WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant application technique

  1. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources.

  2. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  3. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...

  4. Advances in molecular marker techniques and their applications in plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Milee; Shrivastava, Neeta; Padh, Harish

    2008-04-01

    Detection and analysis of genetic variation can help us to understand the molecular basis of various biological phenomena in plants. Since the entire plant kingdom cannot be covered under sequencing projects, molecular markers and their correlation to phenotypes provide us with requisite landmarks for elucidation of genetic variation. Genetic or DNA based marker techniques such as RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA), SSR (simple sequence repeats) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) are routinely being used in ecological, evolutionary, taxonomical, phylogenic and genetic studies of plant sciences. These techniques are well established and their advantages as well as limitations have been realized. In recent years, a new class of advanced techniques has emerged, primarily derived from combination of earlier basic techniques. Advanced marker techniques tend to amalgamate advantageous features of several basic techniques. The newer methods also incorporate modifications in the methodology of basic techniques to increase the sensitivity and resolution to detect genetic discontinuity and distinctiveness. The advanced marker techniques also utilize newer class of DNA elements such as retrotransposons, mitochondrial and chloroplast based microsatellites, thereby revealing genetic variation through increased genome coverage. Techniques such as RAPD and AFLP are also being applied to cDNA-based templates to study patterns of gene expression and uncover the genetic basis of biological responses. The review details account of techniques used in identification of markers and their applicability in plant sciences.

  5. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  6. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  7. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  8. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  9. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  10. Application of Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for Remote Monitoring of a Simulated Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, David A [ORNL; Henkel, James J [ORNL; Whitaker, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research into the adaptation of monitoring techniques from maintainability and reliability (M&R) engineering for remote unattended monitoring of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) for international safeguards. Two categories of techniques are discussed: the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for diagnostic monitoring, and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC or, more commonly, particle filtering ) for prognostic monitoring. Development and testing of the application of condition-based monitoring (CBM) techniques was performed on the Oak Ridge Mock Feed and Withdrawal (F&W) facility as a proof of principle. CBM techniques have been extensively developed for M&R assessment of physical processes, such as manufacturing and power plants. These techniques are normally used to locate and diagnose the effects of mechanical degradation of equipment to aid in planning of maintenance and repair cycles. In a safeguards environment, however, the goal is not to identify mechanical deterioration, but to detect and diagnose (and potentially predict) attempts to circumvent normal, declared facility operations, such as through protracted diversion of enriched material. The CBM techniques are first explained from the traditional perspective of maintenance and reliability engineering. The adaptation of CBM techniques to inspector monitoring is then discussed, focusing on the unique challenges of decision-based effects rather than equipment degradation effects. These techniques are then applied to the Oak Ridge Mock F&W facility a water-based physical simulation of a material feed and withdrawal process used at enrichment plants that is used to develop and test online monitoring techniques for fully information-driven safeguards of GCEPs. Advantages and limitations of the CBM approach to online monitoring are discussed, as well as the potential challenges of adapting CBM concepts to safeguards applications.

  11. A Confocal Technique Applicable to Studies of Cellular pH-related Signaling in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Bing Li; Zhi-Hui Gao; Xiao-Yan Zhou; Hui-Bo Ren; Min Xie; Yi-Juan Fan; Jian-Fang Hu; Wen-Suo Jia

    2008-01-01

    pH may act as a crucial signal In both animal and plant cells. It Is very difficult to monitor pH signals and this has largely hindered progress in the investigation of pH signaling, particularly systematic pH signaling. Here, we report the development of a confocal technique to monitor leaf apoplastic pH in intact plants, which Is particularly suitable for the studies on root to shoot signaling. A variety of different pH indicators and plant species were tested. It was found that different pH indicators, for example, 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluoresce (BCECF), SNARF-4F 5-(and-6). carboxylic acid (SNARF) and DM-NERF (NERF), were of different properties, and to successfully monitor pH at a sub-cellular level, the comparability between the pH indicator and plant species must be involved according to their suitable pH range and loading characteristics. The loading characteristics of different pH indicators differ with different plant species, cell types and their developing stages. No matter what methods were adopted, BCECF and SNARF could not be loaded specifically in the leaf apoplast in sunflower, tomato, and Comelina communis L. In contrast, regardless of the methods adopted, NERF could be loaded efficiently and specifically in the leaf apoplast in C. communis, but not in other plants. In Co comrnunis, the determination coefficient for In vitro and in situ calibration of NERF was very high, which was respectively 0.9951 and 0.991 6, and therefore, the adoption of NERF together with C. communis could construct an ideal experimental system that Is suitable for the investigation of pH systematic signaling. Ratio image analysis demonstrated that the leaf apoplastic pH was about 5.5 in non-stressed conditions, and water deficit could trigger an increase in pH by about half a pH unit, which is the first evidence to directly indicate that pH Is able to act as a systematic signal under water deficit conditions.

  12. Application of Several Techniques for Prohibiting Fouling in Li-Recovery Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Kim, D.; Gong, M.; Kim, B.; Chung, K.

    2010-12-01

    The problem of marine organisms adhering to any surfaces exposed in seawater is as old as time. Marine fouling is a major problem in the materials used in seawater worldwide. Marine coatings contain elements such as copper and triorganotin compounds were often used as an effective compound for control the fouling problem, but application of such coatings containing triorganotin compounds was prohibited and the former are considered undesirable because of its toxicity and accumulative in non-target organisms. Monitoring and field studies regarding fouling problems during operation of Li-recovery pilot plant which is designed by the Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources (KIGAM) were major concern of this study. Fouling could be the most troublesome tasks during the development of a large scale pilot production test for achieving a high performance adsorbent for seawater dissolved Li recovery. Chemical and microbiological characteristics of the fouling biofilms developed on various surfaces in contact with the seawater were made. The microbial compositions of the biofilm consortia formed on the reservoir polymer surfaces were also tested for. The quantities of the diverse microorganisms in the biofilm samples developed on the prohibiting polymer reservoir surface were larger when there was no concern about materials for special selection for fouling. The experimental results offered new specific information, concerning the problems in the application of new material as well as surface coating such as anti-fouling coatings. They showed the important role microbial activity in fouling and corrosion of the surfaces in contact with the any seawater. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant from the Development of Technology for Extraction of Resources Dissolved in Sea Water Program funded by Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korean Government (2010).

  13. Non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique and its applications to the research of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tong; Xu Yue; Li Peng; Yu Shangguan; Yin Liping

    2007-01-01

    The process of various ions and molecules getting into and out of cells is critical for plant survival. The non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) is a non-invasive method to obtain the information of ions/molecules across membranes in plant. This technique can measure the absolute concentration of ions and molecules, and also their fluxes and directions of movement.The samples to be analyzed can be a single cell, a piece of tissue, a whole organ and even an intact seedling. This article reviews the recent progress made in plant physiology by using this technique and discusses its potentials in future studies on plant physiology.

  14. APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    1 Application of Fission Track Technique in Stratigraphy Guo Shilun Hao Xiuhong Chen Baoliu Huang Weiwen (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) Laterite (red soil) is distributed in the south of China from Qinling mountains to Hainan province and extends to Southeast Asia. The age of the formation and deposition of the laterite is an important subject in geological research. Due to lack of fossils of ancient animals and plants, as well as other objects which could be used for dating , the age of the laterite and its related stratum is unknown in the south of China.

  15. Application of linear programming techniques for controlling linear dynamic plants in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasov, R.; Kirillova, F. M.; Ha, Vo Thi Thanh

    2016-03-01

    The problem of controlling a linear dynamic plant in real time given its nondeterministic model and imperfect measurements of the inputs and outputs is considered. The concepts of current distributions of the initial state and disturbance parameters are introduced. The method for the implementation of disclosable loop using the separation principle is described. The optimal control problem under uncertainty conditions is reduced to the problems of optimal observation, optimal identification, and optimal control of the deterministic system. To extend the domain where a solution to the optimal control problem under uncertainty exists, a two-stage optimal control method is proposed. Results are illustrated using a dynamic plant of the fourth order.

  16. Partial root drying irrigation technique: Practical application of drought stress signaling mechanism in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD technique, a novel approach to watering crops, was developed on the basis of knowledge of root-to-shoot signaling in drying soil. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of the PRD treatment on tomato growth and the water regime. The obtained PRD results showed significant reduction in shoot but not fruit growth in the absence of any changes in shoot water status, indicating the involvement of chemical root-to-shoot signals. Higher water use efficiency (WUE results mean that the PRD technique can be used to reduce irrigation water without significant reduction of tomato yield.

  17. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  18. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  19. Development and Application of a Fast Chromatography Technique for Analysis of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamazakii, S.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation constitute the largest fraction (>90 %) of total global non-methane VOC supplied to the atmosphere, yet the chemical complexity of these emissions means that achieving comprehensive measurements of BVOCs, and in particular the less volatile terpenes, is not straightforward. As such, there is still significant uncertainty associated with the contribution of BVOCs to the tropospheric oxidation budget, and to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The rate of BVOC emission from vegetation is regulated by environmental conditions such as light intensity and temperature, and thus can be highly variable, necessitating high time-resolution BVOC measurements. In addition, the numerous monoterpene and sesquiterpene isomers, which are indistinguishable by some analytical techniques, have greatly varying lifetimes with respect to atmospheric oxidants, and as such quantification of each individual isomer is fundamental to achieving a comprehensive characterisation of the impact of BVOCs upon the atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, established measurement techniques for these trace gases typically offer a trade-off between sample frequency and the level of speciation; detailed information regarding chemical composition may be obtained, but with reduced time resolution, or vice versa. We have developed a Fast-GC-FID technique for quantification of a range of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and oxygenated C10 BVOC isomers, which retains the separation capability of conventional gas chromatography, yet offers considerably improved sample frequency. Development of this system is ongoing, but currently a 20 m x 0.18 mm i.d resistively heated metal column is employed to achieve chromatographic separation of thirteen C10-C15 BVOCs, within a total cycle time of ~15 minutes. We present the instrument specifications and analytical capability, together with the first application of this Fast-GC technique

  20. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  1. Isolation of self Printing paste from Plant Seeds and Its Application in Simultaneous Burn-out and Screen Printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I.Abd –El Thalouth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Printing pastes containing eco-friendly galactomannan gum and safety natural dye were isolated simultaneously in one step process from tara plant seeds using sodium hydroxide solution. The effect of concentrations of sodium hydroxide on the rheological properties of the isolated printing pastes were thoroughly investigated. Technological evaluation of the obtained pastes to act as screen printing paste and burn-out style paste to be used in printing five different blends as well as pure wool was achieved. The results were evaluated via measuring the % loss in weight, K/S of the coloured area and tensile strength for the printed area. The results obtained reviles that all the isolated pastes are characterized by non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, and its apparent viscosity depends on the concentration of sodium hydroxide and also on the time of storing. The prepared pastes could be used successfully as a screen printing paste and burn-out paste simultaneously. The % loss in weight increases by increasing sodium hydroxide concentration and/or the portion of wool in the blend. The K/S of the printed area depends on the nature of the component of the blend and higher on protenic fabrics than that of cellulosic. Unique colour and attractive texture could be achieved using the current technique. It is also found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the % loss in tensile strength increases specially for woolen blends, however the decreases is not high and satisfactory for industrial application.

  2. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  3. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  4. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report. [Assessment of chemical, radiological, and thermal impacts of nuclear power plants on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.

    1979-03-01

    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations.

  5. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  6. Application perspectives of simulation techniques CFD in nuclear power plants; Perspectivas de aplicacion de tecnicas de modelado CFD en plantas nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo G, I. F., E-mail: igalindo@iie.org.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma No. 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The scenarios simulation in nuclear power plants is usually carried out with system codes that are based on concentrated parameters networks. However situations exist in some components where the flow is predominantly 3-D, as they are the natural circulation, mixed and stratification phenomena. The simulation techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have the potential to simulate these flows numerically. The use of CFD simulations embraces many branches of the engineering and continues growing, however, in relation to its application with respect to the problems related with the safety in nuclear power plants, has a smaller development, although is accelerating quickly and is expected that in the future they play a more emphasized paper in the analyses. A main obstacle to be able to achieve a general acceptance of the CFD is that the simulations should have very complete validation studies, sometimes not available. In this article a general panorama of the state of the methods application CFD in nuclear power plants is presented and the problem associated to its routine application and acceptance, including the view point of the regulatory authorities. Application examples are revised in those that the CFD offers real benefits and are also presented two illustrative study cases of the application of CFD techniques. The case of a water recipient with a heat source in its interior, similar to spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant is presented firstly; and later the case of the Boron dilution of a water volume that enters to a nuclear reactor is presented. We can conclude that the CFD technology represents a very important opportunity to improve the phenomena understanding with a strong component 3-D and to contribute in the uncertainty reduction. (Author)

  7. Application of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the thermal pollution of cooling-water discharge from nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuqun; Shi, Ping; Mao, Qingwen

    2003-08-01

    This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters.

  8. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  9. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  10. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  11. 植物DNA条形码技术的发展及应用%Progress and application of DNA barcoding technique in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇婧; 刘越; 黄耀江; 龙春林

    2011-01-01

    Based on summarization and analysis of development process of DNA barcoding technique,research progress of DNA barcoding technique in plants, its working process and analysis method,influencing factors on its identification accuracy, its application status and dispute existing in plant taxonomic study were comprehensively analyzed and described, and further development trend and application prospect of DNA barcoding technique in plants were proposed. By means of some research examples, it was indicated that combining method of DNA barcoding technique in plants and traditional botanical knowledge could be taken as one of studying ways for ethnobotany. And also, it was suggested that common DNA barcoding in plants mainly were two modes of single fragment and multiple fragments combining, and both of them had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Common DNA sequences included matK, trnH-psbA, rbcL and ITS, etc, but they all had a certain limitation. Different standards of DNA barcoding in plants should be selected in order to different application aims.Influencing factors on its identification accuracy included type and number of species, construction method of phylogenetic tree, hybridization and gene introgression, variance of species origin time and variance of molecular evolution rate. Current focus on DNA barcoding in plants is how to select suitable DNA fragments and to evaluate their values.%在对DNA条形码技术的发展过程进行归纳分析的基础上,对植物DNA条形码技术的研究进展、工作流程及分析方法、影响其鉴定准确性的因素及其在植物分类学研究中的应用现状及存在的争议进行了综合分析和阐述,并展望了植物DNA条形码技术的发展趋势及应用前景.通过具体实例说明将植物DNA条形码技术与传统植物学知识相结合可作为民族植物学的研究手段之一.认为:目前常用的植物DNA条形码主要有单一片段和多片段组合2种方式,这2种

  12. Separation of plant membranes by electromigration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, H; Bauer, J; Weber, G

    1999-02-05

    The review focuses on the multiple separating regimes that offers the free flow electrophoresis technique: free flow zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, free flow step electrophoresis. Also, the feasibility to apply either interval or continuous flow electrophoresis is evaluated. The free flow zone electrophoresis regime is generally selected for the separation of cells, organelles and membranes while the other regimes find their largest fields of applications in the purification of proteins and peptides. The latter regimes present the highest resolution efficiency. Therefore, a large part of this review is devoted to the applicabilities of these different regimes to the purification of organelles and membrane vesicles at the preparative scale. Recent developments, both in instrumentation and procedures, are described. The major achievements in plant membrane fractionation obtained with free flow electrophoresis are outlined. The related procedures are both analytical and preparative: they separate tonoplast and plasma membrane simultaneously from the same homogenate, they discriminate for one type of membrane vesicles of opposite orientation, and process large quantities of membrane material by reason of the continuous flow mode. Recent advances using electromigration techniques that permit confirmation of the dynamic state of membranes, characterisation of complex membrane-dependent functions and discovery of new membrane-localised activities are presented.

  13. Study on Application Techniques of Plant Growth Regulator Foliar Treasure%植物生长调节剂叶面宝应用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华玉

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂叶面宝应用技术。[方法]进行6种植物生长调节剂叶面宝浓度下用材林树种沙兰杨、泡桐、法桐和果树山楂、葡萄、红富士、黑奥林、巨峰对比试验,研究植物生长调节剂叶面宝增益效应。[结果]试验结果表明,用叶面宝900~1200 mL/hm2,于6—7月份分2~3次喷施,用材林的高生长和粗生长有明显提高,果树叶重、果重和含糖量、树势等都有极显著提高。[结论]叶面宝在林业生产中,尤其在果树生产中有较大的推广和应用价值。%Objective] The aim was to explore the application techniques of plant growth regulator foliar treasure. [Method] The gain effects were studied by concentration test of Shaalan Yang timber species, paulownia, Fatong hawthorn and fruit trees, grapes, Fuji, Olympus black, Jufeng with the six kinds of plant growth regulators foliar concentrations treasures. [Result] The results showed that high growth and diameter growth of timbers has improved significantly with foliage treasure 900-1 200 mL/hm2, 2-3 times spraying in June - July, and leaf weight, fruit weight and sugar content, vigor and others of fruit trees increased significantly. [Conclusion] Foliar treasure had greater promotion and application value in forestry production, especially in fruit production.

  14. Level of detail technique for plant models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng ZHANG; Qingqiong DENG; Marc JAEGER

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modelling and interactive rendering of forestry and landscape is a challenge in computer graphics and virtual reality. Recent new developments in plant growth modelling and simulation lead to plant models faithful to botanical structure and development, not only representing the complex architecture of a real plant but also its functioning in interaction with its environment. Complex geometry and material of a large group of plants is a big burden even for high performances computers, and they often overwhelm the numerical calculation power and graphic rendering power. Thus, in order to accelerate the rendering speed of a group of plants, software techniques are often developed. In this paper, we focus on plant organs, i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and inter-nodes. Our approach is a simplification process of all sparse organs at the same time, i. e. , Level of Detail (LOD) , and multi-resolution models for plants. We do explain here the principle and construction of plant simplification. They are used to construct LOD and multi-resolution models of sparse organs and branches of big trees. These approaches take benefit from basic knowledge of plant architecture, clustering tree organs according to biological structures. We illustrate the potential of our approach on several big virtual plants for geometrical compression or LOD model definition. Finally we prove the efficiency of the proposed LOD models for realistic rendering with a virtual scene composed by 184 mature trees.

  15. A review of imaging techniques for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-24

    Given the rapid development of plant genomic technologies, a lack of access to plant phenotyping capabilities limits our ability to dissect the genetics of quantitative traits. Effective, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have recently been developed to solve this problem. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, a variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of complex traits related to the growth, yield and adaptation to biotic or abiotic stress (disease, insects, drought and salinity). These imaging techniques include visible imaging (machine vision), imaging spectroscopy (multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing), thermal infrared imaging, fluorescence imaging, 3D imaging and tomographic imaging (MRT, PET and CT). This paper presents a brief review on these imaging techniques and their applications in plant phenotyping. The features used to apply these imaging techniques to plant phenotyping are described and discussed in this review.

  16. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  17. Enhancing Accuracy of Plant Leaf Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have become an important source of energy, and are a fundamental piece in the puzzle to solve the problem of global warming. Living beings also depend on plants for their food, hence it is of great importance to know about the plants growing around us and to preserve them. Automatic plant leaf classification is widely researched. This paper investigates the efficiency of learning algorithms of MLP for plant leaf classification. Incremental back propagation, Levenberg–Marquardt and batch propagation learning algorithms are investigated. Plant leaf images are examined using three different Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP modelling techniques. Back propagation done in batch manner increases the accuracy of plant leaf classification. Results reveal that batch training is faster and more accurate than MLP with incremental training and Levenberg– Marquardt based learning for plant leaf classification. Various levels of semi-batch training used on 9 species of 15 sample each, a total of 135 instances show a roughly linear increase in classification accuracy.

  18. Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

  19. Laboratory techniques in plant molecular biology taught with UniformMu insertion alleles of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    An undergraduate course - Laboratory Techniques in Plant Molecular Biology - was organized around our research application of UniformMu insertion alleles to investigate mitochondrial functions in plant reproduction. The course objectives were to develop students’ laboratory, record keeping, bioinfor...

  20. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  1. Plant genetics for forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

    2012-01-01

    An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene.

  2. Implementation of two high through-put techniques in a novel application: detecting point mutations in large EMS mutated plant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loo Eibertus N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of mutant populations together with the strategies for targeted mutation detection has been applied successfully to a large number of organisms including many species in the plant kingdom. Considerable efforts have been invested into research on tomato as a model for berry-fruit plants. With the progress of the tomato sequencing project, reverse genetics becomes an obvious and achievable goal. Results Here we describe the treatment of Solanum lycopersicum seeds with 1% EMS and the development of a new mutated tomato population. To increase targeted mutant detection throughput an automated seed DNA extraction has been combined with novel mutation detection platforms for TILLING in plants. We have adapted two techniques used in human genetic diagnostics: Conformation Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE and High Resolution DNA Melting Analysis (HRM to mutation screening in DNA pools. Classical TILLING involves critical and time consuming steps such as endonuclease digestion reactions and gel electrophoresis runs. Using CSCE or HRM, the only step required is a simple PCR before either capillary electrophoresis or DNA melting curve analysis. Here we describe the development of a mutant tomato population, the setting up of two polymorphism detection platforms for plants and the results of the first screens as mutation density in the populations and estimation of the false-positives rate when using HRM to screen DNA pools. Conclusion These results demonstrate that CSCE and HRM are fast, affordable and sensitive techniques for mutation detection in DNA pools and therefore allow the rapid identification of new allelic variants in a mutant population. Results from the first screens indicate that the mutagen treatment has been effective with an average mutation detection rate per diploid genome of 1.36 mutation/kb/1000 lines.

  3. Application of the micro-PIXE technique for analyzing arsenic in biomat and lower plants of lichen and mosses around an arsenic mine site, at Gunma, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, T.; Sakamoto, F.; Kozai, N.; Samadfam, M.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, M.

    2002-05-01

    Microhabitats of bacteria (biomat) and lower plants, such as lichen and mosses, are known to accumulate hazardous elements. Since the concentration of hazardous elements in the environment is quite low, we have applied the in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) system developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI, which has low concentration detection limit of ppm, to measure As, one of the hazardous elements, distributions in biomat, lichen and mosses observed around an abandoned As mine site in Gunma, Japan to elucidate the applicability of these biomat and lower plants as bio-indicators of As. Spatial distributions of As, Fe, Si and S in all biomat, lichen and moss collected within 3 m from the mine entrance indicate that As is localized, and is associated with silicate and Fe-containing compounds. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak area for As to Fe in μ-PIXE spectrum of the moss collected from the concrete wall at 3 m downstream of the mine water discharge position is different from those of the lower plants on the rock near the closed entrance, but is the same as that of biomat formed at the mine water discharge position. This indicates that As trapped by the moss on the concrete wall probably has the same origin as the biomat. It is concluded that application of μ-PIXE analysis to the measurement of As in the lower plants and biomat gives not only the distribution of the hazardous element of As, but also the information of the origin.

  4. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, S H; van den Berg, A; Odijk, M

    2015-09-07

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination offers several new opportunities in comparison to macro-scale desalination, such as providing a platform to increase fundamental knowledge of ion transport on the nano- and microfluidic scale and new microfluidic sample preparation methods. This approach has also lead to the development of new desalination techniques, based on micro/nanofluidic ion-transport phenomena, which are potential candidates for up-scaling to (portable) drinking water devices. This review assesses microfluidic desalination techniques on their applications and is meant to contribute to further implementation of microfluidic desalination techniques in the lab-on-chip community.

  5. Practical application of the benchmarking technique to increase reliability and efficiency of power installations and main heat-mechanic equipment of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimov, A. A.; Chukanova, T. I.; Trofimov, Yu. V.

    2016-12-01

    Data on the comparative analysis variants of the quality of power installations (benchmarking) applied in the power industry is systematized. It is shown that the most efficient variant of implementation of the benchmarking technique is the analysis of statistical distributions of the indicators in the composed homogenous group of the uniform power installations. The benchmarking technique aimed at revealing the available reserves on improvement of the reliability and heat efficiency indicators of the power installations of the thermal power plants is developed in the furtherance of this approach. The technique provides a possibility of reliable comparison of the quality of the power installations in their homogenous group limited by the number and adoption of the adequate decision on improving some or other technical characteristics of this power installation. The technique provides structuring of the list of the comparison indicators and internal factors affecting them represented according to the requirements of the sectoral standards and taking into account the price formation characteristics in the Russian power industry. The mentioned structuring ensures traceability of the reasons of deviation of the internal influencing factors from the specified values. The starting point for further detail analysis of the delay of the certain power installation indicators from the best practice expressed in the specific money equivalent is positioning of this power installation on distribution of the key indicator being a convolution of the comparison indicators. The distribution of the key indicator is simulated by the Monte-Carlo method after receiving the actual distributions of the comparison indicators: specific lost profit due to the short supply of electric energy and short delivery of power, specific cost of losses due to the nonoptimal expenditures for repairs, and specific cost of excess fuel equivalent consumption. The quality loss indicators are developed

  6. Research on the Application of Advanced Construction Techniques for Nuclear Power Plants%核电厂先进建造技术的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志弢; 范霁红

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the research is carried out on the advanced techniques for the construction of nuclear power plants. In combination of the actual engineering situation, the main characteristics and impacts of the techniques are analyzed such as the foundation pit excavation by blasting, the once-off complete concrete placement of raft foundation, the steel plate reinforced concrete structure, the open top construction, the advanced welding process, the modern engineering materials, as well as the prefabrication preassembly and modularization. The trends of the advanced construction techniques are also predicted.%研究了核电厂先进建造技术的现状;结合工程实际,分析了核电厂基坑负挖的爆破施工技术、筏基大体积混凝土一次性整体浇注、钢板混凝土结构、开顶法施工技术、先进焊接技术、现代建筑工程材料、预制造-预组装-模块化(PPM)技术等的主要特点和对工程建造的影响;归纳了核电厂先进建造技术发展趋势的主要特征.

  7. Application of digital image processing for pot plant grading.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of digital image processing for grading of pot plants has been studied. Different techniques e.q. plant part identification based on knowledge based segmentation, have been developed to measure features of plants in different growth stage. Growth experiments were performed to identif

  8. Pinch Technique: Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, D; 10.1016/j.physrep.2009.05.001

    2009-01-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This method allows the construction of off-shell Green's functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving at one loop the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. The Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renorma...

  9. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  10. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  11. Control techniques for invasive alien plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are recognized as a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. These species should be managed based on local and regional environmental conditions. Control techniques were tested for ten invasive species in Santa Catarina State: the trees Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia catappa, and shrubs and herbs Rubus fruticosus, Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, and Tradescantia zebrina. Treatments applied for trees were cut stump, frill and girdling or ring-barking followed by herbicide application, while the other species were treated with foliar spray, application of herbicide on the root system, cut stump and herbicide injection. The active ingredients tested were Triclopyr, Glyphosate, and the combination of Triclopyr + Fluroxipyr in concentrations from 2 to 6%, according to the species. The cut stump method was efficient for all of the woody species, while ring-barking and frilling followed by herbicide application and basal bark application resulted in different levels of efficiency for the species tested. The most efficient method for herbs and shrubs was foliar spray, and the least efficient methods were cut stump and herbicide injection.

  12. Pinch technique: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2009-08-01

    We review the theoretical foundations and the most important physical applications of the Pinch Technique (PT). This general method allows the construction of off-shell Green’s functions in non-Abelian gauge theories that are independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and satisfy ghost-free Ward identities. We first present the diagrammatic formulation of the technique in QCD, deriving, at one loop, the gauge independent gluon self-energy, quark-gluon vertex, and three-gluon vertex, together with their Abelian Ward identities. The generalization of the PT to theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking is carried out in detail, and the profound connection with the optical theorem and the dispersion relations are explained within the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. The equivalence between the PT and the Feynman gauge of the Background Field Method (BFM) is elaborated, and the crucial differences between the two methods are critically scrutinized. A variety of field theoretic techniques needed for the generalization of the PT to all orders are introduced, with particular emphasis on the Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization method and the general formalism of algebraic renormalization. The main conceptual and technical issues related to the extension of the technique beyond one loop are described, using the two-loop construction as a concrete example. Then the all-order generalization is thoroughly examined, making extensive use of the field theoretic machinery previously introduced; of central importance in this analysis is the demonstration that the PT-BFM correspondence persists to all orders in perturbation theory. The extension of the PT to the non-perturbative domain of the QCD Schwinger-Dyson equations is presented systematically, and the main advantages of the resulting self-consistent truncation scheme are discussed. A plethora of physical applications relying on the PT are finally reviewed, with special emphasis on the definition of gauge

  13. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  14. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques.

  15. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  17. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  18. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pujari, Jagadeesh D.; Rajesh Yakkundimath; Abdulmunaf. Syedhusain. Byadgi

    2016-01-01

    Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system) using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identi...

  19. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  20. Application of Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) oligonucleotide-PCR clamping technique to selectively PCR amplify the SSU rRNA genes of bacteria in investigating the plant-associated community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Makoto; Sakai, Masao

    2014-09-17

    The simultaneous extraction of plant organelle (mitochondria and plastid) genes during the DNA extraction step is a major limitation in investigating the community structures of bacteria associated with plants because organelle SSU rRNA genes are easily amplified by PCR using primer sets that are specific to bacteria. To inhibit the amplification of organelle genes, the locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotide-PCR clamping technique was applied to selectively amplify bacterial SSU rRNA genes by PCR. LNA oligonucleotides, the sequences of which were complementary to mitochondria and plastid genes, were designed by overlapping a few bases with the annealing position of the bacterial primer and converting DNA bases into LNA bases specific to mitochondria and plastids at the shifted region from the 3' end of the primer-binding position. PCR with LNA oligonucleotides selectively amplified the bacterial genes while inhibited that of organelle genes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that conventional amplification without LNA oligonucleotides predominantly generated DGGE bands from mitochondria and plastid genes with few bacterial bands. In contrast, additional bacterial bands were detected in DGGE patterns, the amplicons of which were prepared using LNA oligonucleotides. These results indicated that the detection of bacterial genes had been screened by the excessive amplification of the organelle genes. Sequencing of the bands newly detected by using LNA oligonucleotides revealed that their similarity to the known isolated bacteria was low, suggesting the potential to detect novel bacteria. Thus, application of the LNA oligonucleotide-PCR clamping technique was considered effective for the selective amplification of bacterial genes from extracted DNA containing plant organelle genes.

  1. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  2. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  3. Applications of nuclear and isotopic techniques in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Hendranto, K. [Centre for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation, Batan (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    Applications of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques have been developed by the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) since early 1970 in Indonesia. The scope of these applications covers various fields such as agriculture, hydrology, sedimentology and industry. Some applications of tracer techniques in industry which have been done such as measurement of homogeneity of mixing process in fertiliser and paper factory, residence time distribution in gold processing plant, mercury inventory in caustic soda plant, enhanced oil recovery in oil production wells, leakage investigation in dust chamber of fertiliser plant and blockage of pipeline, are presented in this paper. In the field of NDT by radiographic technique, BATAN regularly conducts training courses and also issues licences for Level I and II. Some applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture such as mutation breeding, animal production and animal health have shown the potential of radiation in creating variability as a basis for varietal improvements in several food crop species, the potential of using isotopes as tracers in the studies on metabolism, particularly in relation to the efficiency of rumen fermentative digestion and biological evaluation of locally available feedstuffs from agricultural and agro-industrial byproducts. So far, four varieties of nice, two varieties of soybean, and one variety of mungbean have been officially approved for release, and one formulation of feed supplement utilizing locally available agricultural and agro-industrial byproducts has been established and used for cattle and goats. In animal health, a radiovaccine against coccidiosis in poultry has been produced and used routinely.

  4. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  5. Image fusion theories, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, HB

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theories, techniques and applications of image fusion. It examines in detail many real-life examples of image fusion, including panchromatic sharpening and ensemble color image segmentation.

  6. Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new

  7. Development and applications of the IGISOL technique

    CERN Document Server

    Äystö, J

    2001-01-01

    The development and present status of the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line technique is presented. Applications to nuclear physics research include decay spectroscopy of proton- and neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements and studies of their ground-state properties by collinear laser spectroscopy. Future developments, including ion-beam manipulations by linear RFQ and Penning traps, are discussed together with high-energy applications of the IGISOL technique.

  8. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  9. Imaging techniques for elements and element species in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Becker, J Sabine

    2012-05-01

    Revealing the uptake, transport, localization and speciation of both essential and toxic elements in plants is important for understanding plant homeostasis and metabolism, subsequently, providing information for food and nutrient studies, agriculture activities, as well as environmental research. In the last decade, emerging techniques for elemental imaging and speciation analysis allowed us to obtain increasing knowledge of elemental distribution and availabilities in plants. Chemical imaging techniques include mass spectrometric methods such as secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron-based techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF), and so forth. On the other hand, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) based on synchrotron radiation is capable of in situ investigation of local atomic structure around the central element of interest. This technique can also be operated in tandem with SRXRF to image each element species of interest within plant tissue. In this review, the principles and state-of-the-art of these techniques regarding sample preparation, advantages and limitations, and improvement of sensitivity and spatial resolution are discussed. New results with respect to elemental distribution and speciation in plants revealed by these techniques are presented.

  10. Electromagnetic techniques for industrial plant process measurements and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramanti, M. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. di Elaborazione della Informazione)

    1992-04-01

    In recent years, new real time non-destructive measuring techniques have been developed based on the use of miniaturized components capable of generating, amplifying and elaborating microwave signals (within the range of tenths of a volt and hundreds of milliamps). All these techniques for the measurement of typical process parameters or the non-destructive testing of materials are based on the interaction of radiation with the material or system under examination and make use of the most modern types of data acquisition technology. This article surveys the sensors and measuring instruments which make use of electromagnetic radiation to acquire information concerning the properties of an examined material or system based on their interactions with electromagnetic fields. A few applications are illustrated, e.g., the measurement of unburnt coal in power plant fly ash, the measurement of the quantity of solid particles present in fluidized beds and the verification of the properties of dielectric materials. In each case, the optimum degree of resolution of these devices is made evident.

  11. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Data Visualization: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition provides all the theory, details, and tools necessary to build visualizations and systems involving the visualization of data. In color throughout, it explains basic terminology and concepts, algorithmic and software engineering issues, and commonly used techniques and high-level algorithms. Full source code is provided for completing implementations.

  12. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  13. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  14. Stable isotope techniques in plant water sources:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes widely exist in various kinds of natural water.Plants have to cope with various water sources:rainwater,soil water,groundwater,sea water,and mixtures.These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios).Because there are relative abundance variations in water,and plant roots do not discriminate against specific water isotopes during water uptake,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water within plants provide new information on water sources,interactions between plant species and water use patterns under natural conditions.At present,the measurement of δD,δ18O composition of various potential water sources and stem water has become significant means to identify plant water sources.Based on previous studies,this review highlights recent advances such as theory basis,methodology,as well as different spatial and temporal scales,and existed questions and prospects.Stable isotope techniques for estimating plant water sources have provided valuable tools for conducting basic and applied research.Future studies emphasize the modification of preparing methods,isotope technique combined with other measurements,and aerial organs of plant water source should be en-couraged.

  15. Laser induced fluorescence technique for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Andrei B.; Felizardo, Rui; Gameiro, Carla; Matos, Ana R.; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the development of laser induced fluorescence sensors and their application in the evaluation of water pollution and physiological status of higher plants and algae. The sensors were built on the basis of reliable and robust solid-state Nd:YAG lasers. They demonstrated good efficiency in: i) detecting and characterizing oil spills and dissolved organic matter; ii) evaluating the impact of stress on higher plants (cork oak, maritime pine, and genetically modified Arabidopsis); iii) tracking biomass changes in intertidal microphytobenthos; and iv) mapping macroalgal communities in the Tagus Estuary.

  16. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  17. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  18. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  19. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  20. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  1. Immobilization Techniques for Microarray: Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Balasaheb Nimse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The highly programmable positioning of molecules (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanobeads, nanocomposites materials on surfaces has potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular electronics, and nanodevices. However, the conventional techniques including self-assembled monolayers fail to position the molecules on the nanometer scale to produce highly organized monolayers on the surface. The present article elaborates different techniques for the immobilization of the biomolecules on the surface to produce microarrays and their diagnostic applications. The advantages and the drawbacks of various methods are compared. This article also sheds light on the applications of the different technologies for the detection and discrimination of viral/bacterial genotypes and the detection of the biomarkers. A brief survey with 115 references covering the last 10 years on the biological applications of microarrays in various fields is also provided.

  2. Progress in application of CFD techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important branch of fluid mechanics, and will continue to play great roles on the design of aerospace vehicles, explora- tion of new concept vehicles and new aerodynamic technology. This paper will present the progress of CFD from point of view of engineering application in recent years at CARDC, including the software integration, grid technique, speeding up of convergence, unsteady fluid computation,etc., and also give some engineering application examples of CFD at CARDC.

  3. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  4. Principles, techniques, and applications of biocatalyst immobilization for industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eş, Ismail; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Amaral, André Corrêa

    2015-03-01

    Immobilization is one of the most effective and powerful tools used in industry, which has been studied and improved since the last century. Various immobilization techniques and support materials have been used on both laboratory and industrial scale. Each immobilization technique is applicable for a specific production mostly depending on the cost and sensibility of process. Compared to free biocatalyst systems, immobilization techniques often offer better stability, increased activity and selectivity, higher resistance, improved separation and purification, reuse of enzymes, and consequently more efficient process. Recently, many reviews have been published about immobilization systems; however, most of them have focused on a specific application or not emphasized in details. This review focuses on most commonly used techniques in industry with many recent applications including using bioreactor systems for industrial production. It is also aimed to emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of the immobilization techniques and how these systems improve process productivity compared to non-immobilized systems.

  5. Object recognition techniques in real applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes and evaluates object description and retrieval techniques in different real applications. First, we addressed the classification of boar spermatozoa according to acrosome integrity, which is an important challenge in the veterinary field. We presented several methods based on in

  6. The areas of application for plant lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnykova N. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lectins, in particular from plants, are proteins of non-immune origin that are able to bind carbohydrates with high specificity. Due to their properties, phytolectins are of great interest in practical applications. They were shown to play an important role in forming strategies for treatment of disease including cancer and HIV. Plant lectins are an important tool in glycomic studies. Plant lectins with fungicidal and insecticidal activities are used in transgenic technologies to increase plant resistance to pests and phytopathogens. The introduction of lectin-like kinases genes into plant genome was shown to be perspective way to protect plants against environmental stresses and regulate plant growth. Engineering of phytolectins allows obtaining molecules with known carbohydrate specificity that can be applied in various areas. The studies are underway with the aim of design of lectin-based drug delivery systems as well as the pharmaceutical drugs containing plant lectins. Because of the ability of phytolectins to bind to different substances they can be more widely used in the future. The review focuses on current data and future possibilities in the application of plant lectins.

  7. An improved technique for obtaining well-spread metaphases from plants with numerous large chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, J M; Ríos-Lara, L L; Tapia-Campos, E; Barba-Gonzalez, R

    2017-01-01

    Preparations that contain well-spread metaphase chromosomes are critical for plant cytogenetic analyses including chromosome counts, banding procedures, in situ hybridization, karyotyping and construction of ideograms. Chromosome spreading is difficult for plants with large and numerous chromosomes. We report here a technique for obtaining cytoplasm-free, well-spread metaphases from two Amaryllidaceae species: Sprekelia formosissima (2n = 120) and Hymenocallis howardii (2n = 96). The technique has three main steps: 1) pretreatment to cause chromosome condensation, 2) dripping onto tilted slides coated with a thin layer of pure acetic acid and 3) application of steam and acetic acid to produce cytoplasmic hydrolysis, which spreads the chromosomes.

  8. A study of residence time distribution using radiotracer technique in the large scale plant facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchagarun, S.; Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Sukrod, K.; Khoonkamjorn, P.

    2017-06-01

    As the demand for troubleshooting of large industrial plants increases, radiotracer techniques, which have capability to provide fast, online and effective detections to plant problems, have been continually developed. One of the good potential applications of the radiotracer for troubleshooting in a process plant is the analysis of Residence Time Distribution (RTD). In this paper, the study of RTD in a large scale plant facility using radiotracer technique was presented. The objective of this work is to gain experience on the RTD analysis using radiotracer technique in a “larger than laboratory” scale plant setup which can be comparable to the real industrial application. The experiment was carried out at the sedimentation tank in the water treatment facility of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). Br-82 was selected to use in this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. NH4Br in the form of aqueous solution was injected into the system as the radiotracer. Six NaI detectors were placed along the pipelines and at the tank in order to determine the RTD of the system. The RTD and the Mean Residence Time (MRT) of the tank was analysed and calculated from the measured data. The experience and knowledge attained from this study is important for extending this technique to be applied to industrial facilities in the future.

  9. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  10. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Malhotra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  11. Progress in application of CFD techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZuoBin; JIANG Xiong; ZHOU Zhu; XIAO HanShan; HUANG Yong; MOU Bin; XIAO ZhongYun; LIU Gang; WANG YunTao

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important branch of fluid mechanics,and will continue to play great roles on the design of aerospace vehicles,exploration of new concept vehicles and new aerodynamic technology.This paper will present the progress of CFD from point of view of engineering application in recent years at CARDC,including the software integration,grid technique,speeding up of convergence,unsteady fluid computation,etc.,and also give some engineering application examples of CFD at CARDC.

  12. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  13. Virus Elimination from Ornamental Plants Using in vitro Culture Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for numerous epidemics in different crops in all parts of the world.As a consequence of their presence great economic losses are being incurred. In addition tothe development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization ofviruses, substantial attention has also been paid to biotechnological methods for their eliminationfrom plants. In this review article, the following biotechnological in vitro culture techniquesfor virus elimination from ornamental plants are presented: meristem culture, thermotherapy,chemotherapy, cryotherapy or a combination of these methods. The plant species,as well as the type of virus determine the choice of a most suitable method. The state ofthe art in investigation of virus elimination from Impatiens sp. in Serbia is summarized.

  14. Aplicación de técnicas de lubricación predictivas en Grupos Electrógenos // Application of predictable lubrication techniques in Diesel driven electric plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández-Fernández

    2009-05-01

    analysis helpsalso to identify possible malfunctioning problems, its probable causes and to execute a solutionplan. In fact, to achieve a greater efficiency these analysis are combined with other techniques asdiagnostic by vibrations, thermography, etc.This paper shows the results derived from the application of predictable lubrication techniquescombined with analysis by vibration techniques in the GUASCOR.Key words: predictable lubrication, maintenance, evaluation, oil analysis

  15. Novel techniques and findings in the study of plant microbiota: search for plant probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlec, Aleš

    2012-09-01

    Plants live in intimate relationships with numerous microorganisms present inside or outside plant tissues. The plant exterior provides two distinct ecosystems, the rhizosphere (below ground) and the phyllosphere (above ground), both populated by microbial communities. Most studies on plant microbiota deal with pathogens or mutualists. This review focuses on plant commensal bacteria, which could represent a rich source of bacteria beneficial to plants, alternatively termed plant probiotics. Plant commensal bacteria have been addressed only recently with culture-independent studies. These use next-generation sequencing, DNA microarray technologies and proteomics to decipher microbial community composition and function. Diverse bacterial populations are described in both rhizosphere and phyllosphere of different plants. The microorganisms can emerge from neighboring environmental ecosystems at random; however their survival is regulated by the plant. Influences from the environment, such as pesticides, farming practice and atmosphere, also affect the composition of microbial communities. Apart from community composition studies, some functional studies have also been performed. These include identification of broad-substrate surface receptors and methanol utilization enzymes by the proteomic approach, as well as identification of bacterial species that are important mediators of disease-suppressive soil phenomenon. Experience from more advanced human microbial studies could provide useful information and is discussed in the context of methodology and common trends. Administration of microbial mixtures of whole communities, rather than individual species, is highlighted and should be considered in future agricultural applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA interference and its application in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a process that inhibits gene expression by the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), causes the deg-radation of target messenger RNA molecules. RNAi exists in almost all organisms. We review the recent history of RNAi studies,RNAi molecular mechanisms, characteristics and RNAi applications in higher plants. At the same time, the prospect of RNAi appli-cations in functional genomics and genetic improvement of higher plants and possible future problems and possibilities are also dis-cussed.

  17. Multidirectional mobilities: Advanced measurement techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Lars Holger

    Today high noise-and-vibration comfort has become a quality sign of products in sectors such as the automotive industry, aircraft, components, households and manufacturing. Consequently, already in the design phase of products, tools are required to predict the final vibration and noise levels. These tools have to be applicable over a wide frequency range with sufficient accuracy. During recent decades a variety of tools have been developed such as transfer path analysis (TPA), input force estimation, substructuring, coupling by frequency response functions (FRF) and hybrid modelling. While these methods have a well-developed theoretical basis, their application combined with experimental data often suffers from a lack of information concerning rotational DOFs. In order to measure response in all 6 DOFs (including rotation), a sensor has been developed, whose special features are discussed in the thesis. This transducer simplifies the response measurements, although in practice the excitation of moments appears to be more difficult. Several excitation techniques have been developed to enable measurement of multidirectional mobilities. For rapid and simple measurement of the loaded mobility matrix, a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technique is used. The technique has been tested and validated on several structures of different complexity. A second technique for measuring the loaded 6-by-6 mobility matrix has been developed. This technique employs a model of the excitation set-up, and with this model the mobility matrix is determined from sequential measurements. Measurements on ``real'' structures show that both techniques give results of similar quality, and both are recommended for practical use. As a further step, a technique for measuring the unloaded mobilities is presented. It employs the measured loaded mobility matrix in order to calculate compensation forces and moments, which are later applied in order to compensate for the loading of the

  18. Nonuniform sampling techniques for antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cheung, Rudolf Lap-Tung

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional sampling technique, which can employ irregularly spaced samples (amplitude and phase) in order to generate the complete far-field patterns is presented. The technique implements a matrix inversion algorithm, which depends only on the nonuniform sampled data point locations and with no dependence on the actual field values at these points. A powerful simulation algorithm is presented to allow a real-life simulation of many reflector/feed configurations and to determine the usefulness of the nonuniform sampling technique for the copolar and cross-polar patterns. Additionally, an overlapped window concept and a generalized error simulation model are discussed to identify the stability of the technique for recovering the field data among the nonuniform sampled data. Numerical results are tailored for the pattern reconstruction of a 20-m offset reflector antenna operating at L-band. This reflector is planned to be used in a proposed measurement concept of large antenna aboard the Space Shuttle, whereby it would be almost impractical to accurately control the movement of the Shuttle with respect to the RF source in prescribed directions in order to generate uniform sampled points. Also, application of the nonuniform sampling technique to patterns obtained using near-field measured data is demonstrated. Finally, results of an actual far-field measurement are presented for the construction of patterns of a reflector antenna from a set of nonuniformly distributed measured amplitude and phase data.

  19. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  20. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  1. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  2. Advances in plant proteomics-key techniques of proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin RUAN; Huasheng MA; Shiheng WANG; Ya XIN; Lihua QIAN; Jianxing TONG; Jie WANG

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of genome sequen-cing of model plants,such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana,the era of functional plant genomics has arrived which provides a solid basis for the develop-ment of plant proteomics.We review the background and concepts of proteomics,as well as the key techniques which include:(1) separation techniques such as 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis),RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) and SELDI (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization) protein chip; (2) mass spectrometry such as MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight- mass spectrometry) and ESI-MS/MS (elec-trospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectro-metry); (3) Peptide sequence tags; (4) databases related to proteomics; (5) quantitative proteome; (6) TAP (tandem affinity purification) and (7) yeast two-hybrid system.In addition,the challenges and prospects of pro-teomics are also discussed.

  3. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...

  4. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  5. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Enyi, G.G. Nasr, M. Burby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day, 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with ‘Microsoft Excel’ shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4 unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  6. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyi, G.C.; Nasr, G.G.; Burby, M. [University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day), 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day) plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with 'Microsoft Excel' shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  7. Experimental research on the application of electrosorption technique to wastewater treatment in power plants%电吸附技术在电厂废水处理中的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江; 谢凤龙; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    结合电厂循环排污水的实际情况,将电吸附除盐技术应用到电厂循环排污水的深度处理过程中,经电吸附除盐装置处理后的出水可达到回用目的。对装置进水及产水进行检测分析,结果表明电导率、氯化物、总硬度及碱度等均能满足回用要求,中试结果论证了电厂废水处理工艺应用电吸附除盐技术的可行性和技术优势。%Based on the actual conditions for the circulating discharge wastewater in power plants ,electrosorption desalting technique is applied to the advanced treatment of circulating discharge wastewater. The effluent after being treated by electrosorption desalting system can reach the reuse target. The influent and produced water of the system are examined and analyzed. The results show that all of the conductivity,chloride,total hardness and alkalinity can meet the reuse requirements. The pilot test demonstrated and verified the feasibility and technical superiority of applying electrosorption desalting technique to wastewater treatment in power plants.

  8. CRYOTHERAPY: A NEW TECHNIQUE TO OBTAIN GRAPEVINE PLANTS FREE OF VIRUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN CARLOS BETTONI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Through in vitro tissue culture techniques it is possible to propagate high quality nursery plants faster. Cryotherapy is a promising tool, based on in vitro culture techniques, for achieving in a short time, high frequency of regenerating plants free of viruses. The objective of this review is to present and analyze the results of research conducted in cryotherapy methods based on cryopreservation protocols for recovery of cultivars free of micro-organisms with potential agronomic interest. The main methods employed in cryotherapy are encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet vitrification, which are based on the immersion of preconditioned shoot tips in liquid nitrogen, followed by their recovery in vitro on to culture media for regeneration of healthy plantlets. Improvements to cryotherapy protocols used for grapevine are still needed, since there are variations in response according to the genotype. The published research mostly relates to Vitis vinifera and the few studies applied to other species show that the protocols need to be improved. This specificity goes beyond species, with different responses among cultivars, limiting the broader application of the technology. On the other hand, traditional methods used for virus removal from infected plant materials also have limitations and therefore investment in research for the development and application of cryopreservation techniques is highly justified, considering its efficiency and low-cost, once the protocols are developed. High frequency of virus-free plants among regenerants within a short time frame is the most desirable aspect of cryotherapy. Therefore, these advantages make the technique a promising tool for institutions mandated to the development of high-health planting materials with high genetic and agronomic potential for viticulture.

  9. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called tissue microfluidics because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets. The proposed principles represent a paradigm shift in microfluidic technology in three important ways: Microfluidic devices are to be directly integrated with, onto, or around tissue samples, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample extraction followed by sample insertion in microfluidic devices. Architectural and operational principles of microfluidic devices are to be subordinated to suit specific tissue structure and needs, in contrast to the conventional method of building devices according to fluidic function alone and without regard to tissue structure. Sample acquisition from tissue is to be performed on-chip and is to be integrated with the diagnostic measurement within the same device, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample prep and

  10. Application of Electromigration Techniques in Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł; Studzińska, Sylwia; Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Inherently trace-level concentration of pollutants in the environment, together with the complexity of sample matrices, place a strong demand on the detection capabilities of electromigration methods. Significant progress is continually being made, widening the applicability of these techniques, mostly capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and capillary electrochromatography, to the analysis of real-world environmental samples, including the concentration sensitivity and robustness of the developed analytical procedures. This chapter covers the recent major developments in the domain of capillary electrophoresis analysis of environmental samples for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines, carboxylic acids, explosives, pharmaceuticals, and ionic liquids. Emphasis is made on pre-capillary and on-capillary chromatography and electrophoresis-based concentration of analytes and detection improvement.

  11. MR cholangiography: techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Panebianco, V.; Catalano, C.; Lobina, L.; Passariello, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) is a new non-invasive imaging technique for the evaluation of bilio-pancreatic disorders. Different sequences, using both breathhold and non-breathhold techniques, have been employed in order to obtain MRCP images. The authors discuss the technical aspects, particularly focusing their attention on a non-breathhold, three-dimensional, fat-suppressed turbo-spin-echo sequence, optimized on a 0.5-T magnet with 15 mT/m gradients. Clinical applications of MRCP are evaluated, presenting data from both the literature and personal experience. The main indication for MRCP study is represented by the evaluation of common bile duct obstruction, with the aim of assessing the presence of the obstruction (accuracy 85-100 %) and, subsequently, its level (accuracy 91-100 %) and its cause. The utility of associating conventional MR images to MRCP in malignant strictures in order to characterize and stage the malignant lesions is also discussed. Finally, data are presented regarding the indications and utility of MR pancreatography in the evaluation of patients with chronic pancreatitis. (orig.) With 11 figs., 45 refs.

  12. Evolution and applications of plant pathway resources and databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucaet, Yves; Deva, Taru

    2011-01-01

    Plants are important sources of food and plant products are essential for modern human life. Plants are increasingly gaining importance as drug and fuel resources, bioremediation tools and as tools for recombinant technology. Considering these applications, database infrastructure for plant model...... quantitative modeling of plant biosystems. We propose Good Database Practice as a possible model for collaboration and to ease future integration efforts....

  13. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  14. Application of TDS technique to developed reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Freddy H.; Montealegre, Matilde [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana - Cra 1, Neiva (Huila-Colombia) (Colombia)

    2007-02-15

    Well test interpretation methods for a single well in infinite reservoirs may not be suitable for those wells when their pressure is affected by other wells operating in the same reservoir. This effect becomes more significant as both the flow rate and the test duration increase. It is observed in drawdown tests when the well experiences an additional pressure decline due to production from other wells and, also, when the well produces under pseudosteady state before shut-in it for a buildup test. When pressure data are interpreted as recorded, estimation of reservoir parameters may not be accurate. Slider1-3 introduced a technique for analyzing a pressure test that takes into account the effect of nearby active wells. Corrected or extrapolated pressures are obtained by applying the superposition principle to include the pressure decline contribution from the neighboring wells. Traditional semilog plots are then constructed and permeability and skin factor can be estimated, respectively, from the slope and intercept of their linear trend. A new technique, called TDS (Tiab's Direct Synthesis), was designed to analyze pressure and pressure derivative data without using type-curve matching. It uses characteristic features found on the derivative plot, so reservoir parameters are directly estimated. It depends upon how well the pressure derivative is calculated. If derivative is taken to the recorded pressure data the resulting curve will not be properly defined and the estimated parameters may be erroneous. Application of the TDS technique to wells in depleted reservoirs is presented here. The recorded pressure is extrapolated to include the contribution from other wells as suggested by Slider. Once the pressure derivative of the extrapolated data is taken, the TDS technique as discussed by Tiab [Tiab, D. 1993. Analysis of Pressure and Pressure Derivative without Type-Curve Matching: 1- Factor de dano and Wellbore Storage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 12 (1995), 171

  15. 植物精油的提取技术及在食品工业中的应用研究%Development on Exaction Technique of Plant Essential Oils and Its Application in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 孙于庆; 高雪琴; 郭林

    2011-01-01

    Because that plant essential oil has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory function, they are widely applied to the food industries such as meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy, aquatic and bakery products. This paper introduces the extraction methods of plant essential oils, such as water extraction, organic solvent extraction, supercritical CO2 ( SC-CO2 ) extraction and solvent-free extraction ( pressing method, microwave and ultrasonic extraction). And the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed in the paper.%植物精油具有抗菌消炎、防腐作用,在肉制品、果蔬制品、乳制品、水产品、焙烤制品等食品行业中得到了广泛的应用.综述了植物精油的提取技术,主要包括水萃取法、有机溶剂浸提法、超临界二氧化碳萃取法(SC-CO2)和无溶剂萃取法(压榨法、微波萃取和超声波萃取)等,并阐述了每一种技术的优缺点.

  16. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  17. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  18. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  19. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  20. SVM and ANN Based Classification of Plant Diseases Using Feature Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh D.Pujari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers have been used for mechanization and automation in different applications of agriculture/horticulture. The critical decision on the agricultural yield and plant protection is done with the development of expert system (decision support system using computer vision techniques. One of the areas considered in the present work is the processing of images of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops. The first symptoms of plant disease have to be correctly detected, identified, and quantified in the initial stages. The color and texture features have been used in order to work with the sample images of plant diseases. Algorithms for extraction of color and texture features have been developed, which are in turn used to train support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN classifiers. The study has presented a reduced feature set based approach for recognition and classification of images of plant diseases. The results reveal that SVM classifier is more suitable for identification and classification of plant diseases affecting agriculture/horticulture crops.

  1. Application of vibration aging elimination technique in Qinghe Power Plant branch pipes installation%振动时效消应技术在清河电站岔管安装中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫治军

    2016-01-01

    清河电站钢岔管安装过程中,采用振动时效消应技术消除焊接残余应力。本文介绍了振动时效消应处理的技术方案,定性和定量分析了振动时效处理结果,明确了振动时效消应技术不仅可使应力平均值降低大于30%,还可使高应力区消除50%以上的残余应力且残余应力低于材料屈服强度的50%,高于相关规范标准要求。%In the steel branch pipes installation process of Qinghe Power Plant,vibration aging elimination technique is adopted for eliminating welding residual stress.In the paper,technical plan of vibration aging elimination treatment is introduced.Vibration aging treatment results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed.It is clear that vibration aging elimination technique not only can lower the average value of stress by more than 30%,but also can eliminate more than 50% residual stress in the high stress area,and the residual stress can be lower than 50% of the material yield strength, which is higher than the requirements in related specification and standards.

  2. A lucrative technique to reduce Ni toxicity in Raphanus sativus plant by phosphate amendment: Special reference to plant metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) contamination is one of the serious environmental problems. It creates hazard in soil environment and also in crop quality. In the present study, response of Raphanus sativus (radish) to Ni (50mgkg(-1) soil) under different concentrations (100, 200, 500 and 1000 DAPmgkg(-1) soil) of phosphate as soil amendment was investigated after 40 days of growth. Ni-treated plants without amendment showed reduction in their growth as a result of appreciable decrease in the photosynthetic activity. Under this treatment, Ni accumulation significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and level of oxidants showing oxidative stress and it was also associated with decrease in the activities of antioxidative enzymes except super oxide dismutase (SOD). Application of phosphate in Ni contaminated soil resulted into significant improvement in plant growth. Under phosphate amendment, the status of oxidative biomarkers: SOR, TBARS and H2O2 were under control by the higher activity of antioxidants: APX, CAT, POD, GST and DHAR compared to Ni contaminated soil without amendment. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the significant changes in biochemical traits under control and phosphate amendment. The values of PS II transient kinetics: Phi-E0, Psi-0 and PIABS increased and values of energy fluxes: ABC/RC, Tro/RC, Eto/RC and Dio/RC decreased in plants grown in Ni contaminated soil under phosphate amendment as compared to without amendment. Among all doses of phosphate amendment soil amended at 500mg DAPkg(-)(1) soil the yield of plant was the highest and Ni accumulation was the lowest. As compared to plants grown in Ni treated soil without amendment the yield of plant at 500mg DAPkg(-1) soil showed about 70% increment and the reduction in Ni accumulation was 63% in shoot and 64% in root. Because of these beneficial effects this technique can be easily applied at metal contaminated agricultural fields to reduce food chain contamination and to improve food quality.

  3. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  4. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  5. Industrial applications of advanced control techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国平

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses two industrial control applications using advanced control techniques. They are theoptimal-tuning nonlinear PID control of hydraulic systems and the neural predictive control of combustor acoustic ofgas turbines. For hydraulic control systems, an optimal PID controller with inverse of dead zone is introduced toovercome the dead zone and is designed to satisfy desired time-domain performance requirements. Using the adaptivemodel, an optimal-tuning PID control scheme is proposed to provide optimal PID parameters even in the case wherethe system dynamics is time variant. For combustor acoustic control of gas turbines, a neural predictive controlstrategy is presented, which consists of three parts: an output model, output predictor and feedback controller. Theoutput model of the combustor acoustic is established using neural networks to predict the output and overcome thetime delay of the system, which is often very large, compared with the sampling period. The output-feedback con-troller is introduced which uses the output of the predictor to suppress instability in the combustion process. The a-bove control strategies are implemented in the SIMULINK/dSPACE controller development environment. Theirperformance is evaluated on the industrial hydraulic test rig and the industrial combustor test rig.

  6. 新型交流电荷感应技术在火电厂烟气浊度测量中的应用%Application of new type AC electric charge inductive technique for flue gas turbidity measurement in thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振全; 于一

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the traditional flue gas turbidity measurement methods and the existing problems, a detailed description the application of AC charge inductive technique in flue gas turbidity measurement. It is showed that the AC charge inductive technique is advanced by analyzing the actual application curve of flue gas turbidity measurement in the thermal power plant.%简要介绍了传统烟气浊度测量的技术方法和存在的问题,详细说明了交流电荷感应技术在烟气浊度测量中的应用.通过在火电厂烟气浊度测量中的实际安装应用和曲线分析,说明了交流电荷感应技术的先进性.

  7. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  8. Evaluation of the new vacuum infiltration vitrification (viv) cryopreservation technique for native Australian plant shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnekotter, Bryn; Whiteley, Susan E; Turner, Shane R; Bunn, Eric; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2015-01-01

    The application of a vacuum during the incubation in cryoprotective agents such as PVS2 allows for increased penetration, reducing total incubation times required before vitrification and post-cryopreservation regeneration is achieved. This study compared a conventional droplet-vitrification protocol to the new vacuum infiltration vitrification protocol in four Australian plant species. The new vacuum infiltration vitrification applied an 80 kPa vacuum during incubations in loading solution and PVS2. Infiltration of the cryoprotective agents into shoot tips was determined by differential scanning calorimetry measuring ice formation in the thermographs comparing a range of loading solution and PVS2 incubation times. The application of the vacuum infiltration vitrification technique resulted in a significantly reduced PVS2 incubation time for cryogenic survival and regeneration for all four species, reducing the time needed to adequately protect shoot tips by half to a quarter when compared to a conventional droplet-vitrification technique.

  9. Spectral unmixing techniques for retrieving plant foliar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, Kostas; Sykioti, Olga; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Kyparissis, Aris

    2010-05-01

    In this study two novel approaches for supervised and semi-supervised hyperspectral unmixing are applied in the unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA data, in order to monitor seasonal land cover changes - in particular plant foliar coverage. Foliar coverage variations are directly linked to seasonal changes of the ecophysiological status of a plant (i.e. growth status, pigment concentrations, LAI etc). The high potential of using hyperspectral satellite data in monitoring plant biochemical and structural characteristics is important in ecophysiological studies. A reliable and efficient method to extract leaf and/or canopy information from a mixed pixel significantly contributes towards this direction. In this study, the development of two efficient algorithms in spectral unmixing enables the detection and mapping of leaf contribution to the overall pixel spectra and its seasonal variations. For this purpose, leaf spectra measured in the field, simultaneously to satellite acquisitions, are included in the endmember data set. The proposed unmixing techniques are performed on ground reflectances, assuming knowledge of the number and spectral signatures of the objects present in the images. An efficient estimation for their corresponding fractions in the pixels of the image is developed, based on a recently proposed maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) method. By exploiting the constraints naturally imposed to the problem, closed form expressions are derived for the statistical parameters required by the MAP estimator. In the semi-supervised scenario, we assume that a spectral library is given, containing spectral signatures of multiple endmembers. The objective in the latter case, is (a) to determine how many and which endmembers are present in the mixed pixel under study and (b) to use the selected endmembers to estimate the corresponding abundance fractions - especially the abundance of foliar coverage. The approach is based on a properly modified weighted l1-regularized least

  10. 27 CFR 19.66 - Application to establish experimental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... experimental plants. 19.66 Section 19.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.66 Application to establish experimental plants. Any person desiring to establish an experimental plant shall make written application to...

  11. Application of Microdialysis Technique in Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant Research%微透析技术在植物生理生化研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金龙; 姜国斌; 姚善泾; 金华; 邓绍立

    2013-01-01

    微透析是一种可以应用于生物体体内和体外的样品处理技术.可以与多种分析测试仪器耦合,对细胞外空间或其他水溶液环境中随时间、浓度发生变化的生理活性物质提供实时动态的监测信息.其突出优点是在不影响生物体正常生长的情况下可以准确地给出被分析物随时间的变化情况,而且可以对目标生物体进行各种处理,以得出被分析物受外界环境影响下的即时变化情况,而且微透析的样品在用高精密仪器分析时,无需进行样品前处理,可真正做到实时、在线、廉价的跟踪检测研究.阐述了微透析在植物体上的应用,微透析技术应用在动物体,主要取样是细胞间质,在植物体上可以检测植物质外体各种物质的变化,克服以往研究质外体的瓶颈,还包括了微透析技术与GC、HPLC、CE等分析仪器的耦合使用研究现状.%Microdialysis is a sampling technique that can be employed to monitor biological events both in vivo and in vitro,it can be coupled with a variety of analytical instruments,can provide monitoring information for biological active substances changed with time and concentration in other aqueous environment or outside the cells dynamically in realtime.It is advantageous in fast,selective and sensitive analysis while preserving temporal information without affecting the growth of organisms.At the same time,the changes of analyte can be detected immediately in external environment.Furthermore,microdialysis samples without pretreatment,which are coupled with high-precise analytical systems,will realize truly real-time,online and cheap tracking detection.Although microdialysis sampling focusing on intercellular matrix has been applied in animals and human,it has not been extensively employed to detect various material changes in plant apoplast.So microdialysis sampling technique can overcome the bottleneck of previous research on plants.An overview of microdialysis

  12. Study of multibeam techniques for bathymetry and seabottom backscatter applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Chakraborty, B.

    In this paper, a brief discussion is carried out on the application of the different techniques of echosounding. A deteiled appraisal of the presently used multibeam technique is mentioned. Some of the important discoveries of seabed features around...

  13. Random amplified marker technique for plants rich in polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Tripta; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    More than 10,000 publications using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) or related arbitrary marker techniques have been published in two decades of its inception in 1990. Despite extensive use, RAPD technique has also attracted some criticisms, mainly for lack of reproducibility. In the light of its widespread applications, the objective of this chapter is to (1) provide a protocol for RAPD assay, (2) identify the potential factors affecting the optimization of the RAPD assays, and (3) provide proper statistical analysis to avoid false positives. It is suggested that after proper optimization, the RAPD is a reliable, sensitive, and reproducible assay having the potential to detect a wide range of DNA variations. Analyses of the relevant fragments generated in RAPD profile allow not only to identify some of the molecular events implicated in the genomic instability but also to discover genes playing key roles in genetic evolution and gene mapping. RAPD markers will continue to be boon for genetic studies of those organisms where yet no sequence information or scanty information is available.

  14. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a ...

  15. Key Techniques and Application Progress of Molecular Pharmacognosy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xue-feng; HU Jing; XU Hai-yu; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun; LIU Chang-xiao

    2011-01-01

    At the boundary between pharmacognosy and molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. This paper reviews the methods, application, and prospect of molecular pharmacognosy. DNA marker is one of genetic markers and some molecular marker methods which have been successfully used for genetic diversity identification and new medicinal resources development. Recombinant DNA technology provides a powerful tool that enables scientists to engineer DNA sequences. Gene chip technique could be used in determination of gene expression profiles, analyses of polymorphisms, construction of genomic library, analysis of mapping, and sequencing by hybridization. Using the methods and theory of molecular biology and pharmacognosy, molecular pharmacognosy represents an extremely prospective branch of pharmacognosy and focuses on the study of systemic growth of medicinal plants, identification and evaluation of germplasm resources, plant metabolomics and production of active compounds. Furthermore, the great breakthrough of molecular pharmacognosy could be anticipated on DNA fingerprint analysis, cultivar improvement, DNA identification, and a global DNA barcoding system in the future.

  16. Dancers' Application of the Alexander Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Sylvie; Girard, Fernande

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experience of professional contemporary dancers studying and applying the Alexander Technique to their dancing. This study was motivated by: 1. years of teaching both dance and somatics, 2. a strong desire to better understand how the Alexander Technique can be applied by dancers, and 3. a gap that the…

  17. Real-Time PCR Technique and Its Application in Quantification ofPlant Nucleic Acid Molecules%同步PCR技术及其在植物核酸分子定量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进元

    2003-01-01

    Real-time PCR is a closed DNA amplification system that skillfully integrates biochemical, photoelectric and computer techniques. Fluorescence data acquired once per cycle provides rapid absolute quantification of initial template copy numbers as PCR products are generated. This technique significantly simplifies and accelerates the process of producing reproducible quantification of nucleic acid molecules. It not only is a sensitive, accurate and rapid quantitative method, but it also provides an easier way to calculate the absolute starting copy number of nucleic acid molecules to be tested. Together with molecular bio-techniques like microarray, real-time PCR will play a very important role in many aspects of molecular life science such as functional gene analysis and disease molecular diagnostics. This review introduces the detailed principles and application of the real-time PCR technique, describes a recently developed system for exact quantification of AUX/IAA genes in Arabidopsis, and discusses the problems with the real-time PCR process.%同步PCR是一种集生化、光电和计算机技术于一体的封闭式DNA扩增系统,采用荧光染料将扩增与检测过程结合在一起,实现了在PCR过程中在线显示PCR反应,通过检测荧光强度来绝对定量起始模板的拷贝数.该技术大大简化和加速了核酸分子的定量过程,不仅快速、灵敏、准确、重复性好,而且很容易计算出待测样品中核酸分子的绝对起始拷贝数.同微阵列等分子生物技术一起,同步PCR技术将会在功能基因解析和病害分子诊断等方面发挥重要作用.本综述除了介绍同步PCR技术的原理和应用外,还介绍了定量拟南芥Aux/IAA基因的转录水平的实验,并就同步PCR操作过程中的问题进行了讨论.

  18. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  19. Design of Critical Control Systems for Non-Minimum Phase Plants via LTR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tadashi; Ono, Takahiko

    An application of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) technique to critical control systems design is proposed for non-minimum phase plants. The controller structure is chosen as the Davison type integral controller with the Kalman filter. First, a critical control system is designed on the assumption that the state of the minimum phase part of the plant can be used for the feedback. A quadratic performance index with tuning parameters is used for determining the partial state feedback gain matrix. Second, the Kalman filter gain matrix is determined such that the output feedback controller performs as in the partial state feedback controller. The formal partial loop recovery procedure using the Riccati equation is adopted for this purpose. The proposed design method requires much simpler numerical search than the conventional one-step approach. An illustrative design example is presented.

  20. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  1. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Sanyal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of using a solid-state Nd:YAG laser for material processing applications such as cutting, welding and drilling of several components of operational nuclear reactors in radioactive environment. We have demonstrated several advantages of laserbased material processing over conventional methods, and these are discussed briefly. At NPCIL, we have used laser techniques to cut stainless steel sheets up to 14 mm thickness and stainless steel weld up to a depth of 3 mm. This remotely operable laser system has been engineered for its robustness with proper fixtures and tooling for various material processing operations on industrial scale.

  2. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination

  3. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.H.; Berg, van den A.; Odijk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination o

  4. Audit Techniques for Service Oriented Architecture Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Adrian COTFAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach enables the development of flexible distributed applications. Auditing such applications implies several specific challenges related to interoperability, performance and security. The service oriented architecture model is described and the advantages of this approach are analyzed. We also highlight several quality attributes and potential risks in SOA applications that an architect should be aware when designing a distributed system. Key risk factors are identified and a model for risk evaluation is introduced. The top reasons for auditing SOA applications are presented as well as the most important standards. The steps for a successful audit process are given and discussed.

  5. Applications of geostatistics in plant nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M K; Hawkins, D M

    1994-12-01

    The application of geostatistics to plant nematology was made by evaluating soil and nematode data acquired from 200 soil samples collected from the A(p) horizon of a reed canary-grass field in northern Minnesota. Geostatistical concepts relevant to nematology include semi-variogram modelling, kriging, and change of support calculations. Soil and nematode data generally followed a spherical semi-variogram model, with little random variability associated with soil data and large inherent variability for nematode data. Block kriging of soil and nematode data provided useful contour maps of the data. Change of snpport calculations indicated that most of the random variation in nematode data was due to short-range spatial variability in the nematode population densities.

  6. Nonlinear temporal pulse cleaning techniques and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi; Xu; Jianzhou; Wang; Yansui; Huang; Yanyan; Li; Xiaomin; Lu; Yuxin; Leng

    2013-01-01

    Two different pulse cleaning techniques for ultra-high contrast laser systems are comparably analysed in this work.The first pulse cleaning technique is based on noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplification(NOPA)and second-harmonic generation(SHG)processes.The other is based on cross-polarized wave(XPW)generation.With a double chirped pulse amplifier(double-CPA)scheme,although temporal contrast enhancement in a high-intensity femtosecond Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplification(CPA)laser system can be achieved based on both of the techniques,the two different pulse cleaning techniques still have their own advantages and are suitable for different contrast enhancement requirements of different laser systems.

  7. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict and control the complicated interactions of the processes. Numerous control techniques (algorithms and control strategies (structures have been suggested to regulate WWTP; however, it is difficult to make a discerning performance evaluation due to the nonuniformity of the simulated plants used. The main objective of this paper is to present a benchmark of an entire biological wastewater treatment plant in order to evaluate, through simulations, different control techniques. This benchmark plays the role of an activated sludge process used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen from domestic effluents. The development of this simulator is based on models widely accepted by the international community and is implemented in Matlab/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc. platform. The benchmark considers plant layout and the effects of influent characteristics. It also includes a test protocol for analyzing the open and closed-loop responses of the plant. Examples of control applications in the benchmark are implemented employing conventional PI controllers. The following common control strategies are tested: dissolved oxygen (DO concentration-based control, respirometry-based control and nitrate concentration-based control.

  8. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work...

  9. Characterization of plant food allergens: an overview on physicochemical and immunological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Andrea; Egger, Matthias; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Erler, Anja; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Himly, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Allergy to plant-derived foods is a highly complex disorder with clinical manifestations ranging from mild oral, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous symptoms to life-threatening systemic conditions. This heterogeneity in clinical manifestations has been attributed to different properties of allergenic molecules. Based on this fact, symptom elicitors were grouped into class I and pollinosis-associated class II food allergens, but clear distinction is rather ambiguous. Moreover, mechanisms underlying food sensitization are not fully understood yet, and food allergy management most often relies on patient's compliance to avoid suspected foods. Therefore, recent efforts aim at the investigation of plant food allergies at the molecular level. This review provides an overview on currently available techniques for allergen characterization and discusses their application for investigation of plant food allergens. Data obtained by an array of physicochemical analyses, such as allergen structure, integrity, aggregation, and stability, need to be linked to results from immunological methods at the level of IgE and T-cell reactivity. Such knowledge allows the development of computational algorithms to predict allergenicity of novel foods being introduced by biotechnological industry. Furthermore, molecular characterization is an indispensable tool for molecule-based diagnosis and future development of safer patient-tailored specific immunotherapy in plant food allergy.

  10. Expert System Techniques and Applications in AEC-Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain.......This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain....

  11. 48 CFR 9904.417-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Techniques for application... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of money... capitalized, such as the method used for financial accounting and reporting, may be used, provided...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.401-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Techniques for application... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-50 Techniques for application. (a) The standard... in estimating costs in pricing a proposal and in accumulating and reporting costs on the...

  13. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  14. Optical coherence tomography: Technique and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging modality providing real-time video rate images in two and three dimensions of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. OCT fills the gap between ultrasound and confocal microscopy, since it has a higher resolution than ultr...... of retinal diseases. The potential of OCT in many other applications is currently being explored, such as in developmental biology, skin cancer diagnostics, vulnerable plaque detection in cardiology, esophageal diagnostics and a number of other applications within oncology....

  15. Applications of electrochemical techniques in mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yusheng; Sun, Fengyue; Xu, Yuanhong; Cong, Zhichao; Wang, Erkang

    2014-09-01

    This review, covering reports published in recent decade from 2004 to 2013, shows how electrochemical (EC) techniques such as voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiometry, coulometry, etc., have made significant contributions in the analysis of minerals such as clay, sulfide, oxide, and oxysalt. It was discussed based on the classifications of both the types of the used EC techniques and kinds of the analyzed minerals. Furthermore, minerals as electrode modification materials for EC analysis have also been summarized. Accordingly, research vacancies and future development trends in these areas are discussed.

  16. Big data for development : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; ur Rasool, Raihan; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about emergin

  17. Big data for development : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; ur Rasool, Raihan; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about

  18. Model checking timed automata : techniques and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Martijn.

    2006-01-01

    Model checking is a technique to automatically analyse systems that have been modeled in a formal language. The timed automaton framework is such a formal language. It is suitable to model many realistic problems in which time plays a central role. Examples are distributed algorithms, protocols, emb

  19. Handbook of software quality assurance techniques applicable to the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.L.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a research project to recommend good engineering practices in the application of 10 CFR 50, Appendix B requirements to assure quality in the development and use of computer software for the design and operation of nuclear power plants for NRC and industry. This handbook defines the content of a software quality assurance program by enumerating the techniques applicable. Definitions, descriptions, and references where further information may be obtained are provided for each topic.

  20. [Medicinal plant hairy roots generating and their applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiu-Juan

    2014-06-01

    As a kind of the plant tissue cultures, hairy root culture is characterized by rapid growth without exogenous hormones source and high yield of secondary metabolites, which attracted the attention of scholars in resent years. This work systematically summarized the research of medicinal plant hairy roots, including the mechanism, current situation of medicinal plant hairy roots, and their applications.

  1. DNA assembly for plant biology: techniques and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2014-06-01

    As the speed and accuracy of genome sequencing improves, there are ever-increasing resources available for the design and construction of synthetic DNA parts. These can be used to engineer plant genomes to produce new functions or to elucidate the function of endogenous sequences. Until recently the assembly of amplified or cloned sequences into large and complex designs was a limiting step in plant synthetic biology and biotechnology. A number of new methods for assembling DNA molecules have been developed in the last few years, several of which have been applied to the production of molecules used to modify plant genomes.

  2. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  3. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work......, especially on optically stimulated luminescence methods for retrospective assessment of accident doses carried out at Riso National Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Helsinki as part bf a joint European Union research project. We demonstrate that doses lower than 100 mGy can be measured from...

  4. Application of PCR techniques in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kazubek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biology techniques have become widely used in toxicology, leading to the creation of a new science – molecular toxicology. The goal of molecular toxicology is to detect and study the changes induced by xenobiotics at the molecular level. The research scope of molecular toxicology includes examination of mutations in genomic DNA, differences in mRNA expression and study of genotype indicating individual sensitivity.The processes of activation and detoxification of xenobiotics, drugs and environmental carcinogens involve several enzymes (xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes – XMEs. Most of the chemicals entering our bodies, regardless of whether they have medical, pathogenic or carcinogenic properties, require metabolic activation by phase I enzymes (cytochrome P-450. In the next process the phase I products are usually detoxified by phase II enzymes, mainly by epoxide hydrolase, glutathione transferase, N-acetyltransferase or sulfotransferase. PCR techniques allow precise study of the effects of xenobiotics on cells and tissues by examining the level of activation of genes coding for phase I and II enzymes, or by testing the activity of other elements of the transcriptome. Studies of sensitivity of individual cells or tissues based on examination of mutation or gene polymorphism presence are also relevant.This paper presents the possibility of using various PCR techniques in toxicology and especially in the study of genetically determined sensitivity to xenobiotics. It also covers the possibilities of applying qPCR and qRT-PCR methods in the search for exposure biomarkers with particular emphasis on individual cytochrome P450 isoforms. Furthermore, it provides information about the possibility of implementing the differential display technique in the identification of new genes activated by toxic agents.

  5. Application of Tuina Techniques to Spinal Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Min; SHEN Guo-quan; YAN Jun-tao; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    @@ It's one of the earliest medical techniques to relieve pain, restore health and enjoy comfort with manipulations. Knowledge on spinal neck pain, shoulder pain, low back pain and leg pain can be traced back to the early stage of human evolution and upright position of two legs. Therefore the history of treating spinal diseases with Tuina or manipulations probably keeps the same pace with civilization.

  6. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Cooke, David; Koch, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades a new spectroscopic technique with unique possibilities has emerged. Based on coherent and time-resolved detection of the electric field of ultrashort radiation bursts in the far-infrared, this technique has become known as terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)....... of research, where THz spectroscopic techniques have proven to be useful research tools, and the potential for industrial applications of THz spectroscopic and imaging techniques are discussed....

  7. PLANT SPACING AND WEED MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES INFLUENCE WEED COMPETITIVENESS OF DRUM SEEDED RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Sandeep Nayak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct wet seeded-rice sown through drum seeder, a potential wise rice production system in the present-day scenario, is subject to severe weed infestation and, therefore, development of a sustainable weed management strategy is crucial for its wide spread adoption. The present study was conducted in kharif 2012 at department of agronomy division with NLR-33358 (SOMASILA using six planting densities under five weed management conditions. The plant spacing tried were: 20cm x 7cm, 20 cm x 10.5 cm, 20 cm x 14 cm, 20 cm x 17.5 cm and 20 cm x 24.5cm and 20 cm x15cm. with a plant density of 71, 47, 35, 28, 20 and 33 hills m-2, respectively and five weed management practices viz., weedy check (W1, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (W2, cono weeding at 20 and 40 with modified cono weeder (W3, pre-emergence application of anilofos @ 0.375 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of 2, 4 D sodium salt @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 20-25 DAS (W4, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i ha-1 30 DAS ( W5. . The experiment was laid out in strip- plot design with three replications assigning weed management techniques in vertical factor and plant spacing in horizontal factor. Direct wet seeded rice field was infested with 12 and 22 weed species, kharif -2012 season having Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria aescendens, Cyperus iriaand Eleusine indicaas the predominant weeds. Rice spacing exerted significant influence on both weed pressure and yield performance of crop. With the increase in plant spacing weed dry matter decreased but rice yield increased. In this season, among different plant densities, the highest density of 71 hills m-2(D1 resulted in minimum weed density, weed drymatter, and more number of tillers m-2 and maximum drymatter production at all stages of plant growth. closest spacing resulted in maximum weed suppression, but among various rice

  8. Overview of Prairie Planting Techniques and Maintenance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    spring, late spring, or early summer. Most warm- season grasses, legumes and many composites do well in late spring plantings. In Kentucky , research...developed and proven by the NRCS for specific geographic regions of the country. Native grass seed (and often wildflower seed) is sold on a pure live...vernal pools are examples of fragile areas within a larger prairie ecosystem. These areas often have many rare species of plants and animals in

  9. Application of bioinformatics in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, D.; Leunissen, J.; Atanassov, A.; Nenov, A.; Dimov, G.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of plant genomics is to understand the genetic and molecular basis of all biological processes in plants that are relevant to the specie. This understanding is fundamental to allow efficient exploitation of plants as biological resources in the development of new cultivars with improved qua

  10. Techniques for Finding Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sandulescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trend is to move everything on the Internet. Because a lot of companies store sensitive user information, security has become mandatory. Usually, software developers don’t follow some basic practices in order to secure their applications. This paper will present in the second chapter, the white-box, black-box and gray-box methods which can be used in order to test applications for possible vulnerabilities. It focuses on fuzz testing, which is a black-box testing method, presented in the third chapter. The fourth chapter presents the stages of a fuzzing test and in the final chapter, we show a basic practical example on how to use the Burp Suite[8] fuzzer to find a vulnerability.

  11. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David; Katrompas, Alexander M.; Parikh, Neel J.

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  12. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  13. The six-port technique with microwave and wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2009-01-01

    One of the main issues in microwave and wireless system design is to ensure high performance with low cost techniques. The six-port technique helps allow for this in critical network design areas. This practical resource offers you a thorough overview the six-port technique, from basic principles of RF measurement based techniques and multiport design, to coverage of key applications, such as vector network analyzers, software defined radio, and radar. The first book dedicated to six-port applications and principles, this volume serves as a current, one-stop guide offering you cost-effective s

  14. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  15. Feasibility Study on Application of Electroadsorption Technique in Circulating Cooling Water Treatment in Thermal Power Plant%电吸附技术在火电厂循环冷却水处理中的应用可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈叔云; 冯向东; 施国忠

    2015-01-01

    The waste water of circulating water system is hard to reuse because of its high salinity and large quantity. This paper conducts feasibility study on the application of electroadsorption technique in circulating cooling water treatment in power plants. The test result shows that this technique is stable in desalination and can reduce salinity and chloride ion in water by 65% or more; besides, the technique can better remove COD. The technique is characterized by its high desalination rate, meaning treatment of 1 ton of water costs 0.5Yuan. The test equipment operates in stability and its treatment efficiency is favorable, constant and ad-justable;it is tolerant and can be used for preliminary desalination of circulating water in power plant.%火电厂循环水排污水含盐量高、水量大、回用比较困难,对电吸附技术在发电厂循环水排污水回用方面进行可行性研究。试验结果表明电吸附技术有稳定的除盐效果,可有效降低和去除水中65%以上的硬度与氯离子,同时对COD亦有较好的去除效果,除盐效率高,合计1 t水处理成本约0.5元。试验设备运行稳定,处理效果好且连续可调,设备耐受性好,可以用于循环水初级脱盐处理。

  16. Defectoscopic and Clinical Applications of Infrared Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopal, I.; Koštial, P.; Špička, I.; Pleva, L.; Jančíková, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The article deals with possible visualization of inhomogeneities in inorganic materials, such as laminates, as well as organic materials, such as bones. This work also provides a study of the visualization of internal fixation (nail), introduced in a bone by the IR technique. In the theoretical part, we present thermal wave propagation and a theoretical approach to the possibility of visualization of the boundary between two different materials with different thermal conductivity. Further on, the experimental method is tested with success on discovering artificial defects in glass laminates. In the second part of the article, a successful method of the visualization of the internal fixator position in a bone under IR excitation is presented. Methods of processing the data measured with the use of an infrared camera are presented in detail.

  17. Utilization of {gamma}-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed {gamma}-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of {gamma}-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of {gamma}-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of {gamma}-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  18. 变频调速技术在火电厂风机节能改造中的应用%Application of the variable frequency governing technique in draft fans energy - saving renovations of thermal power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游世海; 卫东; 李德煜; 杨梅; 陈祎

    2011-01-01

    介绍变频技术的特点,以及在火电厂中投用的经济价值。%The characteristics of variable frequency technology, and throw to use in thermal power plant of economy value, were intro- duced in this article.

  19. Novel and potential application of cryopreservation to plant genetic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhibo; Yin, Zhenfang; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The world population now is 6.7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. Such a rapid growing population has tremendously increased the challenge for food security. Obviously, it is impossible for traditional agriculture to ensure the food security, while plant biotechnology offers considerable potential to realize this goal. Over the last 15 years, great benefits have been brought to sustainable agriculture by commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Further development of new GM crops will with no doubt contribute to meeting the requirements for food by the increasing population. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on novel and potential application of cryopreservation to genetic transformation. The major progresses that have been achieved in this subject include (1), long-term storage of a large number of valuable plant genes, which offers a good potential for further development of novel cultivars by genetic transformation; (2), retention of regenerative capacity of embryogenic tissues and protoplasts, which ensures efficient plant regeneration system for genetic transformation; (3), improvement of transformation efficiency and plant regeneration of transformed cells; (4), long-term preservation of transgenic materials with stable expression of transgenes and productive ability of recombinant proteins, which allows transgenic materials to be stored in a safe manner before being analyzed and evaluated, and allows establishment of stable seed stocks for commercial production of homologous proteins. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrate that cryo-technique has an important role to play in the whole chain of genetic transformation. Further studies coupling cryotechnique and genetic transformation are expected to significantly improve development of new GM crops.

  20. Application of image fusion techniques in DSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Xu, Jing

    2007-12-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an important technology in both medical diagnoses and interposal therapy, which can eliminate the interferential background and give prominence to blood vessels by computer processing. After contrast material is injected into an artery or vein, a physician produces fluoroscopic images. Using these digitized images, a computer subtracts the image made with contrast material from a series of post injection images made without background information. By analyzing the characteristics of DSA medical images, this paper provides a solution of image fusion which is in allusion to the application of DSA subtraction. We fuse the images of angiogram and subtraction, in order to obtain the new image which has more data information. The image that fused by wavelet transform can display the blood vessels and background information clearly, and medical experts gave high score on the effect of it.

  1. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  2. Micropropagation and cryopreservation: alternative techniques for conserving plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources of vegetatively propagated crops are maintained as growing plants and are often at risk of loss from disease, and environmental hazards. Micropropagation and cryopreservation are used for backup of the temperate fruit, nut and specialty crops held at the National Clonal Germplasm R...

  3. Classroom Techniques to Illustrate Water Transport in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakrim, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The transport of water in plants is among the most difficult and challenging concepts to explain to students. It is even more difficult for students enrolled in an introductory general biology course. An easy approach is needed to demonstrate this complex concept. I describe visual and pedagogical examples that can be performed quickly and easily…

  4. Development of underwater laser cutting technique for steel and zircaloy for nuclear applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Jain; D K Agrawal; S C Vishwakarma; A K Choubey; B N Upadhyaya; S M Oak

    2010-12-01

    In nuclear field, underwater cutting and welding technique is required for post-irradiation examination, maintenance, decommissioning and to reduce storage space of irradiated materials like used zircaloy pressure tubes etc., of nuclear power plants. We have developed underwater cutting technique for 4.2 mm thick zircaloy pressure tubes and up to 6 mm thick steel using fibre-coupled 250 W average power pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This underwater cutting technique will be highly useful in various nuclear applications as well as in dismantling/repair of ship and pipe lines in water.

  5. Application of goal programming technique in government statutory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of goal programming technique in government statutory budget in Anambra State. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... data obtained from the 15 communities of Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

  6. 37 CFR 1.163 - Specification and arrangement of application elements in a plant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development. (4) Latin name of the genus and species of the plant claimed. (5) Variety denomination. (6... of application elements in a plant application. 1.163 Section 1.163 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.163 Specification and arrangement of...

  7. [Application of molecular biological techniques in Taenia identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei

    2011-10-01

    The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.

  8. 48 CFR 9905.501-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Techniques for application... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501-50 Techniques for... practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal and in accumulating and reporting costs on...

  9. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  10. Plant microbe interactions in post genomic era: perspectives and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Imam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various ‘omics’ tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses.

  11. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various 'omics' tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses.

  12. The technique of Solar Tower and its Application Prospect Power Plant in China%塔式太阳能热发电技术及其在我国的应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳玲; 叶丽

    2012-01-01

    介绍了塔式太阳能热发电的结构原理、关键技术,并结合国内外相关研究的基础上,针对中国的能源情况和自然资源情况,论述了我国发展塔式太阳能热发电的必要性和可行性,并对我国发展塔式太阳能发电技术进行风险分析,提出相关建议。%The concentrated solar power a kind of potential technology for energy. In this paper, the mech- anism for solar tower power plant and its key technologies were introduced at first. The status of develop- ments of solar tower power plant at home and abroad was summarized then. It is concluded that the de- velopment of technology of solar tower power plant is necessary and feasible according to the analysis of energy and natural resources distribution in China. The risk analysis for solar tower was carried out at last and some of advices were put forward for the technology.

  13. Different Techniques of MRU: Pitfalls & Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nayyeri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU refers to MR imaging of the urinary col-lecting systems and it provides information roughly analogous to conventional intravenous urography. There are two basic MRU imaging strategies, (1 Static MRU uses T2W scans and rely on the presence of fluid in the pelvicaliceal systems and the ureters; (2 Excretory MRU is performed after administration of IV Gd using a 3D gradient echo sequence. Static MRU is best used for dilated collecting systems and can be employed regardless of renal function. Excretory MRU is usually preferred over static techniques for the demonstration of non-distended ureters; however, it is contraindicated in severely impaired renal function. As MR urograms are often displayed as maximum intensity projections, a low signal intensity ureteral stone surrounded by high signal intensity urine may be obscured on maximum intensity projection images. A prob-lem in static MR urography is the superimposition of fluid-filled structures (i.e. bowel loops, gall bladder and bile ducts, CSF, or any intraabdominal fluid collection on reconstructed images which may create false posi-tive findings or obscure true abnormalities. Non-distended ureters may escape detection on static MR uro-grams, resulting in the incorrect diagnosis of complete ureteral obstruction. Parapelvic cysts may simulate hy-dronephrosis while calyceal diverticulae may simulate simple renal cysts on static MRU. Excretory MR urography is performed in all such cases; however, Gd may create different problems when it becomes too concentrated within the collecting system. Sufficiently concentrated Gd shortens T2 relaxation times to the point that signal loss from T2 relaxation exceeds the T1 shortening effects of the contrast agent. This may result in poor visualization of all or a portion of collecting system on T1W images. Concentrated Gd in the renal collecting system also causes signal loss on T2W images

  14. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  15. Applications of stable isotopes to study plant-animal relationships in terrestrial ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianzhu; LIN Guanghui; HUANG Jianhui; HAN Xingguo

    2004-01-01

    As natural tracers, stable isotopes have been extensively used in plant physiological, ecological and environmental research. Recently, animal physiological ecologists have also applied stable isotope techniques to study plant- animal relationships. The isotopic compositions of animal body generally reflect and integrate their diets over a time period ranging from hours to years to the lifetime of an individual. When animal living habitat changes or animals move to a new environment, the animal isotopic compositions will shift accordingly. Thus, stable isotope signatures of an animal can truly reflect its food sources, habitat, distribution and movement patterns during a given time period. Moreover, by analyzing animal-tissue isotopic compositions at different temporal scales, we can improve our understanding of animal adaptation to environmental changes. Stable isotope technique also provides an ideal tool to study animal foodweb relationship and community structure because of isotopic fractionation during the processes of nutrient assimilation by animals. Stable isotope technique can continuously measure animal trophic position in a foodweb, which can eventually reveal the predator-prey relationship and its role in determining matter balance and energy flow in the entire ecosystem. Stable isotope technique has been one of the most important and efficient tools in studying plant-animal relationship. In this paper, we first review recent advances in the application of stable isotope techniques to plant-animal relationship research then evaluate their advantages and disadvantages, and finally discuss some future directions associated with stable isotope applications to plant-animal relationship research.

  16. 48 CFR 9904.416-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... actuarial present value of benefits applicable to employees already retired shall be amortized over a period... incurred, the amount of the loss to be recognized currently shall be the present value of the future... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416-50 Techniques for application. (a) Measurement...

  17. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  18. Industrial heating principles, techniques, materials, applications, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Deshmukh, Yeshvant V

    2005-01-01

    Industry relies on heating for a wide variety of processes involving a broad range of materials. Each process and material requires heating methods suitable to its properties and the desired outcome. Despite this, the literature lacks a general reference on design techniques for heating, especially for small- and medium-sized applications. Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design fills this gap, presenting design information for both traditional and modern heating processes and auxiliary techniques.The author leverages more than 40 years of experience int

  19. Development of recombinant antibody technology for application in plant pathogen diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, R.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the applicability of the novel phage display technique to select plant-pathogen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from combinatorial antibody libraries. The retrieved MAbs are so specific that they can be used as diagnostic tools in sensitive immunoassays for the

  20. Development of recombinant antibody technology for application in plant pathogen diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the applicability of the novel phage display technique to select plant-pathogen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from combinatorial antibody libraries. The retrieved MAbs are so specific that they can be used as diagnostic tools in sensitive immunoassays for the detection

  1. Study on Application of Chemical Control Techniques for Worst Weeds in Landscape Plant Nurseries in Jianghuai Region%江淮地区园林苗圃地恶性杂草化学防除技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新洋; 周根土; 张均

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the integrated control techniques regarding the main weed species, herbicides and the times,concentrations, methods of their applications for chemical weeding and artificial weeding in landscape plant nurseries were introduced. Chemical and artificial weeding techniques for 6 worst weeds in pre-emergence and seedling stages were elaborated in detail including Alternanthera philoxeroides, Commelina communis, Cyperus rotundus, Artemisia Selengensis, Cirsium setosum and Imperata cylindrica,so were the chemical weeding methods for difficult-to-control weed species Digitaria sanguinalis, Acalypha australis, Amaranthus tricolor, Eclipta prostrata, Chenopodium quinoa,Convolvu arvensis,Celosia cristata, Portulaca oleracea and Abutilon theophrasti. The study could provide practical chemical weeding operation techniques for landscape plant nurseries.%本文叙述了园林苗圃地主要杂草、除草剂,化学除草施用时间、浓度、方法,以及人工除草等综合防除技术,详细叙述了芽前、苗期化学和人工除草技术及苗圃地空心莲子草、鸭跖草、香附子、芦蒿、刺儿菜、白茅6种恶性杂草,以及防除难度较大的杂草马唐、铁苋菜、苋菜、醴肠、藜、田旋花、野鸡冠花、马齿苋、茼麻等化学除草方法,为园林苗木培育提供实用的苗圃化学除草操作技术。

  2. Efficient Plant Supervision Strategy Using NN Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Rolle, Jose Luis Calvo; Castelo, Francisco Javier Perez

    Most of non-linear type one and type two control systems suffers from lack of detectability when model based techniques are applied on FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. In general, all types of processes suffer from lack of detectability also due to the ambiguity to discriminate the process, sensors and actuators in order to isolate any given fault. This work deals with a strategy to detect and isolate faults which include massive neural networks based functional approximation procedures associated to recursive rule based techniques applied to a parity space approach.

  3. Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field.

  4. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  5. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO2 emissions.

  6. Review on Micro- and Nanolithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werayut Srituravanich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications from commercial micro devices to emerging applications in nanoscale science and engineering. Micro- and nanolithography has been the key technology in manufacturing of integrated circuits and microchips in the semiconductor industry. Such a technology is also sparking a magnificent transformation of nanotechnology. The lithography techniques including photolithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography and scanning probe lithography are discussed. Furthermore, their applications are reviewed and summarized into four major areas: electronics and microsystems, medical and biotech, optics and photonics, and environment and energy harvesting.

  7. Millimeter-wave/THz FMCW radar techniques for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, D. Amal; Higgins, Michael D.; Wang, Fenggui; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter-wave and terahertz continuous-wave radar systems have been used to measure physiological signatures for biometric applications and for a variety of non-destructive evaluation applications, such as the detection of defects in materials. Sensing strategies for the simplest homodyne systems, such as a Michelson Interferometer, can be enhanced by using Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) techniques. This allows multiple objects or surfaces to be range resolved while monitoring the phase of the signal in a particular range bin. We will discuss the latest developments in several studies aimed at demonstrating how FMCW techniques can enhance mmW/THz sensing applications.

  8. Genetically modified plants in practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Říhová, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    Genetic engineering (GI) of plants is a very current topic, and more and more controversial, since it is becoming an inseparable part of our lives. GI has, among other things, a great potential to help solve the current problem of hunger and malnutrition in certain parts of the world. The goal of this project is to clarify what genetically modified (GM) plants are, to present the possibilities of their practical use, to explain methods of preparation and to consider their advantages and event...

  9. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a new guide regulatory guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive,......

  10. Induction of Parthenogenesis in Plants and Application in Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOU Chun-hong; LI Wen-li; WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; XIE Zhao-hui; HU Yan-yu; WANG Xu-dong

    2003-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a kind of reproductive mode by which the egg develops into embryo without fertilization and grows into plant finally. This article summarizes the advances of inducing parthenogenesis in plants in relation to induction methods, affecting factors and the studies in embryology. In addition, the application of parthenogenesis in breeding is also discussed.

  11. Application of positron emitters to studies on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, N.S.; Matsuoka, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sekine, T. [and others

    1998-10-01

    A newly developed positron emitting tracer imaging system enables us to study dynamically the physiological function of plants, although this system covers, at present, a limited area in a plant. Production of the positron emitters {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, {sup 18}F and {sup 48}V for this application, using an AVF cyclotron, is described. (author)

  12. Evaluation of creep damage in power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, P.; Salonen, J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)] McNiven, U. [IVO Generation Services Ltd., Naantali (Finland)] Roennberg, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)] Borggreen, K. [FORCE Institute, Broendby (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Metallographic inspection of creep cavitation damage provides routine support for maintenance scheduling of high temperature components in power plants. The available European inspection experience has been reviewed, particularly considering the performance of thick-section steam systems outside the boiler. Applications are highlighted with examples from plant. (orig.) 8 refs.

  13. EFFECTS OF PLANT DENSITY AND NPK APPLICATION ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.E. Law-Ogbomo

    effect of increasing plant population and NPK application on the growth and tuber yield of Dioscorea rotundata .... each plot for growth analysis at 16 and 24 WAP. ..... Mylavarapu RS and DE Kennelley UF/IFAS extension soil testing laboratory.

  14. A simple technique for removing plant polysaccharide contaminants from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, N; Adams, R P

    1991-02-01

    A survey of the inhibitory effects of various plant polysaccharides on DNA restrictions (HindIII and EcoRI) revealed that neutral polysaccharides (arabino-galactan, dextran, gum guar, gum locust bean, beta-glucan, inulin, laminaran, mannan and starch) were not very inhibitory. In contrast, acidic polysaccharides (carrageenan, dextran sulfate, gum ghatti, gum karaya, pectin and xylan) were very inhibitory, even at low concentrations. The Elutip-d (RPC-5 type resin) was evaluated for removal of the inhibitory polysaccharides. Used alone or in combination with a phenol/chloroform wash, it proved effective in removing the polysaccharide so that HindIII digestion was possible, except in the cases of carrageenan and dextran sulfate. In addition, the genomic DNA extracts from live oak (Quercus virginiana) and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) were sufficiently purified so that the DNAs could be restricted with both EcoRI and HindIII.

  15. Application of the Best Available Technique (BAT) in Swedish Nuclear Industry: Ringhals and Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plants. Report to the Oslo and Paris Commissions in accordance with PARCOM Recommendation 91/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    With regard to the general objectives of the Paris Convention, contracting parties have agreed, as stated in PARCOM Recommendation 91/4, to apply best available technique (BAT) to reduce radioactive releases from the nuclear industry. Progress in implementing BAT shall be reported to the Oslo and Paris Commissions every four years. This report contains the Swedish submission for the second round of implementation reports. Data are provided relevant to the Ringhals NPP, which discharged into Convention waters, and - for information -the Barsebaeck NPP which discharged into waters close to the Convention area. 20 tabs.

  16. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  17. RESPONSE OF SELECTED LOCAL PLANTAIN CULTIVARS TO PIBS (PLANTS ISSUS DE BOURGEONS SECONDAIRES TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah DZOMEKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint to plantain production has been inadequate healthy planting materials at the time of planting. Several technologies for multiplying healthy planting materials exist but could not meet farmers’ demand. A study was conducted to assess the performance of various landraces plantain to plants issus de bourgeons secondaires (PIBS technique. Five cultivars of Musa sapientum (Apantu (False Horn, Asamienu (True Horn, Oniaba (intermediate French plantain and FHIA-21 (tetraploid hybrid plantain were tested to determine their response to the PIBS technique. Sword suckers of each cultivar with weight of between 0.2-0.5 kg were prepared and buried in fine sawdust in a humidity chamber built using transparent polyethylene sheets. Results at harvest showed that removal of rooted sprouts started three weeks after planting and every week thereafter for eight weeks. The intermediate French plantain cultivar (Oniaba produced the least average number (about 20 of healthy planting. Apantu (False Horn produced an average of about 75 healthy planting materials. The hybrid FHIA-21 on the other hand generated an average of about 85 healthy planting materials. Asamienu (True Horn produced the highest healthy seedlings of about 90 healthy planting materials. The results revealed that the leaf scar carries a primary bud at the intersection of each leaf sheath and several eyes along the entire length of the leaf sheath which could not have developed into suckers. However, with this technique the eyes could be activated to sprout as healthy planting materials. The technique proved as an efficient method of multiplying healthy planting materials for plantain and could thus be recommended for adoption not only by peasant farmers but also to others who could become commercial seed producers. But there will be a need for certification guidelines for seed growing systems.

  18. Screening of mahoran plants for cosmetic applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Saive, Matthew; Frederich, Michel; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study’s main aim is to identify plant species showing anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and skin whitening properties. A selection of 89 samples from previous infield studies on the traditional uses of plants in Mayotte were analyzed. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed using the α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method developed by Blois [1]. The anti-inflammatory activity and the skin whitening activity were both assessed through the study of inhibition kinetics from specific enzy...

  19. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  20. Review of Matrix Decomposition Techniques for Signal Processing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of matrix is a vital part of many scientific and engineering applications. It is a technique that breaks down a square numeric matrix into two different square matrices and is a basis for efficiently solving a system of equations, which in turn is the basis for inverting a matrix. An inverting matrix is a part of many important algorithms. Matrix factorizations have wide applications in numerical linear algebra, in solving linear systems, computing inertia, and rank estimation is an important consideration. This paper presents review of all the matrix decomposition techniques used in signal processing applications on the basis of their computational complexity, advantages and disadvantages. Various Decomposition techniques such as LU Decomposition, QR decomposition , Cholesky decomposition are discussed here. Keywords –

  1. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Danny A.

    2006-01-01

    Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.

  2. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  3. Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, B.; Hnát, V.; Plaček, V.

    1998-06-01

    The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation induction time (OIT) is determined. For each cable which is subject to the assessment of the lifetime, the correlation of OIT with elongation at break and the correlation of elongation at break with the cable service time has to be performed. A reliable assessment of the cable lifetime depends on accuracy of these correlations. Consequently, synergistic effects well known at this time - dose rate effects and effects resulting from the different sequence of applying radiation and elevated temperature must be taken into account.

  4. computing techniques for production scheduling in Corrugator manufacturing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. Velásquez D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrugator scheduling problem is a difficult problem due to a wide variety of parameters and optimisation objectives that have to be accounted for and the relationships among them. Majority of solution techniques proposed so far only deal with minimizing either, the trim waste or pattern changes, this paper proposes a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to optimize the WPL objective (weighted planning level and the cost objectives. Computational experiments were conducted and results were compared against the current shop scheduling method used at a real-life corrugator manufacturing facility. A series of experiments were also conducted to determine the evolutionary algorithm parameters. The improvement on performance metrics encourages us to actually implement the algorithm at the factory

  5. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Andrea; Longtin, André; Seely, Andrew J E

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis.

  6. Plant-Damage Assessment Technique for Evaluating Military Vehicular Impacts to Vegetation in the Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2001-09-01

    A new plant damage assessment technique was developed by plant ecologists from Bechtel Nevada at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration Nevada Operations Office and funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Project CS-1131 in cooperation with the U.S. Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The technique establishes linear transects the width of vehicle tracts from evidence of vehicle tracks in the soil (usually during a prior training rotation period of 30 days or since the last rain or wind storm), and measures vegetation within the tracks to determine the area of plant parts being run over, the percent of the impacted parts damaged, and the percent of impacted parts expected to recover. It documents prior-damage classes based on estimated of damage that plants have apparently experienced previously (as assessed from field indicators of damage such as plant shape and height). The technique was used to evaluate different vehicle types (rubber-tire wheels vs. tracks) in six area at the NTC with different soils and training intensity levels. The technique provides tabular data that can be sorted and queried to show a variety of trends related to military vehicular impacts. The technique also appears suitable for assessing other non-military off-road traffic impacts. Findings report: (1) differences in plant sensitivity of different vehicular impacts, (2) plant cover and density by species and training area, (3) the degree to which wheels have less impact than tracks, and (4) the mean percent survival is inversely proportional to the degree of prior damage received by the vegetation (i.e., plants previously impacted have lower survival than plants not previously impacted).

  7. 9th International Conference on Optimization : Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Wu, Soon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and state-of-the-art solutions on optimization techniques and provides new research direction and developments. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the book will be much beneficial to experts and students in optimization and operation research community. It selects high quality papers from The International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications (ICOTA2013). The conference is an official conference series of POP (The Pacific Optimization Research Activity Group; there are over 500 active members). These state-of-the-art works in this book authored by recognized experts will make contributions to the development of optimization with its applications.

  8. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Privacy-aware knowledge discovery novel applications and new techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bonchi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Covering research at the frontier of this field, Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery: Novel Applications and New Techniques presents state-of-the-art privacy-preserving data mining techniques for application domains, such as medicine and social networks, that face the increasing heterogeneity and complexity of new forms of data. Renowned authorities from prominent organizations not only cover well-established results-they also explore complex domains where privacy issues are generally clear and well defined, but the solutions are still preliminary and in continuous development. Divided into seve

  10. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  11. Elemental imaging at the nanoscale: NanoSIMS and complementary techniques for element localisation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R M

    2012-04-01

    The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.

  12. A VIKOR Technique with Applications Based on DEMATEL and ANP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou Yang, Yu-Ping; Shieh, How-Ming; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    In multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods, the compromise ranking method (named VIKOR) was introduced as one applicable technique to implement within MCDM. It was developed for multicriteria optimization of complex systems. However, few papers discuss conflicting (competing) criteria with dependence and feedback in the compromise solution method. Therefore, this study proposes and provides applications for a novel model using the VIKOR technique based on DEMATEL and the ANP to solve the problem of conflicting criteria with dependence and feedback. In addition, this research also uses DEMATEL to normalize the unweighted supermatrix of the ANP to suit the real world. An example is also presented to illustrate the proposed method with applications thereof. The results show the proposed method is suitable and effective in real-world applications.

  13. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  14. Advanced magnetron sputtering techniques-principles and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.G.Teer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The technique of ion plating was introduced by Mattox[1] in 1963. All PVD techniques used for the deposition of hard wear resistant coatings for tribological applications rely on the ion bombardment of the coating during deposition in order to obtain the required coating properties and are all variations of the original ion plating technique. To obtain a dense, hard, wear resistant coating the ion current density during deposition needs to be high, more than 1 mA/cm2 and the energy of the ions should be not more than about 50 eV.

  15. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  16. Positron emission particle tracking-Application and labelling techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J.Parker; Xianfeng Fan

    2008-01-01

    The positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) technique has been widely used in science and engineering to obtain detailed information on the motion and flow fields of fluids or granular materials in multiphase systems, for example, fluids in rock cracks, chemical reactors and food processors; dynamic behaviour of granular materials in chemical reactors, granulators, mixers, dryers, rotating kilns and ball mills. The information obtained by the PEPT technique can be used to optimise the design, operational conditions for a wide range of industrial process systems, and to evaluate modelling work. The technique is based on tracking radioactively labelled particles (up to three particles) by detecting the pairs of back-to-back 511 ke V -γ-rays arising from annihilation of emitted positrons. It therefore involves a positron camera, location algorithms for calculating the tracer location and speed, and tracer labelling techniques. This paper will review the particle tracking technique from tracking algorithm, tracer labelling to their application.

  17. Bioanalytical applications of isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

  18. Not all GMOs are crop plants: non-plant GMO applications in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, K E; Dawson, W O; Handler, A M; Schetelig, M F; St Leger, R J

    2014-12-01

    Since tools of modern biotechnology have become available, the most commonly applied and often discussed genetically modified organisms are genetically modified crop plants, although genetic engineering is also being used successfully in organisms other than plants, including bacteria, fungi, insects, and viruses. Many of these organisms, as with crop plants, are being engineered for applications in agriculture, to control plant insect pests or diseases. This paper reviews the genetically modified non-plant organisms that have been the subject of permit approvals for environmental release by the United States Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service since the US began regulating genetically modified organisms. This is an indication of the breadth and progress of research in the area of non-plant genetically modified organisms. This review includes three examples of promising research on non-plant genetically modified organisms for application in agriculture: (1) insects for insect pest control using improved vector systems; (2) fungal pathogens of insects to control insect pests; and (3) virus for use as transient-expression vectors for disease control in plants.

  19. Review of creep resistant alloys for power plant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper describes the most popular alloys for power plant application as well as the most promising alloys for future application in that technology. The components in power plants operate in severe conditions (high temperatures and pressures and they are expected reliable service for 30 years and more. The correct choice of the material is, thus, of a very importance. The paper describes the development as well as advantages and disadvantages of convenient ferritic/martensitic steels, ferritic/bainitic steels, austenitic stainless steels and the new alloys for the application at temperatures of 650°C and more.

  20. Applications of predictive maintenance techniques in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic methods represent a new methodology for system maintenance which offers significant time and cost savings. The paper offers a short overview of the available prognosis techniques and proposes the implementation of one model-based and one data-driven method. As a representative of the model-based methods the autoregressive moving average (ARMA modeling approach is chosen. The estimated model parameters are further used for implementing the early change detector which is realized as a Neyman-Pearson hypothesis test. On the other hand, hidden Markov model (HMM based prognosis illustrates the use of data-driven techniques. Using the cross-correlation input-output functions, HMM prognosis algorithm is proposed, as a suitable way of timely detection. Both techniques were implemented to detect performance changes of the water level sensor in a steam separator system in thermal power plants.

  1. A Comparative Study of Ranging Techniques in Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Bo; Mao, Nanping; Tao, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, main ranging techniques in deep space applications are elaborated and analyzed. Their ranging accuracy, acquisition time and complexity are compared. It is shown that the code-tone ranging method has obvious advantage over others in deep space tracking. Start your abstract here...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.403-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.403-50 Section 9904.403-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-50 Techniques for application. (a)(1) Separate... ascertain. In these latter cases the basis for allocation shall be a measurement of the output of...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.418-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.418-50 Section 9904.418-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418-50 Techniques for application. (a) Determination of direct cost and indirect cost. (1) The business unit's written policy classifying costs as direct...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.411-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 9904.411-50 Section 9904.411-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.411-50 Techniques for application. (a) Material cost...) The method of computation used for any inventory costing method selected pursuant to the provisions...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.406-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) When a transitional cost accounting period is required under the provisions of 9904.406-40(a)(3), the.... 9904.406-50 Section 9904.406-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.412-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pursuant to the provisions of this Standard. The accounting treatment to be afforded to such gains and.... 9904.412-50 Section 9904.412-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412-50 Techniques for application. (a) Components...

  7. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  10. [Resources and application of She's nationality wild medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei

    2014-08-01

    To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources.

  11. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  12. Poisonous or non-poisonous plants? DNA-based tools and applications for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Galimberti, Andrea; Cornara, Laura; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product. A rapid diagnosis of intoxication cases is necessary in order to provide the most reliable treatment. However, a precise taxonomic characterization of the ingested species is often challenging. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging DNA-based tools and technologies to address the issue of poisonous plant identification. Specifically, classic DNA barcoding and its applications using High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) ensure high universality and rapid response respectively, whereas High Throughput Sequencing techniques (HTS) provide a complete characterization of plant residues in complex matrices. The pros and cons of each approach have been evaluated with the final aim of proposing a general user's guide to molecular identification directed to different stakeholder categories interested in the diagnostics of poisonous plants.

  13. Planting technique of Camellia oleifera%油茶丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慎; 李恂; 何赞波; 周修权

    2014-01-01

    在传统栽培方法的基础上,通过对北湖区碧香源油茶基地油茶新造林丰产栽培技术7年的深入研究,总结出新的栽培方法:油茶苗根部保湿栽培法;油茶高位定干自然整枝法;油茶多品种混栽法;油茶保花促果增产法等。以上方法可使油茶新造林苗木保存率95%以上;7年生(2007年种)油茶新造林产茶果654 kg/667 m2,实际产油32.44 kg/667 m2,在油茶盛产期到来前,茶果产量每年成倍增加,同时有效克服了油茶大小年的差异,应用效果显著。%Based on the traditional cultivation methods in Beihu District Bixiang source Oil-tea camellia base,through in-depth research on Oil-tea camellia plantation yield new cultivation techniques for seven years,summed up the new culti-vation method:Oil-tea camellia root retains water cultivation method;high stem natural pruning method;mixed planting varieties method;promote Oil-tea camellia fruit yield method etc. By the above method over the base of the application, the new Oil-tea camellia planting seedlings preservation rate of 95%;7-year-old (2007 planting)Oil-tea camellia planta-tion production of new 654 kg of Camellia fruit per acre,the actual production of 32.44 kg of camellia-oil per acre,Be-fore the advent of Oil-tea camellia season,Camellia-oil and fruit yield increased exponentially every year,while at the same time,effectively overcomes the differences of annual output size of Camellia oleifera,the practical application effect is very notable.

  14. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, M J

    2000-01-01

    application is required at each power step thus removing the need for accurate reproducibility of absorbed microwave power and also reducing experimental time. This method as well as a previous method developed for use with ceramic samples are described and discussed. The microwave palaeointensity technique has been used successfully in three palaeomagnetic studies (that include rock magnetic and directional analyses). These are a study of historic lava from Mt. Etna, Sicily, a detailed through the flow study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii and a study of Tertiary Australian lava. Palaeointensity results are compared to observatory records and / or results of previous studies using conventional techniques. The research undertaken, described in this thesis, demonstrates that the microwave palaeointensity technique is a viable technique for use with lava. This enables greater confidence that any palaeointensity results obtained are not affected by sample alteration during experimentation. The suitability ...

  15. Crisis management with applicability on fire fighting plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F. V.; Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a case study for a crisis management analysis which address to fire fighting plants. The procedures include the steps of FTA (Failure tree analysis). The purpose of the present paper is to describe this crisis management plan with tools of FTA. The crisis management procedures have applicability on anticipated and emergency situations and help to describe and planning a worst-case scenario plan. For this issue must calculate the probabilities in different situations for fire fighting plants. In the conclusions of paper is analised the block diagram with components of fire fighting plant and are presented the solutions for each possible risk situations.

  16. Plant antifungal proteins and their applications in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Yuan, Su-Su; Jiang, Luan-Luan; Ye, Xiu-Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wu, Zu-Jian

    2015-06-01

    Fungi are far more complex organisms than viruses or bacteria and can develop numerous diseases in plants that cause loss of a substantial portion of the crop every year. Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves against these fungi which include the production of low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites and proteins and peptides with antifungal activity. In this review, families of plant antifungal proteins (AFPs) including defensins, lectins, and several others will be summarized. Moreover, the application of AFPs in agriculture will also be analyzed.

  17. Monitoring of growth dynamics of plants under the influence of cadmium using a highly sensitive interferometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana Muthumali De Silva, Kokge Thilini; Rajagopalan, Uma Maheswari; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    Using statistical interferometry technique (SIT), a highly sensitive interferometry technique developed in our laboratory, we reported about the existence of nanometric intrinsic fluctuations (NIF) in a variety of plants. SIT permits noncontact, noninvasive, and fast detection of plant growth fluctuations in subnanometer scale. We propose the application of NIF to investigate the effect of heavy metal, cadmium, on growth dynamics of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum). NIFs of leaves were observed for 3 days under four different concentrations of CdCl2: 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM. Results showed significant reduction of NIFs within 4 h for all Cd concentrations, and there was a further decrease with the exposure time of Cd under 0.1 and 0.01 mM. In addition, under 0.001 mM, a significant recovery could be observed after a rapid reduction in the first 4 h. As a comparison, measured antioxidative enzymes increased with increasing Cd concentration. However, no significant increase could be seen within the initial 4 h under a smaller concentration of 0.001 mM as seen for NIFs. The results imply that NIF can be used as an indicator for heavy metal stress on plants as well as it can be more sensitive to detect the influence of smaller Cd amounts on plants at an early stage.

  18. Plants as Factories for Human Pharmaceuticals: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant molecular farming (PMF, defined as the practice of using plants to produce human therapeutic proteins, has received worldwide interest. PMF has grown and advanced considerably over the past two decades. A number of therapeutic proteins have been produced in plants, some of which have been through pre-clinical or clinical trials and are close to commercialization. Plants have the potential to mass-produce pharmaceutical products with less cost than traditional methods. Tobacco-derived antibodies have been tested and used to combat the Ebola outbreak in Africa. Genetically engineered immunoadhesin (DPP4-Fc produced in green plants has been shown to be able to bind to MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, preventing the virus from infecting lung cells. Biosafety concerns (such as pollen contamination and immunogenicity of plant-specific glycans and costly downstream extraction and purification requirements, however, have hampered PMF production from moving from the laboratory to industrial application. In this review, the challenges and opportunities of PMF are discussed. Topics addressed include; transformation and expression systems, plant bioreactors, safety concerns, and various opportunities to produce topical applications and health supplements.

  19. Mapping element distributions in plant tissues using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D; Kopittke, Peter M; Lombi, Enzo

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is allowing substantial advances in several disciplines of plant science by allowing the in situ examination of elements within plant tissues. Continual improvements in detector speed, sensitivity, and resolution are increasing the diversity of questions that can be addressed using this technique, including the in situ analysis of elements (such as nutrients or toxicants) within fresh and hydrated tissues. Here, we describe the general principles for designing and conducting experiments for the examination of elemental distributions in plant material using micro-XRF.

  20. RF circuit design techniques for MF-UHF applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eroglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, semiconductor processing, and RFID are some of the critical applications within the medium frequency (MF) to ultrahigh frequency (UHF) range that require RF designers to have a solid understanding of analytical and experimental RF techniques. Designers need to be able to design components and devices cost effectively, and integrate them with high efficiency, minimal loss, and required power. Computer-aided design (CAD) tools also play an important part in helping to reduce costs and improve accuracy through optimization. RF Circuit Design Techniques for MF-UHF Appli

  1. Image and video compression fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Madhuri A; Dandawate, Yogesh H; Joshi, Kalyani R; Metkar, Shilpa P

    2014-01-01

    Image and video signals require large transmission bandwidth and storage, leading to high costs. The data must be compressed without a loss or with a small loss of quality. Thus, efficient image and video compression algorithms play a significant role in the storage and transmission of data.Image and Video Compression: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications explains the major techniques for image and video compression and demonstrates their practical implementation using MATLAB® programs. Designed for students, researchers, and practicing engineers, the book presents both basic principles

  2. Bladesmithing with Murray Carter modern application of traditional techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Bladesmithing with Murray Carter provides the reader with an in-depth look into traditional Japanese Cutlery forging techniques and their modern applications. A non-stop flow of inquiries to Murray has prompted him to reveal the secret techniques learned during 18 years in Japan, where he lived and worked as a village bladesmith. He now shares this wealth of information for the benefit of the curious reader and Japanese knife enthusiast alike. Owners of nearly 15,000 of Murray's knives will be delighted to see a comprehensive book written by the knives' creator. Features: 250+ dazzling, f

  3. Review of optimization techniques of polygeneration systems for building applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y, Rong A.; Y, Su; R, Lahdelma

    2016-08-01

    Polygeneration means simultaneous production of two or more energy products in a single integrated process. Polygeneration is an energy-efficient technology and plays an important role in transition into future low-carbon energy systems. It can find wide applications in utilities, different types of industrial sectors and building sectors. This paper mainly focus on polygeneration applications in building sectors. The scales of polygeneration systems in building sectors range from the micro-level for a single home building to the large- level for residential districts. Also the development of polygeneration microgrid is related to building applications. The paper aims at giving a comprehensive review for optimization techniques for designing, synthesizing and operating different types of polygeneration systems for building applications.

  4. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  5. Techniques and applications of endoscopic spine surgery. Part I:overview of current techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Xuan Liu; MD; PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is a serious health and social-economic problem. Endoscopic spine surgery as a treatment option for spinal pain has gained tremendous attention and growth in the past 2 decades, and a variety of endoscopic techniques have been invented to treat a wide range of spinal conditions. Purposes The purposes of this 2-part review article are to 1 ) overview the published techniques of endoscopic spine surgery, 2 ) summarize the applications of these techniques in treating various spinal conditions, and 3 ) evaluate the clinical evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these endoscopic techniques in treating some of the most common spinal conditions. The first part of the review article provides an overview of currently most commonly used techniques. Methods We searched the PubMed database for publications concerning endoscopic spine surgery and reviewed the relevant articles published in the English language. Results Discectomy and foraminotomy are the most common types of spine surgery that can currently be done endoscopically. Endoscopic techniques have been used to treat a wide range of spinal disorders located in the lumbar, cervical, as well as the thoracic regions of the spine.

  6. Commercial Application of Technique for Removing Sulfates from Reforming Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiChangqing

    2002-01-01

    In the course of reduction of reforming catalyst by not hydrogen a certain amount of chlorine containing compounds is added to the recycle hydrogen to facilitate the reduction of sulfates.The outcome of commercial application of this technique has revealed that the procedure of "regeneration by chlorination→reduction→sulfate removal→sulfiding and oil feed-in"aimed at sulate removal is very simple and can recover the reaction activity of reforming catalyst after having been poisoned by sulfates.This procedure can be disseminated for application in refineries.

  7. [Application of molecular marker techniques in invasion ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dong; Zhang, You-jun; Wan, Fang-hao

    2007-06-01

    Alien invasive species can cause huge economic loss in agricultural and forestry production, and threaten biodiversity and human health. The research of invasion ecology is of significance in understanding the invasion mechanisms of alien invasive species and in developing corresponding sustainable control methods. Molecular marker is regarded as a useful tool in approaching some essential issues in the research of invasion ecology. In this paper, the applications of molecular marker techniques in the studies of identification, geographic distribution, invasive source, spread pattern, genetic variation, hybridization, and gene introgression of alien invasive species were reviewed, and the application prospects were discussed.

  8. Cloud computing and digital media fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kuan-Ching; Shih, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing and Digital Media: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications presents the fundamentals of cloud and media infrastructure, novel technologies that integrate digital media with cloud computing, and real-world applications that exemplify the potential of cloud computing for next-generation digital media. It brings together technologies for media/data communication, elastic media/data storage, security, authentication, cross-network media/data fusion, interdevice media interaction/reaction, data centers, PaaS, SaaS, and more.The book covers resource optimization for multimedia clo

  9. REVIEW: The Early Application of Electrophoresis of Protein in Higher Plant Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are firstly, to study the advantages of electrophoretic techniques. Secondly, to look at the usefulness of a few mediums support of electrophoretic proteins especially the acrylamide gel. Thirdly, to examine the number of plant organs which could be used as the sources of plant proteins, and how these plants protein should be applied in the medium support that has been selected. Besides, the staining and detection procedures would be described, while the application of electrophoretic approach in higher plant taxonomy will also be evaluated. In this study we recorded that a number of taxonomic problems usually caused by morphological complexity within species can be solved using this experimental approach of electrophoresis. This method has been considered very useful in helping taxonomists making decisions.

  10. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  11. Comparison of metaheuristic techniques to determine optimal placement of biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reche-Lopez, P.; Ruiz-Reyes, N.; Garcia Galan, S. [Telecommunication Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Jaen Polytechnic School, C/ Alfonso X el Sabio 28, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    This paper deals with the application and comparison of several metaheuristic techniques to optimize the placement and supply area of biomass-fueled power plants. Both, trajectory and population-based methods are applied for our goal. In particular, two well-known trajectory method, such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Tabu Search (TS), and two commonly used population-based methods, such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are hereby considered. In addition, a new binary PSO algorithm has been proposed, which incorporates an inertia weight factor, like the classical continuous approach. The fitness function for the metaheuristics is the profitability index, defined as the ratio between the net present value and the initial investment. In this work, forest residues are considered as biomass source, and the problem constraints are: the generation system must be located inside the supply area, and its maximum electric power is 5 MW. The comparative results obtained by all considered metaheuristics are discussed. Random walk has also been assessed for the problem we deal with. (author)

  12. Applications of lattice QCD techniques for condensed matter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    We review the application of lattice QCD techniques, most notably the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) simulations, to first-principle study of tight-binding models of crystalline solids with strong inter-electron interactions. After providing a basic introduction into the HMC algorithm as applied to condensed matter systems, we review HMC simulations of graphene, which in the recent years have helped to understand the semimetal behavior of clean suspended graphene at the quantitative level. We also briefly summarize other novel physical results obtained in these simulations. Then we comment on the applicability of hybrid Monte Carlo to topological insulators and Dirac and Weyl semimetals and highlight some of the relevant open physical problems. Finally, we also touch upon the lattice strong-coupling expansion technique as applied to condensed matter systems.

  13. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  14. APPLICATION OF NOVEL NEUTRON CORRELATION TECHNIQUES TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, K

    2006-06-09

    Confirmation of the fissile mass of a system containing plutonium can be done using neutron multiplicity techniques. This can be accomplished with a detector system that is smaller and less costly than a standard neutron multiplicity counter (NMC). Also the fissile mass of a uranium containing system can be confirmed by passive means. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has demonstrated that simple slab neutron detectors and a novel approach to data acquisition and analysis can be used to make an accurate measurement of the mass of fissile materials. Purely passive measurement of kilogram quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU) have also been shown to be feasible. In this paper we discuss calculational tools for assessing the application of these techniques to fissile material transparency regimes. The tools required to adequately model the correlations and their application will be discussed.

  15. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting) in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during 2002 and 2003. Among the planting techniques, the best performance for the yield formation and economic evaluation was noted for transplanting on flat during both years. Chinese parachute planting technology also showed very promising results in most of the parameters. Direct seeding on ridges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting during both cropping seasons. The findings concluded the feasibility of parachute planting technology along with traditional rice transplanting on flat over all other planting techniques being practiced in the area.

  16. Studies on Plant Population and Stand Establishment Techniques for Increasing Productivity of Rice in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Safdar BALOCH

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice production in Pakistan is constraint by many factors pertaining to prevalent planting techniques. A research on the feasibility of new planting techniques (direct seeding on flat, transplanting on flat, direct seeding on ridges, transplanting on ridges and parachute planting in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice was undertaken at Dera Ismail Khan region of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province during 2002 and 2003. Among the planting techniques, the best performance for the yield formation and economic evaluation was noted for transplanting on flat during both years. Chinese parachute planting technology also showed very promising results in most of the parameters. Direct seeding on ridges could not excel transplanting on flat and parachute planting during both cropping seasons. The findings concluded the feasibility of parachute planting technology along with traditional rice transplanting on flat over all other planting techniques being practiced in the area.

  17. Performance of fertigation technique for phosphorus application in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low native soil phosphorus availability coupled with poor utilization of added phosphorus is one of the major constraints limiting the productivity of the crops. With a view of addressing this issue, field studies were conducted to compare the relative efficacy of broadcast and fertigation techniques for phosphorus application during 2005-2006 using cotton as a test crop. Two methods of phosphorus application i.e. broadcast and fertigation were evaluated using five levels of P2O5 (0, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg P2O5 ha -1. Fertigation showed an edge over broadcast method at all levels of phosphorus application. The highest seed cotton yield was recorded with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Fertilizer phosphorus applied at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 through fertigation produced 3.4 tons ha-1 of seed cotton yield, which was statistically identical to 3.3 tons recorded with 75 kg ha-1 of broadcast phosphorus. Agronomic performance of phosphorus was influenced considerably by either method of fertilizer application. The seed cotton yield per kg of fertigation phosphorus was 48% higher than the corresponding broadcast application. The results of these studies showed that fertigation was the most efficient method of phosphorus application compared with the conventional broadcast application of fertilizers.

  18. [The application of DNA molecular markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Tian-Rui

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the advance in DNA molecular markers techniques in recent years was reviewed. The application of DNA markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants was explicated, of which included identification of germ-plasm resource, determination of the habitats unite which should be protected in situ, sampling strategies of ex-situ conservation, evaluation of the conservation effects of the rare and endangered medicinal plants, as well as elucidation of their endangered mechanism etc. The information could help drawing up conservation strategies and conservation measures for references.

  19. Metabolomics in plants and humans: applications in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Zanor, Maria I; Busi, María V

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  20. Analysing patent landscapes in plant biotechnology and new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Claudia; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio; Thangaraj, Harry

    2013-02-01

    This article aims to inform the reader of the importance of searching patent landscapes in plant biotechnology and the use of basic tools to perform a patent search. The recommendations for a patent search strategy are illustrated with the specific example of zinc finger nuclease technology for genetic engineering in plants. Within this scope, we provide a general introduction to searching using two online and free-access patent databases esp@cenet and PatentScope. The essential features of the two databases, and their functionality is described, together with short descriptions to enable the reader to understand patents, searching, their content, patent families, and their territorial scope. We mostly stress the value of patent searching for mining scientific, rather than legal information. Search methods through the use of keywords and patent codes are elucidated together with suggestions about how to search with or combine codes with keywords and we also comment on limitations of each method. We stress the importance of patent literature to complement more mainstream scientific literature, and the relative complexities and difficulties in searching patents compared to the latter. A parallel online resource where we describe detailed search exercises is available through reference for those intending further exploration. In essence this is aimed at a novice patent searcher who may want to examine accessory patent literature to complement knowledge gained from mainstream journal resources.

  1. Internet tomography an introduction to concepts, techniques, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moloisane, Abia; O’Droma, Máirtín

    2013-01-01

    Internet tomography, introduced from basic principles through to techniques, tools and applications, is the subject of this book. The design of Internet Tomography Measurement Systems (ITMS) aimed at mapping the Internet performance profile spatially and temporally over paths between probing stations is a particular focus.The Internet Tomography Measurement System design criteria addressed include:Minimally-invasive, independent and autonomous, active or passive measurement;Flexibility and scalability;Capability of targeting local, regional and global Internet paths and underlying IP networks;

  2. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  3. Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcaud, Thierry; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Stokes, Alexia; Lambers, Hans; Körner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Modelling plant growth allows us to test hypotheses and carry out virtual experiments concerning plant growth processes that could otherwise take years in field conditions. The visualization of growth simulations allows us to see directly and vividly the outcome of a given model and provides us with an instructive tool useful for agronomists and foresters, as well as for teaching. Functional–structural (FS) plant growth models are nowadays particularly important for integrating biological processes with environmental conditions in 3-D virtual plants, and provide the basis for more advanced research in plant sciences. Scope In this viewpoint paper, we ask the following questions. Are we modelling the correct processes that drive plant growth, and is growth driven mostly by sink or source activity? In current models, is the importance of soil resources (nutrients, water, temperature and their interaction with meristematic activity) considered adequately? Do classic models account for architectural adjustment as well as integrating the fundamental principles of development? Whilst answering these questions with the available data in the literature, we put forward the opinion that plant architecture and sink activity must be pushed to the centre of plant growth models. In natural conditions, sinks will more often drive growth than source activity, because sink activity is often controlled by finite soil resources or developmental constraints. PMA06 This viewpoint paper also serves as an introduction to this Special Issue devoted to plant growth modelling, which includes new research covering areas stretching from cell growth to biomechanics. All papers were presented at the Second International Symposium on Plant Growth Modeling, Simulation, Visualization and Applications (PMA06), held in Beijing, China, from 13–17 November, 2006. Although a large number of papers are devoted to FS models of agricultural and forest crop species, physiological and genetic

  4. Hyperspherical harmonics expansion techniques application to problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a generalized theoretical technique for solving the fewbody Schrödinger equation. Straight forward approaches to solve it in terms of position vectors of constituent particles and using standard mathematical techniques become too cumbersome and inconvenient when the system contains more than two particles. The introduction of Jacobi vectors, hyperspherical variables and hyperspherical harmonics as an expansion basis is an elegant way to tackle systematically the problem of an increasing number of interacting particles. Analytic expressions for hyperspherical harmonics, appropriate symmetrisation of the wave function under exchange of identical particles and calculation of matrix elements of the interaction have been presented. Applications of this technique to various problems of physics have been discussed. In spite of straight forward generalization of the mathematical tools for increasing number of particles, the method becomes computationally difficult for more than a few particles. Hen...

  5. On the Application of TLS Techniques to AC Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cirrincione

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a new neuron, the TLS EXIN neuron, to AC induction motor drives. In particular, it addresses two important subjects of AC induction motor drives: the on-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the machine and the speed estimation in sensorless drives. On this basis, this work summarizes the parameter estimation and sensorless techniques already developed by the authors over these last few years, all based on the TLS EXIN. With regard to sensorless, two techniques are proposed: one based on the MRAS and the other based on the full-order Luenberger observer. The work show some of the most significant results obtained by the authors in these fields and stresses the important potentiality of this new neural technique in AC induction machine drives.

  6. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  7. Application of the electrosorption technique to remove Metribuzin pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitous, O; Cheikh, A; Lounici, H; Grib, H; Pauss, A; Mameri, N

    2009-01-30

    The present work deals with the removal of Metribuzin from aqueous solutions in a batch and continuous mode using electrosorption technique. This technique is based on the combination of two processes: the adsorption of Metribuzin into activated granular carbon (GAC) column and the application of the electrochemical potential. The effects of various experimental parameters (electrochemical potential, volumetric flow rate and initial Metribuzin concentration) on the removal efficiency were investigated. The pesticide sorption capacity at the breakthrough point of the GAC column reached 22 mg(pesticide)g(GAC)(-1). It was increased by more than 100% when the desired electrical potential (-50 mV/SCE) was applied in comparison with the conventional GAC column in similar experimental conditions without electrical potential. Evenmore, the electrosorption technique reduced considerably the drastic decrease encountered when passing from batch mode to continuous column mode.

  8. Multimodal Molecular Mass Spectrometry Imaging : Development and Applications in Plant Biology and Forensic Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of new analytical platforms for molecular mass spectrometry imaging and their applications in plant biology and forensic toxicology. So far, in drug metabolism or forensic toxicology, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is the technique of choice for analyzing drugs and metabolites in complex biological samples. LC-MS remains however challenging, because the development of appropriate sample preparation requires complex and time-consu...

  9. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine increases chilling tolerance in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eung-Jun; Jeknic, Zoran; Chen, Tony H H

    2006-06-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H(2)O(2), catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in control plants. One day after exposure to chilling stress, the treated plants had significantly greater catalase activity and CAT1 expression, although their H(2)O(2) levels remained unchanged. During the following 2 d of this chilling treatment, GB-treated plants maintained lower H(2)O(2) levels but had higher catalase activity than the controls. These results suggest that, in addition to protecting macromolecules and membranes directly, GB-enhanced chilling tolerance may involve the induction of H(2)O(2)-mediated antioxidant mechanisms, e.g. enhanced catalase expression and catalase activity.

  10. Application of altitude control techniques for low altitude earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, K. G.; Herder, R. W.; Glass, A. B.; Cooley, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The applications sensors of many low altitude earth satellites designed for recording surface or atmospheric data require near zero orbital eccentricities for maximum usefulness. Coverage patterns and altitude profiles require specified values of orbit semimajor axis. Certain initial combinations of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee can produce a so called 'frozen orbit' and minimum altitude variation which enhances sensor coverage. This paper develops information on frozen orbits and minimum altitude variation for all inclinations, generalizing previous results. In the altitude regions where most of these satellites function (between 200 and 1000 kilometers) strong atmospheric drag effects influence the evolution of the initial orbits. Active orbital maneuver control techniques to correct evolution of orbit parameters while minimizing the frequency of maneuvers are presented. The paper presents the application of theoretical techniques for control of near frozen orbits and expands upon the methods useful for simultaneously targeting several inplane orbital parameters. The applications of these techniques are illustrated by performance results from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-3 and -5) missions and in preflight maneuver analysis and plans for the Seasat Oceanographic Satellite.

  11. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  12. Neural network decoupling technique and its application to a powered wheelchair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nghia Nguyen; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a neural network decoupling technique for an uncertain multivariable system. Based on a linear diagonalization technique, a reference model is designed using nominal parameters to provide training signals for a neural network decoupler. A neural network model is designed to learn the dynamics of the uncertain multivariable system in order to avoid required calculations of the plant Jacobian. To avoid overfitting problem, both neural networks are trained by the Lavenberg-Marquardt with Bayesian regulation algorithm that uses a real-time recurrent learning algorithm to obtain gradient information. Three experimental results in the powered wheelchair control application confirm that the proposed technique effectively minimises the coupling effects caused by input-output interactions even under the condition of system uncertainties.

  13. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  14. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    This project focuses on developing and applying a tissue culture system with electrochemical and optical detection techniques for tissue culture of barley aleurone layer to increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The major advantage of electro...

  15. Application of Functional Analysis on a SCADA System of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKHOUA, M. N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present firstly the functionality of a supervisory system for complex processes, and secondly to present the concepts of SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition systems. A functional analysis technique SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique has been applied on an example of a SCADA system of a thermal power plant. This technique allows a functional description of a SCADA system. The paper briefly discusses the functions of a SCADA system and some advantages of the application of functional analysis for the design of a human centered supervisory system. Then the basic principles of the SADT technique applied on the SCADA system are presented. Finally, the different results obtained from the SADT technique are discussed.

  16. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  17. Validation of system codes for plant application on selected experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Marco K.; Risken, Tobias; Agethen, Kathrin; Bratfisch, Christoph [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2016-05-15

    For decades, the Reactor Simulation and Safety Group at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB) contributes to nuclear safety by computer code validation and model development for nuclear safety analysis. Severe accident analysis codes are relevant tools for the understanding and the development of accident management measures. The accidents in the plants Three Mile Island (USA) in 1979 and Fukushima Daiichi (Japan) in 2011 influenced these research activities significantly due to the observed phenomena, such as molten core concrete interaction and hydrogen combustion. This paper gives a brief outline of recent research activities at RUB in the named fields, contributing to code preparation for plant applications. Simulations of the molten core concrete interaction tests CCI-2 and CCI-3 with ASTEC and the hydrogen combustion test Ix9 with COCOSYS are presented exemplarily. Additionally, the application on plants is demonstrated on chosen results of preliminary Fukushima calculations.

  18. Exploring Genetic Diversity in Plants Using High-Throughput Sequencing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    Food security has emerged as an urgent concern because of the rising world population. To meet the food demands of the near future, it is required to improve the productivity of various crops, not just of staple food crops. The genetic diversity among plant populations in a given species allows the plants to adapt to various environmental conditions. Such diversity could therefore yield valuable traits that could overcome the food-security challenges. To explore genetic diversity comprehensively and to rapidly identify useful genes and/or allele, advanced high-throughput sequencing techniques, also called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, have been developed. These provide practical solutions to the challenges in crop genomics. Here, we review various sources of genetic diversity in plants, newly developed genetic diversity-mining tools synergized with NGS techniques, and related genetic approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis and genome-wide association study.

  19. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  20. Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is characterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants.Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid, especially with modified genes, into medicinal plant cells with A. rhizogenes vector systems.The cultures have turned out to be a valuable tool with which to study the biochemical properties and the gene expression profile of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the cultures can be used to elucidate the intermediates and key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The present article discusses various applications of hairy root cultures in plant genetic engineering and potential problems associated with them.

  1. Application of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Medicinal Plant Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG You-ping; AI Jun-mei; XIAO Pei-gen

    2010-01-01

    One important purpose to investigate medicinal plants is to understand genes and enzymes that govern the biological metabolic process to produce bioactive compounds.Genome wide high throughput technologies such as genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics and metabolomics can help reach that goal.Such technologies can produce a vast amount of data which desperately need bioinformatics and systems biology to process,manage,distribute and understand these data.By dealing with the"omics"data,bioinformatics and systems biology can also help improve the quality of traditional medicinal materials,develop new approaches for the classification and authentication of medicinal plants,identify new active compounds,and cultivate medicinal plant species that tolerate harsh environmental conditions.In this review,the application of bioinformatics and systems biology in medicinal plants is briefly introduced.

  2. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  4. Elements of slow-neutron scattering basics, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.

  5. Potential applications of plant probiotic microorganisms in agriculture and forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture producers, pushed by the need for high productivity, have stimulated the intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers. Unfortunately, negative effects on water, soil, and human and animal health have appeared as a consequence of this indiscriminate practice. Plant probiotic microorganisms (PPM, also known as bioprotectants, biocontrollers, biofertilizers, or biostimulants, are beneficial microorganisms that offer a promising alternative and reduce health and environmental problems. These microorganisms are involved in either a symbiotic or free-living association with plants and act in different ways, sometimes with specific functions, to achieve satisfactory plant development. This review deals with PPM presentation and their description and function in different applications. PPM includes the plant growth promoters (PGP group, which contain bacteria and fungi that stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Soil microflora mediate many biogeochemical processes. The use of plant probiotics as an alternative soil fertilization source has been the focus of several studies; their use in agriculture improves nutrient supply and conserves field management and causes no adverse effects. The species related to organic matter and pollutant biodegradation in soil and abiotic stress tolerance are then presented. As an important way to understand not only the ecological role of PPM and their interaction with plants but also the biotechnological application of these cultures to crop management, two main approaches are elucidated: the culture-dependent approach where the microorganisms contained in the plant material are isolated by culturing and are identified by a combination of phenotypic and molecular methods; and the culture-independent approach where microorganisms are detected without cultivating them, based on extraction and analyses of DNA. These methods combine to give a thorough knowledge of the microbiology of the studied

  6. Estimation of essential and trace elements in some medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, K. Nomita [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India)], E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.com; Sarma, H. Nandakumar [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795 003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques are employed for the determination of essential and trace elements in some commonly used medicinal plants of north east India. Light elements such as Na, Mg, Al and P are determined by PIGE while medium Z elements such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr are determined by PIXE. Analysis is performed on pellets (thick targets) prepared using powders of the specimens which, in turn, are obtained following a series of processing steps. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants, with the contents of Mn and Zn being notably large in certain specimens. Medicinal properties possessed by these plants have been correlated with their elemental distribution.

  7. Damage and deterioration mechanism and curing technique of concrete structure in main coal cleaning plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Heng-lin; ZHAO Cheng-ming; SONG Lei; MA Ying; XU Chun-hua

    2009-01-01

    Concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants have been rebuilt and reinforced in the coal mines of the Shanghai Da-tun Energy Sources Co. Ltd., the first colliery of the Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd. and the Sanhejian mine of the Xuzhou Mining Group Co. Ltd. In these projects, the operating environment and reliability of concrete structures in the main plants of the three companies were investigated and the safety of the structures inspected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made on the spe-cial natural, technological and mechanical environments around the structures. On the basis of these analyses, we discuss the long-term, combined actions of the harsh natural (corrosive gases, liquids and solids) and mechanical environments on concrete structures and further investigated the damage and deteriorating mechanisms and curing techniques of concrete structures in the main coal cleaning plants. Our study can provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the reliability of concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants.

  8. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  9. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF REDUCED ORDER MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.

    2016-10-01

    The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).

  11. REAL TIME PULVERISED COAL FLOW SOFT SENSOR FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS USING EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raja Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverised coal preparation system (Coal mills is the heart of coal-fired power plants. The complex nature of a milling process, together with the complex interactions between coal quality and mill conditions, would lead to immense difficulties for obtaining an effective mathematical model of the milling process. In this paper, vertical spindle coal mills (bowl mill that are widely used in coal-fired power plants, is considered for the model development and its pulverised fuel flow rate is computed using the model. For the steady state coal mill model development, plant measurements such as air-flow rate, differential pressure across mill etc., are considered as inputs/outputs. The mathematical model is derived from analysis of energy, heat and mass balances. An Evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using on-line plant data. Validation results indicate that this model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of steady state coal mill dynamics. This coal mill model is being implemented on-line in a 210 MW thermal power plant and the results obtained are compared with plant data. The model is found accurate and robust that will work better in power plants for system monitoring. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  12. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    to show how each technique is applied and used to obtain specific information and to resolve real problems, which forms the central theme of this review. Although this review focuses on applications of these techniques to study mineralogical and geological samples, we also anticipate that researchers from other research areas such as Material and Environmental Sciences may benefit from this review.

  13. The Determinants of Plant Variety Protection Applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ruifa; Huang Jie; Carl Prày; Huang Jikun

    2007-01-01

    China passed its Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) in 1997 which allowed us to do some initial testing of this proposition. We used a unique dataset on the applications of the new Plant Variety Protection (PVP), morphological characteristics, and institutional sources of all the important varieties of rice in three provinces of China to estimate the determinants of plant variety protection applications in China. The evidence suggests that both the government and private research programs are responding to economic and policy incentives and investing in plant variety protection as economists would expect profit maximizing firms to invest. The discussion of the evolution of the seed industry suggested that the combination of the new seed law in 2000 and the new plant variety protection regulation had changed the structure of the seed industry and provided an important incentive to invest in PVPs both by public research institutes and commercial firms. Finally, there is some preliminary evidence that private firms have smaller incentives to develop new varieties than to purchase the new varieties.

  14. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  15. Research and Application of MEMS technique tat BSFF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiFu-ting; PENGLigang-qiang; ZHANGJu-fang; HANYong; XIANDing-chang

    2001-01-01

    LIGA technique has been developed since 1993 at BSRF,including the fabrication of LIGA mask, deep X-ray Lithography,electroplating,the pouring molding and the applications in some fields.The LIGA mask with gold absorbing structures of 20μm thick ness and 5μm width and Kapton membrane of around 5μm thicness has been successfull fabricated and applied to the deep X-ray lithography with the PMMA structure of 1mm thickness or obove.the beamline form a wiggler is used for the deep X-ray lithography of LIGA statiion and is open to othe institutes researching the deep X-ray lithography.The normal process of LIGA technique with the exception of molding has been established with the PMMA structures of 500μm thickness at BSRF.The largest aspect ratio of PMMA structrues can reach about 50 with the height of 500μm and the lateral siae of 10μm. The nickel and copper structures with the theickness of 0.5mm and 1mm have been made by using the electroplating technique.The SU8 as a resist material of deep etch lithography with UV light is also developed in the fabrication of LIGA mask and some devices at BSRF.Electromagnetic stepping micro motor,haet exchange,accelerator,structures used in the EDM(electro discharge machinging) are being developed for the future applications.

  16. The Application of Six Sigma Method in a Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrut Ecevit Sati

    Full Text Available In the last decade a process improvement technique, known as Six Sigma, is implemented by many pioneers of the industry as an approach used to more productive and increase profits in all business process from production to human resources management, from finance to marketing. The companies would like to keep and improve their position in a daily changing world market while new techniques and concepts are introduced to the global markets every day and this is only possible through continuous improvements and breakthroughs. In this study, it has been presented the six sigma practice of a power plant owned by Enerjisa, a major energy company in Turkey. In order to achieve Six Sigma project targets, quality techniques and statistical techniques (hypothesis testing, design of experiment etc. are used.

  17. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  18. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  19. Introduction of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy as an Advanced Technique for Plant Biopolymers Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R.; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M.; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  20. Microbial interactions in plants: Perspectives and applications of proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Jahangir; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Mandal, Nimai Prasad; Variar, Mukund

    2016-11-21

    The structure and function of proteins involved in plant-microbe interactions is investigated through large-scale proteomics technology in a complex biological sample. Since the whole genome sequences are now available for several plant species and microbes, proteomics study has become easier, accurate and huge amount of data can be generated and analyzed during plant-microbe interactions. Proteomics approaches are highly important and relevant in many studies and showed that only genomics approaches are not sufficient enough as much significant information are lost as the proteins and not the genes coding them are final product that is responsible for the observed phenotype. Novel approaches in proteomics are developing continuously enabling the study of the various aspects in arrangements and configuration of proteins and its functions. Its application is becoming more common and frequently used in plant-microbe interactions with the advancement in new technologies. They are all the more used for the portrayal of cell and extracellular destructiveness and pathogenicity variables delivered by pathogens. This distinguishes the protein level adjustments in host plants when infected with pathogens and advantageous partners. This review provides a brief overview of different proteomics technology which is currently available followed by their exploitation of them to study the plant-microbe interaction.

  1. In vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation of antiviral medicinal plants using a vector-based assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimone, C O; Grunwald, T; Wildner, O; Nchinda, G; Tippler, B; Proksch, P; Uberla, K

    2005-01-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly being projected as suitable alternative sources of antiviral agents. The development of a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic screening technique could contribute to rapid identification of potential bioactive plants and also to the standardization and/or pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiling of the bioactive components. Recombinant viral vectors (lentiviral, retroviral and adenoviral) transferring the firefly luciferase gene were constructed and the inhibition of viral vector infectivity by various concentrations of plant extracts was evaluated in HeLa or Hep2 cells by measuring the changes in luciferase activity. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in parallel on HeLa or Hep2 cells stably expressing luciferase. Amongst the 15 extracts screened, only the methanol (ME) and the ethyl acetate (ET) fractions of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea specifically reduced lentiviral and adenoviral infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. Further, chromatographic fractionation of ET into four fractions (ET1-ET4) revealed only ET4 to be selectively antiviral with an IC50 in the 20 microg ml(-1) range. Preliminary mechanistic studies based on the addition of the extracts at different time points in the viral infection cycle (kinetic studies) revealed that the inhibitory activity was highest if extract and vectors were preincubated prior to infection, suggesting that early steps in the lentiviral or adenoviral replication cycle could be the major target of ET4. Inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 was also observed at a 10-fold lower concentration of the extract. The vector-based assay is a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation technique for antiviral medicinal plants. The technique has successfully demonstrated the presence of antiviral principles in R. farinacea. Potential anti-HIV medicinal plants could rapidly be evaluated with the reported vector-based technique. The lichen, R. farinacea could represent a lead source of antiviral

  2. Innovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Bong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters high-aspect-ratio (up to 100:1 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro- and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so.

  3. Decomposition techniques in mathematical programming engineering and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Conejo, Antonio J; Minguez, Roberto; Garcia-Bertrand, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Optimization plainly dominates the design, planning, operation, and c- trol of engineering systems. This is a book on optimization that considers particular cases of optimization problems, those with a decomposable str- ture that can be advantageously exploited. Those decomposable optimization problems are ubiquitous in engineering and science applications. The book considers problems with both complicating constraints and complicating va- ables, and analyzes linear and nonlinear problems, with and without in- ger variables. The decomposition techniques analyzed include Dantzig-Wolfe, Benders, Lagrangian relaxation, Augmented Lagrangian decomposition, and others. Heuristic techniques are also considered. Additionally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis for characterizing the solution of optimization problems is carried out. This material is particularly novel and of high practical interest. This book is built based on many clarifying, illustrative, and compu- tional examples, which facilitate the learning p...

  4. Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    -forming biopolymers. Physical gels are also used in the paint industry to minimize sedimentation. Delayed and controlled drug release is of importance in the pharmaceutical industry, and one way to obtain this control is to hide active components in physical gels. Two excellent reviews cover many aspects...... of the elastic storage modulus, G’, and loss modulus, G”, as a function of e.g. frequency, temperature, or time. Two other techniques, which can be very useful for studies of gels, are creep and relaxation measurements. These techniques, which allow determinations of the compliance and the relaxation modulus...... importance in many applications. When a gel is deformed with increasing strain or strain amplitudes most gels eventually rupture. The yield stress denotes the maximum stress gels can withstand. Different ways of determining yield stress will be illustrated. Oscillatory measurements only allow determinations...

  5. APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRICS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PSYCHOACTIVE PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna Paulina; Łozak, Anna; Kiljan, Monika; Mętrak, Krystyna; Zjawiony, Jordan Kordian

    2015-01-01

    Drug market changes dynamically causing many analytical challenges for police experts. Among illicit substances there are synthetic designer products but also herbal material. Plant material is usually in fine-cut or powdered form, thus difficult to identify. For such fragmented material classic taxonomical identification methods using anatomical and morphological features of the plant cannot be employed. The aim of the study was to develop an identification method of the powdered material with employment of multidimensional data analysis techniques. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was chosen as a method of data exploration. The study was conducted on four plants controlled in Poland: Salvia divinorum, Mitragyna speciosa, Psychotria viridis and Calea zacatechichi. The compatibility of grouping features of selected species was compared in two variants: chemical and elemental composition. In a first variant, GC-MS chromatograms of extracts were analyzed and in the second, elements composition with the AAS and the ICP-MS techniques. The GC-MS method, based on the qualitative interpretation of results, allows for clear differentiation of samples with regard to their species affiliation. Even the plants belonging to the same family Rubiaceae, P. viridis and M. speciosa formed homogeneous and clearly separated clusters. Additionally, the cluster analysis was performed, as a method confirming sample grouping.

  6. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN). Both techniques are used to model a relationship between the aggregator portfolio state and requested ramp power to the longevity of the delivered flexibility. Using validated individual household models, a smart controlled aggregated virtual power plant...... is simulated. A hierarchical market-based supply-demand matching control mechanism is used to steer the heating devices in the virtual power plant. For both the training and validation set of clusters, a random number of households, between 200 and 2000, is generated with day ahead profile scaled accordingly...

  7. Beaming teaching application: recording techniques for spatial xylophone sound rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...... played at student's location is required at teacher's site. This paper presents a comparison of different recording techniques for a spatial xylophone sound rendering. Directivity pattern of the xylophone was measured and spatial properties of the sound field created by a xylophone as a distributed sound...

  8. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  9. Lab-on-a-chip techniques, circuits, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghallab, Yehya H

    2010-01-01

    Here's a groundbreaking book that introduces and discusses the important aspects of lab-on-a-chip, including the practical techniques, circuits, microsystems, and key applications in the biomedical, biology, and life science fields. Moreover, this volume covers ongoing research in lab-on-a-chip integration and electric field imaging. Presented in a clear and logical manner, the book provides you with the fundamental underpinnings of lab-on-a-chip, presents practical results, and brings you up to date with state-of-the-art research in the field. This unique resource is supported with over 160 i

  10. Digital signal processing techniques and applications in radar image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bu-Chin

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained approach to DSP techniques and applications in radar imagingThe processing of radar images, in general, consists of three major fields: Digital Signal Processing (DSP); antenna and radar operation; and algorithms used to process the radar images. This book brings together material from these different areas to allow readers to gain a thorough understanding of how radar images are processed.The book is divided into three main parts and covers:* DSP principles and signal characteristics in both analog and digital domains, advanced signal sampling, and

  11. Electromagnetic and Thermal Dosimetric Techniques in Humans and its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to radio frequency fields. Radio frequency fields are also used for medical application. This paper reviews electromagnetic and thermal computational dosimetric techniques, which has been developed by the authors. The feature of the thermal dosimetric method is that body core temperature can be computed reasonably unlike conventional method. This scheme is particularly useful for intense localized or whole-body electromagnetic wave exposure. Computational examples are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposal.

  12. Optical and digital microscopic imaging techniques and applications in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  13. Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Several areas of applications of image processing to astronomy were identified and discussed. These areas include: (1) deconvolution for atmospheric seeing compensation; a comparison between maximum entropy and conventional Wiener algorithms; (2) polarization in galaxies from photographic plates; (3) time changes in M87 and methods of displaying these changes; (4) comparing emission line images in planetary nebulae; and (5) log intensity, hue saturation intensity, and principal component color enhancements of M82. Examples are presented of these techniques applied to a variety of objects.

  14. Application of stereo photogrammetric techniques for measuring African Elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J Hall-Martin

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of shoulder height and back length of African elephants were obtained by means of stereo photogrammetric techniques. A pair of Zeiss UMK 10/1318 cameras, mounted on a steel frame on the back of a vehicle, were used to photograph the elephants in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa. Several modifications of normal photogrammetry procedure applicable to the field situation (eg. control points and the computation of results (eg. relative orientation are briefly mentioned. Six elephants were immobilised after being photographed and the measurements obtained from them agreed within a range of 1 cm-10 cm with the photogrammetric measurements.

  15. Study of multilayers by PIXE technique. Application to paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Ivan; Lagarde, Gérard; Midy, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    In this article we propose the application of a new algorithm to determine the concentration profile of colour pigments in painting. This is performed by PIXE technique at different proton energies. The algorithm is based on the singular value decomposition of the matrix obtained by discretization of the integral equation for the concentration profile. To check this method, many paint multilayers of acrylic colours were prepared. First results obtained from different experiments at the AGLAE accelerator in the Palais du Louvre at Paris are presented: the nature and the thickness of each colour layer were determined with a good agreement. The analysis of easel paintings is in progress.

  16. Techniques, Applications and Challenging Issue in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidah Jusoh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Text mining is a very exciting research area as it tries to discover knowledge from unstructured texts. These texts can be found on a desktop, intranets and the internet. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of text mining in the contexts of its techniques, application domains and the most challenging issue. The focus is given on fundamentals methods of text mining which include natural language possessing and information extraction. This paper also gives a short review on domains which have employed text mining. The challenging issue in text mining which is caused by the complexity in a natural language is also addressed in this paper.

  17. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  18. An Acoustic Communication Technique of Nanorobot Swarms for Nanomedicine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscrí, Valeria; Vegni, Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution, we present a communication paradigm among nanodevices, based on acoustic vibrations for medical applications. We consider a swarm of nanorobots able to communicate in a distributed and decentralized fashion, propelled in a biological environment (i.e., the human brain). Each nanorobot is intended to i) recognize a cancer cell, ii) destroy it, and then iii) forward information about the presence of cancer formation to other nanorobots, through acoustic signals. The choice of acoustic waves as communication mean is related to the application context, where it is not advisable either to use indiscriminate chemical substances or electromagnetic waves. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is assessed in terms of achievement of the objective (i.e., to destroy the majority of tumor cells), and the velocity of detection and destruction of cancer cells, through a comparison with other related techniques.

  19. New approaches in intelligent control techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    This volume introduces new approaches in intelligent control area from both the viewpoints of theory and application. It consists of eleven contributions by prominent authors from all over the world and an introductory chapter. This volume is strongly connected to another volume entitled "New Approaches in Intelligent Image Analysis" (Eds. Roumen Kountchev and Kazumi Nakamatsu). The chapters of this volume are self-contained and include summary, conclusion and future works. Some of the chapters introduce specific case studies of various intelligent control systems and others focus on intelligent theory based control techniques with applications. A remarkable specificity of this volume is that three chapters are dealing with intelligent control based on paraconsistent logics.

  20. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  1. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  2. The Basic Framework for Robot Applicability Enhancement of Nuclear Risk Management in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young; Jeong, Kungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [bISSA Technology, Inc., Germantown (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Beyond-design-basis external events such as the one having occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant typically pose considerable challenges to the plant personnel because of the harsh environments caused by the events (e.g., extreme terrains, high radiation, radioactive rubbles, high heat, and explosive environment). Therefore, remote response techniques by use of robotic systems are needed to help the plant personnel cope with the extreme events. In this study the basic framework for enhancing robotic applicability to disaster management was developed using the analytic technique of Master Logic Diagram (MLD) and Goal-Tree Success-Tree (GTST). The users of robots have to devise a sound maintenance program, otherwise their unscheduled downtime may increase beyond limit, consequently defeating the purpose of robot applications. In addition, maintainability could be enhanced by designing for ease of diagnosis, and ease of access and repair. Ways to upgrade maintainability could be devised by evaluating maintainability in the design stage. The basic framework discussed herein shall be used by the KAERI's robotics team as a fundamental framework in enhancing the applicability of disaster robots in the hazardous environment caused by extreme events.

  3. [The application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangchun, Zhou; Yongzhong, Xing

    2016-03-01

    Plant genome can be modified via current biotechnology with high specificity and excellent efficiency. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system are the key engineered nucleases used in the genome editing. Genome editing techniques enable gene targeted mutagenesis, gene knock-out, gene insertion or replacement at the target sites during the endogenous DNA repair process, including non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), triggered by the induction of DNA double-strand break (DSB). Genome editing has been successfully applied in the genome modification of diverse plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum. In this review, we summarize the application of genome editing in identification of plant gene function and crop breeding. Moreover, we also discuss the improving points of genome editing in crop precision genetic improvement for further study.

  4. Application of borehole acoustic logging techniques in engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.M.; McCann, C.

    1977-01-01

    Most site investigations for civil engineering developments use a large number of boreholes to obtain geological information and to collect samples for geotechnical measurements in the laboratory. However, samples taken from boreholes are often highly disturbed and even the most carefully taken sample is subjected to a relief in the overburden pressure as it is removed from the ground. There has, thus, been a growing interest in the use of boreholes for in-situ testing methods in order to optimize the amount of useful information that can be obtained from a borehole study. In this paper, the use of borehole geophysical logging technique in engineering geological applications is reviewed with special emphasis on acoustic methods. The study also includes the associated methods of surface to borehole and borehole to borehole measurements, which have an equally important role to play in the civil engineering field. The results of several case histories are presented and these demonstrate the practical application of borehole geophysical techniques. Of particular interest in the study is an examination of (a) the determination of the dynamic elastic moduli in a rock mass, (b) the variation in lithology with depth and associated changes in the engineering properties and (c) the continuity of strata between boreholes.

  5. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal contaminated and agricultural soils.

  6. Performance Comparisons of MIMO Techniques with Application to WCDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuxiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication techniques have received great attention and gained significant development in recent years. In this paper, we analyze and compare the performances of different MIMO techniques. In particular, we compare the performance of three MIMO methods, namely, BLAST, STBC, and linear precoding/decoding. We provide both an analytical performance analysis in terms of the average receiver and simulation results in terms of the BER. Moreover, the applications of MIMO techniques in WCDMA systems are also considered in this study. Specifically, a subspace tracking algorithm and a quantized feedback scheme are introduced into the system to simplify implementation of the beamforming scheme. It is seen that the BLAST scheme can achieve the best performance in the high data rate transmission scenario; the beamforming scheme has better performance than the STBC strategies in the diversity transmission scenario; and the beamforming scheme can be effectively realized in WCDMA systems employing the subspace tracking and the quantized feedback approach.

  7. Development of optical techniques for chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamadie, F.; Charton, S.; Langlard, M. de; Ouattara, M.; Sentis, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Marcoule (France)

    2016-07-01

    The design of separation processes for nuclear spend fuel treatment, dedicated to either research studies or industrial applications, is currently based on a phenomenological approach, relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics, and complemented by validation tests performed at small-scale. Indeed, most of the steps of the Purex process involve multiphasic flows (dissolution, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, filtration, etc.). Therefore an accurate knowledge of the dispersed phase properties is required in order to assess their coupling with the flow features, to predict the process performance and efficiency and to achieve size reduction or extrapolation. Hence, the measurements of particulate flows properties, and especially the particles (or drops or bubbles) size distribution, concentration (i.e. hold-up) and velocity has become a growing issue. Relevant techniques for measuring these flow properties are multiple, from the high-speed video acquisition coupled to image processing to the laser-induced fluorescence, including the particle imaging velocimetry or interferometric techniques (digital in-line holography, rainbow refractometry, etc.). In this communication, different techniques developed at CEA Marcoule for the characterization of multiphase flows, will be introduced. The strong interaction with computational fluid dynamics, in the scope of a multi-scale approach, will be discussed through typical results of gas-liquid, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid flows possibly encountered in nuclear fuel reprocessing process. (authors)

  8. 77 FR 74202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available..., kill, and, for plant species only, remove and reduce to possess) all threatened and endangered...

  9. Innovative combination of spectroscopic techniques to reveal nanoparticle fate in a crop plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Stein, Ricardo J.; Fayard, Barbara; Pouyet, Emeline; Villanova, Julie; Magnin, Valérie; Pradas del Real, Ana-Elena; Trcera, Nicolas; Legros, Samuel; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of our century. Its development leads to an increasing use of nanoparticles and thus to their dissemination. Their fate in the environment is of great concern and especially their possible transfer in trophic chains might be an issue for food safety. However, so far our knowledge on this topic has been restricted by the lack of appropriate techniques to characterize their behavior in complex matrices. Here, we present in detail the use of cutting-edge beam-based techniques for nanoparticle in situ localization, quantification and speciation in a crop plant species (Lactuca sativa). Lettuce seedlings have been exposed to TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, micro-particle induced X-ray emission coupled to Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy on nuclear microprobe, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The benefits and drawbacks of each technique are discussed, and the types of information that can be drawn, for example on the translocation to edible parts, change of speciation within the plant, detoxification mechanisms, or impact on the plant ionome, are highlighted. Such type of coupled approach would be an asset for nanoparticle risk assessment.

  10. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical

  11. Biotechnological application of functional genomics towards plant-parasitic nematode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiarui; Todd, Timothy C; Lee, Junghoon; Trick, Harold N

    2011-12-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are primary biotic factors limiting the crop production. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation and resistant cultivars, but each has serious limitations. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a major breakthrough in the application of functional genomics for plant-parasitic nematode control. RNAi-induced suppression of numerous genes essential for nematode development, reproduction or parasitism has been demonstrated, highlighting the considerable potential for using this strategy to control damaging pest populations. In an effort to find more suitable and effective gene targets for silencing, researchers are employing functional genomics methodologies, including genome sequencing and transcriptome profiling. Microarrays have been used for studying the interactions between nematodes and plant roots and to measure both plants and nematodes transcripts. Furthermore, laser capture microdissection has been applied for the precise dissection of nematode feeding sites (syncytia) to allow the study of gene expression specifically in syncytia. In the near future, small RNA sequencing techniques will provide more direct information for elucidating small RNA regulatory mechanisms in plants and specific gene silencing using artificial microRNAs should further improve the potential of targeted gene silencing as a strategy for nematode management. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Yu; She, Chao Wen; Hu, Zhong Li; Xiong, Zhi Yong; Liu, Li Hua; Song, Yun Chun

    2004-08-01

    In this study, a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique was developed in plants. The technique combined 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with software analysis including three-dimensional imaging after deconvolution. Clear multiple and adjacent DAPI bands like G-bands were obtained by this technique in the tested species including Hordeum vulgare L., Oryza officinalis, Wall & Watt, Triticum aestivum L., Lilium brownii, Brown, and Vicia faba L. During mitotic metaphase, the numbers of bands for the haploid genomes of these species were about 185, 141, 309, 456 and 194, respectively. Reproducibility analysis demonstrated that banding patterns within a species were stable at the same mitotic stage and they could be used for identifying specific chromosomes and chromosome regions. The band number fluctuated: the earlier the mitotic stage, the greater the number of bands. The technique enables genes to be mapped onto specific band regions of the chromosomes by only one fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) step with no chemical banding treatments. In this study, the 45S and 5S rDNAs of some tested species were located on specific band regions of specific chromosomes and they were all positioned at the interbands with the new technique. Because no chemical banding treatment was used, the banding patterns displayed by the technique should reflect the natural conformational features of chromatin. Thus it could be expected that this technique should be suitable for all eukaryotes and would have widespread utility in chromosomal structure analysis and physical mapping of genes.

  13. Modelling and application of modern control techniques to governor and voltage regulator systems of synchronous machines of small hydroelectric power plants; Modelagem e aplicacao de tecnicas de controle moderno a sistemas reguladores de velocidade e tensao de maquinas sincronas de pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Claudio Homero Ferreira da

    2002-07-01

    In small hydroelectric plants the control system is quite simplified. It is sometimes mounted in a primitive and archaic way although it is functional. Performance of this system determines the final quality of the energy, stability and physical integrity of the apparatus as well as the whole electric system. Based on the present situation of the electric system, it is noticed a tendency in building and modernizing early small hydroelectric plants in order to increase energy supply very fast with low cost and satisfying environmental constraints. The development of mathematical tools and digital computer facilities have made possible the use of advanced automatic control structures that take into account the process stability even in presence of noise measurement and plant/model mismatch. Physical modifications in the plant are proposed in order to provide significant improvement in closed loop behaviour of the turbine speed and terminal voltage control. The decision ability and flexibility of the computer package to be developed are the major aspects that support this research. It will be intended to incorporate this control computer package into programmable logical controller. Experimental data from CEMIG's Martins Hydro Plant (4 x 2750 KVA), located in Uberlandia, Brazil, were used to identify and validate the system model. Pole placement, optimal control and model predictive control techniques were used to controller design. Perfect modeling and plant/model mismatch were considered in both presence and absence of state observers (full order and reduced order) in order to become accessible unmeasured states. Simulation results show developed controllers are promising for the system regulating. The proposed approaches offer a larger control flexibility taking into account plant/model mismatch and stability questions. These results contribute to a quality energy improvement associated to a cost reduction in energy generation process. (author)

  14. Modular Ontology Techniques and their Applications in the Biomedical Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2008-08-05

    In the past several years, various ontologies and terminologies such as the Gene Ontology have been developed to enable interoperability across multiple diverse medical information systems. They provide a standard way of representing terms and concepts thereby supporting easy transmission and interpretation of data for various applications. However, with their growing utilization, not only has the number of available ontologies increased considerably, but they are also becoming larger and more complex to manage. Toward this end, a growing body of work is emerging in the area of modular ontologies where the emphasis is on either extracting and managing "modules" of an ontology relevant to a particular application scenario (ontology decomposition) or developing them independently and integrating into a larger ontology (ontology composition). In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art approaches in modular ontologies focusing on techniques that are based on rigorous logical formalisms as well as well-studied graph theories. We analyze and compare how such approaches can be leveraged in developing tools and applications in the biomedical domain. We conclude by highlighting some of the limitations of the modular ontology formalisms and put forward additional requirements to steer their future development.

  15. Effectiveness of Low-Cost Planting Techniques for Improving Water Availability to Olea europaea Seedlings in Degraded Drylands

    OpenAIRE

    Valdecantos Dema, Alejandro; Fuentes Delgado, David; Smanis, Athanasios; Llovet López, Joan; Morcillo Juliá, Luna; Bautista Aguilar, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, poor soil fertility, and structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. At two experimental semiarid sites, we evaluated a variety of low-cost planting techniques in order to increase water availability to plants. Treatments included various combinations of traditional planting holes; water-harvesting microcatchments; stone or plastic mulches; small waterproof sheets to in...

  16. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  17. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  18. 77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  19. Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-04-01

    Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e

  20. Application of organic waste composts when producing forest planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Evgeny M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most seedlings and saplings of woody plants in the Russian Federation are produced in the open ground in forest nurseries. In order to produce high quality planting material it is necessary to support and preserve soil fertility, which can be obtained by using organic wastes and organic-based fertilizers. Our research is aimed at the assessment of the influence of non-conventional organic fertilizers on fertility of podzols and on the growth rate of seedlings and saplings of woody plants in forest nurseries. Our research shows, that the application of non-conventional organic fertilizers does not result in any accumulation of heavy metal salts in podzols, but optimizes hydro physical and agrochemical properties of the ploughed horizon. The efficiency of non-conventional organic fertilizers depends on their composition, physical and chemical characteristics of the original components, their doses applied and original fertility of soils. A combined application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and sand results in the optimization of practically all soil fertility parameters in middle clay-loam soils, while application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and clay is optimal for application on light soils. The optimal application dose of non-conventional fertilizers depends on soil texture, woody species and the fertilizer composition. An optimal application dose for Norway spruce on a light clay-loam soil is 50-80 tons/ha, and on a middle clay-loam soil is 149-182 tons/ha. It is 50 tons/ha for Scots pine growing on a sandy loam soil, and 100 tons/ha for the same species growing on a sandy soil or a light clay-loam. For Siberian larch growing on a light clay-loam soil the dose of fertilizer applied should be 150 tons/ha. It is recommended to apply composts containing over 50% (by weight of Category II wastes (substrate for the amelioration of light soils, and composts containing over 40% (by weight of Category I wastes (filler for the

  1. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  2. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  3. Applications of synchrotron radiation techniques to materials science 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S.M. [ed.] [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stock, S.R. [ed.] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Perry, D.L. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Terminello, L.J. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As more synchrotron facilities are constructed and go online both in the US and in other countries, even more applications of synchrotron radiation will be realized. Both basic and applied research possibilities are manifold, including studies of materials mentioned below and those that are yet to be discovered. Also, the combination of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques with ever increasing high-resolution microscopy allows researchers to study very small domains of materials in an attempt to understand their chemical and electronic properties. This is especially important in the areas of composites and other related materials involving material bonding interfaces. The topics covered in this symposium include surfaces, interfaces, electronic materials, metal oxides, solar cells, thin films, carbides, polymers, alloys, nanoparticles, and graphitic materials. Results reported at this symposium relate recent advances in X-ray absorption and scattering, imaging, tomography, microscopy, and topography methods.

  4. Study on application of optical clearing technique in skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hao; Liang, Yanmei; Wang, Jingyi; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    So far, the study of the optical clearing is almost always about healthy tissue. However, the ultimate goal is to detect diseases for clinical application. Optical clearing on diseased skins is explored. The effect is evaluated by applying a combined liquid paraffin and glycerol mixed solution on several kinds of diseased skins in vitro. Scanning experiments from optical coherence tomography show that it has different effects among fibroma, pigmented nevus, and seborrheic keratosis. Based on the results, we conclude that different skin diseases have different compositions and structures, and their optical parameters and biological characteristics should be different, which implies that the optical clearing technique may have selectivity and may not be suitable for all kinds of skin diseases.

  5. The Application of Quantitative Fluorescence Techniques in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yutao; Yang Haibo; Guo Qingxia

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of multi-methods of Geo-logging at wellsite has become the major measurement of oil & gas exploration. From the early stage of manually geo-logging to the modern mudlogging with new techonlogies of MWD, LWD and QFT etc. The new technologies have played very important roles in the exploring of oil & gas. Being one of the newest technology of mudlogging, QFT has been widely used in oilfield for about 3 years. When it is put in operation in some oilfields of China in 1997, its advantages in oil & gas detection at wellsite have been continuously recognized, especially in the detection of shows of light oil and condensed oil.Aset of powerful classification standard of resource rock oil bearing grades and the interpretation standards have been summarized by the application of the quantitative fluorescencelogging techniques (QFT) in Basins of China, together with gas-logging data, and other information got from the Geo-logging procedures at wellsite.

  6. Optical and Digital Microscopic Imaging Techniques and Applications in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional optical microscope has been the primary tool in assisting pathological examinations. The modern digital pathology combines the power of microscopy, electronic detection, and computerized analysis. It enables cellular-, molecular-, and genetic-imaging at high efficiency and accuracy to facilitate clinical screening and diagnosis. This paper first reviews the fundamental concepts of microscopic imaging and introduces the technical features and associated clinical applications of optical microscopes, electron microscopes, scanning tunnel microscopes, and fluorescence microscopes. The interface of microscopy with digital image acquisition methods is discussed. The recent developments and future perspectives of contemporary microscopic imaging techniques such as three-dimensional and in vivo imaging are analyzed for their clinical potentials.

  7. Decellularization Strategies for Regenerative Medicine: From Processing Techniques to Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gilpin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the gap between donors and patients in need of an organ transplant continues to widen, research in regenerative medicine seeks to provide alternative strategies for treatment. One of the most promising techniques for tissue and organ regeneration is decellularization, in which the extracellular matrix (ECM is isolated from its native cells and genetic material in order to produce a natural scaffold. The ECM, which ideally retains its inherent structural, biochemical, and biomechanical cues, can then be recellularized to produce a functional tissue or organ. While decellularization can be accomplished using chemical and enzymatic, physical, or combinative methods, each strategy has both benefits and drawbacks. The focus of this review is to compare the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in terms of their ability to retain desired ECM characteristics for particular tissues and organs. Additionally, a few applications of constructs engineered using decellularized cell sheets, tissues, and whole organs are discussed.

  8. Bioimaging techniques for subcellular localization of plant hemoglobins and measurement of hemoglobin-dependent nitric oxide scavenging in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Østergaard-Jensen, Erik; Hill, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins are ubiquitous in all plant families. They are expressed at low levels in specific tissues. Several studies have established that plant hemoglobins are scavengers of nitric oxide (NO) and that varying the endogenous level of hemoglobin in plant cells negatively modulates bioactivity of NO generated under hypoxic conditions or during cellular signaling. Earlier methods for determination of hemoglobin-dependent scavenging in planta were based on measuring activity in whole plants or organs. Plant hemoglobins do not contain specific organelle localization signals; however, earlier reports on plant hemoglobin have demonstrated either cytosolic or nuclear localization, depending on the method or cell type investigated. We have developed two bioimaging techniques: one for visualization of hemoglobin-catalyzed scavenging of NO in specific cells and another for visualization of subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged plant hemoglobins in transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

  9. Nonlinear plasmonic imaging techniques and their biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Gitanjal; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Fujita, Katsumasa; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear optics, when combined with microscopy, is known to provide advantages including novel contrast, deep tissue observation, and minimal invasiveness. In addition, special nonlinearities, such as switch on/off and saturation, can enhance the spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, revolutionizing the field of optical microscopy. These nonlinear imaging techniques are extremely useful for biological studies on various scales from molecules to cells to tissues. Nevertheless, in most cases, nonlinear optical interaction requires strong illumination, typically at least gigawatts per square centimeter intensity. Such strong illumination can cause significant phototoxicity or even photodamage to fragile biological samples. Therefore, it is highly desirable to find mechanisms that allow the reduction of illumination intensity. Surface plasmon, which is the collective oscillation of electrons in metal under light excitation, is capable of significantly enhancing the local field around the metal nanostructures and thus boosting up the efficiency of nonlinear optical interactions of the surrounding materials or of the metal itself. In this mini-review, we discuss the recent progress of plasmonics in nonlinear optical microscopy with a special focus on biological applications. The advancement of nonlinear imaging modalities (including incoherent/coherent Raman scattering, two/three-photon luminescence, and second/third harmonic generations that have been amalgamated with plasmonics), as well as the novel subdiffraction limit imaging techniques based on nonlinear behaviors of plasmonic scattering, is addressed.

  10. Nonlinear plasmonic imaging techniques and their biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Gitanjal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optics, when combined with microscopy, is known to provide advantages including novel contrast, deep tissue observation, and minimal invasiveness. In addition, special nonlinearities, such as switch on/off and saturation, can enhance the spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, revolutionizing the field of optical microscopy. These nonlinear imaging techniques are extremely useful for biological studies on various scales from molecules to cells to tissues. Nevertheless, in most cases, nonlinear optical interaction requires strong illumination, typically at least gigawatts per square centimeter intensity. Such strong illumination can cause significant phototoxicity or even photodamage to fragile biological samples. Therefore, it is highly desirable to find mechanisms that allow the reduction of illumination intensity. Surface plasmon, which is the collective oscillation of electrons in metal under light excitation, is capable of significantly enhancing the local field around the metal nanostructures and thus boosting up the efficiency of nonlinear optical interactions of the surrounding materials or of the metal itself. In this mini-review, we discuss the recent progress of plasmonics in nonlinear optical microscopy with a special focus on biological applications. The advancement of nonlinear imaging modalities (including incoherent/coherent Raman scattering, two/three-photon luminescence, and second/third harmonic generations that have been amalgamated with plasmonics, as well as the novel subdiffraction limit imaging techniques based on nonlinear behaviors of plasmonic scattering, is addressed.

  11. Quantum theory of many-body systems techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zagoskin, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This text presents a self-contained treatment of the physics of many-body systems from the point of view of condensed matter. The approach, quite traditionally, uses the mathematical formalism of quasiparticles and Green’s functions. In particular, it covers all the important diagram techniques for normal and superconducting systems, including the zero-temperature perturbation theory and the Matsubara, Keldysh and Nambu-Gor'kov formalism, as well as an introduction to Feynman path integrals. This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems.   Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum...

  12. iPathology: Robotic Applications and Management of Plants and Plant Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Ampatzidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new technologies and the changing landscape of the online world (e.g., Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of All, cloud-based solutions provide a unique opportunity for developing automated and robotic systems for urban farming, agriculture, and forestry. Technological advances in machine vision, global positioning systems, laser technologies, actuators, and mechatronics have enabled the development and implementation of robotic systems and intelligent technologies for precision agriculture. Herein, we present and review robotic applications on plant pathology and management, and emerging agricultural technologies for intra-urban agriculture. Greenhouse advanced management systems and technologies have been greatly developed in the last years, integrating IoT and WSN (Wireless Sensor Network. Machine learning, machine vision, and AI (Artificial Intelligence have been utilized and applied in agriculture for automated and robotic farming. Intelligence technologies, using machine vision/learning, have been developed not only for planting, irrigation, weeding (to some extent, pruning, and harvesting, but also for plant disease detection and identification. However, plant disease detection still represents an intriguing challenge, for both abiotic and biotic stress. Many recognition methods and technologies for identifying plant disease symptoms have been successfully developed; still, the majority of them require a controlled environment for data acquisition to avoid false positives. Machine learning methods (e.g., deep and transfer learning present promising results for improving image processing and plant symptom identification. Nevertheless, diagnostic specificity is a challenge for microorganism control and should drive the development of mechatronics and robotic solutions for disease management.

  13. Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Woody Plants with Deep-Planting Technique for the Potential Environmental Management of Carcass Burial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Hwan Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to remediate carcass burial sites where deep soil layers are contaminated with nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and other potential contaminants by leachate. The current study was conducted to examine the remedial efficiency of two different woody plants, poplar (Populus euramericana and willow (Salix alba, by employing the deep-planting technique for the enhanced removal of N and P for the soil affected by leachate. For this, pot trials to assess N and P removal efficiency of poplar and willow in liquid manure-applied soil, and pilot-scale column experiments to evaluate the suitability of the deep-planting technique for the enhanced phytoremediation of deep soil layer were conducted. The results of this study showed that poplar and willow removed N and P from soils effectively while surviving under deep-planting conditions. Notably, compared to the surface planted roots, the roots of the deep-planted poplar and willow could transfer significant amounts of N and P leachate from the deep soil layer to the rhizosphere, from where it can be absorbed by the plants. For the first time, the use of poplar or willow plants are recommended by employing the deep-planting technique for the successful remediation of carcass burial sites.

  14. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  15. New Complexity Scalable MPEG Encoding Techniques for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Mietens

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity scalability offers the advantage of one-time design of video applications for a large product family, including mobile devices, without the need of redesigning the applications on the algorithmic level to meet the requirements of the different products. In this paper, we present complexity scalable MPEG encoding having core modules with modifications for scalability. The interdependencies of the scalable modules and the system performance are evaluated. Experimental results show scalability giving a smooth change in complexity and corresponding video quality. Scalability is basically achieved by varying the number of computed DCT coefficients and the number of evaluated motion vectors but other modules are designed such they scale with the previous parameters. In the experiments using the “Stefan” sequence, the elapsed execution time of the scalable encoder, reflecting the computational complexity, can be gradually reduced to roughly 50% of its original execution time. The video quality scales between 20 dB and 48 dB PSNR with unity quantizer setting, and between 21.5 dB and 38.5 dB PSNR for different sequences targeting 1500 kbps. The implemented encoder and the scalability techniques can be successfully applied in mobile systems based on MPEG video compression.

  16. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications. PMID:27649251

  17. FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Ramzan, Fahad; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2015-09-01

    The innovations in chromosome engineering have improved the efficiency of interrogation breeding, and the identification and transfer of resistance genes from alien to native species. Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have brought revolutionary, conceptual developments in mitosis and meiosis research, chromosome structure and manipulation, gene expression and regulation, and gene silencing. Cytogenetic studies offer integrative tools for imaging, genetics, epigenetics, and cytological information that can be employed to enhance chromosome and molecular genomic research in plant taxa. In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), can identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis. Over the past few decades, various new molecular cytogenetic applications have been developed. The FISH and GISH techniques present an authentic model for analyzing the individual chromosome, chromosomal segments, or the genomes of natural and artificial hybrid plants. These have become the most reliable techniques for studying allopolyploids, because most cultivated plants have been developed through hybridization or polyploidization. Moreover, introgression of the genes and chromatin from the wild types into cultivated species can also be analyzed. Since hybrid derivatives may have variable alien chromosome numbers or chromosome arms, the use of these approaches opens new avenues for accurately identifying genome differences.

  18. Roles, Regulation, and Agricultural Application of Plant Phosphate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoliya Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential mineral nutrient for plant growth and development. Low availability of inorganic phosphate (orthophosphate; Pi in soil seriously restricts the crop production, while excessive fertilization has caused environmental pollution. Pi acquisition and homeostasis depend on transport processes controlled Pi transporters, which are grouped into five families so far: PHT1, PHT2, PHT3, PHT4, and PHT5. This review summarizes the current understanding on plant PHT families, including phylogenetic analysis, function, and regulation. The potential application of Pi transporters and the related regulatory factors for developing genetically modified crops with high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE are also discussed in this review. At last, we provide some potential strategies for developing high PUE crops under salt or drought stress conditions, which can be valuable for improving crop yields challenged by global scarcity of water resources and increasing soil salinization.

  19. Study of operation optimization based on data mining technique in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LIU Jizhen; GU Junjie; NIU Chenglin

    2007-01-01

    The determination of operation optimization value is very important for economic analysis and operation optimization in power plants.The operation optimization value determined by traditional methods usually cannot reflect the actual running states correctly in power plants with the increase in running time.Based on a large amount of history data stored in power plants,a way of operation optimization by applying data mining technique is proposed.The structure of operation optimi-zation based on data mining is established and the fuzzy association rule mining algorithm is introduced to find the operation optimization target value to guide the operation in power plants.Based on the actual local data in a 300 MW unit,the operation optimization value in typical load ranges is found out by data mining to provide better adjustment guidance in industry process.Experimental results show that the determination of operation optimization value based on data mining can improve the efficiency and decrease the emission of pollutants.

  20. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  1. Plant Products for Pharmacology: Application of Enzymes in Their Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zarevúcka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Different plant products have been subjected to detailed investigations due to their increasing importance for improving human health. Plants are sources of many groups of natural products, of which large number of new compounds has already displayed their high impact in human medicine. This review deals with the natural products which may be found dissolved in lipid phase (phytosterols, vitamins etc.. Often subsequent convenient transformation of natural products may further improve the pharmacological properties of new potential medicaments based on natural products. To respect basic principles of sustainable and green procedures, enzymes are often employed as efficient natural catalysts in such plant product transformations. Transformations of lipids and other natural products under the conditions of enzyme catalysis show increasing importance in environmentally safe and sustainable production of pharmacologically important compounds. In this review, attention is focused on lipases, efficient and convenient biocatalysts for the enantio- and regioselective formation / hydrolysis of ester bond in a wide variety of both natural and unnatural substrates, including plant products, eg. plant oils and other natural lipid phase compounds. The application of enzymes for preparation of acylglycerols and transformation of other natural products provides big advantage in comparison with employing of conventional chemical methods: Increased selectivity, higher product purity and quality, energy conservation, elimination of heavy metal catalysts, and sustainability of the employed processes, which are catalyzed by enzymes. Two general procedures are used in the transformation of lipid-like natural products: (a Hydrolysis/alcoholysis of triacylglycerols and (b esterification of glycerol. The reactions can be performed under conventional conditions or in supercritical fluids/ionic liquids. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in supercritical fluids combine the

  2. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions.

  3. Analysis of water application techniques for growing tomatoes in small pots on different substrates. Note 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cavazza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the tomato plants to the irrigation regimes compared in the previous study, particularly when compared with the response to the peat fraction in the mixture, was modest, often irregular and subject to complex interactions with the former factor. This result could depend partially on the fact that the parameters for the water regime applied during the trials were chosen to prevent exposing the plants to excessive stress through lack of water or excess water. This note analyses the technique used to apply the water. Two main water application parameters were identified parameter a expressing the mean moisture level of the pot during growing, and parameter b expressing the amplitude of the variation in moisture level between the irrigation threshold and the level to which the water was topped up at each watering. The actual mean volume of irrigation during the cultivation period was compared with the theoretically predicted value and the discrepancy explained. The role of parameter a and b are proposed to define the irrigation regime applied and the water regime as such can be defined by these two parameters a and b, as a general composite index. Furthermore the effect on the biological performance of both parameters a and b were studied obtaining a clearer picture of the effect of the water regime. The role of both parameters, a and b were synthesized in a specific composite index for each individual characteristic of the plant after taking in account the principal causes of their variations.

  4. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  5. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladipo, M.O.A., E-mail: oaoladipo2004@yahoo.com [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Njinga, R.L., E-mail: njingaraymond@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Baba, A. [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Muhammad, H.L. [Chemistry Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria)

    2012-06-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within {+-}0.01% to {+-}0.87%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results showed good agreement with certified values within {+-}0.01 % to {+-}0.87%.

  6. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  7. The innovative application of surface geophysical techniques for remedial investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.R. [OYO Geospace, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Smith, S. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Boston, MA (United States); Gilmore, P. [Fishbeck, Thomson, Carr and Huber, Aida, MI (United States); Cox, S. [Blasland, Bouck, and Lee, Edison, NJ (United States)

    1993-03-01

    When researchers are investigating potential subsurface contamination at hazardous waste landfills, the surface geophysical techniques they may use are often limited. Many geophysical surveys are concerned with areas next to and not directly within the landfill units. The highly variable properties of the materials within the landfill may result in geophysical data that are either difficult or impossible to interpret. Therefore, contamination at these sites may not be detected until substantial lateral migration away from the unit has occurred. In addition, because of the poor resolution of some techniques, the landfill as a whole must be considered as a source, where discrete disposal areas within landfill units may be the actual point sources of contaminants. In theory, if specific sources within the landfill are identified and isolated, then reduced time, effort, and expenditures will be required for remediation activities. In the summer of 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated a small potentially hazardous waste landfill to determine if contaminant hot spots could be identified within the landfill and to determine if significant vertical and lateral migration of contaminants was occurring away from these locations. Based on the present hydrogeologic conditions, researchers anticipated that subsurface flow would be primarily vertical, with the zone of saturation at a depth greater than 150 meters. This necessitated that the survey be performed, for the most part, directly on the capped portion of the landfill. Focused geophysical surveys conducted off the landfill would not have provided useful information concerning conditions directly beneath the landfill. This paper discusses the planning, application, and analysis of four combined sensing methods: two methods of electromagnetic induction [low induction (Em) and time domain (TEM)], ground penetrating radar (GPR), and soil gas.

  8. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  9. 4Mx Soil-Plant Model: Applications, Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Fodor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop simulation models describe the main processes of the soil-plant system in a dynamic way usually in a daily time-step. With the help of these models we may monitor the soil- and plant-related processes of the simulated system as they evolve according to the atmospheric and environmental conditions. Crop models could be successfully applied in the following areas: (1 Education: by promoting the system-oriented thinking a comprehensive overview of the interrelations of the soil-plant system as well as of the environmental protection related aspects of the human activities could be presented. (2 Research: The results of observations as well as of experiments could be extrapolated in time and space, thus, for example, the possible effects of the global climate change could be estimated. (3 Practice: Model calculations could be used in intelligent irrigation control and decision supporting systems as well as for providing scientific background for policy makers. The most spectacular feature of the 4Mx crop model is that its graphical user interface enables the user to alter not only the parameters of the model but the function types of its governing equations as well. The applicability of the 4Mx model is presented via several case-studies.

  10. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  11. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  12. 78 FR 11217 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  13. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  14. 78 FR 1878 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  15. 78 FR 17710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  16. Metabolomics in Plants and Humans: Applications in the Prevention and Diagnosis of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Gomez-Casati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been an increase in the number of metabolomic approaches used, in parallel with proteomic and functional genomic studies. The wide variety of chemical types of metabolites available has also accelerated the use of different techniques in the investigation of the metabolome. At present, metabolomics is applied to investigate several human diseases, to improve their diagnosis and prevention, and to design better therapeutic strategies. In addition, metabolomic studies are also being carried out in areas such as toxicology and pharmacology, crop breeding, and plant biotechnology. In this review, we emphasize the use and application of metabolomics in human diseases and plant research to improve human health.

  17. Hot gas stream application in micro-bonding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Smetana, Walter; Boehm, Stefan; Brenner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for bonding micro-parts with dimensions in the range of 50 μm to 300 μm. Two different kinds of adhesives - polyurethane adhesive foil and hot melt glue - were applied to a basic substrate by different techniques. The focused and concentrated hot gas stream softened glue which had been applied in a solid state. Micro-parts were then embossed in the softened glue, or covered and shielded by it. In this way, a rigid and compact bond was obtained after cooling. For the positioning of micro-parts (optical fibers), it has been necessary to manufacture adequate V-grooves. Finite element analyses using the ANSYS TM program package were performed in order to evaluate parameters which govern the heat transfer to the adhesive and substrate respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained by the numerical simulations. The advantages of this new approach are small system size, low capital costs, simple usage, applicability to many material combinations, easy integration into existing production lines, etc.

  18. Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients, organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry to improve their sustainable activities. The first part of the paper examines the relationship between gamification and sustainability, highlighting the links between these two concepts. The second part identifies success stories of gamification applied in hospitality and tourism and reviews gamification benefits by analysing the relationship between tourism organisations and three main tourism stakeholders: tourists, tourism employees and local community. The analysis is made in connection with the main pillars of sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This study is positioning the role of gamification in the tourism and hospitality industry and further, into the larger context of sustainable development.

  19. Multiplex-FISH (M-FISH): technique, developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, L

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex FISH (M-FISH) represents one of the most significant developments in molecular cytogenetics of the past decade. Originally designed to generate 24 colour karyotyping, the technique has spawned many variations and an equally diverse range of applications. In tumour and leukaemia cytogenetics, the two groups that have been targeted represent both ends of the cytogenetic spectrum: those with an apparently normal karyotype (suspected of harbouring small rearrangements not detectable by conventional cytogenetics) and those with a complex aberrant karyotype (which are difficult to karyotype accurately due to the sheer number of aberrations). In research, mouse M-FISH provides a powerful tool to characterize mouse models of a disease. In addition, the ability to accurately karyotype single metaphases without selection makes M-FISH the perfect tool in chromosome breakage studies and for characterizing clonal evolution of tumours. Finally, M-FISH has emerged as the perfect partner for the developing genomic microarray (array CGH) technologies, providing a powerful approach to gene discovery.

  20. Techniques of DNA methylation analysis with nutritional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansego, Maria L; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are likely to play an important role in the regulation of metabolism and body weight through gene-nutrient interactions. This review focuses on methods for analyzing one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation, from single nucleotide to global measurement depending on the study goal and scope. In addition, this study highlights the major principles and methods for DNA methylation analysis with emphasis on nutritional applications. Recent developments concerning epigenetic technologies are showing promising results of DNA methylation levels at a single-base resolution and provide the ability to differentiate between 5-methylcytosine and other nucleotide modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. A large number of methods can be used for the analysis of DNA methylation such as pyrosequencing™, primer extension or real-time PCR methods, and genome-wide DNA methylation profile from microarray or sequencing-based methods. Researchers should conduct a preliminary analysis focused on the type of validation and information provided by each technique in order to select the best method fitting for their nutritional research interests.

  1. Development and application of simulation technique for hydrokinetic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianye ZHU; Qingyan WANG; Kun YIN; Siyi WANG

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation is an important method for hydrokinetic hammer design. Various kinds of simulation measures with their technical characters and applications being taken during the computer aided design are enumerated. Computer simulation supports plenty of valuable references to the designer. Each type of simulation process is used to explore the exact aspect of the performance of hydrokinetic hammer and each type of simulation method has its own excellences and deficiencies. Thus the integrative simulation methods based on modern computational technology are brought forward to obtain the perfect capability of the whole product. Along with the development of computer hardware and software, various kinds of platforms have been provided to different simulation methods that can be carried out with distinct working flows. The jet flow element is the core part of the hydrokinetic hammer. We can build the ideal simulation model of it by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology. On the other hand, to set up the digital model of piston and hammer, the best way is to build the virtual prototype using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical system. As a result of the argumentation, we think the technique of Virtual Prototype and CFD are the prime way to process the combined computer simulation for hydrokinetic hammer.

  2. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  3. Investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.; Bayma, R. W.; Evans, M. B.; Zelenka, J. S.; Doss, H. W.; Ferris, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of microwave hologram techniques for application to earth resources was conducted during the period from June 1971 to November 1972. The objective of this investigation has been to verify the feasibility of an orbital microwave holographic radar experiment. The primary advantage of microwave hologram radar (MHR) over the side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) is that of aspect or viewing angle; the MHR has a viewing angle identical with that of photography and IR systems. The combination of these systems can thus extend the multispectral analysis concept to span optical through microwave wavelengths. Another advantage is the capacity of the MHR system to generate range contours by operating in a two-frequency mode. It should be clear that along-track resolution of an MHR can be comparable with SLAR systems, but cross-track resolution will be approximately an order of magnitude coarser than the range resolution achievable with an arbitrary SLAR system. An advantage of the MHR over the SLAR is that less average transmitter power is required. This reduction in power results from the much larger receiving apertures associated with MHR systems.

  4. MR angiography of the body. Technique and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele [Pisa Univ. Radiodiagnostica 1 Universitaria (Italy). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. of Oncology, Transplants, and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Cosottini, Mirco [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Unit of Neuroradiology Dept. of Neurosciences; Caramella, Davide (eds.) [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. of Oncology, Transplants, and Advanced Technologies in Medicine

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) continues to undergo exciting technological advances that are rapidly being translated into clinical practice. It also has evident advantages over other imaging modalities, including better patient safety compared with CT angiography and superior accuracy and contrast resolution compared with ultrasonography. With the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations, this book reviews the current role of MRA of the body. It is divided into three sections. The first section is devoted to issues relating to image acquisition technique and sequences. Individual chapters focus on flow-based MRA, contrast media, contrast-enhanced MRA, artifacts, and image processing. The second and principal section of the book addresses the clinical applications of MRA in various parts of the body, including the neck vessels, the spine, the thoracic aorta and pulmonary vessels, the heart and coronary arteries, the abdominal aorta and renal arteries, and peripheral vessels. The role of the blood pool contrast agents for the diagnosis and characterization of vascular disease is fully explored. The final section considers the role of MRA in patients undergoing liver or pancreas and kidney transplantation. This book will be an invaluable aid to all radiologists who work with MRA. (orig.)

  5. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Kyriazanos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5–3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of “intentional open abdomen” was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways (“postoperative open abdominal wall”. Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as “frozen abdomen,” where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the “Coliseum technique” for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of “malignant” frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.

  6. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M. [Pune Univ., Chemistry Dept., Pune (India)

    1997-08-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author).

  7. Odour emissions from a waste treatment plant using an inverse dispersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the in situ emission rate of pollution sources can often not be done directly. In the absence of emission measurements, the emission rate of the source can be assessed by an inverse dispersion technique using ambient concentration measurements and meteorological parameters as input. The dispersion model used is the Austrian regulatory Gaussian model. The method is applied to a thermal waste recycling plant. Seven chemical species (butyl acetate, benzene, ethyl acetate, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene and α-pinene), are identified as odorants and measured over a period of 1½ years in the prevailing wind direction leeward of the plant. The overall odour emission rate is calculated by adding the odour emission rate of all single species, using the individual odour threshold concentration. The estimated odour emission rates range between 206 and 8950 OU s -1, caused by the wide variety of the odour thresholds of the seven species. The higher value is in the upper range of odour emission rates of modern thermal treatment plants for waste.

  8. Conservation priorities of useful plants from different techniques of collection and analysis of ethnobotanical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F.P. de Lucena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes three methods of data analysis to verify which one would be more appropriate to get information aiming the conservation, selecting the use value (VU inventory in situ and conservation property index (IPC. It was developed in in Northeast Brazil, via interviewed householders (46 informants. The VU was calculated considering only the effective use of plants; the inventory in situ was made through the frequency of species occurrence in homes; and the IPC combining ethnobotanical and phytossociological data. It was observed a similar cast of the indicated species by VU and inventory in situ, being different from the IPC cast. As this study sought to analyze the best technique for species identification which were needing conservationist actions, and obtained different results among the chosen methods. It has been suggested the use of methods that unite in their analysis both ethnobotanical and ecological aspects, like in the plants list from the priority index of conservation, which demonstrated to be more efficient to identify rare species in the local vegetation. The VU and the inventory in situ are more efficient to identify the most known and used species in the communities, however without analyzing these plants in the local vegetation.

  9. Follow up of the evolution of a soil-plant system using the neutrongraphic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.; Crispim, V.R.; Lima, C.T.S., E-mail: luciano_rural@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: clima@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Ferreira, F.J., E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the Brazilian northeast region, where semiarid climate prevails the soil low humidity, restricts the growth of the roots in the soil most superficial layer. A soil-plant system consisting of aluminum pots filled with soil similar to that found in the semiarid regions was designed to follow the growth of corn and soy roots. There, the seeds are planted together with artificial seeds of hydrogel and agave, which store part of the water from irrigation and later release it in conformity with the search of the roots. Nondestructive tests through the Thermal Neutron Radiography technique were conducted, exposing for 90 minutes the soilplant system, to the neutron flux from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta/IEN/CNEN reactor. An Industrex M radiographic film from Kodak and a gadolinium sheet converter, in close contact inside an aluminum chassis, were used to obtain the neutron radiography image. Lead plates, 1 mm thick, or aluminum plates, 1 cm thick, were placed to shield the gamma radiation of the neutron beam and thus allow a better visualization of the roots inside the soil. After expositions, the radiographic films were developed and the neutron radiographic images were digitalized with a Coolpix 995 Nikon camera. The neutron radiographic images were also digitally processed using the Image Pro Plus program, version 6.2. the use of lead and aluminum filters and with the use of digital processing techniques, allowed the visualization of the main and secondary roots, even when hidden by 10 mm thick humid soil. (author)

  10. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  11. Application of Thin Bed Log Evaluation Techniques in Dagang Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiren; Jiao Cuihua; Liu Dewu; Heng zhi

    1995-01-01

    @@ Some techniques are presented in this paper through which vertical resolution of individual logs can be increased by mathematical and geological ana lysis methods. These techniques provide a solid basis for accurate delineation and evaluation of thin beds.

  12. Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Nine specific techniques of combination of techniques developed for applying digital image processing technology to existing astronomical imagery are described. Photoproducts are included to illustrate the results of each of these investigations.

  13. Two applications of airtightness control techniques on big assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Devallan, C; Marcellin, J

    1973-01-01

    Deals with two airtightness control techniques respectively applied on intersecting storage rings (ISR) at CERN in Geneva and on a liquid methane storage tank. These two big assemblies called for two different control techniques which use helium and ammonia respectively as tracer gas. Existing practical leakage detection techniques to meet industrial needs are discussed at the end of the article. (2 refs).

  14. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  15. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF. Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adjusting irradiation data of clear sky by an irradiation attenuation index, combined with a PV power production attenuation index. The MPVF model consists of an artificial neural network based model (selected among a large set of ANN optimized with genetic algorithms, GAs. The two models use forecasts from the same NWP tool as inputs. The APVF and MPVF models have been applied to a real-life case study of a grid-connected PV plant using the same data. Despite the fact that both models are quite different, they achieve very similar results, with forecast horizons covering all the daylight hours of the following day, which give a good perspective of their applicability for PV electric production sale bids to electricity markets.

  16. Application of nuclear techniques in Poland; Perspektywy wykorzystania atomistyki w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Owczarczyk, A.; Urbanski, P. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Warsaw (Poland); Romanowski, M. [Biuro Studiow i Projektow Techniki Jadrowej `Proatom`, Warsaw (Poland); Stegowski, Z. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, K. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Pachan, A. [Instytut Problemow Jadrowych, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tanczyk, R. [Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, R. [Zaklad Techniki Izotopowej `Polon-Izot`, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial applications of nuclear techniques in Poland have been presented. The special attention have been paid at: radiation technologies, application of radiometric gages in different branches of industry, tracer techniques, production and application of radiation sources in medicine, industry and material testing. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  17. Innovative application of virtual display technique in virtual museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-09-01

    Virtual museum refers to display and simulate the functions of real museum on the Internet in the form of 3 Dimensions virtual reality by applying interactive programs. Based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language, virtual museum building and its effective interaction with the offline museum lie in making full use of 3 Dimensions panorama technique, virtual reality technique and augmented reality technique, and innovatively taking advantages of dynamic environment modeling technique, real-time 3 Dimensions graphics generating technique, system integration technique and other key virtual reality techniques to make sure the overall design of virtual museum.3 Dimensions panorama technique, also known as panoramic photography or virtual reality, is a technique based on static images of the reality. Virtual reality technique is a kind of computer simulation system which can create and experience the interactive 3 Dimensions dynamic visual world. Augmented reality, also known as mixed reality, is a technique which simulates and mixes the information (visual, sound, taste, touch, etc.) that is difficult for human to experience in reality. These technologies make virtual museum come true. It will not only bring better experience and convenience to the public, but also be conducive to improve the influence and cultural functions of the real museum.

  18. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented. PMID:28261237

  19. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  20. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented.

  1. Advances in the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hamid Iqbal; Ahmad, Faheem; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we briefly describe the biological application of PGPR for purposes of phytoremediating heavy metals. We address the agronomic practices that can be used to maximize the remediation potential of plants. Plant roots have limited ability ability mental from soil, mainly because metals have low solubility in the soil solution. The phytoavailability of metal is closely tired to the soil properties and the metabolites that are released by PGPR (e.g., siderophores, organ acids, and plant growth regulators). The role played by PGPR may be accomplished by their direct effect on plant growth dynamics, or indirectly by acidification, chelation, precipitation, or immobilization of heavy metals in the rhizosphere. From performing this review we have formed the following conclusions: The most critical factor is determining how efficient phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil will be is the rate of uptake of the metal by plants. In turn, this depends on the rate of bioavailability. We know from our review that beneficial bacteria exist tha can alter metal bioavailability of plants. Using these beneficial bacteria improves the performance of phytoremediation of the metal-contaminated sites. Contaminated sites are often nutrient poor. Such soil can be nutrient enriched by applying metal-tolerant microbes that provide key needed plant nutrients. Applying metal-tolerant microbes therefore may be vital in enhancing the detoxification of heavy-metal-contaminated soils (Glick 2003). Plant stress generated by metal-contaminated soils can be countered by enhancing plant defense responses. Responses can be enhanced by alleviating the stress-mediated impact on plants by enzymatic hydrolysis of ACC, which is intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of ethylene. These plant-microbe partnerships can act as decontaminators by improving phytoremediation. Soil microorganisms play a central role in maintaining soil structure, fertility and in remediating contaminated soils

  2. Application of nonlinear dynamic techniques to high pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A. K.

    2010-02-01

    Arcs and arc plasmas have been known and used for welding, cutting, chemical synthesis and multitude of other industrial applications for more than hundred years. Though a copious source of heat, light and active species, plasma arc is inherently unstable, turbulent and difficult to control. During recent years, primarily driven by the need of new and energy efficient materials processing, various research groups around the world have been studying new and innovative ways of looking at the issues related to arc dynamics, arc stabilization, species non equilibrium, flow and heat transfer in a stabilized arc plasma device. In this context, experimental determination of nature of arc instabilities using tools of non-linear dynamics, theoretical model formulation, prediction of instability behavior under given operating conditions and possible control methods for the observed instabilities in arcs are reviewed. Space selective probing of the zones inside arc plasma devices without disturbing the system is probably the best way to identify the originating zone of instabilities inside such devices. Existence of extremely high temperature and inaccessibility to direct experimentations due to mechanical obstructions make this task extremely difficult. Probing instabilities in otherwise inaccessible inner regions of the torches, using binary gas mixture as plasma gas is a novel technique that primarily rests on a process known as demixing in arcs. Once a binary gas mixture enters the constricted plasma column, the demixing process sets in causing spatial variations for each of the constituent gases depending on the diffusion coefficients and the gradient of the existing temperature field. By varying concentrations of the constituent gases in the feeding line, it is possible to obtain spatial variations of the plasma composition in a desired manner, enabling spatial probing of the associated zones. Detailed compositional description of different zones inside the torch may be

  3. Application of integrated data mining techniques in stock market forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock market is considered too uncertain to be predictable. Many individuals have developed methodologies or models to increase the probability of making a profit in their stock investment. The overall hit rates of these methodologies and models are generally too low to be practical for real-world application. One of the major reasons is the huge fluctuation of the market. Therefore, the current research focuses in the stock forecasting area is to improve the accuracy of stock trading forecast. This paper introduces a system that addresses the particular need. The system integrates various data mining techniques and supports the decision-making for stock trades. The proposed system embeds the top-down trading theory, artificial neural network theory, technical analysis, dynamic time series theory, and Bayesian probability theory. To experimentally examine the trading return of the presented system, two examples are studied. The first uses the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC data-set that covers an investment horizon of 240 trading days from 16 February 2011 to 23 January 2013. Eighty four transactions were made using the proposed approach and the investment return of the portfolio was 54% with an 80.4% hit rate during a 12-month period in which the TSMC stock price increased by 25% (from $NT 78.5 to $NT 101.5. The second example examines the stock data of Evergreen Marine Corporation, an international marine shipping company. Sixty four transactions were made and the investment return of the portfolio was 128% in 12 months. Given the remarkable investment returns in trading the example TSMC and Evergreen stocks, the proposed system demonstrates promising potentials as a viable tool for stock market forecasting.

  4. Split Hopkinson pressure bar technique: Experiments, analyses and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Bazle Anwer

    A critical review of the Hopkinson bar experimental technique is performed to identify the validity and applicability of the classic one-dimensional theory. A finite element model of the Hopkinson bar experiment is developed in three-dimensions and is used in detailed numerical analyses. For a small diameter hard specimen, the bar-specimen interfaces are non-planar, which predicts higher specimen strain and, thus, lower initial modulus in the linear elastic phase of deformation. In such cases, the stress distribution in the specimen is not uni-axial and a chamfered specimen geometry is found to provide better uni-axial stress condition in the specimen. In addition, a new Hopkinson bar with transmission tube is found suitable for small strain measurement of small diameter specimens. A one-dimensional exact Hopkinson bar theory considering the stress wave propagation in an equal diameter specimen has been formulated which predicts physically meaningful results in all extreme cases as compared to classic theory. In light of the theoretical and numerical investigations, an experimental methodology for rate dependent modulus and strength is developed. Quasi-static and dynamic behavior of plain weave (15 x 15) S-2 glass/SC15 composites has been investigated. A new circular-rectangular prism specimen (C-RPS) geometry is found suitable for testing laminated composites in the in-plane directions. Rate sensitive strength, non-linear strain and elastic modulus parameters for plain-weave (15 x 15) S-2 glass/SC15 composites have been experimentally determined.

  5. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  6. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanisana Devi, R.K., E-mail: bhanisanark@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (NCCCM), Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  7. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  8. Developing nanotechnology for biofuel and plant science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenstein, Justin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research on the development of mesoporous silica based nanotechnology for applications in biofuels and plant science. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been the subject of great interest in the last two decades due to their unique properties of high surface area, tunable pore size and particle morphology. The robust nature of the silica framework is easily functionalized to make the MSNs a promising option for selective separations. Also, the independent channels that form the pores of MSN have been exploited in the use of particles as platforms for molecular delivery. Pore size and organic functionality are varied to identify the ideal adsorbent material for free fatty acids (FFAs). The resulting material is able to sequester FFAs with a high degree of selectivity from a simulated solution and microalgal oil. The recyclability and industrial implications are also explored. A continuation of the previous material, further tuning of MSN pore size was investigated. Particles with a smaller diameter selectively sequester polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs) over monounsaturated FFAs and saturated FFAs. The experimental results were verified with molecular modeling. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials with a pore diameter of 10 nm (MSN-10) were decorated with small gold nanoparticles. The resulting materials were shown to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  9. Simulation Modeling in Plant Breeding: Principles and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer

    2007-01-01

    Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.

  10. 48 CFR 9904.405-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cost accounting techniques which establishes and maintains adequate cost identification to permit audit... materiality, the Government and the contractor reach agreement on an alternate method that satisfies...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Spatially Resolved NMR Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This handbook and ready reference covers materials science applications as well as microfluidic, biomedical and dental applications and the monitoring of physicochemical processes. It includes the latest in hardware, methodology and applications of spatially resolved magnetic resonance, such as portable imaging and single-sided spectroscopy. For materials scientists, spectroscopists, chemists, physicists, and medicinal chemists.

  12. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  13. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  14. Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

    2014-08-01

    Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (pHACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se.

  15. Structure-function relationship of the plant photosynthetic pigment-protein complex LHCII studied with molecular spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2013-01-01

    LHCII, the largest plant photosynthetic pigment-protein complex of photosystem II, is a most abundant membrane protein in living organisms and comprises approximately half of the pool of chlorophyll molecules in the biosphere. The principal role of this pigment-protein complex is to collect sunlight quanta and transfer electronic excitations toward the reaction centers, where the primary photosynthetic electric charge separation reactions take place. The LHCII protein, as a major protein component of the photosynthetic membranes, modulates also the structural and dynamic properties of the lipid phase of the membranes. According to the recent concepts, one of the physiological roles of LHCII is also a protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against oxidative damage caused by illumination with high intensity light. Detailed examination of all those physiological functions of LHCII, in relation to the complex structure, was possible owing to the application of several molecular spectroscopy techniques. Some examples of such studies are presented in this chapter. The examples of application of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and resonance Raman scattering spectroscopy are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relevance vector machine technique for channel equalization application

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Gunn, S.R.; Harris, C J

    2001-01-01

    The recently introduced relevance vector machine (RVM) technique is applied to communication channel equalization. It is demonstrated that the RVM equalizer can closely match the optimal performance of the Bayesian equalizer, with a much sparser kernel representation than that is achievable by the state-of-art support vector machine (SVM) technique.

  17. A potential dating technique using 228Th/228Ra ratio for tracing the chronosequence of elemental concentrations in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J H; Niu, H; Chiu, C Y; Lin, C

    2007-06-01

    We propose a radiometric method based on measurement of the radioactivity of the naturally occurring radionuclides (228)Ra and 228)Th and the derived (228)Th/(228)Ra ratios in plant samples to estimate plant age and the corresponding nutritional conditions in a field-growing fern, Dicranopteris linearis. Plant age (tissue age) was associated with the (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio in fronds, which implies the accumulation time of immobile elements in the plant tissue or the life span of the fronds. Results indicated that the accumulation of alkaline earth elements in D. linearis is relatively constant with increased age, while the K concentration is reversed with age because of translocation among plant tissues. Estimation of dating uncertainty based on measurement conditions revealed that the radiometric technique can be applied to trace chronosequential changes of elemental concentrations and environmental pollutants in plants with ages of less than 10-15 years.

  18. Response Time Evaluation for the Plant Protection System Using a Combined Technique of Analysis and Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [KECO EnC, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes the response time evaluation methodology for the plant protection system (PPS) trip channel for the advance power reactor 1400 (APR1400) nuclear power plant. To demonstrate that the PPS tip channel is functioning within its allowable response time limit, the proposed methodology uses the combined technique of both the response time analysis and test. The main purpose of determining the trip setpoint for safety systems is to meet the requirement of an analytical limit assumed in performing safety analyses. In addition, the response time assumed during safety analyses shall also be satisfied by the safety-related instrumentation. The response time is another critical factor required to ensure that the safety-related instrumentation channels accept the crucial assumptions of safety analyses. The response time evaluation methodology proposed herein is applied to the low steam generator level (LSGL) reactor trip parameter for the APR1400. The response time analysis for the LSGL trip parameter demonstrated that the analyzed response time would not exceed the allocated response time. The results of the response time also showed that all of the measured response times would be less than the analyzed response time.

  19. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new sand pouch-plant infection technique for enumeration of rhizobia in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sand pouch-plant infection technique for counting most probable numbers of rhizobia in soil is described. Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifoli detected by the plant infection method performed in enclosed glass tubes or in sand pouches did not differ significantly. The described method was used to assess numbers of R. leguminosarum bv. trifoli (R.l.t. and bv. viciae (R.l.v. in 20 soils of Poland. Logarithms of the populations of R.l.t. in the tested soils ranged from not detectable level to 4.76 and those of R.l.v. from 2.23 to 5.84 in g1 of soil dry mass. Numbers of R.l.t. were significantly correlated with soil clay, C org, and total N contents but not with the soil pH (in KCI, while numbers of R.l.v. showed significant correlation only with the soil pH.

  1. Remove of lead from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique (Eclipta Alba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad J. Noufal, Zena A. Maalla, Dareen J. Noufal, Ali A. Hossean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soils by toxic heavy metals. The aim of current study was estimation the ability of Eclipta alba plant for the removal of (Pb from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique and study the effect of a number of parameters(Pb concentration, contact time and pH values. The plant showed higher removal efficiency (99.2% after 7 days of treatment at 50 ppm. The best removal efficiency of Pb 98.95% at 100 ppm was occurred at pH7. The root ability to accumulate Pb was more than the shoot ability, after 7 days treatment of water and pH=7, they were 2852.5 mg/kg, 2497.5 mg/kg and 502.5 mg/kg in roots, stems and leaves respectively. These results showed that Eclipta Alba can be used in biological treatment of polluted water.

  2. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  3. Two biased estimation techniques in linear regression: Application to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav

    1988-01-01

    Several ways for detection and assessment of collinearity in measured data are discussed. Because data collinearity usually results in poor least squares estimates, two estimation techniques which can limit a damaging effect of collinearity are presented. These two techniques, the principal components regression and mixed estimation, belong to a class of biased estimation techniques. Detection and assessment of data collinearity and the two biased estimation techniques are demonstrated in two examples using flight test data from longitudinal maneuvers of an experimental aircraft. The eigensystem analysis and parameter variance decomposition appeared to be a promising tool for collinearity evaluation. The biased estimators had far better accuracy than the results from the ordinary least squares technique.

  4. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. Molecular biological techniques permit study of the abundance, distribution, diversity, and physiology of microorganisms in situ. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  5. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  6. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  7. Passive RF component technology materials, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on novel materials and techniques, this pioneering volume provides you with a solid understanding of the design and fabrication of smart RF passive components. You find comprehensive details on LCP, metal materials, ferrite materials, nano materials, high aspect ratio enabled materials, green materials for RFID, and silicon micromachining techniques. Moreover, this practical book offers expert guidance on how to apply these materials and techniques to design a wide range of cutting-edge RF passive components, from MEMS switch based tunable passives and 3D passives, to metamaterial-bas

  8. Pilot Application of a Teaching Technique in Social Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, David H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Using techniques that combine community health services with a learning situation, Boston area medical students interviewed people within a community to determine whether existing medical facilities meet or fail to meet their health needs. (LP)

  9. Application of Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Viral Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification techniques are commonly used currently to diagnose viral diseases and manage patients with this kind of illnesses. These techniques have had a rapid but unconventional route of development during the last 30 years, with the discovery and introduction of several assays in clinical diagnosis. The increase in the number of commercially available methods has facilitated the use of this technology in the majority of laboratories worldwide. This technology has reduced the...

  10. Study and application of X radiation sampling technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛良全; 章晔; 等

    1996-01-01

    The physical bases of a X radiation sampling technique are investigated.Three technical problems of unevenness,matrix and heterogeneous mineralization effects,are considered and successfully resolved.This new technique was appled to three sites of Au,Sn and Cu deposits(representing higher,medial and lower atomic number minerals)in different exploration stages in China and satisfactory results are obtained.

  11. Clinical Application of Movement-needling Technique: Stiff Neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Movement-needling Technique, a new acupuncture therapy, is based on traditional acupuncture therapy and anatomical principle, combining acupuncture and movement. Combining disease and syndrome differentiation, and integrating TCM and Western medical diagnosis, this technique is used to treat different diseases mainly with acupuncture,combining some movement in needling. These movements not only boost therapeutic effects of acupuncture, but also add new contents to traditional acupuncture.

  12. 75 FR 54908 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  13. 77 FR 69891 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  14. 78 FR 76173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  15. 77 FR 23273 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  16. 78 FR 32686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  17. 76 FR 30958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  18. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  19. 76 FR 50246 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  20. 76 FR 3153 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal...

  1. 78 FR 24768 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  2. 77 FR 39251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  3. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  4. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  5. A Translator Verification Technique for FPGA Software Development in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yeob; Kim, Eui Sub; Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Although the FPGAs give a high performance than PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), the platform change from PLC to FPGA impose all PLC software engineers give up their experience, knowledge and practices accumulated over decades, and start a new FPGA-based hardware development from scratch. We have researched to fine the solution to this problem reducing the risk and preserving the experience and knowledge. One solution is to use the FBDtoVerilog translator, which translates the FBD programs into behavior-preserving Verilog programs. In general, the PLCs are usually designed with an FBD, while the FPGAs are described with a HDL (Hardware Description Language) such as Verilog or VHDL. Once PLC designer designed the FBD programs, the FBDtoVerilog translates the FBD into Verilog, mechanically. The designers, therefore, need not consider the rest of FPGA development process (e.g., Synthesis and Place and Routing) and can preserve the accumulated experience and knowledge. Even if we assure that the translation from FBD to Verilog is correct, it must be verified rigorously and thoroughly since it is used in nuclear power plants, which is one of the most safety critical systems. While the designer develops the FPGA software with the FBD program translated by the translator, there are other translation tools such as synthesis tool and place and routing tool. This paper also focuses to verify them rigorously and thoroughly. There are several verification techniques for correctness of translator, but they are hard to apply because of the outrageous cost and performance time. Instead, this paper tries to use an indirect verification technique for demonstrating the correctness of translator using the co-simulation technique. We intend to prove only against specific inputs which are under development for a target I and C system, not against all possible input cases.

  6. Transgenerational response to stress in plants and its application for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilichak, Andriy; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of reports indicate that plants possess the ability to maintain a memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and even transmit it faithfully to the following generation. Some of the features of transgenerational memory include elevated genome instability, a higher tolerance to stress experienced by parents, and a cross-tolerance. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clear, a likely contributing factor is the absence of full-scale reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape during gametogenesis; therefore, epigenetic marks can occasionally escape the reprogramming process and can be passed on to the progeny. To date, it is not entirely clear which part of the epigenetic landscape is more likely to escape the reprogramming events, and whether such a process is random or directed and sequence specific. The identification of specific epigenetic marks associated with specific stressors would allow generation of stress-tolerant plants through the recently discovered techniques for precision epigenome engineering. The engineered DNA-binding domains (e.g. ZF, TALE, and dCas9) fused to particular chromatin modifiers would make it possible to target epigenetic modifications to the selected loci, probably allowing stress tolerance to be achieved in the progeny. This approach, termed epigenetic breeding, along with other methods has great potential to be used for both the assessment of the propagation of epigenetic marks across generations and trait improvement in plants. In this communication, we provide a short overview of recent reports demonstrating a transgenerational response to stress in plants, and discuss the underlying potential molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon and its use for plant biotechnology applications.

  7. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of land use change resulting in an increased number of slope protection constructions and with respect to effects associated with climate change like extremes in temperatures and temperature variations or increased frequency of heavy precipitation, adaptation strategies for sustainable erosion protection systems are needed which meet ecological compatibility and economical requirements. Therefore a wide range of different technical solutions respectively geotextiles and geotextile-related products (blankets, nettings, grids etc.) are available on the market differing considerably in function, material, durability and pricing. Manufacturers usually provide product-specific information pertaining to application field, functional range or (technical) installation features whereas vegetational aspects are frequently neglected while vegetation can contribute substantially to increased near-surface erosion protection respectively slope stability. Though, the success of sustainable erosion control is directly dependent on several vegetational aspects. Adequate development of a functional vegetation layer in combination with geotextiles is closely associated to application aspects such as seeding technique, sowing date and intensity, seed-soil contact or maintenance measures as well as to qualitative aspects like seed quality, germination rates, area of origin, production method or certification. As a general guideline, erosion control within an initial phase is directly related to restoration techniques whereas vegetation specifics with regard to species richness or species composition play a key role in medium to long-term development and slope protection. In this context one of the fundamental objectives of our study is the identification and subsequently the determination of the main interaction processes between technical and biological components of combined slope protection systems. The influence of different geotextile characteristics on specific

  8. [Progress in research and application of gene engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Huang, Lu-qi; Li, Meng-meng

    2008-06-01

    China is the country possessing the largest amount of trade and consumption of medicinal plants in the world. Research and application of gene engineering on medicinal plants are the one of the most promising ways to increase the productivity and quality of medicinal plants, reduce the resource stress, and enhance the competitive power and sustainable development ability of the medicinal plants industry. In spite of the great progress in research and application of plant gene engineering worldwide, the research of gene transformation has mostly been conducted on some model plants, and the application of transgenic plant has been limited to a few staple and important crop species. For medicinal plants, recently the researches of gene transformation has emerged, however, compared with other crop and economic plants, it is still a very limited amount. On the basis of a general introduction of application of transgenic plants, this paper focuses on the present situation of the research and application of gene engineering on medicinal plants, to put forward the problems in this field, and give a prospect for its development.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing application for monitoring and preservation of plant ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas; Petrov, Nikolay; Stoev, Antoniy

    Remote sensing technologies have advanced significantly at last decade and have improved the capability to gather information about Earth’s resources and environment. They have many applications in Earth observation, such as mapping and updating land-use and cover, weather forecasting, biodiversity determination, etc. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers unique opportunities in the environmental monitoring and sustainable use of natural resources. Remote sensing sensors on space-based platforms, aircrafts, or on ground, are capable of providing detailed spectral, spatial and temporal information on terrestrial ecosystems. Ground-based sensors are used to record detailed information about the land surface and to create a data base for better characterizing the objects which are being imaged by the other sensors. In this paper some applications of two hyperspectral remote sensing techniques, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, for monitoring and assessment of the effects of adverse environmental conditions on plant ecosystems are presented. The effect of stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, acid rain, salinity, viral infections applied to some young plants (potato, pea, tobacco) and trees (plums, apples, paulownia) as well as of some growth regulators were investigated. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm and 600-900 nm), respectively. The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) plants were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, and cluster analysis and calculation of some vegetation indices in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the

  10. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 51 and 54 RIN 3150-AI42 Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant..., Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal... reports that are submitted with the application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating...

  11. 77 FR 73495 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  12. 77 FR 45369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered species....

  13. 77 FR 24216 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with an endangered species....

  14. 78 FR 77152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  15. 78 FR 54268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  16. 78 FR 29150 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  17. 78 FR 64529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  18. 77 FR 73494 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  19. A study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    It is a final report of the research that is a study on the development and application of expert system for nuclear power plants and development of the schemes computing environments and user interfaces for the expert system, which is a systematic and efficient development of expert system for nuclear power plants in the future. This report is consisted of -Development trends of expert system for nuclear power plants. -Classification of expert system applications for nuclear power plants. -Systematic and efficient developments schemes of expert system for nuclear power plants, and -Suitable computing environments and user interfaces for the expert systems. (author). 113 refs., 85 figs.

  20. Plant structure in crop production: considerations on application of FSPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Evers, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cereals, potato and glasshouse cut rose, representing monocot annuals, vegetative propagated dicot annual and woody perennials, have different structural development. ‘Bud break’, initiating tillering (monocots) and branching (dicots) is a key process determining plant structure. Plant population de

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Plant based Polythiophene Copolymers for Light Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodithuwakku, Udari; Malavi Arachchi, Prashantha; Ratnaweera, Dilru

    Polythiophenes became more attractive in diverse applications due to some of their inherent properties including thermal and environmental stability as well as optical and electronic conductive properties. Commonly thiophene monomers are obtained from byproducts of crude oils. The current study discuss for the first time the synthesis and characterization of light harvesting polythiophenes copolymers from thiophene derivatives extracted from Tagetes species. There were mainly two thiophenes derivatives, 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl)-2, 2-bithienyl and 2, 2', 5, 2''-terthienyl (terthiophene), in the roots of the plant. Chemical oxidative radical polymerization was followed during the synthesis of copolymers with various block compositions of plant based terthiophenes and 3-hexyl terthiophenes. Structural characterization of the synthetic products was done using FTIR, NMR, Uv-vis, XRD and DSC techniques. Polythiophene homopolymers obtained from plant based terthiophenes have limited processability of solar cells due to poor solubility in common organic solvents. A significant solubility improvement was observed with copolymers having minor contributions of 3-hexylthiophenes. Research Grants, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

  2. Rhizofiltration of lead using an aromatic medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus cultured in a hydroponic nutrient film technique (NFT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, A; Arunbabu, V; Neethu, J; Ramasamy, E V

    2014-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water bodies and groundwater is a major concern of the modern world. Rhizofiltration--the use of plant root system to remove/extract pollutants from wastewater--has proven advantages over conventional methods of treatment. However, commercialization of this in situ remediation technology requires a better understanding of plant-metal interactions especially on the ability of different plant species to accumulate metals at different parts of the plant system which is critical for the successful remediation of contaminated medium. Many aquatic and terrestrial plants have been reported to accumulate heavy metals when grown hydroponically. Therefore, a batch experiment with different concentrations of lead and a nutrient film technique (NFT) experiment with recycling of wastewater were employed in this study in order to investigate the rhizofiltration of lead-containing wastewater using Plectranthus amboinicus, an aromatic medicinal plant. Results show that P. amboinicus is tolerant to a wide range of lead concentrations and nutrient deficiency. The plant accumulates considerable amount of lead, particularly in the roots, and translocation to the stem and leaf was limited, indicating that the use of leaves/above-ground parts of the plant for medicinal purposes is not hindered by its ability to remove lead from the soil or water. The study also suggests that the plant can be considered for the clean-up of lead-contaminated wastewater in combination with safe biomass disposal alternatives.

  3. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  4. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  5. Techniques for Performance Improvement of Integer Multiplication in Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of arithmetic operations performance in number fields is actively researched by many scientists, as evidenced by significant publications in this field. In this work, we offer some techniques to increase performance of software implementation of finite field multiplication algorithm, for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. The developed technique, called “delayed carry mechanism,” allows to preventing necessity to consider a significant bit carry at each iteration of the sum accumulation loop. This mechanism enables reducing the total number of additions and applies the modern parallelization technologies effectively.

  6. Chinese chart publishing data updating technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. H.; Peng, R. C.; Chen, Y.; Gao, W. J.; Guo, L. X.; Zheng, Y. D.

    2007-06-01

    Although the production of nautical chart has developed a lot in China, there are still some defects, such as the long period of producing nautical chart, the continuous correction to the nautical chart published, and so on. On basis of analyzing Chinese chart publishing data and its updating data, this paper researches on the technique of interactively updating server chart publishing data and the technique of automatically updating client chart publishing data, which will lay the foundation for constructing the mode of printing charts on demand in China.

  7. Applications of Indirect Imaging techniques in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Harlaftis, E T

    2000-01-01

    A review is given on aspects of indirect imaging techniques in X-ray binaries which are used as diagnostics tools for probing the X-ray dominated accretion disc physics. These techniques utilize observed properties such as the emission line profile variability, the time delays between simultaneous optical/X-ray light curves curves, the light curves of eclipsing systems and the pulsed emission from the compact object in order to reconstruct the accretion disc's line emissivity (Doppler tomography), the irradiated disc and heated secondary (echo mapping), the outer disc structure (modified eclipse mapping) and the accreting regions onto the compact object, respectively.

  8. Single-cell epigenomics: techniques and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Omer; Tanay, Amos

    2015-12-01

    Epigenomics is the study of the physical modifications, associations and conformations of genomic DNA sequences, with the aim of linking these with epigenetic memory, cellular identity and tissue-specific functions. While current techniques in the field are characterizing the average epigenomic features across large cell ensembles, the increasing interest in the epigenetics within complex and heterogeneous tissues is driving the development of single-cell epigenomics. We review emerging single-cell methods for capturing DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, chromosome conformation and replication dynamics. Together, these techniques are rapidly becoming a powerful tool in studies of cellular plasticity and diversity, as seen in stem cells and cancer.

  9. 78 FR 76638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  10. 78 FR 19730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  11. 78 FR 16291 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  12. 77 FR 16057 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... applications for permits to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  13. 77 FR 16252 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  14. 78 FR 48899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  15. 76 FR 64374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... application for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with endangered species....

  16. 77 FR 32130 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  17. 77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  18. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  19. Characterization of Plant Functions Using Cultured Plant Cells, and Biotechnological Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SATO, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    .... On the other hand, the use of plant cell cultures for the more basic characterization of plant functions is rather limited due to the difficulties associated with functional differentiation in cell cultures...

  20. Strategies in the application of the Donnan membrane technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.P.; Vega, F.A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2011-01-01

    e Donnan membrane technique (DMT) can be applied to measure free ion concentrations both in laboratory and in situ in the field. In designing DMT experiments, different strategies can be taken, depending on whether accumulation is needed. (1) When the free ion concentration is above the detection li