WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant biomass resources

  1. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-05

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions.

  2. Combined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline; Hubert, Daniel; Foulquié, Didier; Garnier, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining -80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring.

  3. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  4. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  5. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  6. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  7. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  8. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  9. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  10. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  11. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J H [Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China); Mo, L-F [School of Information Engineering, Zhejiang Forestry College, Lin' an 311300, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ.

  13. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.

    2008-02-01

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  14. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  15. Plant biomass degradation by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the

  16. Plant biomass degradation by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the

  17. Biomass Resources Distribution in the Terrestrial Ecosystem of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and the multiple linear regression model were used to estimate distribution of biomass resources in 2010. The establishment of models, developed using different vegetation biomass sample data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf area index (LAI, meteorological data, coordinates, terrain data, and statistical data. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model can explain 95.6% of the variance in biomass, with a relative estimation error of 67 g·m−2 for a range of biomass between 0–73,875 g·m−2. Spatial statistic results were consistent with the practical condition in most cases. The above- and below-ground biomass (ABGB of China was estimated to be 31.1 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g in 2010. The forest ecosystem has the largest total biomass, which represents about 70% of the whole terrestrial ecosystem. The desert ecosystem has minimum biomass value. The Belowground Endowment (BRE varied differently in spatial distribution, with the high values occurring in the southeast and northeast. The low values were primarily distributed in north and northwest regions, where it is mostly desert and few plants. Biomass per capita indicates the availability of natural resources per capita. Tibet had the maximum biomass per capita (807 tone in 2010. Shanghai and Tianjin had the minimum biomass per capita, less than 500 kg. Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Hainan had negative growth of biomass per capita.

  18. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  20. Methane production from plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Methane fermentations of plant biomass were performed to increase basic knowledge necessary for development of suitable conversion technologies. Effects of bacterial inoculants, substrate compounds and varied process conditions were analyzed in batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Use of enriched bacterial populations precultured and adapted to plant materials was proved to be advantageous for inoculation. Methane yields and productivities as well as chemical and bacterial composition of digester fluids were determined at various loading rates and retention times during fermentation of different grass and maize silages. Recycling for favorable amounts of decomposed effluent for neutralization of supplied acid raw materials was important to achieve high methane yields. Quantity and composition of acido-, aceto- and methanogenic bacteria were not essentially influenced by changed fermentation conditions. Results of these laboratory examinations have to be completed by long run and scale up experiments to develop control parameters for plant biogas digesters.

  1. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability......, and energetic feasibility by combining the use of a geographical information system with laboratory experiments, statistical analyses, field studies, and literature reviews. The biomasses identified as sustainable in this study were animal manure, straw, surplus grass from agricultural production, grass from...... nature conservation, and grass from roadside verges. It was found that a significant potential of the investigated sustainable biomass resources are available in Denmark, but also on European level. In Europe, the energy potential in 2030 from animal manure, straw and surplus grass was projected to range...

  2. Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    2000-02-01

    Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group (1250 species) of large woody grasses, ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height. Already in everyday use by about 2.5 billion people, mostly for fiber and food within Asia, bamboo may have potential as a bioenergy or fiber crop for niche markets, although some reports of its high productivity seem to be exaggerated. Literature on bamboo productivity is scarce, with most reports coming from various parts of Asia. There is little evidence overall that bamboo is significantly more productive than many other candidate bioenergy crops, but it shares a number of desirable fuel characteristics with certain other bioenergy feedstocks, such as low ash content and alkali index. Its heating value is lower than many woody biomass feedstocks but higher than most agricultural residues, grasses and straws. Although non-fuel applications of bamboo biomass may be actually more profitable than energy recovery, there may also be potential for co-productio n of bioenergy together with other bamboo processing. A significant drawback is the difficulty of selective breeding, given the lack of knowledge of flowering physiology. Further research is also required on propagation techniques, establishment and stand management, and mechanized harvesting needs to be developed.

  3. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.; Broderick, Thomas F.

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  4. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H [Federal Way, WA; Lanning, David N [Federal Way, WA; Broderick, Thomas F [Lake Forest Park, WA

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  5. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  6. Thermophilic and cellulolytic consortium isolated from composting plants improves anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass: Toward a microbial resource management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinet, R; Destain, J; Hiligsmann, S; Thonart, P; Delhalle, L; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Delvigne, F

    2015-01-01

    A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas production, was observed for the cultures inoculated with the exogenous consortium. Metagenomics analyses pointed out a weak richness (related to the number of OTUs) of the exogenous consortium induced by the selective pressure (cellulose as sole carbon source) met during the initial isolation steps. Main microbial strains determined were strictly anaerobic and belong to the Clostridia class. During cellulose anaerobic degradation, pH drop induced a strong modification of the microbial population. Despite the fact that richness and evenness were very weak, the exogenous consortium was able to adapt and to maintain the cellulolytic degradation potential. This important result point out the fact that simplified microbial communities could be used in order to increase the robustness of mixed cultures involved in environmental biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  8. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  9. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  10. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... fuel resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can...... plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. The present paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw firing, woodchip and cofiring of straw with fossil fuels...

  11. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal)...

  12. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...... resource. When straw is combusted, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate are present in ash products, which condense on superheater components. This gives rise to specific chlorine corrosion problems not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly....... With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with fossil fuels are summarised...

  13. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  14. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  15. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  16. [Estimation of aboveground biomass of desert plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengyi; Song, Yudong; Wang, Yuchao; Jiang, Pinan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the research of plant quadrate in Sangong River Basin in Xinjiang, the fitted equations were given, which could be used to estimate the aboveground biomass of typical desert plant by using the thicket characteristics such as length of crown diameter, width of crown diameter, number of basal branch, length of new branch, basal diameter (D) and plant height (H) as parameters. Using the length of crown diameter and the width of crown diameter as parameters, the fitted equation was set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim. It had a relatively high accuracy and a fine linear relationship between the predicted values and measured values. Its coefficient and relative standard deviation was 0.9989 and 4.79%-10.12%, respectively. The results indicated that the fitted equation was easy and available for estimating the aboveground biomass of Reaumuria soongorica Maxim in large scale. The fitted equations were also set up and tested for estimating the aboveground biomass of Haloxylon ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima by using the basal diameter and height of plant as the parameters. The coefficients and relative standard deviations of these equations were 0.9902, 0.9875 and 6.87%-19.22%, 7.49%-18.47%, respectively. Therefore, estimating the biomass of Reaumuria soongorica in large scale through crown characteristics was available, and estimating the biomass of Halaxylon Ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima through crown characteristics would produce certain error.

  17. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  18. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. (Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi`s CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  20. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  1. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  2. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  3. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related...

  4. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  5. Balanced Ecological Use of Biomass Resources in DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    As Denmark has no hydro power, biomass resources play an important role for a future sustainable energy system. Especially surplus straw and animal manure (for biogas) from agriculture. This paper describes the potential of biomass in the Danish energy supply system three to four decades ahead...

  6. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a 13CO2 pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root–shoot ratio for both plant biomass and 13C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated 13C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution. PMID:20484231

  7. Biomass structure of exotic invasive plant Galinsona parviflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyan QI; Wenduo XU; Yan WEN

    2008-01-01

    Galinsona parviflora (Asteraceae) is a wide-spread annual weed that is invasive,colonizing new ground where it is able to persist.We studied the bio-mass structure of the G.Parviflora population at the module level by using the methods of field plot invest-igation and weighing at 10 sample plots.Modular bio-mass was calculated and used for analysis of relation-ships between various modules.The results show that there was a positive correlation between plant height and modular biomass,between stem biomass and root biomass,stem biomass and capitulum biomass,above-ground biomass and underground biomass,and lastly,stem biomass and leaf biomass.The preferred model which measured all the relationships was a power func-tion model with absolute coefficients(R2) ranging from 0.6303 to 0.9782.

  8. BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falster, Daniel; Duursma, Remko; Ishihara, Masae; Barneche, Diego; Fitzjohn, Richard; Varhammar, Angelica; Aiba, Masahiro; Ando, M.; Anten, Niels; Aspinwall, Michael J.; Baltzer, Jennifer; Baraloto, Christopher; Battaglia, Michael; Battles, John; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; van Breugel, Michiel; Camac, James; Claveau, Yves; Coll Mir, Llus; Dannoura, Dannoura; Delagrange, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Cristophe; Fatemi, Farrah; Feng, Wang; Gargaglione, Veronica; Goto, Yoshiaki; Hagihara, Akio; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hamilton, Steve; Harja, Degi; Hiura, Tsutom; Holdaway, Robert; Hutley, L. B.; Ichie, Tomoaki; Jokela, Eric; Kantola, Anu; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Kenzo, Tanaka; King, David A.; Kloeppel, Brian; Kohyama, Takashi; Komiyama, Akira; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Lusk, Christopher; Maguire, Doug; le Maire, Guerric; Makela, Annikki; Markesteijn, Lars; Marshall, John; McCulloh, Kate; Miyata, Itsuo; Mokany, Karen; Mori, Shigeta; Myster, Randall; Nagano, Masahiro; Naidu, Shawna; Nouvellon, Yann; O' Grady, Anthony; O' Hara, Kevin; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Osada, Noriyuki; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Luis Peri, Pablo; Petritan, Mary; Poorter, Lourens; Portsmuth, Angelika; Potvin, Catherine; Ransijn, Johannes; Reid, Douglas; Ribeiro, Sabina C.; Roberts, Scott; Rodriguez, Rolando; Saldana-Acosta, Angela; Santa-Regina, Ignacio; Sasa, Kaichiro; Gailia Selaya, Nadezhda; Sillett, Stephen; Sterck, Frank; Takagi, Kentaro; Tange, Takeshi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Tissue, David; Umehara, Tohru; Utsugi, Hajime; Vadeboncoeur, Matthew; Valladares, Fernando; Vanninen, Petteri; Wang, Jian; Wenk, Elizabeth; Williams, Dick; Ximenes, Fabiano de Aquino; Yamaba, Atsushi; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamakura, Takuo; Yanai, Ruth; York, Robert

    2015-05-07

    Quantifying the amount of mass or energy invested in plant tissues is of fundamental interest across a range of disciplines, including ecology, forestry, ecosystem science, and climate change science (Niklas, 1994; Chave et al. 2005; Falster et al. 2011). The allocation of net primary production into different plant components is an important process affecting the lifetime of carbon in ecosystems, and resource use and productivity by plants (Cannell & Dewar, 1994; Litton et al. 2007; Poorter et al. 2012). While many studies in have destructively harvested woody plants in the name of science, most of these data have only been made available in the form of summary tables or figures included in publications. Until now, the raw data has resided piecemeal on the hard drives of individual scientists spread around the world. Several studies have gathered together the fitted (allometric) equations for separate datasets (Ter-Mikaelian & Korzukhin, 1997; Jenkins et al. 2003; Zianis et al. 2005; Henry et al. 2013), but none have previously attempted to organize and share the raw individual plant data underpinning these equations on a large scale. Gathered together, such data would represent an important resource for the community, meeting a widely recognised need for rich, open data resources to solve ecological problems (Costello et al. 2013; Fady et al. 2014; Harfoot & Roberts, 2014; Costello et al. 2013). We (D.S. Falster and R.A. Duursma, with the help of D.R. Barneche, R.G. FitzJohn and A. Vårhammar) set out to create such a resource, by asking authors directly whether they would be willing to make their raw data files freely available. The response was overwhelming: nearly everyone we contacted was interested to contribute their raw data. Moreover, we were invited to incorporate another compilation led by M. Ishihara and focussing on Japanese literature. As a result, we present BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, comprising data collected in 174

  9. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  10. Geographic and habitat origin influence biomass production and storage translocation in the clonal plant Aegopodium podagraria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina D'Hertefeldt

    Full Text Available Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more (14C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants.

  11. Geographic and habitat origin influence biomass production and storage translocation in the clonal plant Aegopodium podagraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Eneström, Johanna M; Pettersson, Lars B

    2014-01-01

    Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more (14)C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants.

  12. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  13. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  14. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  15. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  16. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  17. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  18. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  19. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  20. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  1. Resources of medicinal plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.

  2. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  3. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    The latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have indicated that human activities are directly responsible for a significant portion of global warming trends. In response to the growing concerns regarding climate change and efforts to create a sustainable energy future, biomass energy has come to the forefront as a clean and sustainable energy resource. Biomass energy resources are environmentally clean and carbon neutral with net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, since CO2 is absorbed or sequestered from the atmosphere during the plant growth. Hence, biomass energy mitigates greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that would otherwise be added to the environment by conventional fossil fuels, such as coal. The use of biomass resources for energy is even more relevant in Ohio, as the power industry is heavily based on coal, providing about 90 percent of the state's total electricity while only 50 percent of electricity comes from coal at the national level. The burning of coal for electricity generation results in substantial GHG emissions and environmental pollution, which are responsible for global warming and acid rain. Ohio is currently one of the top emitters of GHG in the nation. This dissertation research examines the potential use of biomass resources by analyzing key economic, environmental, and policy issues related to the energy needs of Ohio over a long term future (2001-2030). Specifically, the study develops a dynamic linear programming model (OH-MARKAL) to evaluate biomass cofiring as an option in select coal power plants (both existing and new) to generate commercial electricity in Ohio. The OH-MARKAL model is based on the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) framework. Using extensive data on the power industry and biomass resources of Ohio, the study has developed the first comprehensive power sector model for Ohio. Hence, the model can serve as an effective tool for Ohio's energy planning, since it evaluates economic and environmental

  4. Biomass potential resources identification in Togean Islands, Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyamin, A.; Purnomo, D.

    2017-05-01

    Togean Islands is one of remote area in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Togean has been already well known for its great underwater scenery which fascinating many foreign tourists stay there. The large number of visits to Togean doesn’t mean at the same time it brings much improvement to local economy. People in Togean was used to live with limited utilities. Water and electricity are the two major problems that have been faced by the communities for many years. On the other hand, Togean has a very good potential for the development of biomass as a renewable energy source. This paper evaluated the potency of each resources using some parameters including availability, social support, technology feasibilities and sustainability aspect. Biomass potential resources that were investigated are hardwoods and forestry product, agroindustrial waste and by-products, and also household waste. Advanced analysis has concluded that the most feasible resources that eligible to be considered as future biomass resources is household waste followed by agro-industrial and agricultural waste then hardwood and forestry products.

  5. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  6. Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Strecker, Tanja; Lanoue, Arnaud; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  7. Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Lanoue, Arnaud; Strecker, Tanja; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, Liesje

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  8. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  9. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  10. Parametric Optimization of Biomass Steam-and-Gas Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sednin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a parametric analysis of the simplest scheme of a steam-and gas plant for the conditions required for biomass burning. It has been shown that application of gas-turbine and steam-and-gas plants can significantly exceed an efficiency of steam-power supply units which are used at the present moment. Optimum thermo-dynamical conditions for application of steam-and gas plants with the purpose to burn biomass require new technological solutions in the field of heat-exchange equipment designs.

  11. Is biomass a reliable estimate of plant fitness?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginger, Brett S.; Sirová, Dagmara; Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Ballhorn, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of fitness is critical to biological research. Although the determination of fitness for some organisms may be relatively straightforward under controlled conditions, it is often a difficult or nearly impossible task in nature. Plants are no exception. The potential for long-distance pollen dispersal, likelihood of multiple reproductive events per inflorescence, varying degrees of reproductive growth in perennials, and asexual reproduction all confound accurate fitness measurements. For these reasons, biomass is frequently used as a proxy for plant fitness. However, the suitability of indirect fitness measurements such as plant size is rarely evaluated. This review outlines the important associations between plant performance, fecundity, and fitness. We make a case for the reliability of biomass as an estimate of fitness when comparing conspecifics of the same age class. We reviewed 170 studies on plant fitness and discuss the metrics commonly employed for fitness estimations. We find that biomass or growth rate are frequently used and often positively associated with fecundity, which in turn suggests greater overall fitness. Our results support the utility of biomass as an appropriate surrogate for fitness under many circumstances, and suggest that additional fitness measures should be reported along with biomass or growth rate whenever possible. PMID:28224055

  12. Influence of plant community composition on biomass production in planted grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschell, Max A; Webster, Christopher R; Flaspohler, David J; Fortin, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity.

  13. SSCM analyses of biomass resources in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This project has been commissioned by ENERCOAST whose overall aim is to stimulate increased use and production of biomass, and create a market for bio energy in the North Sea region. The Enercoast project has been financed by the EU Interreg IVB with partners from Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden and Norway. The Danish project leader is AgroBusiness Park/ CBMI /Innovation Centre for Bioenergy and Environmental Technology. Central Region Denmark is co-financing 34% of the Danish portion of the project, while the municipalities of Norddjurs, Syddjurs and Randers are contributing to the project with their working hours. The Danish portion of this project focuses on three Danish municipalities, Randers, Norddjurs, and Syddjurs, and the possibilities to reach local energy and climate targets by increasing the use and production of biomass. The project is divided into 6 phases of which this report is part of the second and third phase which focus on analyses of various biomass resources on a local level including carrying out SSCM analyses of these resources. The aim of this report is to assess the sustainability of relevant bio energy supply chains related to the resource accessibility in the three municipalities with main focus on biogas, straw, wood residues and energy crops for combined heat and power production. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is a concept that has many definitions and the methodologies used to approach this are numerous. In this report the SSCM analysis is used to answer the following question: What are the possibilities of increased use of biomass for energy production in the three municipalities, and what consequences are associated with the utilisation of each of the selected resources described through our case studies? For each of the resource case studies an overview of the supply chain is illustrated through a matrix. Each step of the supply chain from the primal material production in on end to heat and electricity

  14. Plant population and row spacing on biomass sorghum yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Biomass sorghum is one of the most promising crops for the production of electricity through the burning in high-pressure boilers, due to its high calorific value, high yield, seed propagation, short cycle, and to the possibility of full mechanization of its agricultural processes. However, there is still a lack of information about its cultural practices. To this end, this research aimed to evaluate the influence of row spacing and plant population on the yield performance of biomass sorghum. The experimental design was a randomized block, in factorial scheme of 4 x 4, with four row spacings (0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1m, and four plant populations (80,000; 100,000; 120,000 and 140,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of tillers per plant, fresh weight per plant and biomass. Total biomass yield was greatly influenced by the row spacing, showing a sharp reduction when row spacing increased, in the two years of study, changing from 180.27 to 114.42t ha-1 in the 2012/13 crop year, and from 146.50 to 102.56t ha-1 in the 2013/14 crop year, for 0.5 and 1.1m between rows, respectively. The lowest yields observed in the second year of the study were due to unfavorable weather conditions in the period.

  15. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  16. Unlocking the potential of lignocellulosic biomass through plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Poppy E; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of producing sustainable liquid biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass remains high on the sustainability agenda, but is challenged by the costs of producing fermentable sugars from these materials. Sugars from plant biomass can be fermented to alcohols or even alkanes, creating a liquid fuel in which carbon released on combustion is balanced by its photosynthetic capture. Large amounts of sugar are present in the woody, nonfood parts of crops and could be used for fuel production without compromising global food security. However, the sugar in woody biomass is locked up in the complex and recalcitrant lignocellulosic plant cell wall, making it difficult and expensive to extract. In this paper, we review what is known about the major polymeric components of woody plant biomass, with an emphasis on the molecular interactions that contribute to its recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion. In addition, we review the extensive research that has been carried out in order to understand and reduce lignocellulose recalcitrance and enable more cost-effective production of fuel from woody plant biomass.

  17. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank

    2011-01-01

    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.

  18. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients.

  19. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  20. How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Christian; Hammond, John P; White, Philip J; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2006-12-01

    Plants constantly sense the changes in their environment; when mineral elements are scarce, they often allocate a greater proportion of their biomass to the root system. This acclimatory response is a consequence of metabolic changes in the shoot and an adjustment of carbohydrate transport to the root. It has long been known that deficiencies of essential macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium) result in an accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves and roots, and modify the shoot-to-root biomass ratio. Here, we present an update on the effects of mineral deficiencies on the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism in the shoot, the evidence for increased carbohydrate concentrations and altered biomass allocation between shoot and root, and the consequences of these changes on the growth and morphology of the plant root system.

  1. Gramene database: navigating plant comparative genomics resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationship...

  2. Controversy over Biomass Plant at Florida State Heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Florida State University officials are gearing up for what could be another bruising battle this month over a proposed biomass plant that could bring the campus cleaner, cheaper energy and monetary support for alternative-energy research. Or, it could bring noise and pollution to a nearby neighborhood, according to…

  3. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  4. Marine macroscopic plants as biomass sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of marine plants, recent and current research, and studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and California Institute of Technology are reviewed. The latter program including laboratory and field studies on giant kelp is discussed. The use of deep ocean water and the nutrient requirements of giant kelp were studied. Test farm structure and problems are presented. (MHR)

  5. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  6. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  7. Measuring Biomass and Carbon Stock in Resprouting Woody Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Radim; Damborská, Lenka; Nečasová, Monika; Geršl, Milan; Šrámek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Resprouting multi-stemmed woody plants form an important component of the woody vegetation in many ecosystems, but a clear methodology for reliable measurement of their size and quick, non-destructive estimation of their woody biomass and carbon stock is lacking. Our goal was to find a minimum number of sprouts, i.e., the most easily obtainable, and sprout parameters that should be measured for accurate sprout biomass and carbon stock estimates. Using data for 5 common temperate woody species, we modelled carbon stock and sprout biomass as a function of an increasing number of sprouts in an interaction with different sprout parameters. The mean basal diameter of only two to five of the thickest sprouts and the basal diameter and DBH of the thickest sprouts per stump proved to be accurate estimators for the total sprout biomass of the individual resprouters and the populations of resprouters, respectively. Carbon stock estimates were strongly correlated with biomass estimates, but relative carbon content varied among species. Our study demonstrated that the size of the resprouters can be easily measured, and their biomass and carbon stock estimated; therefore, resprouters can be simply incorporated into studies of woody vegetation. PMID:25719601

  8. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  9. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    The objective of the project is to investigate critical issues associated with cofiring with low-NOx burners and cofiring in advanced suspension-fired plants with for example high-temperature steam cycles. Experience has been gained using biofuels for cofiring in older power plant units. However...... modelling tool adapted to accommodate biomass cofiring combustion features. The CFD tool will be able to predict deposit accumulation, particle conversion, fly ash composition, temperatures, velocities, and composition of furnace gases, etc. The computer model will primarily be used in the development...... of advanced cofired combustion and potentially gasification systems and secondarily to resolve immediate and critical issues associated with cofired systems. Another essential issue is the assessment of fuel flexibility in cofired plants to help keep biomass use competitive compared to other renewable...

  10. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  12. Iron nutrition, biomass production, and plant product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briat, Jean-François; Dubos, Christian; Gaymard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in modern agriculture is increasing biomass production, while improving plant product quality, in a sustainable way. Of the minerals, iron (Fe) plays a major role in this process because it is essential both for plant productivity and for the quality of their products. Fe homeostasis is an important determinant of photosynthetic efficiency in algae and higher plants, and we review here the impact of Fe limitation or excess on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. We also discuss the agronomic, plant breeding, and transgenic approaches that are used to remediate Fe deficiency of plants on calcareous soils, and suggest ways to increase the Fe content and bioavailability of the edible parts of crops to improve human diet.

  13. Genetic modification of plant cell walls to enhance biomass yield and biofuel production in bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanting; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Sun, Dan; Wang, Youmei; Peng, Liangcai

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls represent an enormous biomass resource for the generation of biofuels and chemicals. As lignocellulose property principally determines biomass recalcitrance, the genetic modification of plant cell walls has been posed as a powerful solution. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the effects of distinct cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, wall proteins) on the enzymatic digestibility of biomass under various physical and chemical pretreatments in herbaceous grasses, major agronomic crops and fast-growing trees. We also compare the main factors of wall polymer features, including cellulose crystallinity (CrI), hemicellulosic Xyl/Ara ratio, monolignol proportion and uronic acid level. Furthermore, the review presents the main gene candidates, such as CesA, GH9, GH10, GT61, GT43 etc., for potential genetic cell wall modification towards enhancing both biomass yield and enzymatic saccharification in genetic mutants and transgenic plants. Regarding cell wall modification, it proposes a novel groove-like cell wall model that highlights to increase amorphous regions (density and depth) of the native cellulose microfibrils, providing a general strategy for bioenergy crop breeding and biofuel processing technology.

  14. Research on the Intensive Material Management System of Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruosi; Hao, Tianyi; Li, Yunxiao; Zhang, Fangqing; Ding, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    In view of the universal problem which the material management is loose, and lack of standardization and interactive real-time in the biomass power plant, a system based on the method of intensive management is proposed in this paper to control the whole process of power plant material. By analysing the whole process of power plant material management and applying the Internet of Things, the method can simplify the management process. By making use of the resources to maximize and data mining, material utilization, circulation rate and quality control management can be improved. The system has been applied in Gaotang power plant, which raised the level of materials management and economic effectiveness greatly. It has an important significance for safe, cost-effective and highly efficient operation of the plant.

  15. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  16. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    . Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass......This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  17. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang

    2007-01-01

    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  18. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, Meelis; Davison, John; Gerhold, Pille; Metsis, Madis; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Wilson, Scott D

    2014-07-01

    Although experiments show a positive association between vascular plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species richness, evidence from natural ecosystems is scarce. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about how AMF richness varies with belowground plant richness and biomass. We examined relationships among AMF richness, above- and belowground plant richness, and plant root and shoot biomass in a native North American grassland. Root-colonizing AMF richness and belowground plant richness were detected from the same bulk root samples by 454-sequencing of the AMF SSU rRNA and plant trnL genes. In total we detected 63 AMF taxa. Plant richness was 1.5 times greater belowground than aboveground. AMF richness was significantly positively correlated with plant species richness, and more strongly with below- than aboveground plant richness. Belowground plant richness was positively correlated with belowground plant biomass and total plant biomass, whereas aboveground plant richness was positively correlated only with belowground plant biomass. By contrast, AMF richness was negatively correlated with belowground and total plant biomass. Our results indicate that AMF richness and plant belowground richness are more strongly related with each other and with plant community biomass than with the plant aboveground richness measures that have been almost exclusively considered to date.

  19. Digital Biomass Accumulation Using High-Throughput Plant Phenotype Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Ahsan, Md Asif; Gillani, Zeeshan; Chen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Biomass is an important phenotypic trait in functional ecology and growth analysis. The typical methods for measuring biomass are destructive, and they require numerous individuals to be cultivated for repeated measurements. With the advent of image-based high-throughput plant phenotyping facilities, non-destructive biomass measuring methods have attempted to overcome this problem. Thus, the estimation of plant biomass of individual plants from their digital images is becoming more important. In this paper, we propose an approach to biomass estimation based on image derived phenotypic traits. Several image-based biomass studies state that the estimation of plant biomass is only a linear function of the projected plant area in images. However, we modeled the plant volume as a function of plant area, plant compactness, and plant age to generalize the linear biomass model. The obtained results confirm the proposed model and can explain most of the observed variance during image-derived biomass estimation. Moreover, a small difference was observed between actual and estimated digital biomass, which indicates that our proposed approach can be used to estimate digital biomass accurately.

  20. Report on preliminary survey of biomass resources. Baiomasu no shigen yobi chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    Biomass resources come to public notice as a part of the development of alternative energy. The special features of distribution of resources by the metropolis and districts were grasped and the biomass resources in Hokkaido as the model district were surveyed in detail. The amount of existing biomass resources in Japan is approximately one and a half billion tons and the forest land accounts for 94% of it. The amount of production of biomass and amount of available energy are approximately 160 million tons and approximately 100 million tons, respectively. Since the amount of production of biomass in Hokkaido is only 14% of that in Japan though the amount of existing biomass resources is 22%, the production capacity per unit area of land must be increased. The productions of alcohol from glucide and starch and the recovery of silicon for semiconductor (seven times the nationwide production) from rice hulls are promising. The productions of methane and compost from the other resources are expected. The promising areas of biomass resources in Hokkaido are Obihiro, Asahikawa and three regions along the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. (21 figs, 29 tabs)

  1. The Forest Biomass Resource of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost; James O. Howard; Bert Mead; William H. McWilliams; W. Brad Smith; Dwane D. van Hooser; Eric H. Wharton

    1990-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomass statistics have been published for most states. However, the existing aggregate data are either limited or out of date. The most recent statistics on biomass were for 1980 (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1981). The development of such data continues to lag even though user interest is high. This study was initiated to provide current...

  2. A-xylosidase enhanced conversion of plant biomass into fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Borrusch, Melissa

    2016-08-02

    The invention relates to increasing the availability of fermentable sugars from plant biomass, such as glucose and xylose. As described herein, .alpha.-xylosidases can be employed with cellulases to enhance biomass conversion into free, fermentable sugar residues.

  3. Biomass based micro-turbine plant and distribution network stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [Jaen Univ., Linares (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2004-10-01

    Micro-turbine systems that enable the use of biomass are important for future technologies for electricity production. These distributed resources are dynamic devices, and when connected to the distribution system, they will affect its dynamic behavior. The micro-turbine is capable of providing effective load following service in the distribution system. However, the results also show that the micro-turbine system is not an uninterruptible power supply and does not protect the load from voltage instability while in a grid connect mode. (Author)

  4. Combating corrosion in biomass and waste fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden). Research and Development; Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall AB, Gothenburg (Sweden). Power Consultant

    2010-07-01

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest in reducing the costs associated with high temperature corrosion and at the same time there exists a desire to improve the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of higher steam temperatures. Assuming that the fuel is well-mixed and that there is good combustion control, there are in addition a number of other measures which can be used to reduce superheater corrosion in biomass and waste fired plants, and these are described in this paper. These include the use of fuel additives, specifically sulphur-containing ones; design aspects like placing superheaters in less corrosive positions in a boiler, using tube shielding, a wider pitch between the tubes; operational considerations such as more controlled soot-blowing and the use of better materials. (orig.)

  5. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  6. Catalytic conversion of renewable biomass resources to fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; West, Ryan M; Dumesic, James A

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and cheap, and it has the potential to displace fossil fuels in the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass-derived carboxylic acids are important compounds that can be used as platform molecules for the production of a variety of important chemicals on a large scale. Lactic acid, a prototypical biomass derivative, and levulinic acid, an important chemical feedstock produced by hydrolysis of waste cellulosic materials, can be upgraded using bifunctional catalysts (those containing metal and acid sites), which allows the integration of several transformations (e.g., oxygen removal and C-C coupling) in a single catalyst bed. This coupling between active sites is beneficial in that it reduces the complexity and cost of the biomass conversion processes. Deoxygenation of biomass derivatives is a requisite step for the production of fuels and chemicals, and strategies are proposed to minimize the consumption of hydrogen from an external source during this process.

  7. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    is lost in the biomass torrefaction process, the total efficiencies based on untreated biomass to DME were 64% for the RC plant and 59% for the OT plant. CO2 emissions could be reduced to 3% (RC) or 10% (OT) of the input carbon in the torrefied biomass, by using CO2 capture and storage together...... with certain plant design changes. Accounting for the torrefaction process, which occurs outside the plant, the emissions became 22% (RC) and 28% (OT) of the carbon in the untreated biomass. The estimated costs of the produced DME were $11.9/GJLHV for the RC plant, and $12.9/GJLHV for the OT plant...... complete conversion of the carbon in the torrefied biomass, to carbon in the produced methanol, was achieved (97% conversion). The methanol yield per unit biomass input was therefore increased from 66% (the large-scale DME plant) to 128% (LHV). The total energy efficiency was however reduced from 71% (the...

  8. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  9. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuels potential in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duku, Moses Hensley [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute of Industrial Research, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. Box LG 576, Legon (Ghana); Gu, Sai [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hagan, Essel Ben [Institute of Industrial Research, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. Box LG 576, Legon (Ghana)

    2011-01-15

    Biomass is the major energy source in Ghana contributing about 64% of Ghana's primary energy supply. In this paper, an assessment of biomass resources and biofuels production potential in Ghana is given. The broad areas of energy crops, agricultural crop residues, forest products residues, urban wastes and animal wastes are included. Animal wastes are limited to those produced by domesticated livestock. Agricultural residues included those generated from sugarcane, maize, rice, cocoa, oil palm, coconut, sorghum and millet processing. The urban category is subdivided into municipal solid waste, food waste, sewage sludge or bio-solids and waste grease. The availability of these types of biomass, together with a brief description of possible biomass conversion routes, sustainability measures, and current research and development activities in Ghana is given. It is concluded that a large availability of biomass in Ghana gives a great potential for biofuels production from these biomass resources. (author)

  10. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  11. Accelerated Sequestration of Terrestrial Plant Biomass in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most efficient uses of aboveground agricultural residues to reduce atmospheric CO2 is burial in sites removed from contact with the atmosphere and in which degradation of lignocellulose is inhibited (Strand and Benford 2009). Similarly by burying forest residues greater benefits for atmospheric carbon accrue compared to incineration or bioethanol production. Accessible planetary sites that are most removed from contact with the atmosphere are primarily the deep ocean sediments. Many deep ocean sediment ecologies are acclimated to massive inputs of terrestrial plant biomass. Nonetheless, marine degradation rates of lignocellulose are slower than terrestrial rates (Keil et al. 2010). Additionally, anaerobic conditions are easily achieved in many deep ocean sediments, inhibiting lignocellulose degradation further, while the dominance of sulfate in the water column as electron acceptor prevents the release of methane from methanogenesis to the atmosphere. The potential benefit of massive removal of excess terrestrial biomass to the deep ocean will be estimated and compared to other uses including biochar and BECS. The impact of the biomass on the marine environment will be discussed and potential sequestration sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic compared. Keil, R. G., J. M. Nuwer, et al. (2010). "Burial of agricultural byproducts in the deep sea as a form of carbon sequestration: A preliminary experiment." Marine Chemistry (In Press, online 6 August 2010). Strand, S. E. and G. Benford (2009). "Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments." Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(4): 1000-1007.

  12. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  13. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

  14. Transcriptome and exoproteome analysis of utilization of plant-derived biomass by Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbusz, Magdalena Anna; Di Falco, Marcos; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Marqueteau, Sandrine; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Baptista, Cassio da Silva; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila is a thermophilic fungus whose genome encodes a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) involved in plant biomass degradation. Such enzymes have potential applications in turning different kinds of lignocellulosic feedstock into sugar precursors for biofuels and chemicals. The present study examined and compared the transcriptomes and exoproteomes of M. thermophila during cultivation on different types of complex biomass to gain insight into how its secreted enzymatic machinery varies with different sources of lignocellulose. In the transcriptome analysis three monocot (barley, oat, triticale) and three dicot (alfalfa, canola, flax) plants were used whereas in the proteome analysis additional substrates, i.e. wood and corn stover pulps, were included. A core set of 59 genes encoding CAZymes was up-regulated in response to both monocot and dicot straws, including nine polysaccharide monooxygenases and GH10, but not GH11, xylanases. Genes encoding additional xylanolytic enzymes were up-regulated during growth on monocot straws, while genes encoding additional pectinolytic enzymes were up-regulated in response to dicot biomass. Exoproteome analysis was generally consistent with the conclusions drawn from transcriptome analysis, but additional CAZymes that accumulated to high levels were identified. Despite the wide variety of biomass sources tested some CAZy family members were not expressed under any condition. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view from both transcriptome and exoproteome levels, of how M. thermophila responds to a wide range of biomass sources using its genomic resources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  16. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  17. Visual comparative omics of fungi for plant biomass deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Miyauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood-decay fungi are able to decompose plant cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Such fungal capabilities may be exploited for the enhancement of directed enzymatic degradation of recalcitrant plant biomass. The comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi using a multi-omics approach gives not only new insights into the strategies for decomposing complex plant materials but also basic knowledge for the design of combinations of enzymes for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT, to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data. The ABCDEFGT workflow is primarily constructed of self-organizing maps for grouping genes with similar transcription patterns and an overlay with secreted proteins. The ABCDEFGT workflow produces simple graphic outputs of genome-wide transcriptomes and secretomes. It enables visual inspection without a priori of the omics data, facilitating discoveries of co-regulated genes and proteins. Genome-wide omics landscapes were built with the newly sequenced fungal species Pycnoporus coccineus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus grown on various carbon sources. Integration of the post-genomic data showed a global overlap, confirming the pertinence of the genome-wide approach to study the fungal biological responses to the carbon sources. Our method was compared to a recently-developed clustering method in order to assess the biological relevance of the method and ease of interpretation. Our approach provided a better biological representation of fungal behaviors. The genome-wide multi-omics strategy allowed us to determine the potential synergy of enzymes participating in the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin such as Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases (LPMO, modular enzymes associated with a cellulose binding module

  18. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology.

  19. Assessment of the phytoextraction potential of high biomass crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Allica, Javier [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [NEIKER-tecnalia, Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)], E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.net

    2008-03-15

    A hydroponic screening method was used to identify high biomass crop plants with the ability to accumulate metals. Highest values of shoot accumulation were found in maize cv. Ranchero, rapeseed cv. Karat, and cardoon cv. Peralta for Pb (18 753 mg kg{sup -1}), Zn (10 916 mg kg{sup -1}), and Cd (242 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. Subsequently, we tested the potential of these three cultivars for the phytoextraction of a metal spiked compost, finding out that, in cardoon and maize plants, increasing Zn and Cd concentrations led to lower values of root and shoot DW. By contrast, rapeseed shoot growth was not significantly affected by Cd concentration. Finally, a metal polluted soil was used to check these cultivars' phytoextraction capacity. Although the soil was phytotoxic enough to prevent the growth of cardoon and rapeseed plants, maize plants phytoextracted 3.7 mg Zn pot{sup -1}. We concluded that the phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies depending on the screening method used. - The phytoextraction performance of cultivars varies significantly depending on the screening method used.

  20. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Schultz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness.

  1. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    2012-04-30

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  2. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  3. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  4. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  5. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  6. Gramene database: Navigating plant comparative genomics resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Gupta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gramene (http://www.gramene.org is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationships to enrich the annotation of genomic data and provides tools to perform powerful comparative analyses across a wide spectrum of plant species. It consists of an integrated portal for querying, visualizing and analyzing data for 44 plant reference genomes, genetic variation data sets for 12 species, expression data for 16 species, curated rice pathways and orthology-based pathway projections for 66 plant species including various crops. Here we briefly describe the functions and uses of the Gramene database.

  7. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  8. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  10. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with bioactive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Plant biomass particles coated with a bioactive agent such as a fertilizer or pesticide, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  11. Thermoelectric-Driven Autonomous Sensors for a Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Gubía, E.; Sorbet, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the design and development of a thermoelectric generator intended to harness waste heat in a biomass power plant, and generate electric power to operate sensors and the required electronics for wireless communication. The first objective of the work is to design the optimum thermoelectric generator to harness heat from a hot surface, and generate electric power to operate a flowmeter and a wireless transmitter. The process is conducted by using a computational model, presented in previous papers, to determine the final design that meets the requirements of electric power consumption and number of transmissions per minute. Finally, the thermoelectric generator is simulated to evaluate its performance. The final device transmits information every 5 s. Moreover, it is completely autonomous and can be easily installed, since no electric wires are required.

  12. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2014-06-24

    Plant biomass particles coated with a biological agent such as a bacterium or seed, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  13. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    In order to meet national and European targets regarding reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases, fossil fuels are gradually being substituted with biomass, such as straw, wood chips and wood pellets, in Danish combined heat and power plants. The release of inorganic elements, present...... particle size distribution, from an aerodynamic diameter of 0.12 to 2.6 μm, showed no effect on the catalyst deactivation rate. This may be attributed to a continued presence of a significant number of ultrafine KCl particles in the flue gas. The K2SO4 aerosols caused a slower rate of deactivation compared...... to the KCl aerosols. This indicates that potassium bound in K2SO4 deposits, on the catalyst surface, is less mobile than that bound KCl. However, an effect of particle size on the catalyst deactivation cannot be excluded, as the obtained K2SO4 aerosols generally were shifted towards larger particles (mass...

  14. Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling Techniques on Submersed Aquatic Plants in a Northern Tier Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Madsen et al. 1991; Aiken et al. 1979). METHODS: During the week of June 1 through 6, 2006, plant aboveground biomass and curlyleaf pondweed turions...then slowly brought to the surface, where aboveground biomass and turions were collected and bagged. Shawano Lake, WI June 2006 Biomass sampling points...sampler was pushed into the sediment, triggered, and then slowly raised. Aboveground biomass and turions harvested were collected and bagged

  15. Visual Comparative Omics of Fungi for Plant Biomass Deconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shingo; Navarro, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lipzen, Anna; Riley, Robert; Chevret, Didier; Grisel, Sacha; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-01-01

    Wood-decay fungi contain the cellular mechanisms to decompose such plant cell wall components as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A multi-omics approach to the comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi gives not only new insights into their strategies for decomposing recalcitrant plant biomass, but also an understanding of how to exploit these mechanisms for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT), to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data. ABCDEFGT utilizes self-organizing maps for grouping genes with similar transcription patterns, and an overlay with secreted proteins. The key feature of ABCDEFGT is simple graphic outputs of genome-wide transcriptomic and secretomic topographies, which enables visual inspection without a priori of the omics data and facilitates discoveries of co-regulated genes and proteins. Genome-wide omics landscapes were built with the newly sequenced fungal species Pycnoporus coccineus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus grown on various carbon sources. Integration of the post-genomic data revealed a global overlap, confirming the pertinence of the genome-wide approach. ABCDEFGT was evaluated by comparison with the latest clustering method for ease of output interpretation, and ABCDEFGT gave a better biological representation of fungal behaviors. The genome-wide multi-omics strategy allowed us to determine the potential synergy of particular enzymes decomposing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin such as Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases, modular enzymes associated with a cellulose binding module1, and Class II Peroxidase isoforms co-regulated with oxido-reductases. Overall, ABCDEFGT was capable of visualizing genome-wide transcriptional and secretomic profiles for intuitive interpretations and is suitable for exploration of newly-sequenced organisms. PMID:27605927

  16. Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, Mahdi [Industrial Engineering Group, Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2943-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Sowlati, Taraneh [Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2931-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T-1Z4 (Canada); Sokhansanj, Shahab [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the logistics of supplying forest biomass to a potential power plant. Due to the complexities in such a supply logistics system, a simulation model based on the framework of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) is developed in this study to evaluate the cost of delivered forest biomass, the equilibrium moisture content, and carbon emissions from the logistics operations. The model is applied to a proposed case of 300 MW power plant in Quesnel, BC, Canada. The results show that the biomass demand of the power plant would not be met every year. The weighted average cost of delivered biomass to the gate of the power plant is about C$ 90 per dry tonne. Estimates of equilibrium moisture content of delivered biomass and CO{sub 2} emissions resulted from the processes are also provided. (author)

  17. Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobini, Mahdi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the logistics of supplying forest biomass to a potential power plant. Due to the complexities in such a supply logistics system, a simulation model based on the framework of Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) is developed in this study to evaluate the cost of delivered forest biomass, the equilibrium moisture content, and carbon emissions from the logistics operations. The model is applied to a proposed case of 300 MW power plant in Quesnel, BC, Canada. The results show that the biomass demand of the power plant would not be met every year. The weighted average cost of delivered biomass to the gate of the power plant is about C$ 90 per dry tonne. Estimates of equilibrium moisture content of delivered biomass and CO2 emissions resulted from the processes are also provided.

  18. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels; Braun, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant ...

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  20. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with

  1. Operating Experience from two new Biomass Fired FBC-Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, M.; Tschanun, I.; Kaiser, S. [Austrian Energy and Environment AG, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The use of renewable fuels in industrial power plants is rising continuously. The driving forces are the Kyoto protocol for CO{sub 2} reduction resulting in government support for green power electricity, substitution of imported primary energy and multi-fuel concepts together with RDF. Biomass fuel exists in various forms, traditionally as wood, bark, harvesting residues sewage sludge and organic waste. A favourable combustion technology is Austrian Energy's 'ECOFLUID' bubbling fluidized bed. Advantageous is the principle of a substoichiometric bed operation which allows bed temperature control in the range between 650 deg C - 850 deg C. Therefore, also fuel with low ash melting temperature can be burned. The applied staged combustion concept results in a homogenous temperature profile in the furnace and first pass of the boiler and thus low NO{sub x} emission. One new plant, owned by Energie AG in Timelkam/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005. The main fuel of this 57 t/h boiler is bark, wood residues and waste wood up to 30% of the total thermal capacity. Grinding dust and saw dust can be co-fired, too. Optionally, sludge and animal wastes can be fired. The boiler is designed for 42 barg at live steam temperature of 440 deg C. The other new 30 MW{sub th} plant, owned by M-real Hallein AG in Hallein/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005, too. The boiler is fired with wood chips, bark, rejects and other paper mill residues and furthermore it is able to burn the sludge of the mills own waste water treatment plant. Beside the boiler works as a post combustion system for exhaust gases from a 1 MW Biogas Otto-Engine, or alternatively it is able to burn the biogas directly. The boiler is designed for 61 barg at live steam temperature of 450 deg C.

  2. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  3. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  4. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  5. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  6. Hydrolytic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic degradation of plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverlov, Vladimir V.; Hiegl, Wolfgang; Koeck, Daniela E.; Koellmeier, Tanja; Schwarz, Wolfgang H. [Department of Microbiology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kellermann, Josef [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz, Martinsried (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Adding plant biomass to a biogas reactor, hydrolysis is the first reaction step in the chain of biological events towards methane production. Maize silage was used to enrich efficient hydrolytic bacterial consortia from natural environments under conditions imitating those in a biogas plant. At 55-60 C a more efficient hydrolyzing culture could be isolated than at 37 C. The composition of the optimal thermophilic bacterial consortium was revealed by sequencing clones from a 16S rRNA gene library. A modified PCR-RFLP pre-screening method was used to group the clones. Pure anaerobic cultures were isolated. 70% of the isolates were related to Clostridium thermocellum. A new culture-independent method for identification of cellulolytic enzymes was developed using the isolation of cellulose-binding proteins. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and end-sequencing of peptides from prominent protein bands revealed cellulases from the cellulosome of C. thermocellum and from a major cellulase of Clostridium stercorarium. A combined culture of C. thermocellum and C. stercorarium was shown to excellently degrade maize silage. A spore preparation method suitable for inoculation of maize silage and optimal hydrolysis was developed for the thermophilic bacterial consortium. This method allows for concentration and long-term storage of the mixed culture for instance for inoculation of biogas fermenters. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Plant biomass in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1995-01-01

    Vegetation biomass tables are presented for the Tanana River basin. Average biomass for each species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in the 13 forest and 30 nonforest vegetation types is shown. These data combined with area estimates for each vegetation type provide a tool for estimating habitat carrying capacity for many wildlife species. Tree biomass is...

  8. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel...

  9. Extraction and characterization of lignin from different biomass resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereca Watkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass has been acknowledged for potential use to produce chemicals and biomaterials. Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer with cellulose being number one, making up to 10–25% of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin is a three-dimensional, highly cross-linked macromolecule composed of three types of substituted phenols, which include: coniferyl, sinapyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols by enzymatic polymerization, yielding a vast number of functional groups and linkages. There is a wide range of lignin sources available, including: jute, hemp, cotton, and wood pulp. Hence, the lignin's physical and chemical behavior will be different with respect to the original source and extraction method used. The objective of this research is to extract lignin from nonwood cellulosic biomass (Wheat straw, Pine straw, Alfalfa, Kenaf, and Flax fiber by formic acid treatment followed by peroxyformic acid treatment for the potential use as a partial replacement for the phenol precursor in resole phenolic systems. Isolated lignins were purified to remove impurities and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis to compare thermal properties and chemical composition. It was found that lignin obtained from alfalfa provided the greatest yield of the various sources. Enthalpy measurements were higher for lignin from flax fiber and alfalfa at 190.57 and 160.90 J/g, respectively. The source of lignin samples was seen to affect the thermal properties. Overall, lignin extracted from wheat straw had the greatest thermal stability followed very closely by that obtained from flax fiber.

  10. Agrobiodiversity with emphasis on plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karl; Arrowsmith, Nancy; Gladis, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    The science of agrobiodiversity has emerged during the last 10 years. We review here the most important aspects of biodiversity for conservation. One of the aims of agrobiodiversity research is to introduce or to re-introduce into present-day agriculture and horticulture more diversity from gene banks, botanical or zoological gardens, and other secondary sources of diversity. To enlarge the basis of agricultural and horticultural resources for human and animal nutrition, a sustainable use of these native and cultivated resources is necessary, including animal and plant genetic resources. The total number of botanical plant species cultivated as agricultural or horticultural crops is estimated at almost 7,000. However, only 30 major crop species "feed the world". Comparable numbers of animal species have been lost. The reduction in crop species and variety diversity, in particular, has led to the establishment of germplasm collections, so called gene banks, or ex situ collections. Six million plant accessions are conserved in gene banks worldwide. All these accessions belong to a very limited number of species. About half of them are advanced cultivars or breeders' lines, and only a third are landraces or old cultivars. Approximately 15% are wild relatives of crop species and weeds. Among other obvious gaps, minor crops and underutilized species are underrepresented in these collections, particularly primitive cultivars and wild relatives from the centers of origin, diversity, and cultivation. To date, only a third of all gene bank accessions have been fully characterized.

  11. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  12. Growth rate and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B

    2017-03-01

    The effects of resource stoichiometry and growth rate on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how growth rate and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution rates and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum growth rate, P availability and dilution rate had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration rate, and growth efficiency. In contrast, at faster growth rates, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both growth rate and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and growth rates are high, but at low growth rates resource imbalance is relatively more important than growth rate in controlling bacterial biomass composition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  14. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C. de la; Dominguez, J.; Perez, M. E.

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  15. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  16. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of plant biomass and animal manure: effect on C retention in soil and plant available N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    We compared the release of C and N from untreated and anaerobically digested plant biomasses and animal manures. Based on losses of C during the plant biomass (feed) passage in cattle, during anaerobic digestion (AD), and during incubation with soil, the retention of C in soil was estimated. When...... relationship between N release and C retention. The increase in N availability due to AD was equivalent to 10-35% of total N in slurry, but after AD of plant biomass and faeces the N availability increased significantly more....

  18. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  19. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco.

  20. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  1. Fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes and vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, M L; Nybakken, L; Kauserud, H; Ohlson, M

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the amount of fungal biomass in the phyllosphere of bryophytes compared to higher plants. In this study, fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of three bryophytes (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune) and three vascular plants (Avenella flexuosa, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Vaccinium myrtillus) was investigated using ergosterol content as a proxy for fungal biomass. Phyllosphere fungi accounted for 0.2-4.0 % of the dry mass of moss gametophytes, representing the first estimation of fungal biomass associated with bryophytes. Significantly more fungal biomass was associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes than co-occurring vascular plants. The ergosterol present in moss gametophytic tissues differed significantly between species, while the ergosterol present in vascular plant leaf tissues did not. The photosynthetic tissues of mosses had less associated fungal biomass than their senescent tissues, and the magnitude of this difference varied in a species-specific manner. The fungal biomass associated with the vascular plants studied varied significantly between localities, while that of mosses did not. The observed differences in phyllosphere community biomass suggest their size could be affected by host anatomical and physiological attributes, including micro-niche availability and chemical host defenses, in addition to abiotic factors like moisture and nutrient availability.

  2. Plants as food resources for pollinators and other insects

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and research field •Plant ecology •Focus: Plants as food resource for insects •Plant-insect food-webs in agricultural fields •Plant reproduction and effects of anthropenic activities (primarily agricultural practice, pesticides) on reproductive output (flowering, pollen and nectar, seeds) •Food resources in different landscapes •How can availability of food be improved?

  3. Treatments of plant biomass for cementitious building materials – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Thi To Loan; Navard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The use of plant biomass for developing energy efficient and low cost construction materials is an emerging field in building construction and civil engineering. Although the biomass-based cement and concrete composites have several advantages, such as low densities, low amount of CO2 gas emission, good thermal and acoustic insulation, there are also disadvantages or open questions like the durability of biomass in alkaline cement matrix, the high absorption of water a...

  4. The determination of mercury content in the biomass untended for industrial power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the oldest and most widely used renewable energy sources. The biomass is the whole organic matter of vegetable or animal origin which is biodegradable. Biomass includes leftovers from agricultural production, forestry residues, and industrial and municipal waste. The use of biomass in the power industry has become a standard and takes place in Poland and other European countries. This paper discusses the correlation of mercury content in different biomass types used in the power industry and in products of biomass combustion. Different biomass types, which are currently burned in a commercial power plant in Poland, were discussed. A photographic documentation of different biomass types, such as straw briquettes, wood briquettes, pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk and wood husk, wood pellets, wood chips, and agro-biomass (seeds was carried out. The presented paper discusses the results obtained for 15 biomass samples. Five selected biomass samples were burned in controlled conditions in the laboratory at the University of Silesia. The ash resulting from the combustion of five biomass samples was tested for mercury content. A total of twenty biomass samples and its combustion products were tested. Based on the obtained results, it was found that any supply of biomass, regardless of its type, is characterized by variable mercury content in dry matter. In the case of e.g. wood chips, the spread of results reaches 235.1 μm/kg (in dry matter. Meanwhile, the highest mercury content, 472.4 μm/kg (in dry matter was recorded in the biomass of straw, wood pellets, and pellets from energy crops (sunflower husk. In the case of combustion products of five selected biomass types, a three or four fold increase in the mercury content has been observed.

  5. Clean fuels from biomass. [feasibility of converting plant systems to fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of converting biomass to portable fuels is studied. Since plants synthesize biomass from H2O and CO2 with the help of solar energy, the conversion methods of pyrolysis, anaerobic fermentation, and hydrogenation are considered. Cost reduction methods and cost effectiveness are emphasized.

  6. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal...

  7. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  8. Planning guide biomass conversion plants consisting of concrete. Planning, dimensioning and operation; Planungshilfe Biogasanlagen aus Beton. Planung, Bemessung, Ausfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middel, Matthias (ed.)

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the construction of biomass conversion plants for the production of clean energy experienced a boom. This boom will still continue for some years. The operation of biomass conversion plants imposes high demands on the construction. Simultaneously, the operators of biomass conversion plants expect a long trouble-free service life of their plants. Biogas plants consisting of concrete meet these requirements, if these are carefully planned and performed. The book under consideration provides the necessary expertise for this.

  9. GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börner A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources play a major role for global food security. The most significant and widespread mean of conserving plant genetic resources is ex situ conservation. Most conserved accessions are kept in specialized facilities known as genebanks maintained by public or private institutions. World-wide 7.4 million accessions are stored in about 1,500 ex situ genebanks.In addition, series of genetic stocks including chromosome substitution lines, alloplasmic lines, single chromosome recombinant lines, introgression lines, etc. have been created. Analysing these genetic stocks many qualitative and quantitative inherited traits were associated to certain chromosomes, chromosome arms or introgressed segments. Today, genetic stocks are supplemented by a huge number of genotyped mapping populations. Beside progenies of bi-parental crosses (doubled haploid lines, recombinant inbred lines, etc. panels for association mapping were created recently.In our presentation we give examples for the successful utilisation of genebank accessions and genetic stocks for genetic and genomic studies. Using both segregation and association mapping approaches, data on mapping of loci/marker trait associations for a range of different traits are presented.

  10. Evolution and applications of plant pathway resources and databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucaet, Yves; Deva, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Plants are important sources of food and plant products are essential for modern human life. Plants are increasingly gaining importance as drug and fuel resources, bioremediation tools and as tools for recombinant technology. Considering these applications, database infrastructure for plant model...... quantitative modeling of plant biosystems. We propose Good Database Practice as a possible model for collaboration and to ease future integration efforts....

  11. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  12. Root growth and plant biomass in Lolium perenne exploring a nutrient-rich patch in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoji; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2008-11-01

    We investigated soil exploration by roots and plant growth in a heterogeneous environment to determine whether roots can selectively explore a nutrient-rich patch, and how nutrient heterogeneity affects biomass allocation and total biomass before a patch is reached. Lolium perenne L. plants were grown in a factorial experiment with combinations of fertilization (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and day of harvest (14, 28, 42, or 56 days after transplanting). The plant in the heterogeneous treatment was smaller in its mean total biomass, and allocated more biomass to roots. The distributions of root length and root biomass in the heterogeneous treatment did not favor the nutrient-rich patch, and did not correspond to the patchy distribution of inorganic nitrogen. Specific root length (length/biomass) was higher and root elongation was more extensive both laterally and vertically in the heterogeneous treatment. These characteristics may enable plants to acquire nutrients efficiently and increase the probability of encountering nutrient-rich patches in a heterogeneous soil. However, heterogeneity of soil nutrients would hold back plant growth before a patch was reached. Therefore, although no significant selective root placement in the nutrient-rich patch was observed, plant growth before reaching nutrient-rich patches differed between heterogeneous and homogeneous environments.

  13. Modelling of combined cycle power plants using biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [University of Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The olive tree in Spain can generate large quantities of by-product biomass suitable for gasification. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. Biomass conversion to a clean essentially ash-free form, usually by gasification and purification, is necessary to obtain high efficiency. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modelling of cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. (Author)

  14. Relationships among three pathways for resource acquisition and their contribution to plant performance in the emergent aquatic Plant Lythrum salicaria (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K J; Peterson, R L

    2007-11-01

    Three pathways for resource acquisition exist in the emergent aquatic plant, Lythrum salicaria (L.); a subterranean root system, a free-floating adventitious root system, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal hyphae colonizing subterranean roots. This study examined the relationship(s) among these pathways and their contribution to plant performance. If the free-floating adventitious root system and/or AM fungi contribute to plant growth in wetland habitats, we predicted that their absence would result in a significant reduction in plant performance. Furthermore, if a reduction in resource uptake, effected by an absence of free-floating adventitious roots and/or AM fungi, is compensated for by increased allocation to remaining pathway(s) for resource uptake, we predicted altered patterns of resource allocation among shoots and the remaining pathway(s) for resource uptake. Contrary to our predications, plants experiencing adventitious root removal and/or grown in the absence of AM fungi generally had greater biomass and total shoot height than controls. Similarly, while levels of AM colonization and subterranean root biomass displayed a treatment effect, the observed responses did not correspond with our predictions. This was also true for shoot : subterranean root dry weight ratios. Our results indicate that there is interaction among the 3 pathways for resource acquisition in L. salicaria and an effect on plant performance. The adaptive significance of these characteristics is unclear, highlighting the potential difficulties in extrapolating from terrestrial to aquatic plant species and among aquatic plant species with potentially different life history strategies.

  15. Visibility vs. biomass in flowers: exploring corolla allocation in Mediterranean entomophilous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Javier

    2009-05-01

    While pollinators may in general select for large, morphologically uniform floral phenotypes, drought stress has been proposed as a destabilizing force that may favour small flowers and/or promote floral variation within species. The general validity of this concept was checked by surveying a taxonomically diverse array of 38 insect-pollinated Mediterranean species. The interplay between fresh biomass investment, linear size and percentage corolla allocation was studied. Allometric relationships between traits were investigated by reduced major-axis regression, and qualitative correlates of floral variation explored using general linear-model MANOVA. Across species, flowers were perfectly isometrical with regard to corolla allocation (i.e. larger flowers were just scaled-up versions of smaller ones and vice versa). In contrast, linear size and biomass varied allometrically (i.e. there were shape variations, in addition to variations in size). Most floral variables correlated positively and significantly across species, except corolla allocation, which was largely determined by family membership and floral symmetry. On average, species with bilateral flowers allocated more to the corolla than those with radial flowers. Plant life-form was immaterial to all of the studied traits. Flower linear size variation was in general low among conspecifics (coefficients of variation around 10 %), whereas biomass was in general less uniform (e.g. 200-400 mg in Cistus salvifolius). Significant among-population differences were detected for all major quantitative floral traits. Flower miniaturization can allow an improved use of reproductive resources under prevailingly stressful conditions. The hypothesis that flower size reflects a compromise between pollinator attraction, water requirements and allometric constraints among floral parts is discussed.

  16. Visibility vs. biomass in flowers: exploring corolla allocation in Mediterranean entomophilous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims While pollinators may in general select for large, morphologically uniform floral phenotypes, drought stress has been proposed as a destabilizing force that may favour small flowers and/or promote floral variation within species. Methods The general validity of this concept was checked by surveying a taxonomically diverse array of 38 insect-pollinated Mediterranean species. The interplay between fresh biomass investment, linear size and percentage corolla allocation was studied. Allometric relationships between traits were investigated by reduced major-axis regression, and qualitative correlates of floral variation explored using general linear-model MANOVA. Key Results Across species, flowers were perfectly isometrical with regard to corolla allocation (i.e. larger flowers were just scaled-up versions of smaller ones and vice versa). In contrast, linear size and biomass varied allometrically (i.e. there were shape variations, in addition to variations in size). Most floral variables correlated positively and significantly across species, except corolla allocation, which was largely determined by family membership and floral symmetry. On average, species with bilateral flowers allocated more to the corolla than those with radial flowers. Plant life-form was immaterial to all of the studied traits. Flower linear size variation was in general low among conspecifics (coefficients of variation around 10 %), whereas biomass was in general less uniform (e.g. 200–400 mg in Cistus salvifolius). Significant among-population differences were detected for all major quantitative floral traits. Conclusions Flower miniaturization can allow an improved use of reproductive resources under prevailingly stressful conditions. The hypothesis that flower size reflects a compromise between pollinator attraction, water requirements and allometric constraints among floral parts is discussed. PMID:19258340

  17. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P. australis, its litter and leachate of P. australis litter. This study investigated the potential interacting influences of allelopathy and resource competition on plant growth-density relationships. In greenhouse, the root exudates mediated effects showed the strongest growth inhibition of M. ericifolia at high density whereas litter mediated results revealed increased growth at medium density treatments compared to low and high density. Again, laboratory experiments related to seed germination and seedling growth of L. sativa and R. conglomeratus exhibited phytotoxicity decreased showing positive growth as plant density increased and vice versa. Overall, the differential effects were observed among experiments but maximum individual plant biomass and some other positive effects on plant traits such as root and shoot length, chlorophyll content occurred at an intermediate density. This was attributed to the sharing of the available phytotoxin among plants at high densities which is compatible to density-dependent phytotoxicity model. The results demonstrated that plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy and resource competition with many other factors but this experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination of plant grown at varying densities with varying

  18. Estimating fresh biomass of maize plants from their RGB images in greenhouse phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yufeng; Pandey, Piyush; Bai, Geng

    2016-05-01

    High throughput phenotyping (HTP) is an emerging frontier field across many basic and applied plant science disciplines. RGB imaging is most widely used in HTP to extract image-based phenotypes such as pixel volume or projected area. These image-based phenotypes are further used to derive plant physical parameters including plant fresh biomass, plant dry biomass, water use efficiency etc. In this paper, we investigated the robustness of regression models to predict fresh biomass of maize plants from image-based phenotypes. Data used in this study were from three different experiments. Data were grouped into five datasets, two for model development and three for independent model validation. Three image-derived phenotypes were investigated: BioVolume, Projected.Area.1, and Projected.Area.2. Models were assessed with R2, Bias, and RMSEP (Root Mean Squared Error of Prediction). The results showed that almost all models were validated with high R2 values, indicating that these digital phenotypes can be useful to rank plant biomass on a relative basis. However, in many occasions when accurate prediction of plant biomass is needed, it is important for researchers to know that models that relate image-based phenotypes to plant biomass should be carefully constructed. Our results show that the range of plant size and the genotypic diversity of the calibration sets in relation to the validation sets have large impact on the model accuracy. Large maize plants cause systematic bias as they grow toward the top-view camera. Excluding top-view images from modeling can there benefit modeling for the experiments involving large maize plants.

  19. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  20. Microbial biomass in red soils and its significance in plant availability of nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚槐应; 何振立; 黄昌勇

    2002-01-01

    A series of laboratory and pot experiments carried out to examine the role of soil microbial biomass in red soils' nitrogen availability and productivity showed that soil available N (NA), dry matter yield (DMY) of ryegrass, and plant uptake of nitrogen were each closely correlated with microbial biomass-C (Cmic) or -N (Nmic), suggesting that soil microbial biomass is a very important nitrogen pool available to plants in red soils. After correction for the substrate effect, the computed turnover of the Nmic in three tested soils ranged from 63 to 250 days. Soils with low Nmic or light texture generally had higher Nmic turnover rate than those with high Nmic or heavy texture. These results showed that soils with low Nmic, microbial biomass could also play an important role in the availability of nitrogen to plants due to these soils' high turnover rate.

  1. Sugar catabolism in Aspergillus and other fungi related to the utilization of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Claire; Benocci, Tiziano; Battaglia, Evy; Benoit, Isabelle; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are found in all natural and artificial biotopes and can use highly diverse carbon sources. They play a major role in the global carbon cycle by decomposing plant biomass and this biomass is the main carbon source for many fungi. Plant biomass is composed of cell wall polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin) and lignin. To degrade cell wall polysaccharides to different monosaccharides, fungi produce a broad range of enzymes with a large variety in activities. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, sugar-specific and central metabolic pathways convert these monosaccharides into energy or metabolic precursors needed for the biosynthesis of biomolecules. This chapter describes the carbon catabolic pathways that are required to efficiently use plant biomass as a carbon source. It will give an overview of the known metabolic pathways in fungi, their interconnections, and the differences between fungal species.

  2. Fungal growth and biomass development is boosted by plants in snow-covered soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Regina; Oberkofler, Irmgard; Peintner, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    Soil microbial communities follow distinct seasonal cycles which result in drastic changes in processes involving soil nutrient availability. The biomass of fungi has been reported to be highest during winter, but is fungal growth really occurring in frozen soil? And what is the effect of plant cover on biomass formation and on the composition of fungal communities? To answer these questions, we monitored microbial biomass N, ergosterol, and the amount of fungal hyphae during summer and winter in vegetated and unvegetated soils of an alpine primary successional habitat. The winter fungal communities were identified by rDNA ITS clone libraries. Winter soil temperatures ranged between -0.6°C and -0.1°C in snow-covered soil. We found distinct seasonal patterns for all biomass parameters, with highest biomass concentrations during winter in snow-covered soil. The presence of plant cover had a significant positive effect on the amount of biomass in the soil, but the type of plant cover (plant species) was not a significant factor. A mean hyphal ingrowth of 5.6 m g(-1) soil was detected in snow-covered soil during winter, thus clearly proving fungal growth during winter in snow-covered soil. Winter fungal communities had a typical species composition: saprobial fungi were dominating, among them many basidiomycete yeasts. Plant cover had no influence on the composition of winter fungal communities.

  3. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts.

  4. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas......) for electricity/heat is generally preferred, as long as coal/oil is still used within the energy system. Yet, to fulfill environmental targets for renewable energy in the transport sector, the diversion of a significant share of biogas (and/or other biofuels) from these more beneficial uses is necessary....... To completely phase out coal/oil, additional biomass (to current domestic resources) must be included, either through domestic energy crops cultivation or biomass/biofuel import; alternatively, natural gas could be used....

  5. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  6. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.; Mommer, Liesje; van Ruijven, Jasper; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Climate warming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems. Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component of the tundra is important in the context of climate warming, since most carbon is sequestered belowground in these ecosystems. In this study we synthesized published tundra belowground biomass data from 36 field studies spanning a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient from -20 °C to 0 °C across the tundra biome, and determined the relationships between different plant biomass pools and MAT. Our results show that the plant community biomass-temperature relationships are significantly different between above and belowground. Aboveground biomass clearly increased with MAT, whereas total belowground biomass and fine root biomass did not show a significant increase over the broad MAT gradient. Our results suggest that biomass allocation of tundra vegetation shifts towards aboveground in warmer conditions, which could impact on the carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems through altered litter input and distribution in the soil, as well as possible changes in root turnover.

  7. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  8. Economic Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains: A Case Study of Four Competing Bioenergy Power Plants in Northwestern Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Bedarul Alam; Reino Pulkki; Chander Shahi; Thakur Prasad Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain optimization for biomass-based power plants is an important research area due to greater emphasis on green energy sources. This paper develops and applies two optimization models to analyze the impacts of biomass competition on cost structures and gross margins for four competing biomass-based power plants in northwestern Ontario. Model scenarios are run to study the impacts of changes in parameters relevant to biomass type and processing technology, and prices of inputs and outp...

  9. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distribution...... a variety of environmental conditions and plant traits influences distribution. Drag on the trailing canopy usually increased 15- to 35-fold for a 100-fold increase of biomass suggesting that an even distribution of plants at low density across the stream bed offers greater resistance to downstream flow...

  11. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize...

  12. Overexpression of GA20-OXIDASE1 impacts plant height, biomass allocation and saccharification efficiency in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend, Wannes; Nelissen, Hilde; Vanholme, Ruben; De Vliegher, Alex; Van Breusegem, Frank; Boerjan, Wout; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Muylle, Hilde; Inzé, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Increased biomass yield and quality are of great importance for the improvement of feedstock for the biorefinery. For the production of bioethanol, both stem biomass yield and the conversion efficiency of the polysaccharides in the cell wall to fermentable sugars are of relevance. Increasing the endogenous levels of gibberellic acid (GA) by ectopic expression of GA20-OXIDASE1 (GA20-OX1), the rate-limiting step in GA biosynthesis, is known to affect cell division and cell expansion, resulting in larger plants and organs in several plant species. In this study, we examined biomass yield and quality traits of maize plants overexpressing GA20-OX1 (GA20-OX1). GA20-OX1 plants accumulated more vegetative biomass than control plants in greenhouse experiments, but not consistently over two years of field trials. The stems of these plants were longer but also more slender. Investigation of GA20-OX1 biomass quality using biochemical analyses showed the presence of more cellulose, lignin and cell wall residue. Cell wall analysis as well as expression analysis of lignin biosynthetic genes in developing stems revealed that cellulose and lignin were deposited earlier in development. Pretreatment of GA20-OX1 biomass with NaOH resulted in a higher saccharification efficiency per unit of dry weight, in agreement with the higher cellulose content. On the other hand, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion was slower upon HCl or hot-water pretreatment, presumably due to the higher lignin content. This study showed that biomass yield and quality traits can be interconnected, which is important for the development of future breeding strategies to improve lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production.

  13. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  14. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia: niche development and the formation of innovative capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to advance further the emerging research agenda on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies in developing countries by adopting a study of the development of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. The main research question addresses...... the main factors influencing the transfer and diffusion of biomass power plant technologies in Malaysia. This question is explored in the four papers comprising the thesis, which are based on analyses of qualitative data, mainly in the form of interviews, documents and observations collected during...... successive periods of fieldwork in Malaysia. The thesis conceptualises the diffusion of biomass technologies in Malaysia as a niche development process and finds that the development of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia has only made limited progress despite a period of twenty years...

  16. Pitfalls and possibilities in the analysis of biomass allocation patterns in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik ePoorter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants can differentially allocate biomass to leaves, stems, roots and reproduction, and follow ontogenetic trajectories that interact with the prevailing climate. Various methodological tools exist to analyse the resulting allocation patterns, based either on the calculation of biomass ratios or fractions of different organs at a given point in time, or on a so-called allometric analysis of biomass data sampled across species or over an experimental growth period. We discuss the weak and strong points of each of these methods. Although both approaches have useful features, we suggest that often a plot of biomass fractions against total plant size, either across species or in the comparison of treatment effects, combines the best of both worlds.

  17. Responses in chemical traits and biomass allocation of Arundo donax L. to deficit resources in the establishment year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pompeiano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large expansion in renewable energy production is underway with an increasing focus on sustainable second-generation biofuels. Fast growing rhizomatous perennial grasses are leading candidates for lignocellulosic feedstock thanks to their positive energy balance, and low ecological/agro-management demands. Biomass accumulation is favored by the efficient use of available resources. The aim of this study was to identify which accumulation processes were most affected in the establishment year of a giant reed (Arundo donax L. field crop grown under water and N deficiencies. The relative plasticity of growth of A. donax in response to various levels of resource availability was evaluated. A field scale experiment was carried out, and treatments were arranged as a randomized complete block, strip-plot design with irrigation treatments as the main plot factor and pre-planting N rate as the sub-plot factor. Biometric relationships between variables were assessed to understand how agro-management factors influence the above ground biomass of giant reed, as well as yield over time. Evidence is presented indicating that growth is strongly enhanced by water availability (+97% dry weight biomass. Changes in composition were not significant within or among fixed treatments, rather changes were observed over time. A high content of glucans and xylans were detected from early stage, and as the mobilization of minerals increased, lignin content significantly increased as well (from 12% to 36% w/w. These results suggest that an increase in the growth of A. donax in the establishment year is accomplished by a limited use of the water input

  18. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major obstacles in the biofuel/biochemical production process and therefore microbial degradation of lignin is receiving a great deal of attention. Fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass, and in particular the basidiomycete white rot fungi are of major importance in converting plant aromatics due to their ability to degrade lignin. However, the aromatic monomers that are released from lignin and other aromatic compounds of plant biomass are toxic for most fungi already at low levels, and therefore conversion of these compounds to less toxic metabolites is essential for fungi. Although the release of aromatic compounds from plant biomass by fungi has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been given to the metabolic pathways that convert the resulting aromatic monomers. In this review we provide an overview of the aromatic components of plant biomass, and their release and conversion by fungi. Finally, we will summarize the applications of fungal systems related to plant aromatics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  20. Inherent and environmental patterns in biomass allocation and allometry among higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    It is well-known that plants may adjust the distribution of biomass over leaves, stems and roots depending on environmental conditions. It is also clear that size is an important factor as well. However, good quantitative insights are lacking. In this talk I analyse biomass allocation patterns to leaves, stems and roots of herbs and woody species. A database was compiled with 11.000 records of leaf, stem and root biomass for 1200 species. First, I'll derive general dose-response curves that describe the relationship between biomass allocation and the 12 most important a-biotic environmental factors and compare them with the changes in leaf, stem and root morphology. Second, I'll focus on allometric relationships between the various organs and test to what extent they comply with models like that for Metabolic Scaling Theory, where the slope of the log-log relationship between leaf and root biomass is expected to have a value of ¾. Third, I analyse how leaf, stem and root mass fractions change as a function of total plant size. This offers a great opportunity to test to what extent there are systematic differences in allocation patterns related to phylogeny (e.g. Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms, grasses vs. herbaceous dicots) and functional group (e.g. deciduous vs. evergreens). Poorter et al. (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol. 193: 30-50. Poorter & Sack (2012) Pitfalls and possibilities in the analysis of biomass allocation patterns in plants. Front. Plant Sci. 3: 259. Poorter et al. (2015) How does biomass distribution change with size and differ among species? New Phytol. 208: 736-749

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Power Plant Integrated with Fogging Inlet Cooling and a Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass energy and especially biofuels produced by biomass gasification are clean and renewable options for power plants. Also, on hot days the performance of gas turbines decreases substantially, a problem that can be mitigated by fog cooling. In the present paper, a biomass-integrated fogging steam injected gas turbine cycle is analyzed with energy and exergy methods. It is observed that (1 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the air flow rate in the plant but reduces the biomass flow rate; (2 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature decreases the air and biomass flow rates; (3 increasing the compressor pressure ratio raises the energy and exergy efficiencies, especially at lower pressure ratios; (4 increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature raises both efficiencies; and (5 overspray increases the energy efficiency and net cycle power slightly. The gas turbine exhibits the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the combustor the lowest. A comparison of the cycle with similar cycles fired by natural gas and differently configured cycles fueled by biomass shows that the cycle with natural gas firing has an energy efficiency 18 percentage points above the biomass fired cycle, and that steam injection increases the energy efficiency about five percentage points relative to the cycle without steam injection. Also, the influence of steam injection on energy efficiency is more significant than fog cooling.

  2. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  3. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Carlini; Sonia Castellucci; Silvia Cocchi; Elena Allegrini; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with th...

  4. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  5. Biomass estimates of small diameter planted and natural-origin loblolly pines show major departures from the National Biomass Estimator equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Don C. Bragg; Kristin McElligott

    2017-01-01

    As southern pine forests (both planted and naturally regenerated) are more heavily used to provide biomass for the developing energy sectors and carbon sequestration, a better understanding of models used to characterize regional biomass estimates is needed. We harvested loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) between 0.5 and 15 cm dbh from several...

  6. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd......) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP...... ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash...

  7. Comparative assessment of utilization means of plant inedible biomass in the soil-like substrate concerning bioregenerative LSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Ushakova, Sofya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Researches carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia) have shown that the soil-like substrate (SLS) was the promising biological substrate for inclusion of plant inedible biomass into matter turnover. Still, mineralization rate of plant residues introduced into the SLS strongly depends upon the character of its preliminary preparation and the plant species. So the given work is aimed at a comparative assessment of different approaches to utilization of plant inedible biomass in the SLS when growing plants on it. Efficiency criteria of plant wastes utilization in the SLS was the productivity of the plants grown on it. Radish was the test object. The wheat and radish inedible biomass was introduced into the SLS. The biomass amount of wheat straw inserted was equal on nitrogen content to the nitrogen value removed during the radish harvesting. During experiments three introduction ways of plant inedible biomass were used: 1) direct insertion of crushed biomass into the SLS; 2) introduction of plant wastes mineralized by a physical-chemical method; 3) a combination of two abovementioned ways of plant wastes preparation. The carried out researches have shown that the use of the third preparation way of plant wastes combining both a physical-chemical mineralization method and their direct introduction into the SLS was the most efficient to involve inedible biomass into the LSS intersystem mass exchange. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of utilization processes of plant wastes in the SLS under study and their effect on the plants productivity are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  9. Environmental multi-objective optimization of the use of biomass resources for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-02-17

    Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally-optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multi-objective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline. The robustness of the optimal solution was analyzed with respect to parameter uncertainty and choice of environmental objectives.

  10. Transferability of Models for Estimating Paddy Rice Biomass from Spatial Plant Height Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant height is a suitable parameter for estimating crop biomass. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity of spatial plant height data, which is derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale. Beyond that, the spatial and temporal transferability of established biomass regression models were investigated to prove the robustness of the method and evaluate the suitability of linear and exponential functions. In each growing season of two years, three campaigns were carried out on a field experiment and on a farmer’s conventionally managed field. Crop surface models (CSMs were generated from the TLS-derived point clouds for calculating plant height with a very high spatial resolution of 1 cm. High coefficients of determination between CSM-derived and manually measured plant heights (R2: 0.72 to 0.91 confirm the applicability of the approach. Yearly averaged differences between the measurements were ~7% and ~9%. Biomass regression models were established from the field experiment data sets, based on strong coefficients of determination between plant height and dry biomass (R2: 0.66 to 0.86 and 0.65 to 0.84 for linear and exponential models, respectively. The spatial and temporal transferability of the models to the farmer’s conventionally managed fields is supported by strong coefficients of determination between estimated and measured values (R2: 0.60 to 0.90 and 0.56 to 0.85 for linear and exponential models, respectively. Hence, the suitability of TLS-derived spatial plant height as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale was verified and the transferability demonstrated.

  11. BAAD: a biomass and allometry database for woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel S. Falster; Remko A. Duursma; Masae I. Ishihara; Diego R. Barneche; Richard G. FitzJohn; Angelica Varhammar; Masahiro Aiba; Makoto Ando; Niels Anten; Michael J. Aspinwall; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Christopher Baraloto; Michael Battaglia; John J. Battles; Ben Bond-Lamberty; Michiel van Breugel; Yves Claveau; Masako Dannoura; Sylvain Delagrange; Jean-Christophe Domec; Farrah Fatemi; Wang Feng; Veronica Gargaglione; Yoshiaki Goto; Akio Hagihara; Jefferson S. Hall; Steve Hamilton; Degi Harja; Tsutom Hiura; Robert Holdaway; Lindsay S. Hutley; Tomoaki Ichie; Eric J. Jokela; Anu Kantola; Jeff W. G. Kelly; Tanaka Kenzo; David King; Brian D. Kloeppel; Takashi Kohyama; Akira Komiyama; Jean-Paul Laclau; Christopher H. Lusk; Douglas A. Maguire; Guerric Le Maire; Ammikki Makela; Lars Markesteijn; John Marshall; Katherine McCulloh; Itsuo Miyata; Karel Mokany; Shugeta Mori; Randall W. Myster; Masahiro Nagano; Shawna L. Naidu; Yann Nouvellon; Anthony P. O' Grady; Kevin L. O' Hara; Toshiyuki Ohtsuka; Noriyuki Osada; Olusegun O. Osunkoya; Pablo Luis Peri; Any Mary Petritan; Lourens Poorter; Angelika Portsmuth; Catherine Potvin; Johannes Ransijn; Douglas Reid; Sabina C. Ribeiro; Scott D. Roberts; Rolando Rodriguez; Angela Saldana-Acosta; Ignacio Santa-Regina; Kaichiro Sasa; N. Galia Selaya; Stephen C. Sillett; Frank Sterck; Kentaro Takagi; Takeshi Tange; Hiroyuki Tanouchi; David Tissue; Toru Umehara; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Fernando Valladares; Petteri Vanninen; Jian R. Wang; Elizabeth Wenk; Richard Williams; Fabiano de Aquino Ximenes; Atsushi Yamaba; Toshihiro Yamada; Takuo Yamakura; Ruth D. Yanai; Robert A. York

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how plants are constructed—i.e., how key size dimensions and the amount of mass invested in different tissues varies among individuals—is essential for modeling plant growth, carbon stocks, and energy fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere. Allocation patterns can differ through ontogeny, but also among coexisting species and among species adapted to...

  12. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  13. Biomass for biogas plants in Denmark - in the short and long term; Biomasse til biogasanlaeg i Danmark - pae kort og langt sigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmose, T.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Stefanek, K.

    2013-04-15

    In the short term, it is one of the major challenges for the developments of the biogas sector that resources of organic waste of the type (organic industrial wastes) that have heretofore been used, generally are estimated to be nearly exhausted. This has led to a number of new biogas projects based on the use of corn (energy crops) as additional biomass to livestock manure. However, Danish policy now has implemented a restriction on the use of corn and other energy crops for biogas production. It is with the restriction clarified that there is a need to use other additional biomass for biogas production. There is a need in the short term to clarify how alternative biomasses such as straw, nature preservation biomass, household waste, etc. in a technically and economically reliable and satisfactory way can be used for biogas production, so that the dependence of energy crops can be reduced. Additionally, it will be essential if the yield of using manure can be increased to reduce economic dependence on energy crops. In the longer term it is essential to strengthen the assessment of the resource potential of biomass available for the production of biogas, and thus what the contribution of biogas in the long term is estimated to be in the future energy supply based on renewable energy. The present report presents the current and future biomass resources potential and biogas production potential. The biomass resources are primarily agricultural and municipal wastes. (LN)

  14. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  15. Thermal analysis of solar biomass hybrid co-generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushika, N. D.; Mishra, Anuradha; Chakravarty, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a co-generation plant based on the biogas being produced from the waste of distillery plant and highlights the possible configuration in which the plant can be hybridized with auxiliary solar energy source having the advantage of using financial incentives in several countries. In hybridization, the solar heat is used for heating the boiler feed water. The solar heat-generating unit consists of line focus parabolic trough collector, heat transportation system and heat delivery unit such as heat exchanger. The simulation model of heat and mass transfer processes in the solar field as well as the balance of the system is developed to investigate the technological feasibility of the concept in terms of plant yield and matching of subsystems.

  16. Effects of competitive interactions of different life forms submersed plants on biomass allocation in shallow lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-feng

    2010-01-01

    Plant competition has been recognized as one of the most important factors influencing the structure and function of lake ecosystems.Competition from plants of dissimilar growth form may have profound effects on shallow lakes.An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of competitive interactions of submersed plants with dissimilar growth forms on the biomass allocations.Hydrilla verticillata and Vallisneria natans were selected and were planted in a single-species monoculture and a mixed-species pattern.Results showed that the growth of Ⅴ.natans was significantly affected by the H.verticillata and caused a sharp reduction of biomass,but the root:shoot ratio of Ⅴ.natans was not affected significantly and there was a minimal increase in mixture: while for H.verticillata,the biomass and the root:shoot ratio were not significantly changed by the competitive interactions of Ⅴ.natans,there was minimal increase qf biomass and minimal decrease of the root:shoot ratio.These results may indicate that the phant which candevelop a dense mat or canopy at the water surface would be a stronger competitor relative to the plant that dependsmore on light availability near the sediment.

  17. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Uptake in Plant Biomass of Experimental Bioretention Systems in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, P.

    2016-12-01

    There is keen interest in implementing bioretention systems for stormwater management in an arid climate as they have proven to reduce toxicity from stormwater. Nitrogen is prevalent in urban stormwater, and plants and soil in bioretention treat stormwater before they enter natural waterways. A limited number of studies have focused on quantifying nutrient accumulation in plants. We quantified Total Nitrogen (TN), Total carbon (TC), and Total Phosphorous (TP) uptake in plants biomass of bioretention systems of semi-arid climate. The designed bioretention units housed at the University of Utah have three different vegetation types: Utah native plants (upland), no plants (control) and wetland plants (wetland grasses and reeds). The bioretention units are designed to capture 95% of the runoff from an impervious area of 220 m2. The soil is composed of 63% sand, 23% silt, and 14% clay. We compared TN, TC, and TP accumulation in plant biomass of upland and wetland systems. Two set of samples were taken for this study. For the first set, plants were completely destroyed in several upland and wetland bioretention units and TN and TP was quantified in their overall biomass. For the second set, TN and TP uptake were quantified in non-destructed samples on a monthly basis. To determine biomass of non-destructed samples, and TN, TP uptake, allometric equations were developed using plant height, crown diameter, and stem diameter measured each month from May 2015 to Dec 2015. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to quantify TN and lachat colorimetry was used to quantify TP in all plant samples. TN, TC, and TP results for the destructed showed similar trends in three upland and wetland systems .i.e. when one increased other also increased. TN, TC analysis on plant samples over a seven months period showed that TN and TC decreased in summer, but it was significantly higher during winter. TN and TC on non-destructed samples spiked towards late spring, and woody plants

  18. Biological effects of native and exotic plant residues on plant growth, microbial biomass and N availability under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Mariama-Dalanda; Duponnois, Robin; Guisse, A.; Sall, Saïdou; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Thioulouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The leaf litter of six tropical tree species (Acacia holosericea, Acacia tortilis, Azadirachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cordyla pinnata and Faidherbia albida) frequently used in agroforestry plantations in Sahelian and Soudano-Sahelian areas were tested for their influence on soil nitrogen content, microbial biomass and plant growth under controlled greenhouse conditions. Half of the soil was planted with onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings and the other half was not. Two herbaceous spec...

  19. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  20. Nutrient uptake, biomass yield and quantitative analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in cilantro plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake, biomass production and yield of the major compounds in the essential oil of five genotypes of Coriandrum sativum L. The treatments were four accessions donated by the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC), U.S. Department...

  1. Food web architecture and basal resources interact to determine biomass and stoichiometric cascades along a benthic food web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D Guariento

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé - RJ to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry.

  2. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  3. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  4. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Schuckel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M),

  5. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  6. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase portraits method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  7. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trehalose accumulation in Azospirillum brasilense improves drought tolerance and biomass in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salazar, Julieta; Suárez, Ramón; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Iturriaga, Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum increase the grain yield of several grass crops. In this work the effect of inoculating maize plants with genetically engineered Azospirillum brasilense for trehalose biosynthesis was determined. Transformed bacteria with a plasmid harboring a trehalose biosynthesis gene-fusion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were able to grow up to 0.5 M NaCl and to accumulate trehalose, whereas wild-type A. brasilense did not tolerate osmotic stress or accumulate significant levels of the disaccharide. Moreover, 85% of maize plants inoculated with transformed A. brasilense survived drought stress, in contrast with only 55% of plants inoculated with the wild-type strain. A 73% increase in biomass of maize plants inoculated with transformed A. brasilense compared with inoculation with the wild-type strain was found. In addition, there was a significant increase of leaf and root length in maize plants inoculated with transformed A. brasilense. Therefore, inoculation of maize plants with A. brasilense containing higher levels of trehalose confers drought tolerance and a significant increase in leaf and root biomass. This work opens the possibility that A. brasilense modified with a chimeric trehalose biosynthetic gene from yeast could increase the biomass, grain yield and stress tolerance in other relevant crops.

  9. Simulation and Visualisation of Functional Landscapes: Effects of the Water Resource Competition Between Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Le Chevalier; Marc Jaeger; Xing Mei; Paul-Henry Cournède

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation ecosystem simulation and visualisation are challenging topics involving multidisciplinary aspects. In this paper, we present a new generic frame for the simulation of natural phenomena through manageable and interacting models. It focuses on the functional growth of large vegetal ecosystems, showing coherence for scales ranging from the individual plant to communities and with a particular attention to the effects of water resource competition between plants. The proposed approach is based on a model of plant growth in interaction with the environmental conditions. These are deduced from the climatic data (light, temperature, rainfall) and a model of soil hydrological budget. A set of layers is used to store the water resources and to build the interfaces between the environmental data and landscape components: temperature, rain, light, altitude, lakes, plant positions, biomass, cycles, etc. At the plant level, the simulation is performed for each individual by a structural-functional growth model, interacting with the plant's environment. Temperature is spatialised, changing according to altitude, and thus locally controls plant growth speed. The competition for water is based on a soil hydrological model taking into account rainfalls, water runoff, absorption, diffusion, percolation in soil. So far, the incoming light radiation is not studied in detail and is supposed constant. However, competition for light between plants is directly taken into account in the plant growth model. In our implementation, we propose a simple architecture for such a simulator and a simulation scheme to synchronise the water resource updating (on a temporal basis) and the plant growth cycles (determined by the sum of daily temperatures). The visualisation techniques are based on sets of layers, allowing both morphological and functional landscape views and providing interesting tools for ecosystem management. The implementation of the proposed frame leads to encouraging

  10. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  11. Plant genetic resources: Advancing conservation and use through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Germplasm Conservation Scientist, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Regional Office for Sub-Saharan. Africa, P.O. ... In cacao (Theobroma cocoa), where collecting .... the advent of these new cryogenic procedures, especially.

  12. Responses of plant community composition and biomass production to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guo, Rui; Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China.

  13. Sustainable Use of Wild Plant Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Aresearch project implemented by CAS scientists on the sustainable development of wild medicinal plant - Eri-geron breviscapus was well received at an evaluation panel organized by S&T Bureau of Yunnan Province on July 3.

  14. Decade-long soil nitrogen constraint on the CO2 fertilization of plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B.; Hobbie, Sarah E.

    2013-03-01

    The stimulation of plant growth by elevated CO2 concentration has been widely observed. Such fertilization, and associated carbon storage, could dampen future increases in atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, the CO2 fertilization of plant biomass may be sensitive to nitrogen supply. Herein we show that in the latest decade of a long-term perennial grassland experiment, low ambient soil nitrogen availability constrained the positive response of plant biomass to elevated CO2, a result not seen in the first years (1998-2000) of the study. From 2001 to 2010, elevated CO2 stimulated plant biomass half as much under ambient as under enriched nitrogen supply, an effect mirrored over this period by more positive effects of elevated CO2 on soil nitrogen supply (net nitrogen mineralization) and plant nitrogen status under enriched than ambient nitrogen supply. The results did not strongly support either the progressive nitrogen limitation hypothesis, or the alternative hypothesis of priming of soil nitrogen release by elevated CO2. As nitrogen limitation to productivity is widespread, persistent nitrogen constraints on terrestrial responses to rising CO2 are probably pervasive. Further incorporation of such interactions into Earth system models is recommended to better predict future CO2 fertilization effects and impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  15. Plant biomass degrading ability of the coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marie; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Ning, Xie; Brun, Sylvain; Gautier, Valérie; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin. Since then, a large array of lignocellulose-acting enzymes has been characterized and genetic analyses have enabled the understanding of P. anserina metabolism and development on plant biomass. Overall, these research efforts shed light on P. anserina strategy to unlock recalcitrant lignocellulose deconstruction.

  16. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 1. Main report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. The Main Report is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Study; (2.0) Project Objectives; (3.0) Review of Combustion Technology for Biomass Fueled Steam Generator Units; (4.0) Conceptual Design; (5.0) Plant Descriptions; (6.0) Plant Operations Staffing; (7.0) Project Schedule; (8.0) Project Cost Estimate; (9.0) Financial Analysis; Appendix - Financial Analysis.

  17. Community analysis of plant biomass-degrading microorganisms from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Podar, Mircea; Mosher, Jennifer J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Phelps, Tommy J; Keller, Martin; Elkins, James G

    2015-02-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels can potentially be improved by employing robust microorganisms and enzymes that efficiently deconstruct plant polysaccharides at elevated temperatures. Many of the geothermal features of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are surrounded by vegetation providing a source of allochthonic material to support heterotrophic microbial communities adapted to utilize plant biomass as a primary carbon and energy source. In this study, a well-known hot spring environment, Obsidian Pool (OBP), was examined for potential biomass-active microorganisms using cultivation-independent and enrichment techniques. Analysis of 33,684 archaeal and 43,784 bacterial quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences revealed that archaeal diversity in the main pool was higher than bacterial; however, in the vegetated area, overall bacterial diversity was significantly higher. Of notable interest was a flooded depression adjacent to OBP supporting a stand of Juncus tweedyi, a heat-tolerant rush commonly found growing near geothermal features in YNP. The microbial community from heated sediments surrounding the plants was enriched in members of the Firmicutes including potentially (hemi)cellulolytic bacteria from the genera Clostridium, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caldicellulosiruptor, and Thermoanaerobacter. Enrichment cultures containing model and real biomass substrates were established at a wide range of temperatures (55-85 °C). Microbial activity was observed up to 80 °C on all substrates including Avicel, xylan, switchgrass, and Populus sp. Independent of substrate, Caloramator was enriched at lower (65 °C) temperatures.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of fine root biomass, root length density, specific root length, and soil resource availability in a Larix gmelinii plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yunhuan; HAN Youzhi; WANG Qingcheng; WANG Zhengquan

    2006-01-01

    Fine root tumover is a major pathway for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is most likely sensitive to many global change factors.Despite the importance of fine root turnover in plant C allocation and nutrient cycling dynamics and the tremendous research efforts in the past,our understanding of it remains limited.This is because the dynamics processes associated with soil resources availability are still poorly understood.Soil moisture,temperature,and available nitrogen are the most important soil characteristics that impact fine root growth and mortality at both the individual root branch and at the ecosystem level.In temperate forest ecosystems,seasonal changes of soil resource availability will alter the pattern of carbon allocation to belowground.Therefore,fine root biomass,root length density(RLD)and specific root length(SRL)vary during the growing season.Studying seasonal changes of fine root biomass,RLD,and SRL associated with soil resource availability will help us understand the mechanistic controls of carbon to fine root longevity and turnover.The objective of this study was to understand whether seasonal variations of fine root biomass,RLD and SRL were associated with soil resource availability,such as moisture,temperature,and nitrogen,and to understand how these soil components impact fine root dynamics in Larix gmelinii plantation.We used a soil coring method to obtain fine root samples(≤2 mm in diameter)every month from Mav to October in 2002 from a 17-year-old L.gmelinii plantation in Maoershan Experiment Station,Northeast Forestry University,China.Seventy-two soil cores(inside diameter 60 mm;depth intervals:0-10 cm,10-20 cm,20-30 cm)were sampled randomly from three replicates 25 m×30 m plots to estimate fine root biomass(live and dead),and calculate RLD and SRL.Soil moisture,temperature,and nitrogen(ammonia and nitrates)at three depth intervals were also analyzed in these plots.Results showed that the average standing fine

  19. Biomassas de partes aéreas em plantas da caatinga Aboveground biomass of caatinga plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grécia Cavalcanti Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As biomassas de partes aéreas de nove espécies da caatinga foram determinadas e relacionadas com as medidas das plantas, cortando-se 30 plantas de cada espécie e separando-as em caule, galhos, ramos e folhas. As espécies foram divididas em dois grupos: seis espécies com plantas grandes e três com plantas menores. Cada grupo foi separado em classes de diâmetro do caule (DAP. As alturas totais (HT dobraram (3,8 a 8,5 m da classe de menor para a de maior diâmetro (Biomass of aboveground parts of nine caatinga species were determined and related to plant measurements. Thirty plants of each species were collected and separated into stems, branches, twigs and leaves. The species were divided in two groups: six species of large plants and three species of smaller plants. Each group was divided into classes of stem diameter (DBH. Plant height (H doubled (3.8 to 8.5 m from the smallest-diameter class to the largest diameter ( 5 cm diameter, 20% of branches from 1 to 5 cm, 5% of twigs < 1 cm and 5% of leaves. DBH was the single variable that best predicted biomass of parts, in both species groups, according to a power equation (B = a DBH b. H and CPA were also significantly related to biomass for some parts and group, but with R² lower than DBH. Combining DBH and H improved estimation but not enough to justify the extra field effort in determining H. Therefore, plant part biomass can be estimated from measurements of stem diameter, in a non-destructive process.

  20. Occupational Exposure at a Contemplated Belarussian Power Plant Fired with Contaminated Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, J

    1999-07-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed. (author)

  1. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.

  2. Estimating Biomass Burning Emissions for Carbon Cycle Science and Resource Monitoring & Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H.; McKenzie, D.; Erickson, T. A.; McCarty, J. L.; Ottmar, R. D.; Kasischke, E. S.; Prichard, S. J.; Hoy, E.; Endsley, K.; Hamermesh, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions, including emissions from wildland fire, agricultural and rangeland burning, and peatland fires, impact the atmosphere dramatically. Current tools to quantify emission sources are developing quickly in a response to the need by the modeling community to assess fire's role in the carbon cycle and the land management community to understand fire effects and impacts on air quality. In a project funded by NASA, our team has developed methods to spatially quantify wildland fire emissions for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska (AK) at regional scales. We have also developed a prototype web-based information system, the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) to make emissions modeling tools and estimates for the CONUS and AK available to the user community. With new funding through two NASA programs, our team from MTRI, USFS, and UMd will be further developing WFEIS to provide biomass burning emissions estimates for the carbon cycle science community and for land and air quality managers, to improve the way emissions estimates are calculated for a variety of disciplines. In this poster, we review WFEIS as it currently operates and the plans to extend the current system for use by the carbon cycle science community (through the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Program) and resource management community (through the NASA Applications Program). Features to be enhanced include an improved accounting of biomass present in canopy fuels that are available for burning in a forest fire, addition of annually changing vegetation biomass/fuels used in computing fire emissions, and quantification of the errors present in the estimation methods in order to provide uncertainty of emissions estimates across CONUS and AK. Additionally, WFEIS emissions estimates will be compared with results obtained with the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which operates at a global scale at a coarse spatial resolution, to help improve GFED estimates

  3. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite......Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  4. Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass in an IGCC Power Plant: Gasifier Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Correas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-gasification of coal and biomass in an existing coal-fired IGCC power plant is proposed as an efficient, flexible and environmentally friendly way to increase the biomass contribution to electricity generation. A model of an entrained flow gasifier is described and validated with nearly 3,000 actual steady-state operational data points (4,800 hours. The model is then used to study co-gasification of coal, petroleum coke and up to 10 percent of several types of biomass. As a result, the influence of fuel variations on gasifier performance and modifications in operation that should be made in co-gasification are obtained. A conclusion of our study is that co-gasification is possible provided that operation is properly adapted. A validated model can be very useful for predicting operating points for new fuel mixtures.

  5. Investment appraisal for small CHP technology in biomass-fuel power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The paper is essentially an investment appraisal for small CHP (combined heat and power) technology in biomass-fuel power plant and discusses and presents data on the combustion/steam cycle technologies to demonstrate the economic viability of CHP projects using established market costs for technology and employing energy crops as biomass fuel. The data is based on the UK, where electricity prices are low, but the overseas market (where prices are higher and there is potential for UK exports) is also discussed. The report aims to synthesise up-to-date technical and economic information on biomass-fuel CHP projects of small scale and focuses on technical and financial information on equipment, capital, construction and operating costs, and revenue streams.

  6. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  7. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  8. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.

  9. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Garret; Scott, Jarrod J.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandra M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Foster, Clifton E.; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy T.; Slater, Steven C.; Donohue, Timothy J.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy. PMID:20885794

  10. Biomass power plants and health problems among nearby residents: A case study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudchawal Juntarawijit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electricity generation from biomass has become a boom business. However, currently, concerns over their environmental and health impact have emerged. This study aimed to explore these health problems by studying two small biomass power plants in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Data concerning chronic diseases and health symptoms was collected from 392 people by trained interviewers by the use of a questionnaire. Results: Residents living within 1 km from the power plants had a higher prevalence of allergies (Odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0, asthma (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.4 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0-8.4. The risks of other symptoms, itching/rash, eye irritation, cough, stuffy nose, allergic symptoms, sore throat, and difficulty breathing among those living within 0.5 km from the power plants (OR = 2.5-8.5 were even more marked. Conclusions: It has been concluded that without a proper control, pollution from the biomass power plants can cause significant health problems to the nearby residents.

  11. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  12. Measuring bulrush culm relationships to estimate plant biomass within a southern California treatment wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joan S. (Thullen); Cade, Brian S.; Sartoris, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of emergent vegetation biomass can be time consuming and labor intensive. To establish a less onerous, yet accurate method, for determining emergent plant biomass than by direct measurements we collected vegetation data over a six-year period and modeled biomass using easily obtained variables: culm (stem) diameter, culm height and culm density. From 1998 through 2005, we collected emergent vegetation samples (Schoenoplectus californicus andSchoenoplectus acutus) at a constructed treatment wetland in San Jacinto, California during spring and fall. Various statistical models were run on the data to determine the strongest relationships. We found that the nonlinear relationship: CB=β0DHβ110ε, where CB was dry culm biomass (g m−2), DH was density of culms × average height of culms in a plot, and β0 and β1 were parameters to estimate, proved to be the best fit for predicting dried-live above-ground biomass of the two Schoenoplectus species. The random error distribution, ε, was either assumed to be normally distributed for mean regression estimates or assumed to be an unspecified continuous distribution for quantile regression estimates.

  13. Tracking Dynamics of Plant Biomass Composting by Changes in Substrate Structure, Microbial Community, and Enzyme Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, H.; Tucker, M. P.; Baker, J. O.; Harris, M.; Luo, Y. H.; Xu, Q.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight) and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  14. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  15. Testing the growth rate hypothesis in vascular plants with above- and below-ground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; He, Nianpeng; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Zhiping; Elser, James J; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ) is associated with higher P concentration and lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, μ was positively correlated with N:C under N limitation and positively correlated with P:C under P limitation. However, the N:P ratio was a unimodal function of μ, increasing for small values of μ, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in μ was positively correlated with variation in C:N:P stoichiometry. Furthermore, μ and C:N:P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations.

  16. Testing the growth rate hypothesis in vascular plants with above- and below-ground biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    Full Text Available The growth rate hypothesis (GRH proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ is associated with higher P concentration and lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, μ was positively correlated with N:C under N limitation and positively correlated with P:C under P limitation. However, the N:P ratio was a unimodal function of μ, increasing for small values of μ, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in μ was positively correlated with variation in C:N:P stoichiometry. Furthermore, μ and C:N:P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations.

  17. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated......, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis...

  18. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  19. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  20. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Hale, Lauren E; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-09-27

    Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. Global change involves simultaneous alterations, including those caused by climate warming and land management practices (e.g., clipping). Data on the interactive effects of

  1. [Ecological stoichiometry and its application to medicinal plant resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Ecological stoichiometry is a study of the balance of biological system's energy and the balance of multiple chemical elements. It focuses on the relationship of the element ratio in ecological processes. In this paper, the concept and main theoretical basis of ecological stoichiometry were introduced, and the status of stoichiometry in medicinal plant resources was reviewed. According to the recent development of ecological stoichiometry, the future directions of ecological stoichiometry of medicinal plants could be the study of the relationship between stoichiometric characteristic and growth and secondary metabolism of medicinal plants, and the influence of biotic (or abiotic) factors on the stoichiometric characteristic of medicinal plants.

  2. Soil resources and climate jointly drive variations in microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in China's forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial metabolism plays a key role in regulating the biogeochemical cycle of forest ecosystems, but the mechanisms driving microbial growth are not well understood. Here, we synthesized 689 measurements on soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic and nitrogen (Nmic and related parameters from 207 independent studies published during the past 15 years across China's forest ecosystems. Our objectives were to (1 examine patterns in Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient (i.e., Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates by climate zones and management regimes for these forests; and (2 identify the factors driving the variability in the Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient. There was a large variability in Cmic (390.2 mg kg−1, Nmic (60.1 mg kg−1, Cmic : Nmic ratio (8.25, Cmic / Csoil rate (1.92 %, and Nmic / Nsoil rate (3.43 % across China's forests, with coefficients of variation varying from 61.2 to 95.6 %. The natural forests had significantly greater Cmic and Nmic than the planted forests, but had less Cmic : Nmic ratio and Cmic / Csoil rate. Soil resources and climate together explained 24.4–40.7 % of these variations. The Cmic : Nmic ratio declined slightly with the Csoil : Nsoil ratio, and changed with latitude, mean annual temperature and precipitation, suggesting a plastic homeostasis of microbial carbon-nitrogen stoichiometry. The Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates were responsive to soil resources and climate differently, suggesting that soil microbial assimilation of carbon and nitrogen be regulated by different mechanisms. We conclude that soil resources and climate jointly drive microbial growth and metabolism, and also emphasize the necessity of appropriate procedures for data compilation and standardization in cross-study syntheses.

  3. Mechanism of the effect caused by highway construction on plant biomass in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie LIU; Honglei XU; Chunping CHANG

    2013-01-01

    Taking Dabao (from Dali City to Baoshan City,Yunnan Province,China) and Sixiao (from Simao City to Xiaomengyang Town,Yurnan Province,China) highways in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region as examples.Biomass,coverage and photosynthesis rate of different plant types on sampling points (at the distances from road of 5,20,40,80,120 and 200 m) and their control points were estimated on ground.The relations among biomass,coverage,photosynthesis rate were analyzed with an aim to explore the mechanism of the effect caused by highway construction on plant biomass.The results show,i) the impacts of highway construction on plant biomass are both positive and negative.Arbor is mainly negatively impacted,while shrub and herbage are mainly positively impacted.The effect of highway construction decrease with the increase of distance from the road; ii) highway construction exert obvious influence on plant biomass through altering the physiologic processes (reflected by the plant number) and photosynthesis,iii) highway construction will result in the decrease of arbor number,photosynthesis rate and biomass,and increase of plant number,photosynthesis rate and biomass of shrub and herbage.

  4. Plant winners and losers during grassland N-eutrophication differ in biomass allocation and mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy Collins; Rowland, Diane L; Corkidi, Lea; Allen, Edith B

    2008-10-01

    Human activities release tremendous amounts of nitrogenous compounds into the atmosphere. Wet and dry deposition distributes this airborne nitrogen (N) on otherwise pristine ecosystems. This eutrophication process significantly alters the species composition of native grasslands; generally a few nitrophilic plant species become dominant while many other species disappear. The functional equilibrium model predicts that, compared to species that decline in response to N enrichment, nitrophilic grass species should respond to N enrichment with greater biomass allocation aboveground and reduced allocation to roots and mycorrhizas. The mycorrhizal feedback hypothesis states that the composition of mycorrhizal fungal communities may influence the composition of plant communities, and it predicts that N enrichment may generate reciprocal shifts in the species composition of mycorrhizal fungi and plants. We tested these hypotheses with experiments that compared biomass allocation and mycorrhizal function of four grass ecotypes (three species), two that gained and two that lost biomass and cover in response to long-term N enrichment experiments at Cedar Creek and Konza Long-Term Ecological Research grasslands. Local grass ecotypes were grown in soil from their respective sites and inoculated with whole-soil inoculum collected from either fertilized (FERT) or unfertilized (UNFERT) plots. Our results strongly support the functional equilibrium model. In both grassland systems the nitrophilic grass species grew taller, allocated more biomass to shoots than to roots, and formed fewer mycorrhizas compared to the grass species that it replaced. Our results did not fully support the hypothesis that N-induced changes in the mycorrhizal fungal community were drivers of the plant community shifts that accompany N eutrophication. The FERT and UNFERT soil inoculum influenced the growth of the grasses differently, but this varied with site and grass ecotype in both expected and

  5. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  6. [Resources and application of She's nationality wild medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei

    2014-08-01

    To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources.

  7. Temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass decreases as spatial variability increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Hovick, Torre J; Elmore, R Dwayne; Engle, David M; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Winter, Stephen L; Miller, James R; Debinski, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Ecological theory predicts that diversity decreases variability in ecosystem function. We predict that, at the landscape scale, spatial variability created by a mosaic of contrasting patches that differ in time since disturbance will decrease temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. Using data from a multi-year study of seven grazed tallgrass prairie landscapes, each experimentally managed for one to eight patches, we show that increased spatial variability driven by spatially patchy fire and herbivory reduces temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass. This pattern is associated with statistical evidence for the portfolio effect and a positive relationship between temporal variability and functional group synchrony as predicted by metacommunity variability theory. As disturbance from fire and grazing interact to create a shifting mosaic of spatially heterogeneous patches within a landscape, temporal variability in aboveground plant biomass can be dampened. These results suggest that spatially heterogeneous disturbance regimes contribute to a portfolio of ecosystem functions provided by biodiversity, including wildlife habitat, fuel, and forage. We discuss how spatial patterns of disturbance drive variability within and among patches.

  8. Biomass and number of fish impinged at a nuclear power plant by the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Andreas C; Bergenius, Mikaela A J; Dimberg, Peter H; Adill, Anders

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was to determine the comparability of the results from Forsmark and results from impingement studies in other types of waters. Cross-systems studies make it possible to (1) estimate fish loss at plants where fish is not counted, and (2) to predict changes in fish loss from changes in electricity production or cooling water use. In 2010, 31,300,000 fish with a total biomass of 62,600 kg were impinged at Forsmark. In 2011, 27,300,000 fish weighing 38,500 kg were impinged. The maximum peak in total fish number and biomass occurred in spring. The most critical period for herring was in late summer and early autumn. Regarding eel, the largest impingement losses were recorded in November. The number of fish agreed with earlier established quantities of impinged fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. The study also estimated that 1,300 critically endangered eels could survive at Forsmark each year if a fish return system would be constructed to allow the passage of fish from the plant back to the Baltic Sea.

  9. USE OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF THE PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER ACTINOBACTERIA, Streptomyces sp. MCR26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ávila-Cortes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR biomass production has not been widely explored. This study focuses on the development a culture medium for PGPR Streptomyces sp. MCR26, evaluating the influence of carnation harvest waste, yeast extract and ammonium sulfate on biomass production, as well as, the effect of biomass produced in the designed culture medium on the maintenance of PGPR MCR26 traits. The experiments were conducted by a full factorial design, varying nutritional sources concentrations, with duplicate experiments at the central point. Yeast extract and carnation harvest waste were the most influential factors, showing a positive effect on biomass production. The statistical model predicted optimal conditions for maximal biomass production at 20.0 g/L carnation harvest waste and 4.0 g/L yeast extract. Shake flask validation experiments resulted in 8.087 g/L of MCR26 biomass, 80.6% higher compared to carboxymetil cellulose (CMC broth. MCR26 biomass produced on designed culture medium enhanced hydroxamate production, and maintained phosphatases and indole-3-acetic acid synthesis. In addition, white clover inoculated plants presented higher shoot biomass accumulation compared to control treatment; nevertheless, there were no effects on seed germination. These results demonstrated that the designed culture medium effectively induced Streptomyces sp. MCR26 biomass production and maintained its plant growth promotion traits.

  10. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species-specific models is only warranted when gains in accuracy of stand-based predictions are relatively high (e.g. high-value monocultures).

  11. Dioxin emissions from biomass fired energy plants and other sources in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A.; Blinksbjerg, P.; Thomsen, E.; Schilling, B.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents results from a new Danish investigation of emissions of dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from various sources carried out for the Danish EPA. The purpose was to investigate smaller sources (in size or emission), for which the knowledge of the PCDD/F emissions was low or missing. The sources were: Five biomass plants (> 1 MW) using straw, wood and chip board residue, a farm size boiler (> 1 MW) using straw, a wood stove during wood pellets, and three district heating plants (> 1 MW) using waste oil. In addition, measurements were made of emissions from barbecuing, and cremation of corpses in two crematories. (Author) 5 refs.

  12. Twig and foliar biomass estimation equations for major plant species in the Tanana River Basin of interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Yarie; Bert R. Mead

    1988-01-01

    Equations are presented for estimating the twig, foliage, and combined biomass for 58 plant species in interior Alaska. The equations can be used for estimating biomass from percentage of foliar cover of 10-centimeter layers in a vertical profile from 0 to 6 meters. Few differences were found in regressions of the same species between layers except when the ratio of...

  13. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  14. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2007-11-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute to a sustainable development in the future. Especially plant derived fats and oils bear a large potential for the substitution of currently used petrochemicals, since monomers, fine chemicals and polymers can be derived from these resources in a straightforward fashion. The synthesis of monomers as well as polymers from plant fats and oils has already found some industrial application and recent developments in this field offer promising new opportunities, as is shown within this contribution. (138 references.)

  15. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  16. Genetic resources: the basis for sustainable and competitive plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lourenço Nass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are the fuel for breeding, which in the search for higher yield and adapted genotypes, manipulates genes in order to meet the needs of farmers, and especially, of the current market. However, the use of accessions available in germplasm banks is low. Topics discussed in this paper emphasize the importance of plant genetic resources, and warn about problems related to genetic vulnerability; also, they discuss about aspects of costs involved in conservation and suggest recommendations for strengthening the area in Brazil.

  17. Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Keough, J.R.; Pyle, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing and burning are commonly applied practices that can impact the diversity and biomass of wetland plant communities. We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study area was Grays Lake, a large, montane wetland in southeastern Idaho that is bordered by extensive wet meadows. We identified seven plant cover types, representing the transition from dry meadow to deep wetland habitats: mixed deep marsh, spikerush slough, Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), moist meadow, alkali, mesic meadow, and dry meadow. We compared changes in community composition and total aboveground biomass of each plant cover type between 1998, when all units had been idled for three years, and 1999 (1 yr post-treatment) and 2000 (2 yr post-treatment). Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that compositional changes varied among cover types, treatments, and years following treatment. Treatment-related changes in community composition were greatest in mixed deep marsh, Baltic rush, and mesic meadow. In mixed deep marsh and Baltic rush, grazing and associated trampling contributed to changes in the plant community toward more open water and aquatic species and lower dominance of Baltic rush; grazing and trampling also seemed to contribute to increased cover in mesic meadow. Changing hydrological conditions, from multiple years of high water to increasing drought, was an important factor influencing community composition and may have interacted with management treatments. Biomass differed among treatments and between years within cover types. In the wettest cover types, fall burning and grazing rotation treatments had greater negative impact on biomass than the idle treatment, but in drier cover types, summer grazing stimulated

  18. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  19. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  20. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  1. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  2. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  3. Biomass Energy Self-Sufficiency Resource Alternatives for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    to support basewide biomass energy systems. The study confirmed the feasibility of a biomass energy plantation supplying the required fuel wood to...support the basewide biomass energy systems while, at the same time not conflicting with any of the operational missions of Eglin AFB. This conclusion is...have an installation that provides all of its electrical and thermal energy requirements through the utilization of the Biomass Energy Island concept. (Author)

  4. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  5. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  6. Characterization of residues from plant biomass for use in energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Elis de Ramos e Paula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant residues for energy purposes is already a reality, yet in order to ensure suitability and recommend a given material as being a good energy generator, it is necessary to characterize the material through chemical analysis and determine its calorific value. This research aimed to analyze different residues from plant biomass, characterizing them as potential sources for energy production. For the accomplishment of this study, the following residues were used: wood processing residue (sawdust and planer shavings; coffee bean parchment and coffee plant stem; bean stem and pod; soybean stem and pod; rice husk; corn leaf, stem, straw and cob; and sugar cane straw and bagasse. For residue characterization the following analyses were done: chemical analysis, immediate chemical analysis, calorific value and elemental analysis. All procedures were conducted at the Laboratory of Forest Biomass Energy of the Federal University of Lavras. In general, all residues showed potential for energetic use. Rice husk was found to have higher lignin content, which is an interesting attribute as far as energy production is concerned. Its high ash content, however, led to a reduction in calorific value and fixed carbon. The remaining residues were found to have similar energetic characteristics, with corn cob showing greater calorific value, followed by coffee plant stem, both also containing higher levels of carbon and fixed carbon. A high correlation was found of higher calorific value with volatile materials, carbon and hydrogen contents.

  7. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Boutard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  8. Corrosion Testing of Thermal Spray Coatings in a Biomass Co-Firing Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of biomass and recycled fuel is increasing in energy production due to climate and energy targets. A 40% cut in greenhouse gas emission compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy consumption are set in EU Energy Strategy 2030. Burning fuels with high content of corrosive species such as chlorine and heavy metals causes deterioration of boiler components, shortened lifetime, limited availability of a plant and hence higher maintenance and investment costs and lower thermal and economic efficiency. Coatings can be applied to protect the critical boiler components against high temperature corrosion. In this study, five thermal spray coatings were tested in an actual biomass co-firing boiler for 1300 h with a measurement probe. The coatings were analyzed after the exposure by metallographic means and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX. The deposits formed on the specimens were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. At 550 °C, the coatings showed excellent corrosion performance compared to reference material ferritic steel T92. At 750 °C, tube material A263 together with NiCr and NiCrTi had the highest corrosion resistance. To conclude, thermal spray coatings can offer substantial corrosion protection in biomass and recycled fuel burning power plants.

  9. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, H. [Forestry Sciences, Agrarian Superior School, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, 3500-606 Viseu (Portugal); Cohen, Warren B. [USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Lopes, D.; Aranha, J. [Forestry Department, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2010-08-15

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two existing electric power plants, with 22 MW of power capacity, 13 new power plants having a total of 86.4 MW capacity are in construction. Together these could generate a combination of electrical and thermal energy, known as combined heat and power (CHP) production. As these power plants will significantly increase the exploitation of forests resources, this article evaluates the potential quantities of available forest biomass residue for that purpose. In addition to examining the feasibility of producing both types of energy, we also examine the potential for producing only electric energy. Results show that if only electricity is generated some regions will need to have alternative fuel sources to fulfil the demand. However, if cogeneration is implemented the wood fuel resource will be sufficient to fulfill the required capacity demand. (author)

  10. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  11. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  12. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifies. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for the bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. (orig.)

  13. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  14. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  15. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  16. Plant DNA banks for genetic resources conservation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of gene­tic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximi­zing their potential.

  17. The PROSEA project (Plant Resources of Southeast Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the Bulletin of 1986 (p. 281) the revival of the PROSEA Project has been announced. Some more information on its background and progress seems in order. Historical background. In the field of plant resources of SE. Asia there are no other publications giving such thorough and comprehensive inform

  18. Micropropagation and cryopreservation: alternative techniques for conserving plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources of vegetatively propagated crops are maintained as growing plants and are often at risk of loss from disease, and environmental hazards. Micropropagation and cryopreservation are used for backup of the temperate fruit, nut and specialty crops held at the National Clonal Germplasm R...

  19. The PROSEA project (Plant Resources of Southeast Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the Bulletin of 1986 (p. 281) the revival of the PROSEA Project has been announced. Some more information on its background and progress seems in order. Historical background. In the field of plant resources of SE. Asia there are no other publications giving such thorough and comprehensive

  20. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Agriculture is a landmark international agreement for ensuring food security .... developing countries which sought to correct the asymmetry of benefits accruing to .... strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adaptable to social, .... of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and carrying out scientific.

  1. Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants, a contribution to energy turnaround and climate protection?; Die Mitverbrennung holzartiger Biomasse in Kohlekraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Energiewende und zum Klimaschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Claudia; Herr, Michael; Edel, Matthias; Seidl, Hannes

    2011-08-15

    Co-combustion of wood biomass in coal power plants is feasible at short notice and can is a low-cost option for climate protection. While other EU states have already provided funding mechanism, Germany has not followed this lead so far. Domestic wood resources are limited and unevenly distributed among the German regions, so that wood materials will have to be imported. During the past few years, the basic requirements for imports of wood were provided with the initiation of a global pellets market. Sustainability criteria for wood consumption were defined, and international certification systems were developed. The sustainability criteria should be extended to cover also wood-like materials and other biomass for power generation. The German EEG (Renewables Act) is a first step in this direction. Further, investments must be made in logistics capacities. The available logistics of coal power plants can be used with some minor modifications. In all, successful and sustainable international biomass markets may soon be available.

  2. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  3. Kelp biomass production: yield, genetics, and planting technology. Annual report, January 1983-August 1984. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neushul, M.; Harger, B.W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Progress was made toward the long-term goal of growing macroalgae in the sea as a future source of substitute natural gas. The annual report discusses progress made to: (1) measure macroalgal yield, (2) enhance yield by row planting and selective harvesting, (3) genetically breed high-producing plants, (4) devise methods for planting kelps and (5) maintain and extend collaborative research efforts and communication with scientists working on macroalgal biomass production in Japan, China and elsewhere. The report discusses kelp biology and macroalgal mariculture in general terms, the theories that have been proposed and the existing data base in the scientific literature. Particular attention is given to new techniques used to make in-the-sea hydrodynamic and light-climate measurements and microspectrophotometric measurements of DNA levels in kelp sporophytes and gametophytes.

  4. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  5. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios....... This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios...

  6. Changes in plant biomass and species composition of alpine Kobresia meadows along altitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Alpine Kobresia meadows are major vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. There is growing concern over their relationships among biodiversity, productivity and environments. Despite the im-portance of species composition, species richness, the type of different growth forms, and plant bio-mass structure for Kobresia meadow ecosystems, few studies have been focused on the relationship between biomass and environmental gradient in the Kobresia meadow plant communities, particularly in relation to soil moisture and edaphic gradients. We measured the plant species composition, her-baceous litter, aboveground and belowground biomass in three Kobresia meadow plant communities in Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station from 2001 to 2004. Community differences in plant species composition were reflected in biomass distribution. The total biomass showed a de-crease from 13196.96±719.69 g/m2 in the sedge-dominated K. tibetica swamp to 2869.58±147.52 g/m2 in the forb and sedge dominated K. pygmaea meadow, and to 2153.08±141.95 g/m2 in the forbs and grasses dominated K. humilis along with the increase of altitude. The vertical distribution of below-ground biomass is distinct in the three meadow communities, and the belowground biomass at the depth of 0-10 cm in K. tibetica swamp meadow was significantly higher than that in K. humilis and K. pygmaea meadows (P<0.01). The herbaceous litter in K. tibetica swamp was significantly higher than those in K. pygnaeca and K. humilis meadows. The effects of plant litter are enhanced when ground water and soil moisture levels are raised. The relative importance of litter and vegetation may vary with soil water availability. In the K. tibetica swamp, total biomass was negatively correlated to species richness (P<0.05); aboveground biomass was positively correlated to soil organic matter, soil moisture, and plant cover (P<0.05); belowground biomass was positively correlated with soil moisture (P<0.05). However, in the K

  7. Changes in plant biomass and species composition of alpine Kobresia meadows along altitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Alpine Kobresia meadows are major vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. There is growing concern over their relationships among biodiversity, productivity and environments. Despite the importance of species composition, species richness, the type of different growth forms, and plant biomass structure for Kobresia meadow ecosystems, few studies have been focused on the relationship between biomass and environmental gradient in the Kobresia meadow plant communities, particularly in relation to soil moisture and edaphic gradients. We measured the plant species composition, herbaceous litter, aboveground and belowground biomass in three Kobresia meadow plant communities in Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station from 2001 to 2004. Community differences in plant species composition were reflected in biomass distribution. The total biomass showed a decrease from 13196.96±719.69 g/m2 in the sedge-dominated K. tibetica swamp to 2869.58±147.52 g/m2 in the forb and sedge dominated K. pygmaea meadow, and to 2153.08±141.95 g/m2 in the forbs and grasses dominated K. humilis along with the increase of altitude. The vertical distribution of belowground biomass is distinct in the three meadow communities, and the belowground biomass at the depth of 0-10 cm in K. tibetica swamp meadow was significantly higher than that in K. humilis and K. pygmaea meadows (P<0.01). The herbaceous litter in K. tibetica swamp was significantly higher than those in K. pygnaeca and K. humilis meadows. The effects of plant litter are enhanced when ground water and soil moisture levels are raised. The relative importance of litter and vegetation may vary with soil water availability. In the K. tibetica swamp, total biomass was negatively correlated to species richness (P<0.05); aboveground biomass was positively correlated to soil organic matter, soil moisture, and plant cover (P<0.05); belowground biomass was positively correlated with soil moisture (P<0.05). However, in

  8. Shifts in biomass and resource allocation patterns following defoliation in Eucalyptus globulus growing with varying water and nutrient supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Mohammed, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In woody species, potential mechanisms to compensate for tissue loss to herbivory and diseases have been related to post-event shifts in growth, biomass and internal resource allocation patterns, as modulated by external resource limitations. We examined the interactive effects of belowground resource limitations by varying nutrient and water availability, and aboveground carbon limitation imposed by a single defoliation event (40% leaf removal) on stem growth, whole-tree and within-tree resource allocation patterns (total non-structural carbohydrate and nitrogen) and below- and aboveground biomass allocation patterns in 8-month-old, field-grown Eucalyptus globulus Labill. saplings. Two months after treatments were imposed, the direction of the stem growth response to defoliation depended on the abiotic treatment. Five months after defoliation, however, we found little evidence that resource availability constrained the expression of tolerance to defoliation. With the exception of the combined low-nutrient and low-water supply treatment, saplings grown with (1) adequate water and nutrient supplies and even with (2) low-water supply or (3) low-nutrient supply were able to compensate for the 40% foliage loss. The observed compensatory responses were attributed to the activation of several short- and longer-term physiological mechanisms including reduced biomass allocation to coarse roots, mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, robust internal N dynamics and increased ratio of foliage to wood dry mass.

  9. Clean energy and agriculture. 5. ; Utilization of biomass for energy. Clean energy to nogyo. 5. ; Biomass energy no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, K. (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of biomass energy, which is regarded as renewable and clean, and present features of its utilization as well as their problems. Biomass energy resources are substantially such cultivated plants as saccharine crops, fatty and oily crops, petroleum plants, and aquatic plants. In addition, organic waste including agricultural and livestock waste is also the other important resource. Utilization of biomass for energy can be realized through applying such conversion technologies as methane fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, and thermal decomposition to the biomass resources. For the utilization, it is most important to make much of the viewpoints such as durable utilization corresponding to reproduction, competitive relation with food crops, and environmental protection. Biomass energy should be thought to be strictly limited to small-sized and regionally distributed energy. Therefore, it will be said that agriculture is appropriate to utilize biomass energy because it can practice both production and utilization of the biomass. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Resource Limitation, Tolerance, and the Future of Ecological Plant Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Craine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the evolutionary history of plants, drought, shade, and scarcity of nutrients have structured ecosystems and communities globally. Humans have begun to drastically alter the prevalence of these environmental factors with untold consequences for plant communities and ecosystems worldwide. Given limitations in using organ-level traits to predict ecological performance of species, recent advances using tolerances of low resource availability as plant functional traits are revealing the often hidden roles these factors have in structuring communities and are becoming central to classifying plants ecologically. For example, measuring the physiological drought tolerance of plants has increased the predictability of differences among species in their ability to survive drought as well as the distribution of species within and among ecosystems. Quantifying the shade tolerance of species has improved our understanding of local and regional species diversity and how species have sorted within and among regions. As the stresses on ecosystems continue to shift, coordinated studies of whole-plant growth centered on tolerance of low resource availability will be central in predicting future ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. This will require efforts that quantify tolerances for large numbers of species and develop bioinformatic and other techniques for comparing large number of species.

  11. Resource limitation, tolerance, and the future of ecological plant classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Joseph M; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Lusk, Christopher H; McDowell, Nate G; Poorter, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the evolutionary history of plants, drought, shade, and scarcity of nutrients have structured ecosystems and communities globally. Humans have begun to drastically alter the prevalence of these environmental factors with untold consequences for plant communities and ecosystems worldwide. Given limitations in using organ-level traits to predict ecological performance of species, recent advances using tolerances of low resource availability as plant functional traits are revealing the often hidden roles these factors have in structuring communities and are becoming central to classifying plants ecologically. For example, measuring the physiological drought tolerance of plants has increased the predictability of differences among species in their ability to survive drought as well as the distribution of species within and among ecosystems. Quantifying the shade tolerance of species has improved our understanding of local and regional species diversity and how species have sorted within and among regions. As the stresses on ecosystems continue to shift, coordinated studies of whole-plant growth centered on tolerance of low resource availability will be central in predicting future ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. This will require efforts that quantify tolerances for large numbers of species and develop bioinformatic and other techniques for comparing large number of species.

  12. Investigation of the Biomass and Nutrient Content of Green Manuring Plants as Second Crops in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter MIKO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth, and the development and trends of the nutrient content parameters of three different plant species (Phacelia tanacecifolia,Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus grown as secondary crops for green manure, as a function of two different fertiliser doses (0 kg/ha N; 50kg/ha N, was studied under unfavourable site conditions at the Crop Production and Biomass Utilisation Demonstration Centre of theSzent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary. The application of the small, 50 kg/ha dose of nitrogen increased the biomass yield in eachcase, to 2.78-3.11 times that of the control field. The dry matter content of the produce increased only by 2.11-2.66 times, as the watercontent of the green manure plants also increased as a result of the nitrogen supplement. The increased amount of nitrogen boosted theavailability of all of the other macro elements for the plants. In view of the present findings it can be recommend the application of somenitrogen fertiliser in the given site before growing some crop for use as green manure in all cases but where the straw after cereals is left onthe soil surface nitrogen should be applied to alleviate the pentosan effect and to increase the uptake of macro elements.

  13. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt.

  14. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  15. Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Beest, Mariska; Stevens, Nicola; Olff, Han; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wal, Rene van der

    2009-01-01

    P> Soil communities and their interactions with plants may play a major role in determining the success of invasive species. However, rigorous investigations of this idea using cross-continental comparisons, including native and invasive plant populations, are still scarce. We investigated if

  16. Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism: the effect of biomass composition and model structure on model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomass composition represented in constraint-based metabolic models is a key component for predicting cellular metabolism using flux balance analysis (FBA. Despite major advances in analytical technologies, it is often challenging to obtain a detailed composition of all major biomass components experimentally. Studies examining the influence of the biomass composition on the predictions of metabolic models have so far mostly been done on models of microorganisms. Little is known about the impact of varying biomass composition on flux prediction in FBA models of plants, whose metabolism is very versatile and complex because of the presence of multiple subcellular compartments. Also, the published metabolic models of plants differ in size and complexity. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the predicted fluxes of plant metabolic models to biomass composition and model structure. These questions were addressed by evaluating the sensitivity of predictions of growth rates and central carbon metabolic fluxes to varying biomass compositions in three different genome-/large-scale metabolic models of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that fluxes through the central carbon metabolism were robust to changes in biomass composition. Nevertheless, comparisons between the predictions from three models using identical modelling constraints and objective function showed that model predictions were sensitive to the structure of the models, highlighting large discrepancies between the published models.

  17. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  18. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  19. Plant database resources at The Institute for Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Quackenbush, John; Buell, C Robin; Town, Chris D

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the genome sequences of the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, and the continuing sequencing efforts of other economically important crop plants, an unprecedented amount of genome sequence data is now available for large-scale genomics studies and analyses, such as the identification and discovery of novel genes, comparative genomics, and functional genomics. Efficient utilization of these large data sets is critically dependent on the ease of access and organization of the data. The plant databases at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) have been set up to maintain various data types including genomic sequence, annotation and analyses, expressed transcript assemblies and analyses, and gene expression profiles from microarray studies. We present here an overview of the TIGR database resources for plant genomics and describe methods to access the data.

  20. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM-pre-treated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir P S

    2015-07-01

    Cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is a trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. It was found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  2. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  3. Can plant resistance to specialist herbivores be explained by plant chemistry or resource use strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Heather; Vrieling, Klaas; Pelser, Pieter B; Schaffner, Urs

    2012-04-01

    At both a macro- and micro-evolutionary level, selection of and performance on host plants by specialist herbivores are thought to be governed partially by host plant chemistry. Thus far, there is little evidence to suggest that specialists can detect small structural differences in secondary metabolites of their hosts, or that such differences affect host choice or performance of specialists. We tested whether phytochemical differences between closely related plant species are correlated with specialist host choice. We conducted no-choice feeding trials using 17 plant species of three genera of tribe Senecioneae (Jacobaea, Packera, and Senecio; Asteraceae) and a more distantly related species (Cynoglossum officinale; Boraginaceae) containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and four PA-sequestering specialist herbivores of the genus Longitarsus (Chrysomelidae). We also assessed whether variation in feeding by specialist herbivores is attributable to different resource use strategies of the tested plant species. Plant resource use strategy was quantified by measuring leaf dry matter content, which is related to both plant nutritive value and to plant investment in quantitative defences. We found no evidence that intra-generic differences in PA profiles affect feeding by specialist herbivores. Instead, our results indicate that decisions to begin feeding are related to plant resource use strategy, while decisions to continue feeding are not based on any plant characteristics measured in this study. These findings imply that PA composition does not significantly affect host choice by these specialist herbivores. Leaf dry matter content is somewhat phylogenetically conserved, indicating that plants may have difficulty altering resource use strategy in response to selection pressure by herbivores and other environmental factors on an evolutionary time scale.

  4. Gas emission from anaerobic decomposition of plant resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of gases resulting from the anaerobic decomposition of different plant resources under conditions usually found in sediments of tropical aquatic systems and drained organic soils. Methods Incubations were prepared with green leaves, bark, twigs, plant litter, sugarcane stalks and leaves, soybean leaves, grasses, forest leaves and an aquatic macrophyte (Typha domingensis. Over 10 months, the daily volume of gas evolved from decay was measured and a kinetic model was used to describe the anaerobic mineralization. Results Using the mathematical model, it can be observed that the composition of the plant resources is heterogeneous. The temporal variation of the gas rates indicated that the mineralization of the labile fractions of detritus varied, on a carbon basis, from 16.2 (bark to 100% (samples composed of leaves, grasses and sugar cane stalks. High gas emissions were observed during the mineralization of grasses, sugar cane stalks, leaves and plant litter, while low volumes of gases were measured during the mineralization of bark, twigs, forest leaves and T. domingensis, which are the most fibrous and recalcitrant resources (carbon content: 83.8, 78.2, 64.8 and 53.4%, respectively. The mineralization of labile carbon presented half-life values, which varied from 41 (twigs to 295 days (grasses. Conclusions Considering the high amount of remaining recalcitrant fraction, the anaerobic decomposition of these plant resources showed a strong trend towards accumulating organic matter in flooded soils. Despite the higher temperatures found in the tropical environment, these environments represent a sink of particulate detritus due to its slow decomposition.

  5. Soil and biomass carbon pools in model communities of tropical plants under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, J A; Körner, Ch

    1995-09-01

    The experimental data presented here relate to the question of whether terrestrial ecosystems will sequester more C in their soils, litter and biomass as atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise. Similar to our previous study with relatively fertile growth conditions (Körner and Arnone 1992), we constructed four rather nutrient-limited model communities of moist tropical plant species in greenhouses (approximately 7 m(2) each). Plant communities were composed of seven species (77 individuals per community) representing major taxonomic groups and various life forms found in the moist tropics. Two ecosystems were exposed to 340 μl CO2 l(-1) and two to 610 μl l(-1) for 530 days of humid tropical growth conditions. In order to permit precise determination of C deposition in the soil, plant communities were initially established in C-free unwashed quartz sand. Soils were then amended with known amounts of organic matter (containing C and nutrients). Mineral nutrients were also supplied over the course of the experiment as timed-release full-balance fertilizer pellets. Soils represented by far the largest repositories for fixed C in all ecosystems. Almost 5 times more C (ca. 80% of net C fixation) was sequestered in the soil than in the biomass, but this did not differ between CO2 treatments. In addition, at the whole-ecosystem level we found a remarkably small and statistically non-significant increase in C sequestration (+4%; the sum of C accretion in the soil, biomass, litter and necromass). Total community biomass more than quadrupled during the experiment, but at harvest was, on average, only 8% greater (i.e. 6% per year; n.s.) under elevated CO2, mainly due to increased root biomass (+15%, P=0.12). Time courses of leaf area index of all ecosystems suggested that canopy expansion was approaching steady state by the time systems were harvested. Net primary productivity (NPP) of all ecosystems-i.e. annual accumulation of biomass, necromass, and leaf litter (but not

  6. Growth, biomass partitioning and photosynthesis of young plants of Genipa spruceana subjected to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genipa spruceana Steyerm (Rubiaceae is a species often found in flooded environments in the central Amazonia. The objective of this study was elucidate possible adaptive strategies that enable this species to occupy environments under flooding, targeting the potential of the species for restoration of floodplains. In order to achieve these objectives growth traits, number of leaves, leaf expansion, biomass production, carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance were investigated in G. spruceana seedlings subjected to treatments: 1- Non flooded plants (control –SA, 2- partially flooded (PA and 3- completely flooded (TA up to 90 days. Flooded treatments (PA and TA induced smaller increments in all variables of height and diameter growth when compared to the control treatment. With increase of flooding, biomass allocation to leaves decreased until complete leaf abscission in TA, while increased in the stem. In PA treatment was observed reduction in C assimilation rates of 58% and 64% after 60 and 90 days, respectively, and 96% after 60 days in TA treatment. However, in the end of the experiment all treatments presented 100% of survival. Our results indicate that the loss of leaves and gain of the stem biomass can be protective strategy to alleviate the harmful effects of the flooding. On the other hand, the maxim survival rates suggest that G. spruceana exhibit high potential for establishment in frequently flooded areas.

  7. Biomass Resource Demand Characterization Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-436

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Competing demands for U.S. biomass resources and resulting impacts on regional feedstock availability could have a significant impact on the ability of the biofuels industry to transition to lower cost feedstocks, such as wood, agricultural residues, and energy crops, as well as on the ability of U.S. electric utilities and consumers to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and transition to lower carbon-footprint sources of electricity. Promulgation of regulations that place a cost on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels will also impact this situation as biomass to power applications become increasingly cost competitive. This increased competition for biomass feedstocks could create technical and economic risks for the Government, industry, and investors, and has the potential to impede commercialization of bio-energy in the U.S. at a meaningful scale.

  8. Changes in individual plant traits and biomass allocation in alpine meadow with elevation variation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Plant traits and individual plant biomass allocation of 57 perennial herbaceous species,belonging to three common functional groups (forbs,grasses and sedges) at subalpine (3700 m ASL),alpine (4300 m ASL) and subnival (≥5000 m ASL) sites were examined to test the hypothesis that at high altitudes,plants reduce the proportion of aboveground parts and allocate more biomass to belowground parts,especially storage organs,as altitude increases,so as to geminate and resist environmental stress.However,results indicate that some divergence in biomass allocation exists among organs.With increasing altitude,the mean fractions of total biomass allocated to aboveground parts decreased.The mean fractions of total biomass allocation to storage organs at the subalpine site (7%±2% S.E.) were distinct from those at the alpine (23%±6%) and subnival (21%±6%) sites,while the proportions of green leaves at all altitudes remained almost constant.At 4300 m and 5000 m,the mean fractions of flower stems decreased by 45% and 41%,respectively,while fine roots increased by 86% and 102%,respectively.Specific leaf areas and leaf areas of forbs and grasses deceased with rising elevation,while sedges showed opposite trends.For all three functional groups,leaf area ratio and leaf area root mass ratio decreased,while fine root biomass increased at higher altitudes.Biomass allocation patterns of alpine plants were characterized by a reduction in aboveground reproductive organs and enlargement of fine roots,while the proportion of leaves remained stable.It was beneficial for high altitude plants to compensate carbon gain and nutrient uptake under low temperature and limited nutrients by stabilizing biomass investment to photosynthetic structures and increasing the absorption surface area of fine roots.In contrast to forbs and grasses that had high mycorrhizal infection,sedges had higher single leaf area and more root fraction,especially fine roots.

  9. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...

  10. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  11. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  12. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  13. Long-term patterns in tropical reforestation: plant community composition and aboveground biomass accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Spiotta, E; Ostertag, R; Silver, W L

    2007-04-01

    Primary tropical forests are renowned for their high biodiversity and carbon storage, and considerable research has documented both species and carbon losses with deforestation and agricultural land uses. Economic drivers are now leading to the abandonment of agricultural lands, and the area in secondary forests is increasing. We know little about how long it takes for these ecosystems to achieve the structural and compositional characteristics of primary forests. In this study, we examine changes in plant species composition and aboveground biomass during eight decades of tropical secondary succession in Puerto Rico, and compare these patterns with primary forests. Using a well-replicated chronosequence approach, we sampled primary forests and secondary forests established 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 years ago on abandoned pastures. Tree species composition in all secondary forests was different from that of primary forests and could be divided into early (10-, 20-, and 30-year) vs. late (60- and 80-year) successional phases. The highest rates of aboveground biomass accumulation occurred in the first 20 years, with rates of C sequestration peaking at 6.7 +/- 0.5 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1). Reforestation of pastures resulted in an accumulation of 125 Mg C/ha in aboveground standing live biomass over 80 years. The 80 year-old secondary forests had greater biomass than the primary forests, due to the replacement of woody species by palms in the primary forests. Our results show that these new ecosystems have different species composition, but similar species richness, and significant potential for carbon sequestration, compared to remnant primary forests.

  14. Topo-edaphic controls over woody plant biomass in South African savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Colgan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of woody biomass in savannas reflects spatial patterns fundamental to ecosystem processes, such as water flow, competition, and herbivory, and is a key contributor to savanna ecosystem services, such as fuelwood supply. While total precipitation sets an upper bound on savanna woody biomass, the extent to which substrate and terrain constrain trees and shrubs below this maximum remains poorly understood, often occluded by local-scale disturbances such as fire and trampling. Here we investigate the role of hillslope topography and soil properties in controlling woody plant aboveground biomass (AGB in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Large-area sampling with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR provided a means to average across local-scale disturbances, revealing an unexpectedly linear relationship between AGB and hillslope-position on basalts, where biomass levels were lowest on crests, and linearly increased toward streams (R2 = 0.91. The observed pattern was different on granite substrates, where AGB exhibited a strongly non-linear relationship with hillslope position: AGB was high on crests, decreased midslope, and then increased near stream channels (R2 = 0.87. Overall, we observed 5-to-8-fold lower AGB on clayey, basalt-derived soil than on granites, and we suggest this is due to herbivore-fire interactions rather than lower hydraulic conductivity or clay shrinkage/swelling, as previously hypothesized. By mapping AGB within and outside fire and herbivore exclosures, we found that basalt-derived soils support tenfold higher AGB in the absence of fire and herbivory, suggesting high clay content alone is not a~proximal limitation on AGB. Understanding how fire and herbivory contribute to AGB heterogeneity is critical to predicting future savanna carbon storage under a changing climate.

  15. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  16. Research on Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition of agricultural plant genetic resources,this paper takes the two most important forms of intellectual property protection regarding agricultural plant genetic resources-patent rights and new plant variety rights as an example,to expound the current situation of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.It reveals the problems of intellectual property protection as follows:the awareness of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources is weak;the system of laws and regulations is not sound;the protection system is not perfect;the management system lacks standardization.It further puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the protection awareness of agricultural plant genetic resources in whole society;enact special law system to protect agricultural plant genetic resources;improve the management system of agricultural plant genetic resources;strengthen the international protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.

  17. Biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake of 16 riparian woody plant species in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Yu; Wei Chen; Xingyuan He; Zhouli Liu; Yanqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Our research focused on eutrophication control and species screening for riparian zone vegetation restoration in the upstream reach of the Hun River. We studied 16 hardwood plant species to investigate nutrient concentrations and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulations. After about 120 days of growth in pots, these 16 species varied in dry matter biomass, ranging from 15.13 to 637.16 g. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and distribution in roots, stems and foliage differed both within and between tested species. Mean TN and TP accumulation ranged from 0.167 to 14.730 g per plant and from 0.016 to 1.20 g, respectively. All 16 species, but especially Lespedeza bicolor, Robinia pseudoacacia and Sorbaria sorbifolia had strong potential to remove TN and TP from soil and could be widely utilized for the restora-tion of destroyed riparian zones in northeast China.

  18. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    , and their diversity as well as cooperation between them were found to enhance the potential of learning and learners. Recommendations are given to the work with plant genetic resources: It is important that international strategies and an overall national programme govern the conservation, growing and development......This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation...

  19. Plant clonal integration mediates the horizontal redistribution of soil resources, benefiting neighbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua eYe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient microsites and subsequently used by neighbour plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbours. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighbouring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighbouring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighbouring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  20. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  1. A Honey Bee Foraging approach for optimal location of a biomass power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, David; Jurado, Francisco [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Carabias, Julio; Ruiz-Reyes, Nicolas [Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Over eight million hectares of olive trees are cultivated worldwide, especially in Mediterranean countries, where more than 97% of the world's olive oil is produced. The three major olive oil producers worldwide are Spain, Italy, and Greece. Olive tree pruning residues are an autochthonous and important renewable source that, in most of cases, farmers burn through an uncontrolled manner. Besides, industrial uses have not yet been developed. The aim of this paper consists of a new calculation tool based on particles swarm (Binary Honey Bee Foraging, BHBF). Effectively, this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Moreover, it prevents the accurate method (not feasible from computational viewpoint). In this work, Profitability Index (PI) is set as the fitness function for the BHBF approach. Results are compared with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), and Genetic Algorithms (GA). All the experiments have shown that the optimal plant size is 2 MW, PI = 3.3122, the best location corresponds to coordinate: X = 49, Y = 97 and biomass supply area is 161.33 km{sup 2}. The simulation times have been reduced to the ninth of time than the greedy (accurate) solution. Matlab registered is used to run all simulations. (author)

  2. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications.

  3. Effects of Planting Date, Time and Methods of Weed Control on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of planting date, method and date of weed control on weed density and biomass in the experimental research field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. Treatments included planting date (30 December, 20 January and 30 February, weeding date (first true leaf, start of branching and beginning of flowering stages and weed control methods (hand weeding, fire treatment and control. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number of weeds between different sowing dates, weeding dates and control methods. The highest mean density and biomass of weeds were obtained on the planting date, 30 February, and when weed was controlled at the first leaf appearance stage with fire treatment. The most appropriate time for weed control was at the beginning of cumin flowering. Fire treatment reduced weed growth in the first half of growing season. However, hand weeding significantly reduced weed density and biomass in the second half of cumin growing season. The first planting date caused the lowest mean weed biomass and the highest cumin yield compared to later planting dates. Hand weeding treatment contained lower mean weed density and biomass compared to fire treatment, however, cumin yield was lower in hand weeding plots than fire treatment. Keywords: Cultural control, Cuminum cyminum, Fire, Hand weeding, Control time

  4. Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across Europe: idiosyncracy or above-belowground time lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedlund, K.; Santa Regina, I.; Putten, van der W.H.; Leps, J.; Díaz, T.; Korthals, G.W.; Lavorel, S.; Brown, V.K.; Gormsen, D.; Mortimer, S.R.; Rodríguez Barrueco, C.; Roy, J.; Smilauer, P.; Smilauerová, M.; Dijk, van C.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the relationship between plant species diversity, productivity and the development of the soil community during early secondary succession on former arable land across Europe. We tested the hypothesis that increasing the initial plant species diversity enhances the biomass production and

  5. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  6. Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biomass-Based Cogeneration Plant with CO2 Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, N

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions from energy systems could be achieved through: CO2 capture and storage, energy savings, fuel switching among fossil fuels, increased use of renewable energy sources, and nuclear power. In addition, atmospheric CO2 reduction could also be achieved through increasing the carbon stock in soils and standing biomass. The CO2 capture and storage option for mitigating CO2 emissions from biomass-based cogeneration plants, considering critical aspects such future development...

  7. Rapid appraisal of biomass resources: a case study of northern Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)); Crosetti, M. (RCG/Hagler Bailly, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of woody biomass stocks in the northern Governorates of the Republic of Yemen was undertaken in 1988. Sample sites for field measurements were selected in a stratified sample framework based on land-use zones. The data collected on trees and shrubs in the sample plots were used to estimate woody biomass stocks (both as total above-ground volume and wet weight) using equations developed for N. E. Africa. Wood productivity was estimated using a rainfall-productivity equation. These estimates were aggregated to provide a national estimate of woody biomass. Dead wood stocks were also estimated. A map of woody biomass supply areas and the main fuelwood supply routes was constructed from primary and secondary data. This map was used to place the results of the inventory in a spatial context, and to provide a qualitative means of validating the spatial variability in the woody biomass stock estimates. (author).

  8. The Effect of the Invasive Plant Species Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. on Energy Recovery Parameters of Semi-Natural Grassland Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hensgen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands is increasingly endangered by successful invasive plant species such as the legume Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. In order to contain the propagation of this plant species, early and regular harvesting needs to be applied. Therefore, a form of utilization for the harvested biomass has to be developed. One opportunity could be the use of the biomass as a feedstock for biogas and solid fuel production. This study investigates the effect of L. polyphyllus on the nutrient and mineral composition in a mixture series with semi-natural grassland biomass and examines the changes in nutrient and mineral content through hydrothermal conditioning and mechanical dewatering of silage. Untreated lupine-invaded biomass has higher N and Mg concentrations, but lower Cl, K and S concentrations compared to the semi-natural grassland biomass. The mineral concentrations in the biomass exceeded recommendations for combustion. However, with the proposed pre-treatment of hydrothermal conditioning and subsequent dewatering, both lupine-containing and lupine-free semi-natural grassland biomass could achieve adequate values for combustion, given that a state-of-the-art combustion technique is used, including measures to reduce emissions of NOx and particulate matter. Thus, solid fuel production through hydrothermal conditioning and mechanical separation may offer a practical solution for the containment of lupine or other invasive species in semi-natural grasslands and may constitute an important element for sustainable bioenergy production.

  9. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  10. The scale of transition: an integrated study of the performance of CHP biomass plants in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Proka, Antonia; Hisschemöller, Matthijs; Papyrakis, Elissaios

    2014-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants using biomass are considered important to substantially increase the share of renewables in the total energy supply and meet ambitious climate targets. The analysis focuses on the links between the size of bio-fuelled CHP plants and their techno-economic and environmental performance, as well as social acceptance. In an exploratory way, this paper compares the performance of six bioenergy plants in the Netherlands in these three key areas, thereby focusing...

  11. Tradeoff between biomass and flavonoid accumulation in white clover reflects contrasting plant strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Rainer W; Jahufer, M Z Zulfiqhar

    2011-04-19

    An outdoor study was conducted to examine relationships between plant productivity and stress-protective phenolic plant metabolites. Twenty-two populations of the pasture legume white clover were grown for 4½ months during spring and summer in Palmerston North, New Zealand. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified by HPLC analysis were glycosides of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Multivariate analysis revealed a trade-off between flavonoid accumulation and plant productivity attributes. White clover populations with high biomass production, large leaves and thick tap roots showed low levels of quercetin glycoside accumulation and low quercetin:kaempferol ratios, while the opposite was true for less productive populations. The latter included stress-resistant ecotypes from Turkey and China, and the analysis also identified highly significant positive relationships of quercetin glycoside accumulation with plant morphology (root:shoot ratio). Importantly, a high degree of genetic variation was detected for most of the measured traits. These findings suggest merit for considering flavonoids such as quercetin as potential selection criteria in the genetic improvement of white clover and other crops.

  12. Tradeoff between biomass and flavonoid accumulation in white clover reflects contrasting plant strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W Hofmann

    Full Text Available An outdoor study was conducted to examine relationships between plant productivity and stress-protective phenolic plant metabolites. Twenty-two populations of the pasture legume white clover were grown for 4½ months during spring and summer in Palmerston North, New Zealand. The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified by HPLC analysis were glycosides of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Multivariate analysis revealed a trade-off between flavonoid accumulation and plant productivity attributes. White clover populations with high biomass production, large leaves and thick tap roots showed low levels of quercetin glycoside accumulation and low quercetin:kaempferol ratios, while the opposite was true for less productive populations. The latter included stress-resistant ecotypes from Turkey and China, and the analysis also identified highly significant positive relationships of quercetin glycoside accumulation with plant morphology (root:shoot ratio. Importantly, a high degree of genetic variation was detected for most of the measured traits. These findings suggest merit for considering flavonoids such as quercetin as potential selection criteria in the genetic improvement of white clover and other crops.

  13. Effects of Biomass Ashes on Plant Nutrition in Tropical and Temperate Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Lopez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The drastic rise of prices for commercial fertilizers is one of the main obstacles to increase the productivity in crop production, mainly in poor countries. The search for alternatives therefore becomes very important. The reutilization of residues from bionergy processes for plant nutrition is an important concern to save fertilizers and to implement nutrient cycling in agriculture. For this study ashes derived from bioenergy production were investigated. The effect of sugar cane ash (SCA on lettuce and cucumber was investigated in Cuba and the effects of ashes from wood (WA, poultry litter (PLA, and rape meal (RMA on ryegrass and oil radish were investigated in Germany. Special attention was given to phosphorus (P availability. Positive yield effects and an increased plant P uptake were found when ashes were applied (mainly SCA and RMA. Investigation regarding the effect of PLA on soil P pools showed that the ash application may also result in an increase of readily available P contents in soil. Furthermore, an increased plant uptake of potassium was found. The results indicate that ashes derived from the energetic use of biomass may provide a suitable source for plant nutrition.

  14. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  15. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  16. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  17. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Progress report, June 15, 1996--March 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, we want to determine the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu). The apoplast not only contains cellulose, the substrate for the enzymes, but also can tolerate large amounts of foreign protein. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulase expression in plants, we have chosen enzymes with high temperature optima; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source.

  18. Relative crystallinity of plant biomass: studies on assembly, adaptation and acclimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby Harris

    Full Text Available Plant biomechanical design is central to cell shape, morphogenesis, reproductive performance and protection against environmental and mechanical stress. The cell wall forms the central load bearing support structure for plant design, yet a mechanistic understanding of its synthesis is incomplete. A key tool for studying the structure of cellulose polymorphs has been x-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Relative crystallinity index (RCI is based on the x-ray diffraction characteristics of two signature peaks and we used this technique to probe plant assembly, adaptation and acclimation. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of cellulose synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a homozygous YFP::CESA6. Assembly: RCI values for stems and roots were indistinguishable but leaves had 23.4 and 21.6% lower RCI than stems and roots respectively. Adaptation: over 3-fold variability in RCI was apparent in leaves from 35 plant species spanning Ordovician to Cretaceous periods. Within this study, RCI correlated positively with leaf geometric constraints and with mass per unit area, suggestive of allometry. Acclimation: biomass crystallinity was found to decrease under conditions of thigmomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Further, in etiolated pea hypocotyls, RCI values also decreased compared to plants that were grown in light, consistent with alterations in FTIR cellulose fingerprint peaks and live cell imaging experiments revealing rapid orientation of the YFP::cellulose synthase-6 array in response to light. Herein, results and technical challenges associated with the structure of the cell wall that gives rise to sample crystallinity are presented and examined with respect to adaptation, acclimation and assembly in ecosystem-level processes.

  19. Density-mediated, context-dependent consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Scott A; Holland, J Nathaniel

    2008-05-01

    Interspecific interactions are often mediated by the interplay between resource supply and consumer density. The supply of a resource and a consumer's density response to it may in turn yield context-dependent use of other resources. Such consumer-resource interactions occur not only for predator-prey and competitive interactions, but for mutualistic ones as well. For example, consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar (EFN) plants are often mutualistic, as EFN resources attract and reward ants which protect plants from herbivory. Yet, ants also commonly exploit floral resources, leading to antagonistic consumer-resource interactions by disrupting pollination and plant reproduction. EFN resources associated with mutualistic ant-plant interactions may also mediate antagonistic ant-flower interactions through the aggregative density response of ants on plants, which could either exacerbate ant-flower interactions or alternatively satiate and distract ants from floral resources. In this study, we examined how EFN resources mediate the density response of ants on senita cacti in the Sonoran Desert and their context-dependent use of floral resources. Removal of EFN resources reduced the aggregative density of ants on plants, both on hourly and daily time scales. Yet, the increased aggregative ant density on plants with EFN resources decreased rather than increased ant use of floral resources, including contacts with and time spent in flowers. Behavioral assays showed no confounding effect of floral deterrents on ant-flower interactions. Thus, ant use of floral resources depends on the supply of EFN resources, which mediates the potential for both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions by increasing the aggregative density of ants protecting plants, while concurrently distracting ants from floral resources. Nevertheless, only certain years and populations of study showed an increase in plant reproduction through herbivore protection or ant

  20. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  1. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  2. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  3. Logistics of supplying biomass from a mountain pine beetle-infested forest to a power plant in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammadhossein; Sowlati, Taraneh (Depts. of Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Sokhansanj, Shahab (Chemical and Biological Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    2009-03-15

    The search for alternative energy sources has increased the interest in forest biomass. During the past few years, the severe infestation of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) within the forests of interior British Columbia (BC) has led to huge volumes of dead wood that exceed the capacity of the lumber industry. One way to make the most value of the surplus wood is to use it as the feedstock for bioenergy. The high costs associated with harvest and transport, and uncertainty in supply logistics are issues related to forest biomass utilization. This paper presents the development of a forest biomass supply logistics simulation model and its application to a case of supplying MPB-killed biomass from Quesnel timber supply area (one of the most infested areas in the interior BC) to a potential 300 MW power plant adjacent to the city of Quesnel. It provides values of quantity, cost and moisture content of biomass which are important factors in feasibility study of bioenergy projects. In the case of a conventional harvesting system, the biomass recovered from roadside residues in 1 year will meet only about 30% of the annual demand of the power plant with an estimated delivered cost of Can $45 per oven-dry tonne of woodchips. Sensitivity analyses were also performed

  4. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  5. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from coal-, coal gangue-, and biomass-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Yang, Chao; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Bai, Huiling

    2016-10-01

    Face the large electricity demand, thermal power generation still derives the main way of electricity supply in China, account for 78.19% of total electricity production in 2013. Three types of thermal power plants, including coal-fired power plant, coal gangue-fired power plant and biomass-fired power plant, were chosen to survey the source profile, chemical reactivity and emission factor of VOCs during the thermal power generation. The most abundant compounds generated during coal- and coal gangue-fired power generation were 1-Butene, Styrene, n-Hexane and Ethylene, while biomass-fired power generation were Propene, 1-Butenen, Ethyne and Ethylene. The ratios of B/T during thermal power generation in this study was 0.8-2.6, which could be consider as the characteristics of coal and biomass burning. The field tested VOCs emission factor from coal-, coal gangue- and biomass-fired power plant was determined to be 0.88, 0.38 and 3.49 g/GJ, or showed as 0.023, 0.005 and 0.057 g/kg, with the amount of VOCs emission was 44.07, 0.08, 0.45 Gg in 2013, respectively. The statistical results of previous emission inventory, which calculated the VOCs emission used previous emission factor, may overestimate the emission amount of VOCs from thermal power generation in China.

  6. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production.

  7. Engineering Plant Biomass Lignin Content and Composition for Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie Marie Welker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in cellulosic bioethanol production due to the complexity involved in its separation from other polymers of various biomass feedstocks. Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and chemical means of depolymerization used to convert lignin into biofuels and bioproducts.

  8. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)

  9. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters for natural indigo production during fermentation of Indigofera plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saikat; Roychoudhary, Sampurna; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan

    2017-10-01

    Natural indigo production from Indigofera plant biomass requires fermentation of biomass, oxidation of fermented broth, settling of oxidized product (indigo), filtration and recovery. In this study, we have investigated roles of physico-chemical parameters during fermentation with respect to product yield. The study showed that water-to-biomass ratio (1:10), fermentation duration (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 h), pH (6-7.5), dissolved oxygen concentration; DO (0.5-3 mg ml(-1)), oxidation reduction potential ORP (+50 to -300 mV) and temperature (25-40 °C) during fermentation, oxidation and dye recovery from the broth are directly or indirectly related to indigo yield. Biomass fermentation for 12 h at 40 °C incubation temperature yields the highest biogenic indigo (2.84 mg g(-1)) out of the different experimental conditions.

  10. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation...

  11. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of a comprehensive study and two development and demonstration projects, various technologies in the power range of up to 2 MWel for small-scale biomass-fired CHP plants have been investigated, evaluated and compared considering technical as well as economic aspects. Such plants...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  12. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  13. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  14. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  15. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.; Witty, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different...... with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed....... the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10–8.10 μmol C/μmol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13...

  16. Production of biomass briquettes from output fractions of a composting plant; Herstellung von Biomassebriketts aus Fraktionen einer Kompostanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. [Organic-Power GmbH, Weira (Germany); Krueger, S.; Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahren und Umwelt

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the technique presented in this article is to produce high-grade compost and biomass-derived fuel simultaneously from biowastes and green waste. The operating parameters can be varied such that the ratio of compost to fuel quantity and the quality of both can be steered within a wide range. In this way the plant's composting operation can be made largely insusceptible to fluctuations in the composition of the raw material and in the demand for compost. Analyses of the biomass-derived fuel with regard to its fuel properties have shown in conjunction with investigations on a batch reactor and in a biomass combustion plant that the fuel is suitable as far as its ignition and burnout behaviour are concerned. Further studies on scale formation and corrosion and the scope for optimising fuel quality during production should be performed for each new application.

  17. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  18. [Effects of plant species combination and water body nutrient level on the biomass accumulation and allocation of three kinds functional plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Fang; Sun, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Chang-Fang; An, Shu-Qing

    2009-10-01

    Four nutrient levels, i.e., 0.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.1 mg P x L(-1) (I), 1.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.3 mg P x L(-1) (II), 4.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.9 mg P x L(-1) (III), and 13.5 mg N x L(-1) and 2.7 mg P x L(-1) (IV), were installed to study the effects of water body's nutrient level, plant species combination, and their interactions on the biomass accumulation and allocation of invasive floating species Eichhornia crassipes, native rooted leaf-floating species Jussiaea stipulacea, and submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis. The total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea, either in monoculture or in mixed-culture, increased with increasing water body's nutrient level, their total biomass in treatments III and IV being averagely 54.47% and 102.63% higher than that in treatments I and II, respectively. Under different plant species combination, the total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of V. spiralis showed a declining trend with the increase of nutrient level, and the total biomass of V. spiralis in treatments III and IV was averagely 45.88% lower than that in treatments I and II. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that water body's nutrient level had significant positive effects on the biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea but negative effects on that of V. spiralis, and the effects of plant species combination varied with target plant species.

  19. Environmental Multiobjective Optimization of the Use of Biomass Resources for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multiobjective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline...... environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multiobjective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand......, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application...

  20. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  1. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  2. Feasibility study for biomass power plants in Thailand. Volume 2. appendix: Detailed financial analysis results. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report presents a technical and commercial analysis for the development of three nearly identical electricity generating facilities (biomass steam power plants) in the towns of Chachgoengsao, Suphan Buri, and Pichit in Thailand. Volume 2 of the study contains the following appendix: Detailed Financial Analysis Results.

  3. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient...

  4. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  5. Influence of the simulated microgravity on biomass and contents of carbohydrates at virus-infected wheat plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, L.; Silayeva, A.; Mishchenko, I.; Boyko, A.

    The effects of clinostating has been studied on the contents of biomass, soluble carbohydrates and starches in Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infected plants of wheat Donska semidwarf, Albatross Odessky, Kollectivna-3 (summer), and Apogee (early-ripe, superdwarf). Plants in conditions of horizontal and vertical rotation with a frequency 2 min-1 were grown in containers during 35 days. WSMV was accumulated on barley i dicator plants of Ros' variety for then subsequent infestation by this virus of a part of clinostating and motionless wheat plants in a stage of 3 leaves. Researches have shown, that the most suitable for ground experiments with clinostating were Kollectivna-3 and Apogee varieties. At vertical and horizontal rotation of wheat plants of Kollectivna - 3 variety the weight of roots increased and that of above-ground part (leaves and stalks) decreased in comparison with motionless control plants, that resulted in decrease of the ratio of a biomass of an above-ground part to a root system. In Apogee variety the weight of the above-ground part of healthy plants at vertical clinostating decreased by 23 % in comparison with motionless variant, and the biomass of virus-infected plants was reduced on the average by 14 % in comparison with infected motionless control. The weight of above-ground part of infected and healthy motionless plants practically did not differ. Vertical clinorotation of plants caused the reduction of ear weight while in horizontally rotated plants and in the motionless control there were no difference. The number of ears in Apogee variety practically did not change in all variants of the experiment, and plant weight at clinostating decreased in both healthy, and virus infected plants. For the period of cultivation in Kollectivna-3 variety ears were not formed at all. The contents of soluble carbohydrates (reducing and saccharose) in leaves and stalks of healthy and virus infected at clinostating was increased in Apogee in 1,6-2,2 times

  6. Plant biomass degradation by gut microbiomes: more of the same or something new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Pope, Phillip B; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2009-06-01

    Herbivores retain within their gastrointestinal tract a microbiome that specializes in the rapid hydrolysis and fermentation of lignocellulosic plant biomass. With the emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and related 'omics' approaches, along with demands to better utilize lignocellulose materials as a feedstock for second-generation biofuels, these gut microbiomes are thought to be a potential source of novel biotechnologies relevant to meeting these needs. This review provides an insight into the new findings that have arisen from the (meta)genomic analysis of specialist cellulolytic bacteria and gut microbiomes of herbivorous insects, ruminants, native Australian marsupials, and other obligate herbivores. In addition to there being more of the same in terms of cellulases and cellulosomes, there also appears to be something 'new' in terms of the compositional and functional attributes of the plant cell wall deconstruction systems employed by these bacteria. However, future dissection and capture of useful biotechnologies via metagenomics will need more than the production of data using next generation sequencing technologies.

  7. The ecological effects of different loading rates of metalaxyl on microbial biomass in unplanted and planted soils under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansourzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides are most widely used pesticides in Iran and the world. Application of fungicides may affect the populations and activity of soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, with a consequence for soil fertility and crop growth. In the current study, the effects of different levels of metalaxyl on soil microbial biomass carbon (C and nitrogen (N, microbial biomass C/N ratio and metabolic quotient under field conditions were assessed. Two levels of metalaxyl (30 and 60 kg.ha-1 were applied in planted soils with corn and unplanted calcareous soils, using a split-plots experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The C and N contents in soil microbial biomass as well as metabolic quotient were measured at 30 and 90 days after the onset of the experiment. Results showed that in cultivated soils metalaxyl application at 30 kg.ha-1 increased (15-80% significantly (p≤0.01 the amounts of microbial biomass C and N at both intervals (except microbial biomass C at 90 days compared to the control soil (0 kg.ha-1, while in uncultivated soils both microbial biomass C and N reduced by almost 1-34%. Microbial biomass C/N ratios in unplanted soils decreased (15 and 53% with increasing loading rates of metalaxyl, without a clear effect in cultivated soils. On the other hand, metabolic quotient values reduced (48% at 30 and 60 kg.ha-1 metalaxyl in corn-cultivated soils when compared to untreated soils while in uncultivated soils metalaxyl rate at 30 kg.a-1 had the greatest values at 30 days, and increased with increasing the levels of metalaxyl at 90 days. In summary, application of metalaxyl can either reduce or increase soil biological indices, and the direction and changes are depended upon the application rate of metalaxyl, time elapsed since metalaxyl application and the presence or absence of plant.

  8. Abscisic acid root and leaf concentration in relation to biomass partitioning in salinized tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelli, Stella; Scopa, Antonio; Perniola, Michele; Di Tommaso, Teodoro; Sofo, Adriano

    2012-02-15

    Salinization is one of the most important causes of crop productivity reduction in many areas of the world. Mechanisms that control leaf growth and shoot development under the osmotic phase of salinity are still obscure, and opinions differ regarding the Abscisic acid (ABA) role in regulation of biomass allocation under salt stress. ABA concentration in roots and leaves was analyzed in a genotype of processing tomato under two increasing levels of salinity stress for five weeks: 100 mM NaCl (S10) and 150 mM NaCl (S15), to study the effect of ABA changes on leaf gas exchange and dry matter partitioning of this crop under salinity conditions. In S15, salinization decreased dry matter by 78% and induced significant increases of Na(+) and Cl(-) in both leaves and roots. Dry matter allocated in different parts of plant was significantly different in salt-stressed treatments, as salinization increased root/shoot ratio 2-fold in S15 and 3-fold in S15 compared to the control. Total leaf water potential (Ψ(w)) decreased from an average value of approximately -1.0 MPa, measured on control plants and S10, to -1.17 MPa in S15. In S15, photosynthesis was reduced by 23% and stomatal conductance decreased by 61%. Moreover, salinity induced ABA accumulation both in tomato leaves and roots of the more stressed treatment (S15), where ABA level was higher in roots than in leaves (550 and 312 ng g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). Our results suggest that the dynamics of ABA and ion accumulation in tomato leaves significantly affected both growth and gas exchange-related parameters in tomato. In particular, ABA appeared to be involved in the tomato salinity response and could play an important role in dry matter partitioning between roots and shoots of tomato plants subjected to salt stress.

  9. Biomass or growth rate endpoint for algae and aquatic plants: relevance for the aquatic risk assessment of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, Matthias; Dohmen, Gerhard Peter

    2011-04-01

    Ecotoxicological studies with algae and aquatic plants are essential parts of the aquatic risk assessment for crop protection products (CPP). Growth rate is used as a response variable and in addition the effects on biomass and/or yield (in the following biomass) can be measured. The parameter biomass generally provides a lower numerical value compared with the growth rate for systematic and mathematical reasons. Therefore, some regulators prefer to use the EbC50 value (i.e., the concentration at which 50% reduction of biomass is observed) rather than ErC50 (the concentration at which a 50% inhibition of growth rate is observed) as the endpoint for ecotoxicological risk assessment. However, the parameter growth rate is scientifically more appropriate and robust against deviations in test conditions, permitting better interpretation of, and comparison between, studies. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the growth rate and biomass parameters with regard to their protectiveness and suitability for environmental risk assessment of CPP. It has been shown for a number of herbicides that the use of the EC50 value (without distinction between growth rate and biomass endpoints) from laboratory studies in combination with an assessment factor of 10 is sufficiently protective for aquatic plants (except for the herbicide 2,4-D). In this paper we evaluated EbC50 and ErC50 values separately. Data on 19 different herbicides were compiled from the literature or GLP reports. The EbC50 and ErC50 values obtained in laboratory studies were compared with effect concentrations in ecosystem studies (mainly mesocosm). This comparison of laboratory and field data shows that the overall aquatic risk assessment using ErC50 values in combination with the currently applied assessment factor of 10 is sufficient to exclude significant risk to aquatic plants in the environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Frank

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

  11. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  12. A phyletic perspective on the allometry of plant biomass-partitioning patterns and functionally equivalent organ-categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Biomass-partitioning patterns influence the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation at all levels, ranging from individual growth and reproduction to the flow of mass and energy through entire communities. For this reason, leaf, stem and root dry biomass-partitioning patterns across taxonomically and ecologically diverse seed plants (spermatophytes) have been intensively investigated, both empirically and theoretically. By contrast, phyletically disparate plants (e.g. green and brown algal macrophytes, mosses and pteridophytes) have not been examined to determine whether the partitioning of their body parts into 'leaf', 'stem' and 'root' analogs accords with that of spermatophytes. In this review, the biomass-partitioning patterns of siphonous and brown algal macrophytes, mosses and pteridophytes were compared allometrically with those of spermatophytes and were shown to be largely in statistical accordance (thus lending support to the hypothesis that a single scaling relationship exists across eukaryotic photoautotrophs). This concordance is argued to support the hypothesis of functional equivalence across analogous, but developmentally different, body parts, a feature that permits the use of simpler biological model systems with which to derive analytical explanations for the biomass-partitioning patterns reported for more complex seed plants.

  13. Safety - a Neglected Issue When Introducing Solid Biomass Fuel in Thermal Power Plants? Some Evidence of an Emerging Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines recent evidence from Denmark and abroad with climate change projects that aim to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by converting coal fired thermal power plants to solid biomass fuel. The paper argues that projects appear to be pursued narrow-mindedly with insufficient...... attention paid to safety and points to evidence of media-shifting-that the 'resolution' of a problem within the environmental domain creates a new problem in the workplace safety domain. The paper argues that biomass pellets qualify as an emerging risk for which proper control strategies have yet...

  14. Phytotechnological purification of water and bio energy utilization of plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stom, D. I.; Gruznych, O. V.; Zhdanova, G. O.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Kashevsky, A. V.; Saksonov, M. N.; Balayan, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of using the phytomass of aquatic plants as the substrate in the microbial fuel cells and selection of microorganisms suitable for the generation of electricity on this substrate. The conversion of chemical energy of phytomass of aquatic plants to the electrical energy was carried out in a microbial fuel cells by biochemical transformation. As biological agents in the generation of electricity in the microbial fuel cells was used commercial microbial drugs “Doctor Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1”. The results of evaluation of the characteristics of electrogenic (amperage, voltage) and the dynamics of the growth of microorganisms in the microbial fuel cells presents in the experimental part. As a source of electrogenic microorganisms is possible to use drugs “Dr. Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1” was established. The possibility of utilization of excess phytomass of aquatic plants, formed during the implementation of phytotechnological purification of water, in microbial fuel cells, was demonstrated. The principal possibility of creating hybrid phytotechnology (plant-microbe cells), allowing to obtain electricity as a product, which can be used to ensure the operation of the pump equipment and the creation of a full cycle of resource-saving technologies for water treatment, was reviewed.

  15. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  16. Biological resources. From fossil to biomass; Biogrondstoffen. Van fossiel naar biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report describes the options and techniques used for obtaining biomass and for converting them into usable and commercially deployable bioresources. The cahier also pays attention to barriers to such a green economy. Sustainable large-scale production of biomass and biofuels requires sound preconditions to ensure that the circumstances of people in poor countries and the environment do not deteriorate, but improve instead. [Dutch] De mogelijkheden en technieken om biomassa te verkrijgen en om te zetten in bruikbare en commercieel toepasbare biogrondstoffen worden beschreven. Het cahier besteedt ook aandacht aan de belemmeringen voor een dergelijke groene economie. Een duurzame productie van biomassa en biobrandstoffen op grote schaal vereist goede voorwaarden, zodat de omstandigheden van mensen in arme landen en het milieu niet verslechteren, maar juist verbeteren.

  17. Biomass gasification technology nationalization and human resources formation in North region: GASEIBRAS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: blora@iee.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Gasification systems already developed in Brazil are not adjusted to the electricity production at isolated communities, because this models that supply a gas with satisfactory properties to this end, are projected to operate with coal and not with biomass in natura, what implies in the biomass transformation in coal with all the environmental impacts and loss of thermodynamic income associates to this practical. These problems had been surpassed with the GASEIFAMAZ Project development realized by CENBIO in the last two years. The project, that it aimed to make possible the electricity supply expansion in communities without energy access in the country north region, consisted of two gasification systems importation from the Indian Institute of Science, tests accomplishment and its transference to an isolated community. (author)

  18. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  19. Above vs. belowground plant biomass along a barrier island: Implications for dune stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Bianca R; Wnek, John P; Langley, J Adam; Lee, Gina; Balsamo, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Coastal regions are inherently and increasingly vulnerable and geomorphologically unstable, yet are invaluable economic and residential hubs. Dunes are dynamic buffers to erosion and the most natural, economical, and effective defense for coastal communities. Vegetation is integral to dune structure as it facilitates accretion and stabilization. Differences in the vegetation and root density likely translate to variability in coastal erosion prevention, but this notion has been largely unconsidered. We directly compared stabilizing factors, depth and density, of the root systems of two dominant mid-Atlantic dune plant species, native American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata) and invasive Asiatic sand sedge (Carex kobomugi). Despite high plant density, C. kobomugi is targeted for removal in restoration efforts as its roots are assumed to provide less effective stabilization than A. breviligulata. We collected 30 cores and hand dug 14 A. breviligulata ramets at Island Beach State Park, New Jersey to examine biomass, root:shoot ratios, and root density. C. kobomugi had a more extensive root system with a root:shoot ratio of 11.36:1 compared to 1.62:1 for A. breviligulata. Similarly, cores 60 cm deep and 7.6 cm wide were sufficient to attain fully intact A. breviligulata roots, which did not extend deeper than 40 cm, but insufficient for C. kobomugi roots which extended beyond the sampling system vertically and horizontally. Scaling these findings to m(-2), aboveground biomass is relatively equal, but C. kobomugi had over 700% more root mass m(-2) than A. breviligulata. These results have strong implications for dune management. The root system of C. kobomugi may be better adapted to stabilize dunes and thus protect coastal areas during small and large-scale perturbations than previously supposed. This is a unique situation whereby the creation of monocultures will hyperstabilize dunes and make them more resistant to erosion at the cost of reduced

  20. Zooplankton biomass and potential fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    , Lakshadweep (Laccadive) and Andaman and Nicobar seas. Zooplankton biomass values ranged from 0.02 to 20.0 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.82 ml m sup(-3)); 0.01 to 5.3 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.22 ml m sup(-3)); 0.01 to 1.6 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.82 ml m sup(-3) and 0.2 to 0...

  1. Spatial Analysis of Biomass Resources within a Socio-Ecologically Heterogeneous Region: Identifying Opportunities for a Mixed Feedstock Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirby Calvert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus from homogenous (forestry or agricultural regions toward heterogeneous regions—i.e., areas with a presence of both forestry and agricultural activities; in this case, eastern Ontario, Canada. Multiple land-cover and resource map series are integrated in order to produce a spatially distributed GIS-based model of resource availability. These data are soft-linked with spreadsheet-based linear models in order to estimate and compare the quantity and supply-cost of the full range of non-food bioenergy feedstock available to a prospective developer, and to assess the merits of a mixed feedstock stream relative to a homogenous feedstock stream. The method is applied to estimate bioenergy production potentials and biomass supply-cost curves for a number of cities in the study region. Comparisons of biomass catchment areas; supply-cost curves; resource density maps; and resource flow charts demonstrate considerable strategic and operational advantages to locating a facility within the region’s “transition zone” between forestry and agricultural activities. Existing and emerging bioenergy technologies that are feedstock agnostic and therefore capable of accepting a mixed-feedstock stream are reviewed with emphasis on “intermediates” such as wood pellets; biogas; and bio-oils, as well as bio-industrial clusters.

  2. Thawing Permafrost in Arctic Peatlands Leads to Changing Vegetation Composition, Decline in Plant Biodiversity, but Little Change in Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, S. R.; Hough, M.; McClure, A.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    As permafrost thaws over the next century due to a rapidly changing climate, the shifting nature and amount of bioavailable soil organic matter (SOM) are causing ecosystem-level changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. These greenhouse gases could drive a positive feedback to climate change, increasing the rate of permafrost thaw. The change in SOM is due to (a) new availability of previously frozen permafrost carbon (C), and (b) shifting plant communities. Appreciable study has focused on the former; we focus here on the latter, at a `natural' permafrost thaw gradient in Arctic Abisko, Sweden. As previously frozen soil destabilizes and collapses into a waterlogged habitat, dominant vegetation type shifts from smaller, woodier plants to moss-dominated sites, then to taller, leafier sedges. This plant community succession is associated with increased CO2 uptake, which could partially offset the thaw-associated C release from soils if it resulted in greater C storage. We tested the hypothesis that C stored in plant biomass increases spatially across the thaw gradient by sampling both above and belowground biomass. We also took time points from the early and peak-growing season (early June to late July) to test if differences in plant growth seasonality impacted our biomass measures. Surprisingly, we found that total above and belowground biomass together do not significantly change from the intact to the fully-thawed habitats, despite previous research showing that productivity appears to be higher in the fully water-logged fen. However, biodiversity significantly decreased from the intact to waterlogged sites. The lack of observed biomass increase despite the increase in NPP observed in other studies from this site could be explained if the C taken up by sedges in fen sites is deposited in SOM at increased rates either through root exudates or annual litter deposition. Since the shift in plant community composition is associated with the observed

  3. Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohwasser, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples, investigations of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collections of the German genebank are demonstrated. In addition to morphological description, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  4. Responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation to warming and precipitation change in two dominant species (Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis) from North China Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiliang; Wang, Yuhui; Lv, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influential factors of global change affect plant carbon uptake and biomass simultaneously. Although the effects from warming and precipitation change have been extensive studied separately, the responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation to the interaction of these factors are still not fully understood. In this study, we examined the physiological responses of two dominant plant species from grasslands of northern China with different functional traits to com...

  5. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15-20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species.

  6. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15–20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. Discussion: This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species. PMID:28439475

  7. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  8. A Hybrid Model for Mapping Relative Differences in Belowground Biomass and Root:Shoot Ratios Using Spectral Reflectance, Foliar N and Plant Biophysical Data within Coastal Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. O’Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA. We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  9. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  10. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  11. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  12. Participation of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth in plant communities of the River Bytomka valley in terms of its biomass use in the power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierka Edyta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to assess the potential use of Calamagrostis epigejos (L. Roth. as a renewable energy source. Abandonment of human management is often followed by a decrease in species richness in semi-natural grasslands, mainly due to the increased dominance of clonal grasses such as Calamagrostis epigejos which were formerly repressed by management. The biomass resource of this, and its accompanying, species, i.e. species of the Solidago genus and others e.g. Cirsium rivulare, Deschampsia caespitosa, Molinia coerulea and Filipendula ulmaria, was evaluated in the green wastelands of the River Bytomka valley (Upper Silesia, Poland. It was found that approx. 1.2 t·ha−1 of dry matter can be obtained from approx. 30% of the average share of Calamagrostis epigejos in plant communities of unmown meadows. This is 10 times less than in the case of Miscanthus giganteus, a non-native cultivated grass. An increase in the biomass component of Calamagrostis epigejos reduced that of Solidago sp. (−0.522176, p< 0.05 and other species (−0.465806, p< 0.05. The calorific value of Calamagrostis epigejos biomass is approx. 15.91 MJ·kg−1, which is comparable to the calorific value of coal and close to, inter alia, that of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (19 MJ·kg−1 as an energy crop. The presented research is in its preliminary stages and therefore, it is necessary to investigate the reaction of Calamagrostis epigejos to regular mowing and to removal of the biomass from the studied areas.

  13. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    poisoning problem: Use of Ag/Al2O3 as catalyt with hydrocarbons (ethanol, propene) as reductants (HCSCR), and by developing low-temperature catalysts for NH3-SCR to be used in the tail-end position at 150 C, making costly reheating redundant. The hope that HC-SCR is insensitive to potassium has been in vain...... removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates....... The deNOx activity over Ag/Al2O3 used in ethanol-SCR is practically as much reduced as in the NH3-SCR case over the traditional VWT catalyst. Furthermore, poisoning with potassium leads to unselective oxidation of the hydrocarbons instead of NO reduction and SO2 concentrations as low as 20 ppm can...

  14. Effects of fungal pretreatment and steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, F; Kuwahara, M; Watanabe, T

    1995-12-20

    The effects of consecutive treatments by a lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by steam explosion for the enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass were studied experimentally, and the optimal operational conditions for obtaining the maximum saccharification were evaluated. Beech wood-meal was treated by the fungus for 98 days and then by high steam temperatures of 170-230 degrees C with steaming times of 0-10 min. The treatment of the wood-meal by fungus prior to steam explosion enhanced the saccharification of wood-meal. The treated wood-meal was separated into holo-cellulose, water soluble material, methanol soluble lignin, and Klason lignin. The saccharification decreased linearly with the increase in the amount of Klason lignin. It was estimated by the equation for the saccharification of exploded wood-meal expressed as a function of steam temperature and steaming time that the maximum saccharification of wood-meal was obtained by consecutive treatments such as fungal treatment for 28 days and then steam explosion at a steam temperature of 215 degrees C and a steaming time of 6.5 min. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  16. The dynamics of resource allocation and costs of reproduction in a sexually dimorphic, wind-pollinated dioecious plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, Z; Pickup, M; Field, D L; Barrett, S C H

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in resource allocation is expected to change during the life cycle of dioecious plants because of temporal differences between the sexes in reproductive investment. Given the potential for sex-specific differences in reproductive costs, resource availability may contribute to variation in reproductive allocation in females and males. Here, we used Rumex hastatulus, a dioecious, wind-pollinated annual plant, to investigate whether sexual dimorphism varies with life-history stage and nutrient availability, and determine whether allocation patterns differ depending on reproductive commitment. To examine if the costs of reproduction varied between the sexes, reproduction was either allowed or prevented through bud removal, and biomass allocation was measured at maturity. In a second experiment to assess variation in sexual dimorphism across the life cycle, and whether this varied with resource availability, plants were grown in high and low nutrients and allocation to roots, aboveground vegetative growth and reproduction were measured at three developmental stages. Males prevented from reproducing compensated with increased above- and belowground allocation to a much larger degree than females, suggesting that male reproductive costs reduce vegetative growth. The proportional allocation to roots, reproductive structures and aboveground vegetative growth varied between the sexes and among life-cycle stages, but not with nutrient treatment. Females allocated proportionally more resources to roots than males at peak flowering, but this pattern was reversed at reproductive maturity under low-nutrient conditions. Our study illustrates the importance of temporal dynamics in sex-specific resource allocation and provides support for high male reproductive costs in wind-pollinated plants.

  17. Energy resources and technologies, today and tomorrow with emphasis on pellets from woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, James

    2010-09-15

    There is a good case to be made for increased development of pellet and briquette production facilities in North America to alleviate our dependence on foreign oil, reduce carbon emissions and provide a continuously renewable energy source. Fuel from woody biomass, in the form of pellets and briquettes have the capability to provide the best near term solution to offsetting fossil fuels for power generation. Due to their transportability, existing transportation systems, and the vast amount of harvestable wood, this fuel will be a viable energy solution for future needs.

  18. Invasive alien plants and water resources in South Africa: current understanding, predictive ability and research challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gorgens, AHM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Predictions that invasive alien Plants would use significant amounts of water were a major factor in the establishment of South Africa's Working for Water programme, which aims to protect water resources by clearing these plants. The predictions...

  19. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots enhances plant biomass, phosphorus uptake and concentration of root secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongLing LIU; Yong TAN; Monika NELL; Karin ZITTER-EGLSEER; Chris WAWSCRAH; Brigitte KOPP; ShaoMing WANG; Johannes NOVAK

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi penetrate the cortical cells of the roots of vascular plants, and are widely distributed in soil. The formation of these symbiotic bodies accelerates the absorption and utilization of min-eral elements, enhances plant resistance to stress, boosts the growth of plants, and increases the survival rate of transplanted seedlings. We studied the effects of various arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi on the growth and devel-opment of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Several species of AM, such as Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, and a mixture of fungi (G. mosseae, G. intraradices, G. cladoideum, G. microagregatum, G. caledonium and G. etunica-tum) were used in our study. Licorice growth rates were determined by measuring the colonization rate of the plants by the fungi, plant dry biomass, phosphorus concentration and concentration of secondary metabolites. We estab-lished two cloned strains of licorice, clone 3 (C3) and clone 6 (C6) to exclude the effect of genotypic variations. Our results showed that the AM fungi could in fact increase the leaf and root biomass, as well as the phosphorus con-centration in each clone. Furthermore, AM fungi significantly increased the yield of certain secondary metabolites in clone 3. Our study clearly demonstrated that AM fungi play an important role in the enhancement of growth and development of licorice plants. There was also a significant improvement in the secondary metabolite content and yield of medicinal compounds from the roots.

  1. A Hybrid Model for Mapping Relative Differences in Belowground Biomass and Root: Shoot Ratios Using Spectral Reflectance, Foliar N and Plant Biophysical Data within Coastal Marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. O’Connell; Byrd, Kristin B; Maggi Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling...

  2. Nickel- and iron-based HVOF thermal spray coatings for high temperature corrosion protection in biomass-fired power plant boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksa, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Biomass burning for production of electricity and heat has been increasing due to legislation in Europe. Growing awareness of environmental problems has led to strict restrictions on greenhouse emissions in the energy sector, and increased demand for higher use of renewable energy sources and carbon-neutral fuels, such as biomass. There are over 1000 biomass boilers in Europe, and the number is increasing. These plants often face serious problems due to high temperature corrosion. Fouling and...

  3. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  4. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  5. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  6. Can resource-use traits predict native vs. exotic plant success in carbon amended soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, Robert J; Funk, Jennifer L; Allen, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Productivity in desert ecosystems is primarily limited by water followed by nitrogen availability. In the deserts of southern California, nitrogen additions have increased invasive annual plant abundance. Similar findings from other ecosystems have led to a general acceptance that invasive plants, especially annual grasses, are nitrophilous. Consequently, reductions of soil nitrogen via carbon amendments have been conducted by many researchers in a variety of ecosystems in order to disproportionately lower invasive species abundance, but with mixed success. Recent studies suggest that resource-use traits may predict the efficacy of such resource manipulations; however, this theory remains largely untested. We report findings from a carbon amendment experiment that utilized two levels of sucrose additions that were aimed at achieving soil carbon to nitrogen ratios of 50:1 and 100:1 in labile sources. Carbon amendments were applied once each year, for three years, corresponding with the first large precipitation event of each wet season. Plant functional traits measured on the three invasive and 11 native herbaceous species that were most common at the study site showed that exotic and native species did not differ in traits associated with nitrogen use. In fact, plant abundance measures such as density, cover, and biomass showed that carbon amendments were capable of decreasing both native and invasive species. We found that early-germinating species were the most impacted by decreased soil nitrogen resulting from amendments. Because invasive annuals typically germinate earlier and exhibit a rapid phenology compared to most natives, these species are expected to be more competitive than native annuals yet more susceptible to early-season carbon amendments. However, desert annual communities can exhibit high interannual variability in species composition and abundance. Therefore, the relative abundance of native and invasive species at the time of application is

  7. Survival, regeneration and leaf biomass changes in woody plants following spring burns in Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rutherford

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two intensities of spring burn on various aspects of woody plants of a Burkea africana—Ochna pulchra Savanna after one growth season are given. Mortality of woody plants was very low with, for example, that of individuals of Ochna pulchra being between 1 and 5%. Some species where the above-ground parts were often burned away completely, as in  Grewia flavescens, no mortality of individuals occurred. Basal regeneration shoot mass was found to depend parabolically on plant height while the ratio of leaf to twig mass in basal shoot regeneration varied inversely with plant height in  Ochna pulchra. The ability of  Ochna pulchra plants to produce new basal shoots appeared to not only depend on size of the plant but also on the number of basal shoots present prior to the fire. In live Ochna pulchra plants basal regeneration shoot biomass per individual was found to increase exponentially with greater reduction in canopy leaf biomass. This relation was also affected by possible direct heat effects. Basal shoot regeneration mass was found to vary greatly with species and varied from 0,7 g/individual for  Dichapetalum cymosum to 285,6 g/individual for Euclea natalensis. There was a clear tendency for non-suffrutex shrub species to have greater mean basal regeneration shoot mass per plant than that of most tree species. There was a compensatory effect in  Ochna pulchra between number and size of basal regeneration shoots. Standing dead woody plant individuals (before the burn were either felled by fire or apparently unaffected by fire and there was no selectivity by species. Results of the present study are generally supported by other work on the effects of fire in savanna and some other vegetation types.

  8. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  9. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  10. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...

  11. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, Wouter I.J.; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A.;

    2012-01-01

    , possibly due to the warming-induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic...

  12. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, Wouter I. J.; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A.;

    2012-01-01

    , possibly due to the warming‐induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic...

  13. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain

  14. Renew, reduce or become more efficient? The climate contribution of biomass co-combustion in a coal-fired power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan H.; Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Pierie, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Within this paper, biomass supply chains, with different shares of biomass co-combustion in coal fired power plants, are analysed on energy efficiency, energy consumption, renewable energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and compared with the performance of a 100% coal supply chain sc

  15. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  16. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  18. Changes in Forest Production, Biomass and Carbon: Results From the 2015 UN FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests are important sources of livelihoods to millions of people and contribute to national economic development of many countries. In addition, they are vital sources and sinks of carbon and contribute to the rate of climate change. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization has been collecting and presenting data on global forest resources and forest cover since 1948. This paper builds on data from FAO's 2015 Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) and presents information on growing stock, biomass, carbon stock, wood removals, and changes of forest area primarily designated for production and multiple use of the world's forests. Between 1990 and 2015, the total growing stock volume has increased in East Asia, Caribbean, Western and Central Asia, North America, Europe (including the Russian Federation), and Oceania with the highest relative increase in East Asia and the Caribbean. In all other subregions the total growing stock volume decreased. North and Central America, Europe and Asia report forest C stock increases while South America and Africa report strong decreases and Oceania reports stable forest C stocks. The annual rate of decrease of forest C stock weakened between 1990 and 2015. The total volume of annual wood removals including wood fuel removals increased between 1990 and 2011, but shows a remarkable decline during the 2008-2009 economic crisis. Forest areas designated for production purposes differ considerably between subregions. The percentage of production area out of total forest area ranges between 16 percent in South America and 53 percent in Europe. Globally about one quarter of the forest area is designated to multiple use forestry. The balance between biomass growth and removals shows considerable sub-regional differences and related implications for the sustainable use of forests.

  19. Diverging temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicholas C; Parent, Boris

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rate of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering rates of respiration and photosynthesis. A model describing the net effects of these processes on biomass would be useful, but would need to reconcile reported differences in the effects of night and day temperature on plant productivity. In this study, the working hypothesis was that the temperature responses of CO2 assimilation and plant development rates were divergent, and that their net effects could explain observed differences in biomass accumulation. In wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, we followed the temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration and leaf elongation, and confirmed that their responses diverged. We measured the amount of carbon assimilated per "unit of plant development" in each scenario and compared it to the biomass that accumulated in growing leaves and grains. Our results suggested that, up to a temperature optimum, the rate of any developmental process increased with temperature more rapidly than that of CO2 assimilation and that this discrepancy, summarised by the CO2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development, could explain the observed reductions in biomass accumulation in plant organs under high temperatures. The model described the effects of night and day temperature equally well, and offers a simple framework for describing the effects of temperature on plant growth.

  20. 密度制约决定的植物生物量分配格局%Density dependence-determined plant biomass allocation pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎磊; 周道玮; 盛连喜

    2011-01-01

    基于自然环境下红葱(Allium cepa var.proliferum)个体各器官生物量积累动态、生物量分配比例动态、生物量比率动态和形态性状对不同种群密度(36、49、64、121和225株·m-2)响应的模拟实验,分析了密度制约对其生物量分配格局的影响.结果表明:红葱地上部分、叶和鞘的生物量分配比例均随密度的增加而增加,地下部分和鳞茎的分配比例随密度的增加而下降,而根的分配比例未随密度发生显著变化.除根:叶、根:地上比在密度处理间无显著差异外,各器官间生物量比率均表现出明显的密度依赖性.随着个体的生长,根:鞘、根:叶、根:地上比逐渐减小,鳞茎:叶、鳞茎:鞘、鳞茎:地上比先减小后增加,而地上:地下比先增加后减小.比叶面积与密度呈显著正相关(P0. 05 ). All the results suggested that intraspecific competition exerted great influence on the resource allocation inside plant bodies. In response to different plant densities, the biomass allocation patterns displayed plasticity. With the increase of plant density, the photosynthates allocated more to above-ground vegetative organs, with the cost of decreasing the photosynthates allocation to below-ground asexsual reproductive organ. It was appeared that the “optimal partitioning theory” was only applicable at the absence of plant competition between individual plants. When the competition between plants was present, the population density and density-dependent regulation were the important factors determining plant biomass allocation pattern.

  1. Changes in plant biomass and nutrient removal over 3 years in a constructed wetland in Cairns, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, M; Woolley, A

    2001-01-01

    The surface flow wetland in Cairns, Australia consists of 3 linear channels each 65 m long. Channels 1 and 2 are 5 m wide and Channel 3 is 15 m wide. The wetland was constructed in 1994 and band planted with emergent macrophyte species and alternating open water sections. The wetland was monitored for plant growth and nutrient removal until 1997. During that period HRT was 16 days in Channel 1 and 10 days in Channels 2 and 3; mass loading rates were 2.4 kg Total N and 2.0 kg Total P ha(-1) d(-1) in Channel 1 and 3.7 kg TN and 3.3 kg TP ha(-1) d(-1) in Channels 2 and 3. The aim of this work was to determine the proportion of nutrient removal that could be attributed to direct uptake by macrophytes and incorporated into plant biomass. Over the 3 year monitoring period reduction in total mass of nutrients was: Channel 1: 26% P, 85% N; Channel 2: 28% P, 87% N; Channel 3: 21% P, 81% N. Percentage reduction of FRP (Filterable Reactive Phosphorus) was similar to TP; NOx removal was 97-98%. Mass removal rates for TN and TP were higher in Channels 2 and 3 despite greater nutrient loading rates and shorter detention times. Total FRP removal was 23 kg P in Channel 1, 33 kg P in Channel 2 and 70 kg P in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 65%, 44% and 47% respectively. Total nitrogen removal was 92 kg in Channel 1,154 kg in Channel 2 and 386 kg in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 47%, 27% and 27% respectively. Thus, in this tropical surface flow wetland supporting a mixture of emergent macrophytes and floating duckweed, vegetation is an important mechanism for direct nutrient removal.

  2. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an

  3. GERMINATE. A Generic Database for Integrating Genotypic and Phenotypic Information for Plant Genetic Resource Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.M.; Davenport, G.F.; Marshall, D.; Ellis, T.H.; Ambrose, M.J.; Dicks, J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Flavell, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive germplasm resource collections that are now available for major crop plants and their wild relatives will increasingly provide valuable biological and bioinformatics resources for plant physiologists and geneticists to dissect the molecular basis of key traits and to develop highly

  4. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium on plant genetic resources volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  5. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium of plant genetic resources volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  6. Limestone, gypsum and residual effect of fertilizers in the biomass production and nutrient cycling of millet plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can provide a higher nutrient cycling. This study aimed to determine the effect of annual applications of gypsum and lime to the soil surface and of fertilizer doses to the previous crop (soybean in the dry biomass production and nutrient accumulation by plants of pearl millet grown in succession, under no-tillage system. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 4x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the combination of four types of soil conditioner (lime, lime + gypsum, gypsum and control, split in three parts (2 t ha-1 of lime and 1,0 t ha-1 of gypsum; 2 t ha-1 of lime and 1 t ha-1 of gypsum; and 1 t ha-1 of lime and 0.5 t ha-1 of gypsum, and four fertilizing rates with P (triple and simple superphosphate and K (potassium chloride (0%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the recommended fertilizing, applied at the sowing of the previous crop (soybean. Liming provided increments in the dry biomass production and in the accumulation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S by millet plants. The application of gypsum did not increase the millet dry biomass yield. The use of increasing rates of fertilizers in the previous crop (soybean increased the biomass dry matter, density and accumulation of nutrients by millet plants. The intercropping of millet as a cover crop, with the residual effect of the fertilizer applied in the summer crop, provided a nutrient cycling that can be used by the following crops.

  7. Effects of resource competition and herbivory on plant performance along a natural productivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Wal, R; Egas, M; Bakker, J; van der Veen, A.

    2000-01-01

    1 The effects of resource competition and herbivory on a target species, Triglochin maritima, were studied along a productivity gradient of vegetation biomass in a temperate salt marsh. 2 Transplants were used to measure the impact of grazing, competition and soil fertility over two growing seasons.

  8. Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Tribological Properties of Hemp Fiber-Reinforced Plant-Derived Polyamide 1010 Biomass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-05

    We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the ring-on-plate type sliding wear test. It was found that tribological properties of HF/PA1010 biomass composites improved with the surface treatment by the silane coupling agent. This may be attributed to the change in the mode of friction and wear mechanism by the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix polymer according to the type of silane coupling agent used. In particular, the ureidosilane coupling agent showed the best improvement effect for the tribological properties of these biomass composites in this study.

  9. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  10. Microbial Biomass Changes during Decomposition of Plant Residues in a Lixisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaka, SK.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lixisol was amended with four different alley cropping species: Senna siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla. Soil samples were incubated for 140 days at 25 °C and the soil microbial biomass was determined by the ninhydrin extraction method along the incubation period. The soil microbial biomass values ranged between 80 and 600 mg.kg-1 and followed, in all cases, the decreasing order: Leucaena> Senna> Flemingia> Dactyladenia.

  11. The Phase-Formation Behavior of Composite Ceramic Powders Synthesized by Utilizing Rice Husk Ash from the Biomass Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and utilization of biomass as a vital source of renewable energy were stimulated in order to reduce the global dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of rice husk ashes (RHA were generated as the waste after the rice husk as the main fuel was burnt in the biomass cogeneration plant. The phase-formation behavior of composite ceramic powders synthesized by using rice husk ash from the biomass cogeneration plant at the different carbon ratios and temperatures was investigated. The sequence of phase formation with the calcining temperatures ranging from 1773 K to 1853 K was followed by O′-Sialon→SiC + Si3N4→SiC in samples with C/SiO2  =  1 : 1–4 : 1. Ca-α-Sialon formed in samples with C/SiO2  =  5 : 1 and 6 : 1. The results highlighted that series of reactions happening sensitively depended on C/SiO2 and the temperature and demonstrated that the carbothermal nitridation provided an alternative for converting RHA waste into composite ceramic powders.

  12. Plasticity of Sorghum Stem Biomass Accumulation in Response to Water Deficit: A Multiscale Analysis from Internode Tissue to Plant Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Lisa; Rouan, Lauriane; Jaffuel, Sylvie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Roques, Sandrine; Soutiras, Armelle; Baptiste, Christelle; Bastianelli, Denis; Fabre, Denis; Dubois, Cécile; Pot, David; Luquet, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit. Two hybrids (G1, G4) different in stem biochemical composition (G4, more lignified, less sweet) were evaluated during 2 years in the field in Southern France, under two water treatments differentiated during stem elongation (irrigated; 1 month dry-down until an average soil water deficit of -8.85 bars). Plant phenology was observed weekly. At the end of the water treatment and at final harvest, plant height, stem and leaf dry-weight and the size, biochemical composition and tissue histology of internodes at 2-4 positions along the stem were measured. Stem biomass accumulation was significantly reduced by drought (in average 42% at the end of the dry-down). This was due to the reduction of the length, but not diameter, of the internodes expanded during water deficit. These internodes had more soluble sugar but lower lignin and cellulose contents. This was associated with a decrease of the areal proportion of lignified cell wall in internode outer zone whereas the areal proportion of this zone was not affected. All internodes for a given genotype and environment followed a common histochemical dynamics. Hemicellulose content and the areal proportion of inner vs. outer internode tissues were set up early during internode growth and were not drought responsive. G4 exhibited a higher drought sensitivity than G1 for plant height only. At final

  13. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to {sup 137}Cs soil-plant transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmer, Michael [Institute of Soil Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.stemmer@boku.ac.at; Hromatka, Angelika [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Lettner, Herbert [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Strebl, Friederike [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable and microbially stored {sup 137}Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of {sup 137}Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs amounted to 0.64 {+-} 0.14 kBq m{sup -2} which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total {sup 137}Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial {sup 137}Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of {sup 137}Cs in soils and in the {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants.

  14. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber.

  15. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  16. Common Marsh Plants of the United States and Canada. Resource Publication 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    Described in this guide are the emergent and semiemergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. The guide is intended for field identification of marsh plants without resources to technical botanical keys. The plants are discussed in seven groups. Within each group the kinds which resemble one another most closely are next…

  17. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...... loss in torrefaction, the total efficiencies are reduced to 64% (RC) and 58% (OT). The two plants produce DME at an estimated cost of $11.9/GJLHV (RC) and $12.9/GJLHV (OT). If a credit is given for storing the CO2 captured, the future costs may become as low as $5.4/GJLHV (RC) and $3.1/GJLHV (OT)....

  19. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  20. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  1. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production.

  2. Change in biomass of symbiotic ants throughout the ontogeny of a myrmecophyte, Macaranga beccariana (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Chihiro; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yoneyama, Aogu; Nakamura, Masashi; Sakaguchi, Mari; Takahashi, Narumi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Tanaka-Oda, Ayumi; Kenzo, Tanaka; Ichie, Tomoaki; Itioka, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) provide their partner symbiotic ants (plant-ants) with food bodies as their main food, and they are protected by the plant-ants from herbivores. The amount of resource allocated to food bodies determines the plant-ant colony size and consequently determines the intensity of ant defense (anti-herbivore defense by plant-ants). As constraints in resource allocation change as plants grow, the plant-ant colony size is hypothesized to change with the ontogenesis of Macaranga myrmecophyte. To determine the ontogenetic change in the relative size of the plant-ant colony, we measured the dry weights of the whole plant-ant colony and all of the aboveground parts of trees at various ontogenetic stages for a myrmecophytic species (Macaranga beccariana) in a Bornean lowland tropical rain forest. Ant biomass increased as plant biomass increased. However, the rate of increase gradually declined, and the ant biomass appeared to reach a ceiling once trees began to branch. The ant/plant biomass ratio consistently decreased as plant biomass increased, with the rate of decrease gradually accelerating. We infer that the ontogenetic reduction in ant/plant biomass ratio is caused by an ontogenetic change in resource allocation to food rewards for ants related to the physiological changes accompanying the beginning of branching.

  3. Plant biomass and nutrient flux in a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wooi-Khoon; Ong, Jin-Eong

    1990-11-01

    This paper summarizes previously reported and new data. Data on biomass and nutrient content in different components of the mangrove trees are presented and estimates of the flux of these are attempted. As a first step to determining the quantitative relationship between the export of material and the areal extent of mangroves, the biomass and nutrients contained in the mangrove trees and the release of these to the ecosystem annually were determined for the 40 800-ha Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve—a managed mangrove forest in Malaysia. The total standing biomass of the Matang Mangrove Forest is estimated to be 8·26 milion tonnes (of dry matter). Biomass released annually from the mangrove trees in the Matang system is 1 015 980 tonnes. Of these, 559 500 tonnes or 55% is in the form of dead trees, 396 840 tonnes (39%) is in the form of small litter and 59 640 (6%) in the slash left behind after thinning and harvesting. The amounts of macro-nutrients (N,P,K, Ca, Mg and Na) released annually are 12 210, 11 870 and 2690 tonnes through litter, dead trees and slash respectively. The fate of these materials is discussed. Using the figure of 50% export, the export of biomass and nutrients from the Matang Mangroves through leaf litter alone is estimated as 158 300 and 5100 tonnes annually or 3·9 and 0·1 tonne ha -1 year -1 respectively.

  4. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  5. Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects of Utilization of Plant Biomass for Energy in Constructed Wetland%人工湿地植物能源化利用的机遇、挑战与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 欧阳琰; 林乃峰; 葛滢; 常杰; 邹长新

    2013-01-01

    综合概述了利用人工湿地植物进行能源化再生产的方式、优势、存在问题和发展趋势。人工湿地植物具有生长不需额外施肥、较高的生物量、物种多样化等优势,是一种较好的生物质资源,可通过生物质固体成型燃料技术、沼气技术和燃料乙醇技术加以利用,进而建立人工湿地植物生物质能源化利用模式,实现应对能源挑战、进行污水处理和强化环境保护三者的有机统一。%A review was conducted on models of production, strengths, existing problems and development trend in using wetland plants for energy production. The plants grown in constructed wetland are advantageous due to no need for extra fertilization, high biomass production, and high species diversity, they can be used as one of the suitable raw material resources for biomass briquette fuel, biogas and bioethanol production. Models of using plant biomass for bioenergy production will be developed to achieve the harmonization among energy need, wastewater treatment and environmental protection.

  6. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Influence of chemical properties of biomass plant agricultural origin on outlays energy incurred during the production of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, was analysed made the measurements of the content of water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine in plant biomass of agricultural origin in the context of the impact of these features on the energy expenditures incurred in its pelleting. For the examined raw materials statistical analysis results showed negative linear trend between energy expenditures and: water content, total sulfur and chlorine. Positive linear trend between energy expenditures and: contents of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Wherein the coefficients of correlation expenditures energy and: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine are significant p<0.05.

  9. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Tissue Nutrition and Biomass of Freshwater Wetland Plant in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiguo; YAN Baixing; HE Yan; ZHAI Jinliang; SONG Changchun

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (4, 10, 20 and 40g/m2) and phosphorus (1.2, 4.8 and 9.6g/m2) were applied to tanks to evaluating the effects of N and P additions on plant tissue nutrition and the biomass of two freshwater wetland plants in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China, namely Carex lasiocarpa and Carex meyeriana. For C. lasiocarpa, the total N concentration (TN) of plant tissues under the treatment of 10g/m2 was lower compared with the other N treatments. Initially, C.lasiocarpa exhibited a significant increase of biomass as compared with the control value, reaching the maximum of 31.20±4.01 g/tank under the treatment of 10g/m2, and then dropped to 18.02±1.53g/tank under the treatment of 40g/m2.For C. meyeriana, TN generally increased with increasing amount of N applied. High N applied produced more aboveground biomass than low N applied. C. meyeriana, as the accompanying species, can adapt itself to the wetland enriched by N, and it may replace C. lasiocarpa as the dominant species of wetland. The total P concentration (TP) in tissues of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition. The aboveground biomass of C. lasiocarpa increased with P addition,and it changed from 18.77±3.29g/tank to 46.03±3.95g/tank. However, TP of tissue may accelerate the C. meyeriana development under the treatment of 1.2g/m2. P accumulation contributes to the dominance of C. lasiocarpa but limits the production of C. meyeriana, and the latter may disappear gradually from the wetland enriched by P. Increased input of N and P might have an influence on wetland plant community composition and structure, so the effects of nutrient inputs and accumulation should be considered to protect the freshwater wetland.

  10. Controlled production of cellulases in plants for biomass conversion. Annual report, March 11, 1997--March 14, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danna, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate conversion of plant biomass to usable energy by developing transgenic plants that express genes for microbial cellulases, which can be activated after harvest of the plants. In particular, the feasibility of targeting an endoglucanase and a cellobiohydrolase to the plant apoplast (cell wall milieu) is to be determined. To avoid detrimental effects of cellulose expression in plants, enzymes with high temperature optima were chosen; the genes for these enzymes are from thermophilic organisms that can use cellulose as a sole energy source. During the past year (year 2 of the grant), efforts have been focused on testing expression of endoglucanase E{sub 1}, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, in the apoplast of both tobacco suspension cells and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using the plasmids constructed during the first year, transgenic cells and plants that contain the gene for the E{sub 1} catalytic domain fused to a signal peptide sequence were obtained. This gene was constructed so that the fusion protein will be secreted into the apoplast. The enzyme is made in large quantities and is secreted into the apoplast. More importantly, it is enzymatically active when placed under optimal reaction conditions (high temperature). Moreover, the plant cells and intact plants exhibit no obvious problems with growth and development under laboratory conditions. Work has also continued to improve binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to determine activity of E{sub 1} at various temperatures, and to investigate the activity of the 35S Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in E. coli. 9 figs.

  11. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early mature cotton region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Xu, Min; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Jin, Lu-Lu; Shan, Ying; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2011-12-01

    Taking two cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCOTN 33B with different growth periods as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 240 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) and different planting densities (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the cotton biomass, nitrogen accumulation, and accumulative nitrogen utilization in the planting region of extremely early mature cotton in Northeast China. The dynamics of cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation of the two cultivars with their growth process followed Logistic model. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the cotton nitrogen accumulation dynamics and the cotton yield and quality. In all treatments, the beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen was about 13 d earlier than that of biomass. In treatment plant density 97500 plants x hm(-2) and nitrogen fertilization rate 240 kg x hm(-2), the eigenvalues of the dynamic accumulation models of nitrogen and biomass for the two cultivars were most harmonious, lint yield was the highest, fiber quality was the best, and accumulative nitrogen utilization efficiency was the highest. In the study region, the earlier beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen and biomass and their higher accumulation rates were benefit to the formation of higher cotton yield.

  12. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  13. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species in a temperate grassland ecosystem: same or different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of individual organisms in whole-ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes is probably the biggest current challenge in C cycle research. Thus, it is unknown whether different plant community members share the same or different residence times in metabolic (τmetab ) and nonmetabolic (i.e. structural) (τnonmetab ) C pools of aboveground biomass and the fraction of fixed C allocated to aboveground nonmetabolic biomass (Anonmetab ). We assessed τmetab , τnonmetab and Anonmetab of co-dominant species from different functional groups (two bunchgrasses, a stoloniferous legume and a rosette dicot) in a temperate grassland community. Continuous, 14-16-d-long (13) C-labeling experiments were performed in September 2006, May 2007 and September 2007. A two-pool compartmental system, with a well-mixed metabolic and a nonmixed nonmetabolic pool, was the simplest biologically meaningful model that fitted the (13) C tracer kinetics in the whole-shoot biomass of all species. In all experimental periods, the species had similar τmetab (5-8 d), whereas τnonmetab ranged from 20 to 58 d (except for one outlier) and Anonmetab from 7 to 45%. Variations in τnonmetab and Anonmetab were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited relationships with leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. Similar pool kinetics of species suggested similar kinetics at the community level.

  14. Ethnobotanical evaluation of some plant resources in Northern part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... herbal products to maximize the benefits are recommended. Key words: Malam Jabba ...... plants, petioles and even pebbles (personal observa- tion). When the ... who reported few plants species of varied health care from Rawalpindi. ... retailers or pharmaceutical companies or exporters. In this chain the ...

  15. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the simulated peak was lower than the measured one. The latter difference was attributed to temporal decreases in water depth in the lake, while water...lakes from which the measured biomass values originated (Patancheru 17o N, Kashmir Lake 32o N); however, more northern clima - tological data from

  16. Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Herrera, Isaac; Peralta-videa, Jose R. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States); Jose-yacaman, Miguel; Troiani, Horacio [University of Texas at Austin, CNM, Texas Material Institute and Chemical Engineering Department (United States); Santiago, Patricia [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2004-08-15

    Oat (Avena sativa) biomass was studied as an alternative to recover Au(III) ions from aqueous solutions and for its capacity to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) forming Au nanoparticles. To study the binding trend of Au(III) to oat and the possible formation of Au nanoparticles, the biomass and a solution of Au(III) were reacted for a period of 1 h at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The results demonstrated that Au(III) ions were bound to oat biomass in a pH-dependent manner, with the highest adsorption (about 80%) at pH 3. HRTEM studies showed that oat biomass reacted with Au(III) ions formed Au nanoparticles of fcc tetrahedral, decahedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular, and rod shape. To our knowledge, this is the second report about the production of nanorods as a product of the reaction of a Au(III) solution with a biological material. These studies also showed that the pH of the reaction influenced the nanoparticle size. The smaller nanoparticles and the higher occurrence of these were observed at pH values of 3 and 4, whereas the larger nanoparticles were observed at pH 2.

  17. Effect of biomass composition on the condensable gas yield from torrefaction of plant residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Alves Macedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the effect of biomass composition (ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon content, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content, lignin, extractives and holocellulose content on the condensable gas yield from the torrefaction of rice husk (Oryza sativa L., jatropha seed husk (Jatropha curcas L., elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. var. mineiro; sugarcane bagasse (Sacharum officinarum L. and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris ex J.C. Wendl. var. vulgaris. Biomasses with a particle size between 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm were subjected to torrefaction process using a temperature gradient varying from 250 °C to 300 °C, for 15 min, with a heating rate of 20 °C min-1. Five trials were conducted for each biomass and solid, liquid and gas yields were obtained. The holocellulose and the volatile matter content of biomass showed a positive and significant correlation with condensable yield. The ash content showed a negative and significant correlation with condensable yield. There was no significant correlation between the elementary chemical composition and the condensable yield.

  18. Belowground plant biomass allocation in tundra ecosystems and its relationship with temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Wang; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Mommer, L.; Ruijven, van J.; Maximov, Trofim C.; Berendse, F.

    2016-01-01

    Climatewarming is known to increase the aboveground productivity of tundra ecosystems.
    Recently, belowground biomass is receiving more attention, but the effects of climate warming on
    belowground productivity remain unclear. Enhanced understanding of the belowground component
    of the tund

  19. Analysis and optimisation of plant biomass degrading enzyme production in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culleton, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Much research over the past 25 years has been applied to the development of filamentous fungi, most notably Aspergillus, as hosts for recombinant protein production. Their inherent abilities to grow at high rates and to high biomass densities and their exceptional capacity to secrete high levels of

  20. Plant–soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Te Beest, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available populations, are still scarce. The authors investigated if interactions with the soil community affect the growth and biomass allocation of the (sub)tropical invasive shrub Chromolaena odorata. They performed a cross-continental comparison with both native...

  1. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  2. Use of Methanation for Optimization of a Hybrid Plant Combining Two-Stage Biomass Gasification, SOFCs and a Micro Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of the two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a micro gas turbine (MGT) was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant is a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...

  3. The variable effects of soil nitrogen availability and insect herbivory on aboveground and belowground plant biomass in an old-field ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Jarrod D; Souza, Lara; Classen, Aimée T; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2011-11-01

    Nutrient availability and herbivory can regulate primary production in ecosystems, but little is known about how, or whether, they may interact with one another. Here, we investigate how nitrogen availability and insect herbivory interact to alter aboveground and belowground plant community biomass in an old-field ecosystem. In 2004, we established 36 experimental plots in which we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) availability and insect abundance in a completely randomized plot design. In 2009, after 6 years of treatments, we measured aboveground biomass and assessed root production at peak growth. Overall, we found a significant effect of reduced soil N availability on aboveground biomass and belowground plant biomass production. Specifically, responses of aboveground and belowground community biomass to nutrients were driven by reductions in soil N, but not additions, indicating that soil N may not be limiting primary production in this ecosystem. Insects reduced the aboveground biomass of subdominant plant species and decreased coarse root production. We found no statistical interactions between N availability and insect herbivory for any response variable. Overall, the results of 6 years of nutrient manipulations and insect removals suggest strong bottom-up influences on total plant community productivity but more subtle effects of insect herbivores on aspects of aboveground and belowground production.

  4. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  5. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  6. Resource heterogeneity, soil fertility, and species diversity: effects of clonal species on plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, J Alexander; Mittelbach, Gary G; Reynolds, Heather L; Gross, Katherine L

    2011-05-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in soil resources is widely thought to promote plant species coexistence, and this mechanism figures prominently in resource-ratio models of competition. However, most experimental studies have found that nutrient enhancements depress diversity regardless of whether nutrients are uniformly or heterogeneously applied. This mismatch between theory and empirical pattern is potentially due to an interaction between plant size and the scale of resource heterogeneity. Clonal plants that spread vegetatively via rhizomes or stolons can grow large and may integrate across resource patches, thus reducing the positive effect of small-scale resource heterogeneity on plant species richness. Many rhizomatous clonal species respond strongly to increased soil fertility, and they have been hypothesized to drive the descending arm of the hump-shaped productivity-diversity relationship in grasslands. We tested whether c