phytoestrogens and possible role of plant compounds in the breeding ecology of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R; Millam, James R

    2009-11-01

    Phytoestrogens are secondary plant compounds, which can act to mimic estrogen and cause the disruption of estrogenic responses in organisms. Although there is a substantial body of research studying phytoestrogens, including their mechanisms of estrogenic effects, evolution, and detection in biological systems, little is known about their ecological significance. There is evidence, however, that an ecological relationship involving phytoestrogens exists between plants and animals-plants may produce phytoestrogens to reduce fecundity of organisms that eat them. Birds and other vertebrates may also exploit phytoestrogens to regulate their own reproduction-there are well known examples of phytoestrogens inhibiting reproduction in higher vertebrates, including birds. Also, common plant stressors (e.g., high temperature) increase the production of secondary plant compounds, and, as evidence suggests, also induce phytoestrogen biosynthesis. These observations are consistent with the single study ever done on phytoestrogens and reproduction in wild birds [Leopold, A.S., Erwin, M., Oh, J., Browning, B., 1976. Phytoestrogens adverse effects on reproduction in California quail. Science 191, 98-100.], which found that drought stress correlated with increased levels of phytoestrogens in plants, and that increased phytoestrogen levels correlated with decreased young. This review discusses the hypothesis that plants may have an effect on the reproduction of avian species by producing phytoestrogens as a plant defense against herbivory, and that birds may "use" changing levels of phytoestrogens in the vegetation to ensure that food resources will support potential young produced. Evidence from our laboratory and others appear to support this hypothesis.

  8. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  9. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  10. Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

    2014-08-01

    Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (pHACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se.

  11. Breeding approaches and genomics technologies to increase crop yield under low-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Uday Chand; Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Rintu

    2017-01-01

    Improved knowledge about plant cold stress tolerance offered by modern omics technologies will greatly inform future crop improvement strategies that aim to breed cultivars yielding substantially high under low-temperature conditions. Alarmingly rising temperature extremities present a substantial impediment to the projected target of 70% more food production by 2050. Low-temperature (LT) stress severely constrains crop production worldwide, thereby demanding an urgent yet sustainable solution. Considerable research progress has been achieved on this front. Here, we review the crucial cellular and metabolic alterations in plants that follow LT stress along with the signal transduction and the regulatory network describing the plant cold tolerance. The significance of plant genetic resources to expand the genetic base of breeding programmes with regard to cold tolerance is highlighted. Also, the genetic architecture of cold tolerance trait as elucidated by conventional QTL mapping and genome-wide association mapping is described. Further, global expression profiling techniques including RNA-Seq along with diverse omics platforms are briefly discussed to better understand the underlying mechanism and prioritize the candidate gene (s) for downstream applications. These latest additions to breeders' toolbox hold immense potential to support plant breeding schemes that seek development of LT-tolerant cultivars. High-yielding cultivars endowed with greater cold tolerance are urgently required to sustain the crop yield under conditions severely challenged by low-temperature.

  12. A potential dating technique using 228Th/228Ra ratio for tracing the chronosequence of elemental concentrations in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J H; Niu, H; Chiu, C Y; Lin, C

    2007-06-01

    We propose a radiometric method based on measurement of the radioactivity of the naturally occurring radionuclides (228)Ra and 228)Th and the derived (228)Th/(228)Ra ratios in plant samples to estimate plant age and the corresponding nutritional conditions in a field-growing fern, Dicranopteris linearis. Plant age (tissue age) was associated with the (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio in fronds, which implies the accumulation time of immobile elements in the plant tissue or the life span of the fronds. Results indicated that the accumulation of alkaline earth elements in D. linearis is relatively constant with increased age, while the K concentration is reversed with age because of translocation among plant tissues. Estimation of dating uncertainty based on measurement conditions revealed that the radiometric technique can be applied to trace chronosequential changes of elemental concentrations and environmental pollutants in plants with ages of less than 10-15 years.

  13. Response Time Evaluation for the Plant Protection System Using a Combined Technique of Analysis and Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [KECO EnC, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for the plant protection system (PPS) trip channel for the advance power reactor 1400 (APR1400) nuclear power plant. To demonstrate that the PPS tip channel is functioning within its allowable response time limit, the proposed methodology uses the combined technique of both the response time analysis and test. The main purpose of determining the trip setpoint for safety systems is to meet the requirement of an analytical limit assumed in performing safety analyses. In addition, the response time assumed during safety analyses shall also be satisfied by the safety-related instrumentation. The response time is another critical factor required to ensure that the safety-related instrumentation channels accept the crucial assumptions of safety analyses. The response time evaluation methodology proposed herein is applied to the low steam generator level (LSGL) reactor trip parameter for the APR1400. The response time analysis for the LSGL trip parameter demonstrated that the analyzed response time would not exceed the allocated response time. The results of the response time also showed that all of the measured response times would be less than the analyzed response time.

  14. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new sand pouch-plant infection technique for enumeration of rhizobia in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t. and bv. viciae (R.l.v. in 20 soils of Poland. Logarithms of the populations of R.l.t. in the tested soils ranged from not detectable level to 4.76 and those of R.l.v. from 2.23 to 5.84 in g1 of soil dry mass. Numbers of R.l.t. were significantly correlated with soil clay, C org, and total N contents but not with the soil pH (in KCI, while numbers of R.l.v. showed significant correlation only with the soil pH.

  16. Remove of lead from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique (Eclipta Alba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad J. Noufal, Zena A. Maalla, Dareen J. Noufal, Ali A. Hossean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soils by toxic heavy metals. The aim of current study was estimation the ability of Eclipta alba plant for the removal of (Pb from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique and study the effect of a number of parameters(Pb concentration, contact time and pH values. The plant showed higher removal efficiency (99.2% after 7 days of treatment at 50 ppm. The best removal efficiency of Pb 98.95% at 100 ppm was occurred at pH7. The root ability to accumulate Pb was more than the shoot ability, after 7 days treatment of water and pH=7, they were 2852.5 mg/kg, 2497.5 mg/kg and 502.5 mg/kg in roots, stems and leaves respectively. These results showed that Eclipta Alba can be used in biological treatment of polluted water.

  17. Towards development of new ornamental plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Müller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION: The present review provides insights into the key findings of the hybridization process, crucial factors affecting the adaptation of new technologies within wide hybridization of ornamental plants and presents perspectives of further development of this strategy. Wide hybridization...... from a conventional breeding tool into a modern methodology. Nowadays, the research on model plants and crop species increases our understanding of reproductive isolation among distant species and partly explains the background of the traditional approaches previously used for overcoming hybridization...... is one of the oldest breeding techniques that contributed enormously to the development of modern plant cultivars. Within ornamental breeding, it represents the main source of genetic variation. During the long history of wide hybridization, a number of methods were implemented allowing the evolution...

  18. Research Progress in Caffeine Metabolism and Low Caffeine Content Germplasm Breeding of Tea Plants ( Camellia sinenesis (L.) O.Kuntze)%茶树咖啡碱代谢及低咖啡碱茶树育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华玲; 陈栋; 李家贤

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most important secondary metabolic products in tea plants (Camellia sinenesis (L.)0. Kuntze), which makes up 2-5% of the dry weight of fresh tea leaves broadly. Caffeine acts as a stimulant to nerves to get rid of fatigue, and to improve cardiovascular system. But high intake of caffeine can lead to adverse effects on human health. So, it is important to study the molecular mechanism of caffeine metabolism pathway in tea plants and to breed low caffeine content tea germplasm. In this study, the advances of research on tea caffeine were summarized from metabolic pathway and low caffeine content tea germplasm breeding. Finally, the problems and possible directions for these research areas were discussed.%咖啡碱是茶树中最重要的次生代谢产物之一,一般为茶叶干物质重的2%~5%.咖啡碱具有兴奋神经、祛除疲劳及增加心血管系统活动等保健功能,但摄入过高含量咖啡碱也会引起副作用,因此,研究茶树咖啡碱 代谢途径及其分子机理,培育低咖啡碱茶树品种具有非常重要的意义.本文综述了茶树咖啡碱的合成与分解代谢及其关键酶、以及近年来低咖啡碱茶树育种等方面的研究进展,并对这些研究领域目前存在的问题和今后努力的方向进行了讨论和展望.

  19. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  20. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  1. A Translator Verification Technique for FPGA Software Development in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yeob; Kim, Eui Sub; Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Although the FPGAs give a high performance than PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), the platform change from PLC to FPGA impose all PLC software engineers give up their experience, knowledge and practices accumulated over decades, and start a new FPGA-based hardware development from scratch. We have researched to fine the solution to this problem reducing the risk and preserving the experience and knowledge. One solution is to use the FBDtoVerilog translator, which translates the FBD programs into behavior-preserving Verilog programs. In general, the PLCs are usually designed with an FBD, while the FPGAs are described with a HDL (Hardware Description Language) such as Verilog or VHDL. Once PLC designer designed the FBD programs, the FBDtoVerilog translates the FBD into Verilog, mechanically. The designers, therefore, need not consider the rest of FPGA development process (e.g., Synthesis and Place and Routing) and can preserve the accumulated experience and knowledge. Even if we assure that the translation from FBD to Verilog is correct, it must be verified rigorously and thoroughly since it is used in nuclear power plants, which is one of the most safety critical systems. While the designer develops the FPGA software with the FBD program translated by the translator, there are other translation tools such as synthesis tool and place and routing tool. This paper also focuses to verify them rigorously and thoroughly. There are several verification techniques for correctness of translator, but they are hard to apply because of the outrageous cost and performance time. Instead, this paper tries to use an indirect verification technique for demonstrating the correctness of translator using the co-simulation technique. We intend to prove only against specific inputs which are under development for a target I and C system, not against all possible input cases.

  2. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  3. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  4. 饲草高梁杂交种吉草3号的选育及栽培技术%Breeding and Cultivation Technique of Forage Sorghum Hybrid of Jicao 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继洪; 李淑杰; 胡喜连; 陈冰嬬; 高士杰

    2012-01-01

    Jicao 3 is one kind of forage sorghum hybrid crossed by Institute of Crop Breeding, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2004. Jicao 3 was examined and approved by National Sorghum Varieties Identification Committee in February, 2012. The hybrid has some features of fast growth rate, strong regeneration ability and adaptability, high biological yield and nutritional value. It was not only fine quality forage of bovine, goat, fish, rabbit and goose and so on, but also elite grass seed to improve ecological environment. In order to promote the development of animal husbandry in China and increase the feed source for the development of herbivorous animals, the breeding and cultivation techniques of Jicao 3 were studied and concluded.%吉草3号是吉林省农业科学院作物育种研究所于2004年组配而成的饲草高粱新品种。2012年2月通过国家高粱品种鉴定委员会鉴定。该杂交种具有生长速度快、再生能力强、生物产量高、营养价值高、适应性强、适口性好等特点,是牛、羊、鱼、兔、鹅等动物的优质饲草,也是改善生态环境的优良草种。为了促进我国畜牧业的发展,并为我国草食畜养殖业的发展增加饲料来源,对饲草高梁新品种吉草3号的选育及栽培技术进行了研究与总结。

  5. Rhizofiltration of lead using an aromatic medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus cultured in a hydroponic nutrient film technique (NFT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, A; Arunbabu, V; Neethu, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2014-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water bodies and groundwater is a major concern of the modern world. Rhizofiltration--the use of plant root system to remove/extract pollutants from wastewater--has proven advantages over conventional methods of treatment. However, commercialization of this in situ remediation technology requires a better understanding of plant-metal interactions especially on the ability of different plant species to accumulate metals at different parts of the plant system which is critical for the successful remediation of contaminated medium. Many aquatic and terrestrial plants have been reported to accumulate heavy metals when grown hydroponically. Therefore, a batch experiment with different concentrations of lead and a nutrient film technique (NFT) experiment with recycling of wastewater were employed in this study in order to investigate the rhizofiltration of lead-containing wastewater using Plectranthus amboinicus, an aromatic medicinal plant. Results show that P. amboinicus is tolerant to a wide range of lead concentrations and nutrient deficiency. The plant accumulates considerable amount of lead, particularly in the roots, and translocation to the stem and leaf was limited, indicating that the use of leaves/above-ground parts of the plant for medicinal purposes is not hindered by its ability to remove lead from the soil or water. The study also suggests that the plant can be considered for the clean-up of lead-contaminated wastewater in combination with safe biomass disposal alternatives.

  6. Changes in Knowledge Management Strategies Can Support Emerging Innovative Actors in Organic Agriculture: The Case of Participatory Plant Breeding in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Ortolani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The “transfer of technology”, typical of a top-down linear process of innovation cannot be used in the new contexts of sustainability, characterised by uncertainty and complexity. There is a need to redefine categories and concepts around which innovation and agricultural policies are built, as those currently in use provide only a partial representation of reality. Innovation paradigms underpinning technological development and public policies design will have a direct impact on decisions regarding which agricultural models will ultimately be supported. Looking at local learning capacity and systems of relations can help to understand the potential to develop innovation within a specific context. This work contributes to the definition of new actors who are developing innovation for sustainability in rural areas. The study focuses on the knowledge systems of farmers who are applying alternative breeding strategies: it uses a network approach to explore the knowledge system in which individual farmers are embedded in order to understand their specific relational features. Three main conclusions emerge from the study: for enhancing the agro-ecological innovation paradigm there is a need to define the ‘innovation broker’, to revise the evaluation system of public research and to integrate innovation and agricultural policies.

  7. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  8. Planting technique of Camellia oleifera%油茶丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慎; 李恂; 何赞波; 周修权

    2014-01-01

    在传统栽培方法的基础上,通过对北湖区碧香源油茶基地油茶新造林丰产栽培技术7年的深入研究,总结出新的栽培方法:油茶苗根部保湿栽培法;油茶高位定干自然整枝法;油茶多品种混栽法;油茶保花促果增产法等。以上方法可使油茶新造林苗木保存率95%以上;7年生(2007年种)油茶新造林产茶果654 kg/667 m2,实际产油32.44 kg/667 m2,在油茶盛产期到来前,茶果产量每年成倍增加,同时有效克服了油茶大小年的差异,应用效果显著。%Based on the traditional cultivation methods in Beihu District Bixiang source Oil-tea camellia base,through in-depth research on Oil-tea camellia plantation yield new cultivation techniques for seven years,summed up the new culti-vation method:Oil-tea camellia root retains water cultivation method;high stem natural pruning method;mixed planting varieties method;promote Oil-tea camellia fruit yield method etc. By the above method over the base of the application, the new Oil-tea camellia planting seedlings preservation rate of 95%;7-year-old (2007 planting)Oil-tea camellia planta-tion production of new 654 kg of Camellia fruit per acre,the actual production of 32.44 kg of camellia-oil per acre,Be-fore the advent of Oil-tea camellia season,Camellia-oil and fruit yield increased exponentially every year,while at the same time,effectively overcomes the differences of annual output size of Camellia oleifera,the practical application effect is very notable.

  9. Artificial Culture and Breeding Technique of Shizothorax grahami%昆明裂腹鱼人工驯养繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡思玉; 詹会祥; 赵海涛; 陈永祥

    2012-01-01

    昆明裂腹鱼(Shizothorax grahami)是长江上游特有的较大型经济鱼类之一,为更好地保护这一珍稀鱼类资源,对其生物学特性、人工驯养及人工繁殖技术进行了综述,为昆明裂腹鱼的人工驯养及繁殖提供一定的理论依据.%Shizothorax grahami is a kind of economic fish which is unique in the upper Yangtze River. To protect this rarefish, the biological characteristics, artificial domestication and artificial reproduction techniques of Shizothorax grahami were investigated, and it have large theoretical significance.

  10. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  11. On the need for new continues measurement techniques at combustion plants; Anlaeggningars behov av ny kontinuerlig maetteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Samuelsson, Jessica [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to make an inventory regarding the need for new continuous measurement techniques at combustion plants in Sweden. In total 15 interviews at 15 different combustion plants were made. The interviewed plants are of different sizes and use different combustion techniques, fuels, and cleaning equipments. They thereby well reflect the combustion plants present in Sweden today. Among many interesting interview results, we chose to highlight: Continuous measurement of the moisture content of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion (e.g. the speed of the grate); Continuous measurement of the heating value of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion. There is a need for temperature sensors which better withstand the environment in the furnace. Moreover, there is also a need for 3-dimensional measurements of the temperature in the furnace, especially for fluidized beds. This information can be used to control the combustion in different ways, e.g. preventing the bed from sintering. At some plants there was a need to measure the rate of corrosion and the growth of deposits. The measurements can be used to control the fuel mix at an early stage and to thereby avoid problems caused by corrosion and deposits. The measurement results can also be used to control the soot cleaning equipment, fuel mixture and adding of additive. At some of the interviewed plants there was a need to continuously measure the amount of unburned fuel in the ash. The continuous measurement results can be used for automatic control or monitoring of the combustion process. Several plants had problems with their dust instruments. Suitable topics for future work include investigating how the measurement techniques mentioned above may be developed/improved and implemented at the plants.

  12. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Vijai; Misra, A.K

    Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural...

  13. The development of monitoring techniques for thermal stratification in nuclear plant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Joo, Young Sang; Yoon, Kwang Sik; Park, Chi Seung; Choi, Ha Lim; Moon, Jae Wha; Bae, Sang Ho

    1996-12-01

    The conventional nondestructive testing has been performed in those area which are susceptible to thermal stress in according to NRC 88-08,11. In addition to that, it is necessary to set up a monitoring system to prevent severe thermal stress to pipes in early stages and to develop the non-intrusive techniques to diagnose the check valve because the thermal stratification has been caused by the malfunction of the check valve in ECCS pipe. Thermal stratification monitoring system has been designed and installed at ECCS line permanently and surge line temporally in YG nuclear power plant. The data is acceptable in according to TASCS guide line. Also, the data originated from ISMS is useful for the arrangement of a special UT program and stress analysis. Applying a togetherness of acoustics and magnetics signal, it is possible to determine the parameters of the function of the check valve internals without disassembling it. This series of tests show that the accelerometers can be use d to measure and to differentiate the three types of impacts; metal to metal impacts mechanical rubs, and worn internal parts. The magnet sensors can be used to detect the opening/closing of stainless check and fluttering of disk. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 28 figs.

  14. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  15. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable.

  16. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  17. Application of cpDNA Marker Technique in Parents Selection and Combination of Potato Breeding%cpDNA标记在马铃薯杂交亲本选配中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祚; 郝大海; 段晓艳; 王兆富; 李周; 苏跃; 冯泽蔚; 李灿辉

    2011-01-01

    Parents selection and combination is the initiate and important step to potato breeding program. U-sing chloroplast DNA ( cpDNA) marker technique, the author detected cytoplast genetic background of the parents and 380 clones derived from hybrid true potato seeds of two cross combinations (Shepody x CIP 004 n = 187 and PB 06 x CIP 004 n = 193 ) . Results showed that Shepody harbored T-type markers of cpDNA which was subjected to the Tuberosum subspecies of Solarium tuberosum L. , but both PB 06 and CIP 004 had A-type markers of cpDNA which belonged to the Andigena subspecies of Solarium tuberosum L.. All clones tested could also be divided into two groups which separately shared the same cpDNA markers with female parents, and the averaged growth period of each group tended to female parents, respectively. The aboved results demonstrated that there was a great potential for cpDNA marker technique in parents selection and combination of potato breeding program.%亲本选配是马铃薯杂交育种工作的重点和难点.利用叶绿体DNA(cpDNA)标记方法,对两个马铃薯杂交组合(Shepody×CIP 004和PB 06×CIP 004)的亲本、及其杂交实生种子后代群体的细胞质遗传背景进行了分析.结果显示:Shepody拥有T-型cpDNA标记,属于普通栽培亚种(Solanium tuberosum ssp.tuberosum);CIP004和PB06拥有A-型cpDNA标记,均属于安第斯栽培亚种(Solanium tuberosum ssp.andigena);在cpDNA两个标记位点(H1和H2)上,2个杂交组合实生种子后代群体的细胞质遗传背景分别与其母本完全一致,平均生育期分别与其母本接近.上述结果表明,cpDNA标记技术在马铃薯杂交亲本选配和早世代选育中具有重要的应用价值.

  18. 四季玫瑰扦插育苗技术研究%Research on Cuttage and Breeding Technique of Four Seasons Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娜

    2014-01-01

    Four seasons rose is currently only one variety can blossom many times a year; admire the beauty of flowers in three seasons and enjoy branch in winter. Four seasons rose belongs to Rosa with advantages of integrating ornamental and edible, large flowers, high rate oil, heavy salt resistance, cold resistance, extremely fine properties and barren. The paper was analyzed biological characteristics and seedling technique of four seasons rose and described maintenance management technol-ogy from the choice of the substratum, cuttings acquisition and cutting seedlings.%四季玫瑰是目前唯一的一年可以多次开花,三季观花,冬季观枝的玫瑰品种。四季玫瑰是蔷薇属植物,集观赏、食用于一体,具有花朵大、出油率高、耐重盐碱、耐高寒、极耐干旱、耐瘠薄等优良特性。本文详细分析了四季玫瑰的生物学特性及育苗技术,从扦插基质选择、插穗采集及扦插苗等方面,叙述了四季玫瑰的养护管理技术。

  19. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  20. Reducing the impact of a desalination plant using stochastic modeling and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea, Andres; Renard, Philippe; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Bertone, François

    2009-02-01

    SummaryWater is critical for economic growth in coastal areas. In this context, desalination has become an increasingly important technology over the last five decades. It often has environmental side effects, especially when the input water is pumped directly from the sea via intake pipelines. However, it is generally more efficient and cheaper to desalt brackish groundwater from beach wells rather than desalting seawater. Natural attenuation is also gained and hazards due to anthropogenic pollution of seawater are reduced. In order to minimize allocation and operational costs and impacts on groundwater resources, an optimum pumping network is required. Optimization techniques are often applied to this end. Because of aquifer heterogeneity, designing the optimum pumping network demands reliable characterizations of aquifer parameters. An optimum pumping network in a coastal aquifer in Oman, where a desalination plant currently pumps brackish groundwater at a rate of 1200 m 3/h for a freshwater production of 504 m 3/h (insufficient to satisfy the growing demand in the area) was designed using stochastic inverse modeling together with optimization techniques. The Monte Carlo analysis of 200 simulations of transmissivity and storage coefficient fields conditioned to the response to stresses of tidal fluctuation and three long term pumping tests was performed. These simulations are physically plausible and fit the available data well. Simulated transmissivity fields are used to design the optimum pumping configuration required to increase the current pumping rate to 9000 m 3/h, for a freshwater production of 3346 m 3/h (more than six times larger than the existing one). For this task, new pumping wells need to be sited and their pumping rates defined. These unknowns are determined by a genetic algorithm that minimizes a function accounting for: (1) drilling, operational and maintenance costs, (2) target discharge and minimum drawdown (i.e., minimum aquifer

  1. Metabolic engineering strategies for the optimization of medicinal and aromatic plants : realities and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawati, O.; Woerdenbag, H. J.; Hille, J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, strategies and techniques for the production of natural compounds (plant derived fine chemicals) and/or the breeding of medicinal and aromatic plants has expanded. Efficient production of high value natural products with medicinal and cosmetic purpose (e.g. essential oils, paclitaxe

  2. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis o

  3. Application of Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for Remote Monitoring of a Simulated Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, David A [ORNL; Henkel, James J [ORNL; Whitaker, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research into the adaptation of monitoring techniques from maintainability and reliability (M&R) engineering for remote unattended monitoring of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) for international safeguards. Two categories of techniques are discussed: the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for diagnostic monitoring, and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC or, more commonly, particle filtering ) for prognostic monitoring. Development and testing of the application of condition-based monitoring (CBM) techniques was performed on the Oak Ridge Mock Feed and Withdrawal (F&W) facility as a proof of principle. CBM techniques have been extensively developed for M&R assessment of physical processes, such as manufacturing and power plants. These techniques are normally used to locate and diagnose the effects of mechanical degradation of equipment to aid in planning of maintenance and repair cycles. In a safeguards environment, however, the goal is not to identify mechanical deterioration, but to detect and diagnose (and potentially predict) attempts to circumvent normal, declared facility operations, such as through protracted diversion of enriched material. The CBM techniques are first explained from the traditional perspective of maintenance and reliability engineering. The adaptation of CBM techniques to inspector monitoring is then discussed, focusing on the unique challenges of decision-based effects rather than equipment degradation effects. These techniques are then applied to the Oak Ridge Mock F&W facility a water-based physical simulation of a material feed and withdrawal process used at enrichment plants that is used to develop and test online monitoring techniques for fully information-driven safeguards of GCEPs. Advantages and limitations of the CBM approach to online monitoring are discussed, as well as the potential challenges of adapting CBM concepts to safeguards applications.

  4. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  7. Possibility for use of RT-PCR technique in establishing presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus in sperm of breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus is a significant health-economic pathogen in cattle which can be excreted and spread also through sperm of persistently or acutely infected bulls. Native sperm of 6 bulls, found to be negative to the BVD virus by isolating the virus and using the RT-PCR method, was experimentally infected with a tenfold dilution of the non-cytopathogen 22146 strain of the BVD virus with a titer of 105,5. This way, dilutions of the BVD virus from 10-1 to 10-6 (5 x 104 TCID/50 do 0,5 TCID/50 in 0.1 ml native sperm were obtained. From sperm infected in this way, the virus was reisolated on FTB cell culture in a microtiter plate with 96 pools in which each sample of the infected sperm was set up in three samples, and each of them was titrated to a dilution of 1:2 to 1:256. The presence of the BVD virus was proven using the technique of fluorescent antibodies in a second blind passage on FTB culture cells. For cell culture an extremely toxic effect of native sperm to a dilution of 1:64 was established. The BVD virus was reisolated from sperm in all three sperm samples with 5 x 104, 5 x 103 i 5 x 102 TCID/50, and it was not reisolated from sperm with 50, with 5, and with 0.5 TCID/50 BVD virus in 0.1 ml native sperm. At the same time, the presence of the BVD viral genome was proved using the RT-PCR method in the same samples of artificially infected native sperm of bulls. A positive re suit was established in native sperm with 5 x 104, 5 x 103, 5 x 102 and 50 TCID/50 BVD virus n 0.1 ml native sperm. The experiment proved that the RT-PCR method has advantages over the isolation of the BVD virus from samples of native sperm of bulls. These are: shortterm investigations (1 to 2 days and greater sensitivity (10 times bigger than the isolation of the virus. The isolation of the virus takes at least 10 days, and its greater sensitivity is primarily a result of the cyrotoxic effect of native sperm of bulls on cell culture.

  8. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  9. 50 CFR 15.23 - Permits for zoological breeding or display programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for zoological breeding or display... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.23 Permits for zoological breeding or display programs. (a) Application requirements...

  10. 50 CFR 15.42 - List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false List of foreign qualifying breeding... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Qualifying Facilities Breeding Exotic Birds in Captivity § 15.42 List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities....

  11. Links between Plant and Rhizoplane Bacterial Communities in Grassland Soils, Characterized Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Daniell, Timothy J.; Singh, Brajesh K.; Papert, Artemis; McNicol, James W.; Prosser, James I.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular analysis of grassland rhizosphere soil has demonstrated complex and diverse bacterial communities, with resultant difficulties in detecting links between plant and bacterial communities. These studies have, however, analyzed “bulk” rhizosphere soil, rather than rhizoplane communities, which interact most closely with plants through utilization of root exudates. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant species was a major driver for bacterial rhizoplane community composition on individual plant roots. DNA extracted from individual roots was used to determine plant identity, by analysis of the plastid tRNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron, and plant-related bacterial communities. Bacterial communities were characterized by analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes using two fingerprinting methods: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Links between plant and bacterial rhizoplane communities could not be detected by visual examination of T-RFLP patterns or DGGE banding profiles. Statistical analysis of fingerprint patterns did not reveal a relationship between bacterial community composition and plant species but did demonstrate an influence of plant community composition. The data also indicated that topography and other, uncharacterized, environmental factors are important in driving bacterial community composition in grassland soils. T-RFLP had greater potential resolving power than DGGE, but findings from the two methods were not significantly different. PMID:16269710

  12. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  13. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  14. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  15. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techni

  16. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  17. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  18. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  19. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  20. 电站锅炉无损检测新技术%New Nondestructive Testing Technique for Power Plant Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜斌; 王方; 萧艳彤

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive testing is one of important technique to guarantee the safety of the power plant boiler.The new nondestructive testing techniques which used in power plant boiler were briefly introduced in this article.The merits and shortcomings of the new nondestructive testing methods, such as phased- array technique,ultrasonic guided wave technique, low frequency electromagnetic technique, Were also introduced.%无损检测技术在保障电站锅炉安全运行过程中发挥着十分重要的作用.引用了自2002年以来发展的在电站锅炉检验中应用的无损检测新技术文献8篇.对超声相控阵、超声导波和低频电磁等新兴无损检测技术在电站锅炉检验中的优缺点进行了分析.

  1. Development of Circular Economy of Characteristic Breeding Industry in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve characteristic,high-quality,high-efficiency,low-consumption,healthy and intensive breeding,we use the ecology method to analyze the status quo of development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,from advantages in resources,industrial development,characteristic breeding,and standardized construction.There are some problems existing in the development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi:prominent contradiction among human,land and grain;outdated breeding mode;low comprehensive utilization rate of resources;increasingly deteriorating ecological environment.We put forth the following recommendations:based on the ecological and economic principles,introducing"reduce,reuse,recycle"idea of circular economy;striving to choose the development pattern of circular economy adapting to local resource characteristics,planting and breeding habits;in terms of realization path,paying close attention to construction of standardized breeding farm,cultivation of organic fertilizer industry,infrastructure construction,environmental law enforcement,and other parts;reinforcing the policy guidance,adjusting and optimizing industrial structure,strengthening scientific and technological innovation,and advancing industrialization management,to promote steady development of circular economy of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,and accelerate the process of rejuvenating province by breeding industry,enriching the people and building up Guangxi.

  2. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mag@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; adino@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Varela, Thiago F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: phillips.rj@terra.com.br; Cunha, Gerson G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)]. E-mail: gerson@lance.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  3. Monitoring of growth dynamics of plants under the influence of cadmium using a highly sensitive interferometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana Muthumali De Silva, Kokge Thilini; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    Using statistical interferometry technique (SIT), a highly sensitive interferometry technique developed in our laboratory, we reported about the existence of nanometric intrinsic fluctuations (NIF) in a variety of plants. SIT permits noncontact, noninvasive, and fast detection of plant growth fluctuations in subnanometer scale. We propose the application of NIF to investigate the effect of heavy metal, cadmium, on growth dynamics of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum). NIFs of leaves were observed for 3 days under four different concentrations of CdCl2: 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM. Results showed significant reduction of NIFs within 4 h for all Cd concentrations, and there was a further decrease with the exposure time of Cd under 0.1 and 0.01 mM. In addition, under 0.001 mM, a significant recovery could be observed after a rapid reduction in the first 4 h. As a comparison, measured antioxidative enzymes increased with increasing Cd concentration. However, no significant increase could be seen within the initial 4 h under a smaller concentration of 0.001 mM as seen for NIFs. The results imply that NIF can be used as an indicator for heavy metal stress on plants as well as it can be more sensitive to detect the influence of smaller Cd amounts on plants at an early stage.

  4. Análise bayesiana do modelo de herança monogênica no melhoramento vegetal: um exemplo com abobrinha Bayesian analisys of monogenic inheritance model in plant breeding: a case study with zucchini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada de Sousa Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma estratégia comum em programas de melhoramento é conduzir estudos básicos de herança para investigar a hipótese de controle do caráter por um ou poucos genes de efeito principal, associados ou não a genes modificadores de pequeno efeito. Neste trabalho, foi utilizada a inferência bayesiana para ajustar modelos de herança genética aditiva-dominante a experimentos de genética vegetal com várias gerações. Densidades normais com médias associadas aos efeitos genéticos das gerações foram consideradas em um modelo linear em que a matriz de delineamento dos efeitos genéticos tinha coeficientes indeterminados (precisando ser estimada para cada indivíduo. A metodologia foi ilustrada com um conjunto de dados de um estudo de herança da partenocarpia em abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L. Tal ajuste permitiu explicitar a distribuição a posteriori das probabilidades genotípicas. . A análise corrobora resultados anteriores da literatura, porém foi mais eficiente que alternativas prévias que supunham a matriz de delineamento conhecida para as gerações. Conclui-se que a partenocarpia em abobrinha é governada por um gene principal com dominância parcial.A common breeding strategy is to carry out basic studies to investigate the hypothesis of a single gene controlling the trait (major gene with or without polygenes of minor effect. In this study we used Bayesian inference to fit genetic additive-dominance models of inheritance to plant breeding experiments with multiple generations. Normal densities with different means, according to the major gene genotype, were considered in a linear model in which the design matrix of the genetic effects had unknown coefficients (which were estimated in individual basis. An actual data set from an inheritance study of partenocarpy in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. was used for illustration. Model fitting included posterior probabilities for all individual genotypes. Analysis agrees with results in the

  5. Biological Characteristics and Progress of Artificial Breeding Technique for Kelp Bass, Epinephelus moara%云纹石斑鱼生物学特性及人工繁育技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋振鑫; 陈超; 翟介明; 马文辉; 庞尊方

    2012-01-01

    Kelp bass Epinephelus moara, a fast growing and commercially valuable marine fish species, is considered as one of the most potential species for marine fish cage culture in the temperate seas along the coast of Northeast Asia. It has been investigated intensively for aquaculture during the past several decades in several countries. This article briefly summarized the biological characteristics of Kelp bass, further research priorities in this domain were also suggested. The progress on broodstoek reproduction, larval rearing, and the nursery of juveniles of artificial breeding in recently years were introduced. This paper also provides necessary referential information for the research on the mass seed production technique of Kelp bass in China.%云纹石斑鱼(Epinephelusmoara)具有耐受性强、生长速度快、质量优、价格高等特点,是温带海域养殖的理想品种。本文简要概括了云纹石斑鱼的生物学特性,以及近几年的人工繁育技术的研究现状,重点在亲鱼选择与强化培育、催产与受精卵孵化以及仔稚鱼培育方面取得的研究进展及就其发展前景进行分析,旨在为我国云纹石斑鱼的苗种规模化繁育技术研发提供参考。

  6. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  7. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  8. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  9. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  10. 二年生柴胡优良品系的选育%Nuture of Excellent Breeds of the Biennial Plant Bup leurum chinese DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳; 李敏; 亢学平; 卜宪娟; 金基万; 叶强

    2014-01-01

    对2年生柴胡9个性状:株高、分蘖数、茎粗和、须根数、分枝数、根长、叶型、叶面积和根重等的遗传参数和性状间的关系进行了研究。其中茎粗和、分枝数与决定药材产量的根重的相关系数分别为0.5209和0.4457,均达到显著水平;根重与决定药材质量的根长相关系数为0.4487,达到显著水平。不同叶型柴胡的叶面积与根重相关系数分别为宽叶型:1.012、长叶型:1.2021、竹叶型:3.1187,均达到极显著相关水平;并且每种叶型柴胡的叶宽、叶长与叶面积的相关系数也分别达到显著相关水平;说明在2年生柴胡的优良品系选育的过程中,可依据茎粗和、分枝数、根长、叶总表面积等性状来判断决定经济产量的根重。%The study aim to carry out the relationship between annual Bupleurum root ’s dry weight with genetic parameters and plant height ,tiller number ,stem diameter and root number ,branch number , root length ,leaf type ,leaf area .We measured and recorded the nine traits ,then calculated the correlation coefficient between each character with dry root weight ,which determine the yields .The coefficient of correlation between stem diameter and branch number with root weight were respectively 0 .5209 and 0 .4457 reached the significant level ;The correlation coefficient between root weight with root length was 0 .4487 also reached significant level .The latter determines the quality of drugs ;The correlation coeffi-cients of Leaf area and root’s weight as follows .The broad leaf type is 1 .012 ,long leaf type is 1 .2021 , and bamboo type is 3 .1187 ,all of them reached significant level ;Moreover ,the correlation coefficients between each type leaf’s length ,width with leaf area were also significant .This study result provide ref-erences for judging the biennial Bupleurum’s economic yields by measuring their diameters ,branch num-ber ,root length ,and leaf

  11. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  12. Biochar as carrier for plant nutrients and microorganisms - techniques of agro-activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The soil enhancing qualities of biochar are strongly linked to its influence on nutrient cycling dynamics, sorption dynamics and to changing habitat condition for soil fauna. But as shown in multiple studies, the addition of pure biochar to agricultural soils may provoke reduced plant growth caused by the immobilisation of plant nutrients. The very potent sorption dynamics of biochar makes it an effective carrier for plant nutrients and plant-root symbiotic microorganisms. At the Delinat-Institute, we tried sundry methods of charging biochars with organic and mineral plant nutrients as well as with microorganisms. This includes the use of biochar as bulk agent in aerobic composting, in malolactic fermentation and as treatment for liquid manure, but also formulations of mineral carbon-fertilizers. Those biochar products are tested in pot and also large scale field trials. Results and experiences of these trials as well as different activation methods will be explained. A short overview of industrial designing of biochar based products will be given.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9系统在培育抗病毒植物新种质中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in breeding of new antiviral plant germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道微; 张超凡; 董芳; 黄艳岚; 张亚; 周虹

    2016-01-01

    summarized the advantages, main problems and development tendency of CRISPR/cas9 system in breeding of new antiviral plant germplasms.

  14. Performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P. C.; Khanduja, Rajiv; Gupta, Mahesh

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm. The crystallization unit of a sugar industry has three main subsystems arranged in series. Considering exponential distribution for the probable failures and repairs, the mathematical formulation of the problem is done using probabilistic approach, and differential equations are developed on the basis of Markov birth-death process. These equations are then solved using normalizing conditions so as to determine the steady-state availability of the crystallization unit. The performance of each subsystem of crystallization unit in a sugar plant has also been optimized using genetic algorithm. Thus, the findings of the present paper will be highly useful to the plant management for the timely execution of proper maintenance decisions and, hence, to enhance the system performance.

  15. Characterization of soil contamination by using environmental magnetic techniques: example of the Ribatejo power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga Mendes, Ana Rita; Font, Eric; Andrade, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Soil contamination resulting from power plant atmospheric emissions represents a major problem for soil management, water resource and agriculture. Here, we studied the contamination of soils located close to the Ribatejo power plant, near Carregado, Portugal. We used magnetic susceptibility (MS), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) curves and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (Kfd) in order to identify the concentration and grainsize of anthropogenic magnetic particles. Separation of natural (background) and anthropogenic magnetic particles is achieved by studying several sites located close (polluted) and far (background) from the Ribatejo power plant. Vertical variations of magnetic particle content at each site provide information about the depth at which anthropogenic particles are maximum, and allow discussing the influence of downward fluid percolation within the different soil horizons.

  16. Radiation dose rate map interpolation in nuclear plants using neural networks and virtual reality techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio Marcio N.A., E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil); Freitas, Victor Goncalves G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper reports the most recent development results of a simulation tool for assessment of radiation dose exposition by nuclear plant's personnel, using artificial intelligence and virtual reality technologies. The main purpose of this tool is to support training of nuclear plants' personnel, to optimize working tasks for minimisation of received dose. A finer grid of measurement points was considered within the nuclear plant's room, for different power operating conditions. Further, an intelligent system was developed, based on neural networks, to interpolate dose rate values among measured points. The intelligent dose prediction system is thus able to improve the simulation of dose received by personnel. This work describes the improvements implemented in this simulation tool.

  17. Radar Plant and Measurement Technique for Determination of the Orientation and the Depth of Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A plant for generation of information indicative of the depth and the orientation of an object positioned below the surface of the ground is adapted to use electromagnetic radiation emitted from and received by an antenna system associated with the plant. The plant has a transmitter and a receiver...... for generation of the electromagnetic radiation in cooperation with the antenna system mentioned and for reception of the electromagnetic radiation reflected by the object in cooperation with the antenna system, respectively. The antenna system includes a plurality of individual antenna elements such as dipole...... the antenna system and thus polarizing the electromagnetic field around or in relation to the geometric center of the antenna system....

  18. A Bird’s-Eye View of Molecular Changes in Plant Gravitropism Using Omics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Böhmer, Maik

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses, including drought, high salinity, changes in carbon dioxide levels and pathogens. Central signaling hubs and pathways that are regulated in response to these stimuli have been identified. In contrast to these well studied environmental stimuli, changes in transcript, protein and metabolite levels in response to a gravitational stimulus are less well understood. Amyloplasts, localized in statocytes of the root tip, in mesophyll cells of coleoptiles and in the elongation zone of the growing internodes comprise statoliths in higher plants. Deviations of the statocytes with respect to the earthly gravity vector lead to a displacement of statoliths relative to the cell due to their inertia and thus to gravity perception. Downstream signaling events, including the conversion from the biophysical signal of sedimentation of distinct heavy mass to a biochemical signal, however, remain elusive. More recently, technical advances, including clinostats, drop towers, parabolic flights, satellites, and the International Space Station, allowed researchers to study the effect of altered gravity conditions – real and simulated micro- as well as hypergravity on plants. This allows for a unique opportunity to study plant responses to a purely anthropogenic stress for which no evolutionary program exists. Furthermore, the requirement for plants as food and oxygen sources during prolonged manned space explorations led to an increased interest in the identi-fication of genes involved in the adaptation of plants to microgravity. Transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic, and metabolomic profiling strategies provide a sensitive high-throughput approach to identify biochemical alterations in response to changes with respect to the influence of the gravitational vector and thus the acting gravitational force on the transcript, protein and metabolite level. This review aims at summarizing

  19. A bird’s-eye view of molecular changes in plant gravitropism using omics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eSchüler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During evolution, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses, including drought, high salinity, changes in carbon dioxide levels and pathogens. Central signaling hubs and pathways that are regulated in response to these stimuli have been identified. In contrast to these well studied environmental stimuli, changes in transcript, protein and metabolite levels in response to a gravi¬tational stimulus are less well understood. Amyloplasts, localized in statocytes of the root tip, in meso¬phyll cells of coleoptiles and in the elongation zone of the growing internodes comprise statoliths in higher plants. Deviations of the statocytes with respect to the earthly gravity vector lead to a displacement of statoliths relative to the cell due to their inertia and thus to gravity perception. Down¬stream signaling events, including the conversion from the biophysical signal of sedi¬men¬tation of distinct heavy mass to a biochemical signal, however, remain elusive. More recently, technical advances, including clinostats, drop towers, parabolic flights, satellites and the International Space Station, allowed researchers to study the effect of altered gravity conditions - real and simulated micro- as well as hypergravity on plants. This allows for a unique opportunity to study plant responses to a purely anthropogenic stress for which no evolutionary program exists. Furthermore, the requirement for plants as food and oxygen sources during prolonged manned space explorations led to an increased interest in the identification of genes involved in the adaptation of plants to microgravity.Transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic, and metabolomic profiling strategies provide a sensitive high-throughput approach to identify biochemical alterations in response to changes with respect to the influence of the gravitational vector and thus the acting gravitational force on the transcript, protein and metabolite level. This

  20. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  1. Identification of the medicinal plants in Aconitum L. by DNA barcoding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Wong, Ka-Lok; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2010-10-01

    Plants of the genus Aconitum L. are commonly used in Asia for medicinal purposes. Although they are widely cultivated and marketed, there has been uncertainty about the efficacy of different species, and therefore accurate identification is crucial. To determine the genetic variation among these medicinal plants, the proposed DNA barcode PSBA- TRNH intergenic spacer of 134 individuals from 19 taxa of ACONITUM were sequenced. Among the two most commonly used medicinal ACONITUM species, A. carmichaeli and A. kusnezoffii, sequence inversions were observed. The studied samples were clustered into ten groups according to the sequence alignment and most of the tested Aconitum species could be differentiated by the PSBA -TRNH intergenic spacer.

  2. Study of evaluation techniques of software testing and V and V in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Shin, C. Y.; Park, N. J. [Chungnam Nationl Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and verification and validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software testing and V and V which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems and can be used as a guidebook of software development process to assure software quality many software development organization.

  3. Application of linear programming techniques for controlling linear dynamic plants in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasov, R.; Kirillova, F. M.; Ha, Vo Thi Thanh

    2016-03-01

    The problem of controlling a linear dynamic plant in real time given its nondeterministic model and imperfect measurements of the inputs and outputs is considered. The concepts of current distributions of the initial state and disturbance parameters are introduced. The method for the implementation of disclosable loop using the separation principle is described. The optimal control problem under uncertainty conditions is reduced to the problems of optimal observation, optimal identification, and optimal control of the deterministic system. To extend the domain where a solution to the optimal control problem under uncertainty exists, a two-stage optimal control method is proposed. Results are illustrated using a dynamic plant of the fourth order.

  4. Status and prospects of artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in Fujian%福建海水鱼类人工繁殖和育苗技术的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其永; 洪万树; 陈朴贤

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990's, artificial propagation and breeding technique of marine fish in Fujian have developed with increases in both species and fry number. Major cultural species are of valuable ones. Large quantities of artificial fry can meet the needs of both marine cage culture and pond culture. Experimental results obtained by scientists have been put into use in practice. Fish fry production is kept in a sustainable period of development. So far, at least 30 species(14 families) of marine fish have been sucessfully bred in Fujian. The artificial fry number of yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea ) was over 300 million in 1999. The species whose artificial fry number has surpassed 10 million annually are red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus),grey croaker (Nibea miichthioides),spring spawning red seabream (Pagrosomus major) and tail spotted sweetlips (Plectorhynchus cinctus).Millions of artificial fry are bred annually in the species of black seabream (Sparus macrocephalus),Russell's snapper(Lutjanus russelli),silver-spotted grunt (Pomadasys hasta),min croaker (Miichthys miiuy)and slant band grunt (Hapalogenys nitens),respectively.The species of the family Sciaenidae are the major fish in the artificial propagation and breeding.Some issues on aquaculture and enhancement of marine fish are also discussed and some proposals of sustainable development are put forward in this article.%自90年代以来,福建海水鱼类人工繁殖和育苗技术已向着多品种和批量化方向发展,名特优种类不断增加,人工种苗为海水网箱和池塘养殖提供大量苗源,科研教学单位的多项育苗成果已转化为生产力,开始进入种苗规模化生产的可持续发展阶段.迄今为止,福建海水鱼类人工繁殖和育苗成功的种类至少有14科30种,1999年大黄鱼的育苗量已超过3亿尾,其他年产种苗千万尾以上的海水鱼类有美国红鱼、花鲈、状黄姑鱼、真鲷(春季生殖

  5. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  6. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  7. Research Progress in Androgenesis and Haploid Breeding of Gramineous Forage and Turfgrass Plants%禾本科牧草和草坪草雄核发育与单倍体育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永钦; 吴新新; 李蔚; 李仁; 史文君; 郭仰东

    2012-01-01

    禾本科牧草与草坪草在农业可持续发展、城市绿化和生态环境保护方面起着至关重要的作用.近年来,随着生物技术的发展,国内外在牧草及草坪草雄核发育与单倍体育种研究方面取得了较大进展.该文在归纳总结该领域研究成果的基础上,对影响禾本科牧草及草坪草雄核发育与单倍体育种的几个主要因素进行了探讨.大量研究结果表明,供试材料的基因型是影响培养效率的最主要因素.小孢子发育到单核中期至晚期时有利于提高培养效率.培养前花药经过低温和甘露醇等预处理不但可以提高愈伤组织的诱导效率,还可提高愈伤组织的质量.适宜的激素种类和配比也是影响培养成败的关键因素.同时,总结了雄核发育再生植株的倍性鉴定方法和加倍技术,对单倍体育种技术在禾本科牧草及草坪草育种中的应用前景进行了展望.%Gramineous forage and turfgrass are critical to sustainable agriculture and contribute extensively to urban landscaping and ecological protection. In recent years, with the rapid development of biotechnology, significant progress has been made in androgenesis and haploid breeding research of gramineous forage and turfgrasses. This review describes the development of androgenesis systems for gramineous forage and turfgrass and summarizes the latest progress of some important influencing factors on androgenesis and haploid breeding. The genotype of experimental materials is the main factor influencing androgenesis efficiency. The optimal stage for efficient androgenesis of microspore development is between middle and late uninucleate. The ratio and quality of callus induction were improved after anthers were pretreated with low temperature or mannitol. Suitable varieties and ratios of hormone are also the key factors in androgenesis. We summarize the methods of ploidy determination and techniques of chromosome doubling and point out prospects

  8. A common soil handling technique can generate incorrect estimates of soil biota effects on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several plant-soil biota (PSB) studies were recently published in high profile journals that used the suspect “mixed soil sampling” methodology. To explore the extent to which mixing field samples (i.e. employing mixed soil sample designs) can generate erroneous conclusions, we used real data to pa...

  9. Screening of plants containing Naja naja siamensis cobra venom inhibitory activity using modified ELISA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daduang, Sakda; Sattayasai, Nison; Sattayasai, Jintana; Tophrom, Pattara; Thammathaworn, Achra; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Konkchaiyaphum, Monruedee

    2005-06-15

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been modified for screening plants with antagonistic activity to Naja naja siamensis cobra venom. Aqueous extracts from plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on the binding of anti-cobra venom antibody to antigen, cobra venom, fixed onto 96-well microtiter plates. Ingredients in extracts were allowed to react with immobilized venom before the subsequent addition of antivenom antibody. Venom components affected by exposure to the extracts, unable to interact with their specific antibody, were predicted to be unable to bind to their native destinations or natural receptors. Curcuma cf. zedoaria, an old Thai medicinal plant, showed clear inhibitory activity in the ELISA test. Neurotoxin and protein degradative enzymes, major components in venom, were identified as targets of this extract in Western immunoblotting analysis. Ingredients in the extract showed high affinity to the toxin in competition assay by immunoprecipitation. The extract attenuated toxin activity by extending contraction time of diaphragm muscle after envenomation and had a potency to protect cellular proteins from venom degradative enzymes. Curcuma parviflora, with less activity in ELISA, exhibited acceptable results in two experiments but negative results in two experiments, whereas Curcuma longa, having low activity in the ELISA test, never showed any favorable results. Screening of 36 samples could classify plants into an inhibition range of 0 to 86%. This modified ELISA is recommended as a preliminary screening method for inhibitors with a large number of samples.

  10. Proposing a new advanced control technique for micro hydro power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanmandlu, M.; Goyal, Himani [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-05-15

    Micro hydropower plants are emerging as a major renewable energy resource today as they do not encounter the problems of population displacement and environmental problems associated with the large hydro power plants. However, they require control systems to limit the huge variation in input flows expected in rivulets over which these are established to produce a constant power supply. This paper proposes an electric servomotor as a governor for a micro hydro power plant especially those plants that are operated in isolated mode. An advanced controller is developed combining four control schemes for the control of the governor following the concept that the control action can be split up into linear and non-linear parts. The linear part of this controller contains an adaptive fast transversal filter (FTF) algorithm and normalized LMS (nLMS) algorithm. The non-linear part of the controller incorporates Fuzzy PI and a neural network. The concept behind splitting the control action is reasoned out and the conditions for stability of the controller are proved. The new controller has a superior performance compared to other control schemes. (author)

  11. A study of poultry processing plant noise characteristics and potential noise control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyvill, J. C.; Jape, A. D.; Moriarity, L. J.; Atkins, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The noise environment in a typical poultry processing plant was characterized by developing noise contours for two representative plants: Central Soya of Athens, Inc., Athens, Georgia, and Tip Top Poultry, Inc., Marietta, Georgia. Contour information was restricted to the evisceration are of both plants because nearly 60 percent of all process employees are stationed in this area during a normal work shift. Both plant evisceration areas were composed of tile walls, sheet metal ceilings, and concrete floors. Processing was performed in an assembly-line fashion in which the birds travel through the area on overhead shackles while personnel remain at fixed stations. Processing machinery was present throughout the area. In general, the poultry processing noise problem is the result of loud sources and reflective surfaces. Within the evisceration area, it can be concluded that only a few major sources (lung guns, a chiller component, and hock cutters) are responsible for essentially all direct and reverberant sound pressure levels currently observed during normal operations. Consequently, any effort to reduce the noise problem must first address the sound power output of these sources and/or the absorptive qualitities of the room.

  12. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladipo, M.O.A., E-mail: oaoladipo2004@yahoo.com [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Njinga, R.L., E-mail: njingaraymond@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Baba, A. [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Muhammad, H.L. [Chemistry Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria)

    2012-06-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within {+-}0.01% to {+-}0.87%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results showed good agreement with certified values within {+-}0.01 % to {+-}0.87%.

  13. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically or o...

  14. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  15. Domestication and plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  16. Is it only the regulatory status? Broadening the debate on cisgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    van Hove, Lilian; Gillund, Fr?ydis

    2017-01-01

    In current debates on emerging technologies for plant breeding in Europe, much attention has been given to the regulatory status of these techniques and their public acceptance. At present, both genetically modified plants with cisgenic approaches?using genes from crossable species?as well as transgenic approaches?using genes from different species?fall under GMO regulation in the EU and both are mandatorily labelled as GMOs. Researchers involved in the early development of cisgenic GM plants...

  17. Research and Application of Key Technique for Mechanized Royal Jelly Production(III)---Supporting Breeding Technology with Honeybee Colony Breeding for Bionic Non-grafting Larvae Royal Jelly Production%蜂王浆机械化生产关键技术研究与应用(Ⅲ)--仿生免移虫生产蜂王浆的蜂群配套饲养技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞; 吴小波; 颜伟玉; 王子龙; 曾志将

    2013-01-01

    For the sake of popularizing and applying the“bionic non-grafting larvae technique for royal jelly production”to apiculture production better and faster ,the authors put forward a set of honeybee breeding technology matching the“bionic non-grafting larrae technique for production of royal jelly”based on years ’ pro-duction practice .That is a series of supporting honeybee breeding technology including building comb on the hollow comb foundation ,organizing spawning group and the processes of bionic non-grafting larvae royal jelly production .The successful application of the “bionic non-grafting larvae technique for royal jelly production”will lay the foundation for large-scale royal jelly production .%为使“仿生免移虫蜂王浆技术”更好更快地推广应用于养蜂生产中,经过多年生产实践,提出与“仿生免移虫生产蜂王浆技术”相配套的蜂群饲养技术,即对空心巢础造巢脾、产卵群的组织及仿生免移虫生产蜂王浆步骤等配套蜂群饲养技术。仿生免移虫蜂王浆生产技术的成功应用,将为我国蜂王浆生产规模化奠定基础。

  18. XRF SR technique in the investigations of elements content in aquatic vascular plants and bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanova, L. M.; Dvurechenskaya, S. Ya.; Sokolovskaya, I. P.; Trunova, V. A.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2001-09-01

    The contents of some elements (mainly heavy metals) in macrophytes and bottom sediments of Novosibirsk Reservoir were determined using X-ray fluorescence analysis with the synchrotron radiation excitation (XRF SR) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The possibility of using of the XRF SR technique along with traditional analytical methods for environmental investigations, especially for complex study of ecosystem of natural and artificial water reservoirs, was considered.

  19. Studies on Tetraploid Breeding Techniques by Using Isolated Microspore Culture Techniques in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino%基于小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 付颖; 杨硕; 包美丽; 刘雪利

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop diversified tetraploid lines in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis(L.)Makino and thereby facilitate heterosis breeding.Sixteen hybrid varieties were used for isolated microspore culture and 393 regenerated plants were obtained.Among these,113 plants were identified as tetraploids based on morphological identification,examination of stomatal characteristics,size measurement and viability testing of pollen,and chromosome counts of the pollen mother cells.Furthermore,3 tetraploid lines showing excellent characteristics were screened.The 3 selected tetraploid lines were used as parents,and a tetraploid hybrid‘T24 × T11’with significant heterosis and comprehensive quality traits was selected through a variety comparison tests.A technical system for tetraploid heterosis breeding was established based on isolated microspore in Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino.%为创制多样性的青梗菜多倍体纯系用于多倍体育种实践,以16个青梗菜杂交种为试材进行游离小孢子培养,获得了393株小孢子植株。再生植株经过形态鉴定、叶片气孔特征检测、花粉粒大小及生活力检测、花粉母细胞染色体计数,鉴定出113个自然加倍的四倍体植株,从中筛选出3个优良株系。以可育的四倍体株系为亲本配制杂交组合,通过品种比较试验筛选出1个优势显著、综合性状优良的四倍体杂交组合‘T24×T11’。建立了基于游离小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术体系。

  20. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  1. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  2. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Tim Krannich; Lisa Maletzki; Christina Kurowsky; Renate Horn

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a gr...

  3. One hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-01-01

    Statistical methodology has played a key role in scientific animal breeding. Approximately one hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding are reviewed. Some of the scientific foundations of the field are discussed, and many milestones are examined from historical and critical perspectives. The review concludes with a discussion of some future challenges and opportunities arising from the massive amount of data generated by livestock, plant, and human genome projects.

  4. 基于繁殖粒子群算法的火电厂负荷优化分配%Optimal load dispatching based on breeding particle swarm optimization algorithm for thermoelectric power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王建君; 曹丽华

    2012-01-01

    The concept of total optimal load dispatch time is proposed for the optimal load dispatch of power plant and its calculation formula is presented. The optimal load dispatch based on BPSO (Breeding Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm is proposed,which combines the interbreeding of GA(Genetic Algorithm) with the standard PSO(Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm and applies the adaptive inertial weight to avoid the local optimum of PSO and heavy calculation load of GA. Its application issues in optimal load dispatch is analyzed and treated to reduce the calculation time and improve the algorithm accuracy. Its effectiveness and on-site applicability are further verified by a case study, meanwhile, it can meet the needs of cost reduction for power plant and the demand of total time of optimal load dispatching for power network dispatching.%针对目前火电厂负荷优化分配的问题,提出了负荷优化分配总时间的概念,并给出了具体计算公式.在标准粒子群优化算法中引入遗传算法中的杂交思想,提出了基于繁殖粒子群优化算法的负荷优化分配方法,并引入自适应惯性权重对算法进行了改进,避免了标准粒子群算法易陷入局部最优及遗传算法优化计算时间长的缺点.对算法应用在负荷优化分配中的具体问题进行了分析处理,缩短了优化计算时间,提高了算法精度.实例分析进一步验证了所提方法的有效性以及现场实用性,能够同时满足火电厂对降低成本及电网调度对负荷优化分配总时间的硬性要求.

  5. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  6. Determination of Effective Criteria for location Selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan alizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran. For this purpose, after review and studies papers and books, Six criteria" products and materials, regulations, technical and human, economic, infrastructure and environmental and also 30 sub-criteria were identified. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 30 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the WPC plants from agricultural residues, amount of wastes supply (0.087, continuity of wastes supply, cost of wastes supply, amount of sales and export, granted facilities and less Hazards for the environment and forest had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.071, 0.067, 0.065, 0.064 and 0.062 respectively.

  7. Use of the nutrient film technique as a method for assessment of plant response to salt stress in the cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient film technique (NFT/rockwool system was adapted for use as a method for assessing the response of wheat and barley to saline stress. Wheat plants grown by the NFT/rockwool system in 200 mmol NaCl were vegetatively more vigorous and were more fertile than when suspended over bowls containing the same saline nutrient solution. Signifcant intervarietal differential responses were observed in both wheat and barley for vegetative vigour under saline stress. By increasing the concentration of NaCI to 260 mM and growing seedlings in miniaturized rockwool plugs, a screening system for salt tolerance in wheat, which allowed substantial plant numbers to be tested, was made possible. Seedlings which survived 4 weeks of this treatment could be successfully rescued into soil, where they developed normally.

  8. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  9. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2014-04-30

    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  10. Simplified heavy metal staining techniques demonstrated with Fast Plant leaf tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARRISJOSEPHB; THOMASG.GUILLIAMS; 等

    1992-01-01

    Fast Plant (Brassica rapa,Cruciferae)leaf tissue fixed in glutaradehyde-acrolein and post-fixed in osmium,was examined for response to several easilyprepared heavy metal stains.Lead and uranium,separately and in combination,gave typical results across the spectrum of cell orgeanelles.As s single stain following osmium,bismuth produced images seemingly equivalent to lead and uranium.Phosphotungstic acid produced very good membrane delineation but produced a washed-out background image similar to that from lead staining .Carbohydrate compounds were especially responsive to ruthenium;the cytoplasm and the matrix of all organelles were also stained very well.The procedures were no more demanding than traditional staining methods and may be easily used in research and teaching .Fast Plant materials are a reliable,quick nand easy source of living material.

  11. Computational Intelligence Techniques for Control and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel, practice-oriented and reliable instrumentation and control strategies for wastewater treatment plants in order to improve energy efficiency, while guaranteeing process stability and maintenance of high cleaning capacity, has become a priority for WWTP operators due to increasing treatment costs. To achieve these ambitious and even contradictory objectives, this thesis investigates a combination of online measurement systems, computational intelligence and...

  12. An Annotated Bibliography of Seagrasses with Emphasis on Planting and Propagation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Black, red, and white mangroves are suggested for reestablishing man- grove areas; Loot-balling of 3- to 5-foot-tall trees is a successful proce- dure...Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, showed eight major zones: (1) Fucus and Ascophyltum, (2) Cho’da with filamentous browns, (3) Chondrus criepus, (4...of follicolous fungi 25 regularly associated with this marine phanerogamic plant. The fungi can be separated into three groups, based on relative

  13. Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling Techniques on Submersed Aquatic Plants in a Northern Tier Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Madsen et al. 1991; Aiken et al. 1979). METHODS: During the week of June 1 through 6, 2006, plant aboveground biomass and curlyleaf pondweed turions...then slowly brought to the surface, where aboveground biomass and turions were collected and bagged. Shawano Lake, WI June 2006 Biomass sampling points...sampler was pushed into the sediment, triggered, and then slowly raised. Aboveground biomass and turions harvested were collected and bagged

  14. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  15. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.; Park S.W.; Garcia C

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict ...

  16. Robotized Inspection of Vertical Structures of a Solar Power Plant Using NDT Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Felsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power (CSP plants are expansive facilities that require substantial inspection and maintenance. A fully automated inspection robot increases the efficiency of maintenance work, reduces operating and maintenance costs, and improves safety and work conditions for service technicians. This paper describes a climbing robot that is capable of performing inspection and maintenance on vertical surfaces of solar power plants, e.g., the tubes of the receiver in a central tower CSP plant. Specifically, the service robot’s climbing mechanism is explained and the results of the nondestructive inspection methods are reviewed. The robot moves on the panels of the receiver in the tower and aligns the sensors correctly for inspection. The vertical movement of the climbing kinematics is synchronized with the movement of the tower’s crane. Various devices that detect surface defects and thickness losses inside the tube were integrated into the robot. Since the tubes are exposed to very high radiation, they need to be inspected regularly.

  17. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF. Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adjusting irradiation data of clear sky by an irradiation attenuation index, combined with a PV power production attenuation index. The MPVF model consists of an artificial neural network based model (selected among a large set of ANN optimized with genetic algorithms, GAs. The two models use forecasts from the same NWP tool as inputs. The APVF and MPVF models have been applied to a real-life case study of a grid-connected PV plant using the same data. Despite the fact that both models are quite different, they achieve very similar results, with forecast horizons covering all the daylight hours of the following day, which give a good perspective of their applicability for PV electric production sale bids to electricity markets.

  18. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  19. New traits in crops produced by genome editing techniques based on deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schaart, J.G.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in t

  20. New traits in crops produced by genome editing techniques based on deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Schaart, J.G.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in

  1. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  2. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  3. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.

  4. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Il; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae; Lim, Yong Tack; Lee, In Suk; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Yong Su; Yang, Seung Gyun; Choi, Soon Ho; Sim, Dong Bo; Kim, Bong Kyu; Lee, Jang Ha [and others

    2000-04-01

    To improve the crop varieties by using variation, various mutant lines were selected from the materials irradiated with gamma ray due to in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis. The selected mutant lines were evaluated in the agronomic characteristics by field observation and analysis of related DNA patterns in laboratory. the results are summarized as follow; 1. Registered new mutant varieties such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wonkwangbyeo, Wonmibyeo and Heogseonchalbyeo in the national variety list. 2. Advanced 800 mutant lines of rice soybean perilla and sweet potatoes were selected for radiation genetic resources. 3. Promising rice mutants were evaluated in several district regions for releasing. 4. Bagseul, a new mutant variety of Mugungwha (Hibiscus) were developed. 5. Promising soybean mutant lines were selected for improvement of soybean disease resistant, and soybean seed quality. 6. NaCl resistant cell lines were selected in in vitro and analysed the DNA banks. 7. 5-MT and Cysteine resistant cell lines were obtained from in vitro mutagenesis for improvement of rice quality. 8. Other related researches were carried out with coordinated projects. (author)

  5. Reliability and M. T. T. F. analysis of a power plant consisting of three generators by Boolean Function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P.P.; Sharma, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability behaviour of a non-repairable parallel redundant complex system which is nothing but a power plant is investigated. The object of the system is to supply power generated by three generators from a power house to a very critical consumer, connected by cables and switches etc. The reliability of the power supply to the critical consumer has been obtained by using the Boolean Function technique. Moreover, an important parameter of reliability, viz. M.T.T.F. (mean time to failure), has also been computed for exponential failure rates of components. A numerical example with graphs has also been appended in the end to highlight the important results.

  6. Partial root drying irrigation technique: Practical application of drought stress signaling mechanism in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD technique, a novel approach to watering crops, was developed on the basis of knowledge of root-to-shoot signaling in drying soil. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of the PRD treatment on tomato growth and the water regime. The obtained PRD results showed significant reduction in shoot but not fruit growth in the absence of any changes in shoot water status, indicating the involvement of chemical root-to-shoot signals. Higher water use efficiency (WUE results mean that the PRD technique can be used to reduce irrigation water without significant reduction of tomato yield.

  7. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  8. Gross alpha determination in radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants using the track registration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (ion-exchange resins and evaporator concentrates) essentially contain beta and gamma emitters, with very few alpha emitters. Several techniques may be used to determine gross alpha activity but, in this case, solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are a suitable technique for gross alpha determination because track detectors are not sensitive to beta and gamma emitters. Also, this technique is simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we studied the parameters (background, efficiency and self-absorption) that could affect the gross alpha determination using SSNTDs for both sample preparation methods, the 'dry method' with tensioactives and the 'wet method'. For the 'dry method', a self-absorption curve for {sup 241}Am standard was prepared using a set of varying thickness of sodium salt and for two different tensioactives: Tween{sup (R)}20 and Teg. The results showed that, below 1mg/cm{sup 2}, the self-absorption factor can be considered similar for both tensioactives and equal to unity. Several detectors for gross alpha determination were compared and we found that the most suitable techniques were ZnS(Ag) solid scintillator and track detectors. Both detectors were used to compare radioactive waste samples. Finally, the proposed methods ('dry method' with Teg tensioactive and 'wet method') using track detectors were tested by analysing the gross alpha activity of several radioactive wastes.

  9. An impact source localization technique for a nuclear power plant by using sensors of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Jin-Ho; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, a loose part monitoring system (LPMS) provides information on the location and the mass of a loosened or detached metal impacted onto the inner surface of the primary pressure boundary. Typically, accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a reactor vessel to localize the impact location caused by the impact of metallic substances on the reactor system. However, in some cases, the number of accelerometers is not sufficient to estimate the impact location precisely. In such a case, one of useful methods is to utilize other types of sensor that can measure the vibration of the reactor structure. For example, acoustic emission (AE) sensors are installed on the reactor structure to detect leakage or cracks on the primary pressure boundary. However, accelerometers and AE sensors have a different frequency range. The frequency of interest of AE sensors is higher than that of accelerometers. In this paper, we propose a method of impact source localization by using both accelerometer signals and AE signals, simultaneously. The main concept of impact location estimation is based on the arrival time difference of the impact stress wave between different sensor locations. However, it is difficult to find the arrival time difference between sensors, because the primary frequency ranges of accelerometers and AE sensors are different. To overcome the problem, we used phase delays of an envelope of impact signals. This is because the impact signals from the accelerometer and the AE sensor are similar in the whole shape (envelope). To verify the proposed method, we have performed experiments for a reactor mock-up model and a real nuclear power plant. The experimental results demonstrate that we can enhance the reliability and precision of the impact source localization. Therefore, if the proposed method is applied to a nuclear power plant, we can obtain the effect of additional installed sensors.

  10. Study on Breeding of Special Purpose for Oatmeal Pro-cessing Variety Jizhangyan 3-and Its Cultivation Technique%麦片加工专用皮燕麦品种冀张燕3号的选育及配套栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海涛; 杨晓虹; 李天亮; 张新军; 武永祯; 杨才

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to-introduce the breeding of special purpose for oatmeal processing variety Jizhangyan 3 and its euhivation technique. [Method] Jizhangyan 3 was selected from forty-two oat varieties which were introduced from foreign countries by Zhang, jiakou academy of agricultural sciences. The yield performance and the variety characteristic of Jizhangyan 3 were described and its main eultural techniques were introduced. [Result] The growing period of Jizhangyan 3 was 97.60 days, the thousand kernel weight was 36.63 g, and the rate of producing rice was 76.73%. The content of crude protein and crude lipid was 13.31% and 5.29%, respectively. The highest yield was up to 5 266.95 kg/hm2, and the yield in dry-rice land was 3 753.30 kg/hm2, 33.51% higher than Hongqi 2. [Conclusionl Jizhangyan 3 was suitable to be planted in Bashang of Hebei province and the same ecological areas such as Inner Mongolia and Shanxi province.%【目的】介绍麦片加工专用燕麦品种冀张燕3号的选育及配套栽培技术。【方法】冀张燕3号是张家口市农业科学院从国外引进的42个皮燕麦品种中筛选出的优质麦片加工专用型皮燕麦品种。介绍了该品种的产量表现、品种特征特性和栽培技术要点。[结果】该品种生育期97.60d,千粒重36.63g,出米率为76.73%,粗蛋白含量13.31%,粗脂肪含量5.29%,最高产量可达5266.95kg/hm2,一般旱地种植籽实产量为3753.30kg/hm2,比同类主栽品种红旗2号增产33.51%。【结论】该品种适宜在河北坝上以及周边相同生态类型区的内蒙、山西种植、

  11. Transfer method among water content detection models for different breeds of pork by hyperspectral imaging technique%不同品种间的猪肉含水率高光谱模型传递方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇; 李小昱; 郭小许; 金瑞; 徐森淼; 库静

    2014-01-01

    At present, most studies on model transfer were based on different spectrometers, and models were established using the near infrared spectroscopy. In this study, a hyperspectral detection model of water content of fresh pork was established by partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. In order to enhance model prediction applicability to different breeds of pork samples, a new model transfer method, piecewise direct standardization combined with linear interpolation (PDS-LI) was processed. In this method, the spectra of slave breed were corrected according to the spectra difference between master breed and slave breed, and then the corrected spectra of slave breed were predicted by master model. A function based on the prediction and reference values of slave breed samples was established. This function would be used to correct the prediction values of unknown test samples of slave breed. The specific steps were as followed: 1) Samples of master breed were divided into the calibration set and the test set, and the master model was built based on the calibration set by PLSR method. 2) Samples of slave breed were partitioned into standard sample selection set C2, standard sample set C2std and unknown test set T2un, and C2 was used for the selection of C2std and T2un was used to verify the transferred model. 3) Transfer matrix F was calculated by PDS algorithm according to the spectra difference between calibration set in master breed and C2std in slave breed, and then C2std and T2un were respectively corrected by transfer matrix F. 4) In order to improve the prediction accuracy of master model to the corrected spectrum of slave breed, the prediction value of T2un need to be corrected. For sample i in unknown test set T2un, symbiosis distance D(i) between sample i and every sample else in standard sample set C2std was calculated successively. D(i) was the sum of Euclidean distances between converted spectrum and absolute deviation of the prediction values. Two

  12. Protein-protein interactions in the plant Golgi apparatus, studied with FRET acceptor photobleaching technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Peter

    to the plant Golgi apparatus and involved mainly in arabinogalactan protein (AGP) biosynthesis. Co-expression analysis identified 4 GTs and 4 NSTs possibly involved in AGP biosynthesis. As part of the method development, the cytoskeleton-acting agent Cytochalasin D was tested as an inhibitor...... of the actinomyosin based movement of Golgi vesicles, and was proved to be superior to commonly used fixatives such as the cross-linking agent paraformaldehyde which causes quenching of the fluorophores. According to FRET analysis, the results showed association between two galactosyltransferases, AtGALT29A and At...

  13. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  14. High Yield Technique of Virus-free Potato Favorite Planting in Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xia Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To screen the best combination cultivation factors, the orthogonal test was conducted on the 6 factors of virus-free potato Favorite including sowing time, density, urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate and zinc, planted in paddy field of Xian-ning, Luo-tian and Guang-shui. The results showed that: a experimental site had significant influence on growth period (F = 147.08>F0.01, sowing date had great significant influence on growth period (F = 15.68>F0.01, with the delay of sowing date, the growth period was short (R1 = 0.9851**. b Density had great significant influence on yield (F = 4.0>F0.01, the yield could be increased with the density increasing (R2 = 0.9782**, sowing date had significant influence on yield (F = 3.55>F0.05. c The maximum yield and economic return appeared at the treatment of seeding date December 10, seeding density 75000 plant/hm2, N 75 kg/hm2, phosphorus fertilizer 900 kg/hm2, potassium sulfate 450 kg/hm2 and zinc 22.5 kg/hm2, with the yield 31185 kg/hm2 and economic benefit 26833 Yuan/hm2.

  15. Approaches in breeding for high quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Miloje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most African and South American countries. The main problem in human nutrition in developing countries, and in livestock feed in developed countries, is insufficient production and poor quality of cereal proteins. In the case of maize, due to the very low content of essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan in grain endosperm, biological value is very low, which is main limiting factor of common maize in human nutrition and feeding of monogastric animals. Quality protein maize (QPM can help in solving of this problem. Maize production also faces serious constraints caused by agro-ecological conditions and poor socio-economic situation. To alleviate the effect of the constraints, selected genotypes with more desirable traits and appropriate field-plot techniques to create multiple-stress conditions, were used. It was found that, in downy mildew nursery distance up to 35 m from spreader plot is providing sufficient down load of spores for plant infection, provided that the testing breeding materials are planted towards to down-stream direction of the dominant wind. Using these breeding approaches large number of early, white and flint synthetics, composites and inbred lines were created with resistance or tolerance to downy mildew (DMR, maize streak virus (SR and drought (DT. Created genotypes exhibited very good kernel modification and yield potential under low and normal inputs. In the case of synthetics and composites, besides tolerance to multiple stress factors, they were competing in yield with local QPM and normal maize checks. In the case of created inbred lines high combining ability was exhibited both in non-conventional and conventional maize hybrids. Trial data revealed that in the most cases the best entries were over-yielding the best checks.

  16. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase.

  17. Karyotypes of two cytotypes of Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. (Poaceae: an alternative technique for small chromosomes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Speranza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. is a bunchgrass native to Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. Diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes have been reported for this species of the Quadrifaria group of Paspalum. In this group, a high degree of cytogenetic homology between the genomes of several diploid species has been reported, based on meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids; multivalent associations would thus be expected in polyploid hybrids. Karyotype analysis could provide useful information about the genomic architecture of polyploid plants; however, the fully condensed mitotic chromosomes of Paspalum do not provide enough morphological features for such an analysis. In this paper, we used mitotic prometaphase chromosomes treated with 70% acetic acid at 40 °C after cover slip removal. This process removes cytoplasm that remains from chromosome squashes and makes prometaphases available for karyological analysis. The karyotypes of a triploid (2n = 3x = 30 and a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40 accession of Paspalum quadrifarium were studied using this technique, and evidence of segmental allopolyploidy was found in both cases. In both accessions, meiotic behavior was in accordance with that origin. This technique greatly improved the number and quality of analyzable metaphases and prometaphases on otherwise conventional slides and is recommended for plants with small chromosomes.

  18. Effect of Media on Gynogenesis Induction in Leek (allium ampeloprasum L. Breeding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leek (Allium ampeloprasum L. is one of the economically important members of the genus Allium (family:Alliaceae. It is a self-compatible, outbreeding, tetraploid (2n=4X= 32 crop species that is very difficult to improve through traditional breeding strategies. Entegration of doubled haploid (DH techniques such as gynogenesis into the leek breeding programs may speed up the variety development. In order to optimize a gynogenesis induction protocol for leek, we carried out experiments by culturing immature flower buds on various tissue culture media. Among the media tested, BDS and MS-based media with various combinations of plant growth regulators provided gynogenic embryos. Frequencies of gynogenic plantlet development were generally low and plantlets were obtained from almost all media included in the experiments. A total of 48 gynogenic plants were produced from approximately 30 thousand immature flower buds from six donor materials included in the experiments. In the DNA amount measurements performed with flow cytometry, it was found that gynogenic A. ampeloprasum plants were mostly diploid (55.56 % and the others were tetraploid (44.44 %. Diploid and tetraploid gynogenic plants were transferred to in vivo for further evaluation and grown in a greenhouse to produce selfed seed. Our studies with leek and several other Alliums indicate that gynogenesis induction frequencies are generally low due to genotypic effect. In order to obtain sufficient numbers of gynogenic lines from leek breeding populations, high numbers of immature flowers should be cultured on gynogenesis induction media. We suggest use of large size flower buds collected several days prior to anthesis while establishing gynogenesis induction cultures in leek. BDS medium that is commonly used in onion gynogenesis studies can also be used for the production of gynogenic leek lines.

  19. A novel technique for making open-cell AI203-ZrO2 ceramic foam with plant seed template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jingyuan; Li Qiang; Tang Ji; Sun Xudong; Li Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to provide a technique for preparing open-cell AI203-ZrO2 ceramic foams with uniform cell size. This technique used plant seeds to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-ZrO2 slurries with up to 50 vol.% solid contents were prepared and the rheological characteristic of the slurries was investigated. Consolidation was performed at an acceleration of 2,860 g for 60 rain. The effect of the characteristic of plant seeds on the drying behavior of Al2O3- ZrO2 green compact was analyzed. The effects of the solid contents of slurries on segregation phenomena ofAl2O3 and ZrO2 particles and green compact uniformity were investigated. The compressive stress-strain curve and deformation behavior of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams prepared using plant seed template were analyzed. The results showed segregation phenomenon is negligible for highly stable slurry with 50 vol.% solid loading. The prepared cell struts of Al2O3-ZrO2 foams have high green density (61.9% TD), sintered density (99.1% TD) and homogeneous microstructure. When sintered at 1,550 ℃ for 2 h, the cell size of Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform and the diameter is about 1.1 mm. The porosity and compressive strength of sintered products is 66.2% and 5.86 MPa, respectively.

  20. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte

    for online, real-time, parallel analysis of important parameters such as redox activity (NADPH:NADP ratio), H2O2 concentration, oxygen consumption, extracellular pH, cell viability and release of target enzymes (α-amylase and limit dextrinase). Probing the intracellular redox activity is of major importance......Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically......, that the H2O2 concentration changes depending on phytohormone activation or inactivation of aleurone layer metabolism and subsequent PCD3. Currently, we are working on the optimization of an intracellular whole-cell redox activity (NADP:NADPH ratio) assay5 to be able to detect possible changes...