WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant analysis risk

  1. 76 FR 66033 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are Quarantine Pests or Hosts of Quarantine Pests AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... pests and 107 taxa of plants for planting are hosts of 13 quarantine pests and therefore should be...

  2. 78 FR 41908 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of Availability of Data Sheets for Taxa of Plants for Planting That Are Quarantine Pests or Hosts of Quarantine Pests AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... plants for planting are quarantine pests or hosts of quarantine pests and, therefore, should be added...

  3. Analysis and insights from a dynamical model of nuclear plant safety risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Stephen M. [Electric Power Research Institute, 30 Bethel Road, Glen Mills, PA 19342 (United States)]. E-mail: shess@epri.com; Albano, Alfonso M. [School of Economics and Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, 90 Stamford Road, Singapore 178903 (Singapore); Gaertner, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we expand upon previously reported results of a dynamical systems model for the impact of plant processes and programmatic performance on nuclear plant safety risk. We utilize both analytical techniques and numerical simulations typical of the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems to obtain insights important for effective risk management. This includes use of bifurcation diagrams to show that period doubling bifurcations and regions of chaotic dynamics can occur. We also investigate the impact of risk mitigating functions (equipment reliability and loss prevention) on plant safety risk and demonstrate that these functions are capable of improving risk to levels that are better than those that are represented in a traditional risk assessment. Next, we analyze the system response to the presence of external noise and obtain some conclusions with respect to the allocation of resources to ensure that safety is maintained at optimal levels. In particular, we demonstrate that the model supports the importance of management and regulator attention to plants that have demonstrated poor performance by providing an external stimulus to obtain desired improvements. Equally important, the model suggests that excessive intervention, by either plant management or regulatory authorities, can have a deleterious impact on safety for plants that are operating with very effective programs and processes. Finally, we propose a modification to the model that accounts for the impact of plant risk culture on process performance and plant safety risk. We then use numerical simulations to demonstrate the important safety benefits of a strong risk culture.

  4. A new tool for risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Arkam Mechhoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was the implementation of a new automated tool dedicated to risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants, based on a combination of two analysis methods: HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Assessment of accident scenarios is also considered. The principal advantage of the two analysis methods is to speed-up hazard identification and risk assessment and forecast the nature and impact of such accidents. Plant parameters are analyzed under a graphical interface to facilitate the exploitation of our developed approach. This automated analysis brings out the different deviations of the operating parameters of any system in the plant. Possible causes of these deviations, their consequences and preventive actions are identified. The result is risk minimization and dependability enhancement of the considered system.

  5. Assessing stakeholder perspectives on invasive plants to inform risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and land management decisions are often based primarily on natural science, but could be more successful if human influences were effectively integrated into decision-making. This is especially true for efforts to manage invasive plants, whose arrival is usually the product of delibera...

  6. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

  7. Power plant selection in a carbon constrained world the TERA (technoeconomic environmental risk analysis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Ogaji; Pericles Pilidis; Vishal Sethi

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing concern that current trends of consumption of natural resources cannot continue. It is imperative that major targeted investments are made into economical and reliable environment friendly propulsion and power solutions. Many novel and promising concepts are being proposed. The selection of the best candidates to pursue for investment becomes a very difficult choice.A detailed TERA (techno-economic environmental risk analysis) framework is described here to quantify risks and to compare and rank competing schemes on a formal and consistent basis. This technique is based on detailed and rigorous thermodynamic representations of power plants. A layer of environment, economic, weather and other models to describe the appropriate local conditions is superimposed to this.The outcome is a techno-economic environmental risk analysis framework with appropriate detail of each power plant as applied to the appropriate conditions. The results for each concept can then be compared and contrasted to make appropriate selections.

  8. The risk analysis of dust electrostatic based on on-site survey of polypropylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiumin; He, Mingjun; Yu, Haibo

    2013-03-01

    The dust electrostatic explosion accidents in polypropylene plant are mainly caused by the interaction of combustible gas, dust and static electricity. This paper analyses the key parts easy to produce dust and the risks of dust electrostatic by on-site survey of polypropylene plant, and proposes corresponding safety protection measures. The analysis results indicate that any careless mistakes and deviation in every step of process control may lead to electrostatic explosion in the silo. And if the equipment has some inherent defects and there are some careless mistakes in the process control, it will be easier to cause dust electrostatic explosion accidents.

  9. Risk analysis of sterile production plants: a new and simple, workable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapp, Guenther; Holzknecht, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A sterile active ingredient plant and a sterile finished dosage filling plant both comprise very complex production processes and systems. The sterility of the final product cannot be assured solely by sterility testing, in-process controls, environmental monitoring of cleanrooms, and media fill validations. Based on more than 15 years experience, 4 years ago the authors created a new but very simple approach to the risk analysis of sterile plants. This approach is not a failure mode and effects analysis and therefore differs from the PDA Technical Report 44 Quality Risk Management for Aseptic Processes of 2008. The principle involves specific questions, which have been defined in the risk analysis questionnaire in advance, to be answered by an expert team. If the questionnaire item is dealt with appropriately, the answer is assigned a low-risk number (1) and if very weak or deficient it gets a high-risk number (5). In addition to the numbers, colors from green (not problematic) through orange to red (very problematic) are attributed to make the results more striking. Because the individual units of each production plant have a defined and different impact on the overall sterility of the final product, different risk emphasis factors have to be taken into account (impact factor 1, 3, or 5). In a well run cleanroom, the cleanroom operators have a lower impact than other units with regard to the contamination risk. The resulting number of the analyzed production plant and the diagram of the assessment subsequently offers very important and valuable information about a) the risk for microbiological contamination (sterility/endotoxins) of the product, and b) the compliance status of the production plant and the risk of failing lots, as well as probable observations of upcoming regulatory agency audits. Both items above are highly important for the safety of the patient. It is also an ideal tool to identify deficient or weak systems requiring improvement and upgrade

  10. Risk-taking plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  11. Indoor Soiling Method and Outdoor Statistical Risk Analysis of Photovoltaic Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Vidyashree

    This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 presents an approach for working towards the development of a standardized artificial soiling method for laminated photovoltaic (PV) cells or mini-modules. Construction of an artificial chamber to maintain controlled environmental conditions and components/chemicals used in artificial soil formulation is briefly explained. Both poly-Si mini-modules and a single cell mono-Si coupons were soiled and characterization tests such as I-V, reflectance and quantum efficiency (QE) were carried out on both soiled, and cleaned coupons. From the results obtained, poly-Si mini-modules proved to be a good measure of soil uniformity, as any non-uniformity present would not result in a smooth curve during I-V measurements. The challenges faced while executing reflectance and QE characterization tests on poly-Si due to smaller size cells was eliminated on the mono-Si coupons with large cells to obtain highly repeatable measurements. This study indicates that the reflectance measurements between 600-700 nm wavelengths can be used as a direct measure of soil density on the modules. Part 2 determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged PV modules using experimental data obtained in the field and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 744 poly-Si glass/polymer frameless modules fielded for 18 years under the cold-dry climate of New York was evaluated. Defect chart, degradation rates (both string and module levels) and safety map were generated using the field measured data. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is used to determine the dominant failure or degradation modes in the strings and modules by means of ranking and prioritizing the modes. This study on PV power plants considers all the failure and degradation modes from both safety and performance perspectives. The indoor and outdoor soiling studies were jointly

  12. A Risk Analysis of Small-Hydro Power (SHP Plants Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption has led to a sharp increase in energy demand which rose environmental and sustainability concerns. To address this issue, there has been an incentive to resource to renewable energy sources for electricity production. Departing from a real case study, the investment appraisal of a SHP project under the present market conditions is described, followed by a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main sources of risk. The main results obtained showed that in the context of a regulated tariff the project is worthwhile due to a positive NPV. However, if electricity had to be sold at market prices, the project becomes unprofitable. Theresults put also in evidence the vulnerability of the investment to an adverse change in interest rates. Future SHP plant investments should take into account the need to operate in a free market and to compete with technologies based on fossil fuels or large hydro.

  13. Analysis of the Relationship between Risk Perception and Willingness to Pay for Nuclear Power Plant Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of new technologies, more risk is introduced into modern society. Important decisions about new technologies tend to be made by specialists, which can lead to a mismatch of risk perception between citizens and specialists, resulting in high social cost. Using contingent valuation methods, this paper analyzes the relationship between willingness to pay (WTP and the factors expressed through people’s image of nuclear power plants (NPP, their perception of NPP safety, and how these can be affected by their scientific background level. Results indicate that groups with a high scientific background level tend to have low risk perception level, represented through their image and safety levels. Further, the results show that mean WTP is dependent on scientific background and image levels. It is believed that these results could help decision makers address the mismatch of trust between the public and specialists in terms of new policy.

  14. 76 FR 44572 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... include the names of the taxa. For taxa of plants for planting that are hosts of quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa, the foreign places from which the taxa's importation is not... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized...

  15. 78 FR 26316 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa. For taxa of plants for planting that are hosts of quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa, the foreign places from which the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plants for Planting Whose Importation is...

  16. The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, John; Tkach, Mark; Olszewski, Jennifer; Chaudhry, Rabia; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This presentation demonstrates the application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) at Zambia's principal water treatment facility, The Iolanda Water Treatment Plant. The water treatment plant is prone to unacceptable failures during periods of low hydropower production at the Kafue Gorge Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant. The case study explores approaches of increasing the water treatment plant's ability to deliver acceptable levels of service under the range of current and potential future climate states. The objective of the study is to investigate alternative investments to build system resilience that might have been informed by the CRIDA process, and to evaluate the extra resource requirements by a bilateral donor agency to implement the CRIDA process. The case study begins with an assessment of the water treatment plant's vulnerability to climate change. It does so by following general principals described in "Confronting Climate Uncertainty in Water Resource Planning and Project Design: the Decision Tree Framework". By utilizing relatively simple bootstrapping methods a range of possible future climate states is generated while avoiding the use of more complex and costly downscaling methodologies; that are beyond the budget and technical capacity of many teams. The resulting climate vulnerabilities and uncertainty in the climate states that produce them are analyzed as part of a "Level of Concern" analysis. CRIDA principals are then applied to this Level of Concern analysis in order to arrive at a set of actionable water management decisions. The principal goals of water resource management is to transform variable, uncertain hydrology into dependable services (e.g. water supply, flood risk reduction, ecosystem benefits, hydropower production, etc…). Traditional approaches to climate adaptation require the generation of predicted future climate states but do little guide decision makers how this information should impact decision making. In

  17. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T.; Ligon, D.; Stamatelatos, M.

    1983-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system.

  18. 78 FR 23209 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... However, the commenter recommended that we consider the fact that the plants did not establish permanently..., clearing of floodplain habitat, and roadside clearing. The commenter stated that the fact that P..., Germany, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The commenter cited data from USDA's Foreign Agricultural...

  19. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI 4; 62 severe accidents among the world’s reactors in 100,000 years of operation has been estimated. This result is compatible with the frequency estimate of a probabilistic safety assessment for a typical pressurised power reactor in Germany. It is used in scenario calculations concerning the development in numbers of reactors in the next twenty years. For the base scenario with constant reactor numbers the time to the next accident among the world's 441 reactors, which were connected to the grid in 2010, is estimated to 11 (95% CI 3.7; 52 years. In two other scenarios a moderate increase or decrease in reactor numbers have negligible influence on the results. The time to the next accident can be extended well above the lifetime of reactors by retiring a sizeable number of less secure ones and by safety improvements for the rest.

  20. Risk management method for small photovoltaic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Milena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is necessary for achieving the goals of the organization. There are many methods, approaches, and instruments in the literature concerning risk management. However, these are often highly specialized and transferring them to a different field can prove difficult. Therefore, managers often face situations where they have no tools to use for risk management. This is the case with small photovoltaic plants (according to a definition by the Bulgarian State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission small applies to systems with a total installed power of 200 kWp. There are some good practices in the energy field for minimizing risks, but they offer only partial risk prevention and are not sufficient. Therefore a new risk management method needs to be introduced. Small photovoltaic plants offer plenty of advantages in comparison to the other renewable energy sources which makes risk management in their case more important. There is no classification of risks for the exploitation of small photovoltaic systems in the available literature as well as to what degree the damages from those risks could spread. This makes risk analysis and evaluation necessary for obtaining information which could aid taking decisions for improving risk management. The owner of the invested capital takes a decision regarding the degree of acceptable risk for his organization and it must be protected depending on the goals set. Investors in small photovoltaic systems need to decide to what degree the existing risks can influence the goals previously set, the payback of the investment, and what is the acceptable level of damages for the investor. The purpose of this work is to present a risk management method, which currently does not exist in the Bulgaria, so that the risks and the damages that could occur during the exploitation of small photovoltaic plants could be identified and the investment in such technology – justified.

  1. [Health risk analysis of VOC/SVOC contaminated soil in an abandoned chemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guan-lin; Wang, Shi-jie; Shi, Lie-yan; Li, Hui-ying; Han, Chun-mei; Gu, Qing-bao; Cao, Yun-zhe; Li, Fa-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Environmental health risk of contaminated soil in a typical abandoned industry was analyzed based on the full field investigation according to the site assessment procedure of American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). Parameters were modified with the combination of Chinese crowd character and site specifics. Results indicated that the site was mainly contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil profiles. And the contents of carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, pentachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachloroethane and hexachlorobenzene in soil samples were exceeded the national environmental standard. These contaminants ranked the carcinogenic risks and hazard quotients more than 10(-2) and 1 in some locations with the exposure by oral ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation. Contaminants in this site had resulted in the high health risks to the residents and surrounding communities. The risk should be reduced to the health acceptable level by the treatment and remediation before further development for residential and commercial utilization.

  2. Simplified seismic risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellissetti, Manuel; Klapp, Ulrich [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the context of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for nuclear power plants (NPP's), seismic risk assessment has the purpose to demonstrate that the contribution of seismic events to overall risk is not excessive. The most suitable vehicle for seismic risk assessment is a full scope seismic PSA (SPSA), in which the frequency of core damage due to seismic events is estimated. An alternative method is represented by seismic margin assessment (SMA), which aims at showing sufficient margin between the site-specific safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) and the actual capacity of the plant. Both methods are based on system analysis (fault-trees and event-trees) and hence require fragility estimates for safety relevant systems, structures and components (SSC's). If the seismic conditions at a specific site of a plant are not very demanding, then it is reasonable to expect that the risk due to seismic events is low. In such cases, the cost-benefit ratio for performing a full scale, site-specific SPSA or SMA will be excessive, considering the ultimate objective of seismic risk analysis. Rather, it will be more rational to rely on a less comprehensive analysis, used as a basis for demonstrating that the risk due to seismic events is not excessive. The present paper addresses such a simplified approach to seismic risk assessment which is used in AREVA to: - estimate seismic risk in early design stages, - identify needs to extend the design basis, - define a reasonable level of seismic risk analysis Starting from a conservative estimate of the overall plant capacity, in terms of the HCLPF (High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure), and utilizing a generic value for the variability, the seismic risk is estimated by convolution of the hazard and the fragility curve. Critical importance is attached to the selection of the plant capacity in terms of the HCLPF, without performing extensive fragility calculations of seismically relevant SSC's. A suitable basis

  3. A new microbiological risk analysis tool for cryptosporidium to support decision making in drinking water treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macián-Cervera, Javier; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    One of the main hazards over the water quality in the water supply systems from surface raw water is cryptosporidium, considered by World Health Organization, as the most dangerous emergent pathogen. Analitycal methods for cryptosporidium are expensive, laborious and they do not have enough precission, on the other hand, labs analyze discretal samples, while drinking water production is a continuous process. In that point, the introduction of risk models in necessary to check the ability of safety of the water produced. The advances in tools able to quantify risk applied to conventional treatment drinking water treatment plants is quite useful for the operators, able to assess about decisions in operation and in investments. The model is applied into a real facility. With the results, it's possible to conclude interesting guidelines and policies about improving plant's operation mode. The main conclusion is that conventional treatment is able to work as effective barrier against cryptosporidium, but it is necessary to assess the risk of the plant while it is operating. Taking into account limitations of knowledge, risk estimation can rise non tolerable levels. In that situation, the plant must make investments in the treatment improving the operation, to get tolerable risk levels.

  4. Probabilistic analysis of risks to US drinking water intakes from 1,4-dioxane in domestic wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonich, Staci Massey; Sun, Ping; Casteel, Ken; Dyer, Scott; Wernery, Dave; Garber, Kevin; Carr, Gregory; Federle, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The risks of 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) concentrations in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, receiving primarily domestic wastewater, to downstream drinking water intakes was estimated using distributions of measured dioxane concentrations in effluents from 40 WWTPs and surface water dilution factors of 1323 drinking water intakes across the United States. Effluent samples were spiked with a d8 -1,4-dioxane internal standard in the field immediately after sample collection. Dioxane was extracted with ENVI-CARB-Plus solid phase columns and analyzed by GC/MS/MS, with a limit of quantification of 0.30 μg/L. Measured dioxane concentrations in domestic wastewater effluents ranged from water intakes using the iSTREEM model at mean flow conditions, assuming no in-stream loss of dioxane. Dilution factors ranged from 2.6 to 48 113, with a mean of 875. The distributions of dilution factors and dioxane concentration in effluent were then combined using Monte Carlo analysis to estimate dioxane concentrations at drinking water intakes. This analysis showed the probability was negligible (p = 0.0031) that dioxane inputs from upstream WWTPs could result in intake concentrations exceeding the USEPA drinking water advisory concentration of 0.35 μg/L, before any treatment of the water for drinking use.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EV-MOGA AND GODLIKE MULTIOBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR RISK BASED OPTIMAL POWER SCHEDULING OF A VIRTUAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh S. Narkhede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in this article to compare the performances of two multiobjective evolutionary algorithms namely ev-MOGA and GODLIKE. The performances of both are evaluated on risk based optimal power scheduling of virtual power plant. The risk based scheduling is proposed as a conflicting bi objective optimization problem with increased number of durations of day. Both the algorithms are elaborated in detail. Results based on the performance analysis are depicted at the end.

  6. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  7. Information security risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Effective Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk AnalysisValue AnalysisOther Qualitative MethodsFacilitated Risk Analysis Process (FRAP)Other Uses of Qualitative Risk AnalysisCase StudyAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: Facilitated Risk Analysis Process FormsAppendix C: Business Impact Analysis FormsAppendix D: Sample of ReportAppendix E: Threat DefinitionsAppendix F: Other Risk Analysis OpinionsIndex

  8. Analysis of environmental risks with an encapsulation plant and a final disposal repository; Miljoeriskanalys foer inkapslingsanlaeggning och slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan; Herly, Lucien; Pettersson, Lars [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    This report covers non-radiological environmental risks related to an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. All stages of the above are covered. This means construction, operation, demolition and sealing. A risk, in this report, is defined as a combination of probability and consequence of an undesired event. An extensive and systematic effort has been made in order to identify all risks. If risks remain undetected it should be low probability events. The risks are also evaluated to see which risks are the more serious ones. A large part of the existing risks are oil or diesel on the ground. In general the main risks occur during the construction phase and they are similar to normal risks at every large construction project. Most of the above are discharges of oil products on the ground within the construction area. With a good organisation and a high environmental profile these discharges can be minimized and when needed cleaned. For some of the other risks the same is valid - with a good preventive work they can be reduced considerably. One event which has a relatively high probability for occurrence and which may not easily be cleaned is a damaged lorry leaking oil. The resulting damage depends on where it occurs and maybe also when. Neither in Forsmark nor in Oskarshamn there are common sources of water supply in direct connection to where lorries pass and the probability for a lorry accident to cause damage to the environment is limited. After the assessment and evaluation of risk reducing measures there is one risk that appears serious even though the probability is low. This risk is the possible influence of the final repository on the subsoil water. It is most important that a large effort is put on reducing this risk. The probability of traffic accidents with injuries or fatalities will increase slightly, especially during the second phase of the construction period, since the amount of traffic is expected to increase then. Of

  9. Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A National Academies panel says the Hubble Space Telescope is too valuable ;or gamblingon a long-shot robotic mission to extend its service life, and urges Directly contradicting Administrator Sean O'Keefe, who killed a planned fifth shuttle servicing mission to the telescope on grounds it was too dangerous for a human crew in the post-Challenger environment, the expert committee found that upgrades to shuttle safety actually should make it less hazardous to fly to the telescope than it was before Columbia was lost. Risks of a telescope-servicing mission are only marginally greater than the planned missions to the International Space Station (ISS) O'Keefe has authorized, the panel found. After comparing those risks to the dangers inherent in trying to develop a complex space robot in the 39 months remaining in the Hubble s estimated service life, the panel opted for the human mission to save one of the major achievements of the American space program, in the words of Louis J. Lanzerotti, its chairman.

  10. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU). Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop...... of guidance documents. These deal with the peer review of existing pest risk assessments, a framework for conducting risk assessments which harmonise standards set by the International Plant Protection Convention and the legislative requirements of the EU, and extension of this framework to include......-evaluation of quantitative pathway analyses, and in statistical modelling of experimental data. A Plant Health Network has been established to facilitate interaction with EU Member States, especially in relation to data collection and co-ordination of risk assessment activities. At the current time a revision of the EU...

  11. Foundations of Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and

  12. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  13. Observations on risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W.A. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    This paper briefly describes WASH 1400 and the Lewis report. It attempts to define basic concepts such as risk and risk analysis, common mode failure, and rare event. Several probabilistic models which go beyond the WASH 1400 methodology are introduced; the common characteristic of these models is that they recognize explicitly that risk analysis is time dependent whereas WASH 1400 takes a per demand failure rate approach which obscures the important fact that accidents are time related. Further, the presentation of a realistic risk analysis should recognize that there are various risks which compete with one another for the lives of the individuals at risk. A way of doing this is suggested.

  14. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis to determine the plant pest risks associated with each requested importation in order to determine... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319.40-11... Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards. When evaluating a request...

  15. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series......-evaluation of quantitative pathway analyses, and in statistical modelling of experimental data. A Plant Health Network has been established to facilitate interaction with EU Member States, especially in relation to data collection and co-ordination of risk assessment activities. At the current time a revision of the EU...

  16. A dynamical systems model for nuclear power plant risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Stephen Michael

    The recent transition to an open access generation marketplace has forced nuclear plant operators to become much more cost conscious and focused on plant performance. Coincidentally, the regulatory perspective also is in a state of transition from a command and control framework to one that is risk-informed and performance-based. Due to these structural changes in the economics and regulatory system associated with commercial nuclear power plant operation, there is an increased need for plant management to explicitly manage nuclear safety risk. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to model plant hardware has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events and equipment failures that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has supported improved plant operation and safety over the previous decade. However, this analytical approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. Thus, the research described in this dissertation presents a different approach to address this issue. Here we propose a dynamical model that describes the interaction of important plant processes among themselves and their overall impact on nuclear safety risk. We first provide a review of the techniques that are applied in a conventional probabilistic risk assessment of commercially operating nuclear power plants and summarize the typical results obtained. The limitations of the conventional approach and the status of research previously performed to address these limitations also are presented. Next, we present the case for the application of an alternative approach using dynamical systems theory. This includes a discussion of previous applications of dynamical models to study other important socio-economic issues. Next, we review the analytical techniques that are applicable to analysis of

  17. On the risk of extinction of a wild plant species through spillover of a biological control agent: analysis of an ecosystem compartment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalak-Haghighi, M.; Hemerik, L.; Werf, van der W.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plant species can be controlled by introducing one or more of their natural enemies (herbivores) from their native range; however such introduction entails the risk that the introduced natural enemy will attack indigenous plant species in the area of introduction. The effect of spillover of

  18. On the risk of extinction of a wild plant species through spillover of a biological control agent: Analysis of an ecosystem compartment model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalak, M.; Hemerik, L.; Werf, van der W.; Ruijs, A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plant species can be controlled by introducing natural enemies (insect herbivores) from their native range. However, such introduction entails the risk that the introduced herbivores attack indigenous plant species in the area of introduction. Here, we study the effect of spillover of a her

  19. RISK ANALYSIS DEVELOPED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Cristina NUKINA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through Risk analysis developed model deciding whether control measures suitable for implementation. However, the analysis determines whether the benefits of a data control options cost more than the implementation.

  20. Risk and insurance management for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, M. [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The continuing negative experiences of insurers with biogas plants make it difficult for operators to get appropriate insurance cover. There are different reasons for this big number of damages. Especially in the beginning components have been rebuilt for biogas without sufficient experiences. Other damages have emerged due to improper or disregardful plant management. For that reason the insurers' standards for the biogas plant and the plant management have risen up. The following report deals with experiences of insurance for biogas plants and the resulting consequences. For that reason Marsh carried out a research project and analyzed all reported claims in the All Risk Insurance. The necessary technical minimum requirements for installation and operation are geared to the experiences with damages. But they also account for the interests of the insured. (orig.)

  1. Risk Analysis in Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KYU-HWAN; YANG

    2001-01-01

    Risk analysis is a useful tool for making good decisions on the risks of certain potentially hazardous agents and suggests a safe margin through scientific processes using toxicological data, contaminant residue levels, statistical tools, exposure values and relevant variants. Risk managers consider scientific evidence and risk estimates, along with statutory, engineering, economic, social, and political factors, in evaluating alternative regulatory options and choosing among those options (NRC, 1983).……

  2. Risk Analysis in Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Risk analysis is a useful tool for making good decisions on the risks of certain potentially hazardous agents and suggests a safe margin through scientific processes using toxicological data, contaminant residue levels, statistical tools, exposure values and relevant variants. Risk managers consider scientific evidence and risk estimates, along with statutory, engineering, economic, social, and political factors, in evaluating alternative regulatory options and choosing among those options (NRC, 1983).

  3. Risk Analysis in Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KYU-HAWNYANG

    2001-01-01

    Risk analysis is a useful too for making good decisions on the risks of certain potentially hazardous agents and suggests a safe margin through scientific processes using toxicological data.contaminant residue levels,statistical tools,exposure values and relevant variants,Risk managers consider scientific evidence and risk estimates,along with statutory,engineering,economic,social,and political factors,in evaluating alternative regulatory options and choosing among those options(NRC,1983).

  4. Risk analysis methodology survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  5. Development of a dynamical systems model of plant programmatic performance on nuclear power plant safety risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Stephen M. [Sensortex, Inc., 515 Schoolhouse Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348 (United States)]. E-mail: smhess@sensortex.com; Albano, Alfonso M. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010 (United States); Gaertner, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to model nuclear power plant accident sequences has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events, equipment failures and operator errors that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has resulted in significant improvements in plant operation and safety. However, this approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. The research described in this paper presents an alternative approach to addressing this issue. In this paper we propose a dynamical systems model that describes the interaction of important plant processes on nuclear safety risk. We discuss development of the mathematical model including the identification and interpretation of significant inter-process interactions. Next, we review the techniques applicable to analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems that are utilized in the characterization of the model. This is followed by a preliminary analysis of the model that demonstrates that its dynamical evolution displays features that have been observed at commercially operating plants. From this analysis, several significant insights are presented with respect to the effective control of nuclear safety risk. As an important example, analysis of the model dynamics indicates that significant benefits in effectively managing risk are obtained by integrating the plant operation and work management processes such that decisions are made utilizing a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach. We note that although the model was developed specifically to be applicable to nuclear power plants, many of the insights and conclusions obtained are likely applicable to other process industries.

  6. Risk analysis of pyrolyzed biochar made from paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge for bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    The risk analysis was performed to study the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in biochar obtained from pyrolysis of sludge of pulp and paper mill effluent treatment plant. The sludge was pyrolyzed at different temperatures (200-700°C) and the resultant biochar were analyzed for fractionation of heavy metals by sequential extraction procedure. It was observed that all the heavy metals get enriched in biochar matrix after pyrolysis, but the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of the heavy metals in biochar were significantly reduced as the mobile and bioavailable heavy metal fractions were transformed into the relatively stable fractions. Moreover, it was observed that the leaching potential of heavy metals decreased after pyrolysis and the best results were obtained for biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H. [EQE, International, Irvine, CA (United States); Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S. [NTS Engineering, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  8. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk

  9. Information Security Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Offers readers with the knowledge and the skill-set needed to achieve a highly effective risk analysis assessment. This title demonstrates how to identify threats and then determine if those threats pose a real risk. It is suitable for industry and academia professionals.

  10. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  11. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians.

  12. Health benefits and risks of plant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Valachovicova, M

    2005-01-01

    Plant proteins have a reduced content of essential amino acids in comparison to animal proteins. A significant reduction of limiting amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan) means lower protein synthesis. In subjects with predominant or exclusive consumption of plant food a higher incidence of hypoproteinemia due to significant reduction of methionine and lysine intakes was observed. On the other hand, lower intake of these amino acids provides a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease via cholesterol regulation by an inhibited hepatic phospholipid metabolism. Vegetarians have a significantly higher intake of non-essential amino acids arginine and pyruvigenic amino acids glycine, alanine, serine. When plant protein is high in non-essential amino acids, down-regulation of insulin and up-regulation of glucagon is a logical consequence. The action of glucagon in the liver is mediated by stimulation of adenyl cyclase that raises cyclic-AMP (adenosine-3,5-monophosphate) concentrations. Cyclic-AMP down-regulates the synthesis of a number of enzymes required for de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, up-regulates key gluconeogenic enzymes and the LDL receptors and decreases the IGF-1 activity (insulin-like growth factor). Cyclic-AMP thus provides a reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors as well as a retardation of cancer development. A sufficient consumption of plant proteins has the protective effects against chronic degenerative diseases (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  13. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  14. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  15. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  16. Exotic Plant Invasion Risk in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This model was constructed to model the risk of invasion by exotic plant species. Roads may directly influence exotic plant dispersal via disturbance during road...

  17. Questions concerning safety and risk after the nuclear accidents in Japan. Deepened accident analysis for the Fukushima Daiichi power plant; Sicherheits- und Risikofragen im Nachgang zu den nuklearen Stoer- und Unfaellen in Japan. Vertiefte Ereignisanalyse zur Anlage Fukushima-Daini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph; Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    The study questions concerning safety and risk in Japanese power plants following the disastrous nuclear accident covers the following issues: the nuclear facility Fukushima Daiichi, site characterization, important technical equipment, important electro-technical equipment, personal; description of the accident progression in the Fukushima nuclear power plant: impact of the earthquake, impact of the tsunami, short-term measures of the operating personnel, pressure and temperature situation in the containments, restoration of the after-heat cooling system in the units 1/2 and 4, fuel element storage pool, summarized parameters during the accident progress; comparative analysis of the accident progression at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  18. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  19. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide 30 food plants deliver 95% of human daily intake of plant food calories and around 300 other plant species are delivering the last 5%. These some 300 food plants are likely to be considered traditional in Europe, while the nearly 7000 other plant species traditionally used in the human ...... at the second step. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Probabilistic risk analysis and terrorism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles; Bennett, Steven P; von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Sokolowski, John; Collins, Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), considerable efforts have been made to estimate the risks of terrorism and the cost effectiveness of security policies to reduce these risks. DHS, industry, and the academic risk analysis communities have all invested heavily in the development of tools and approaches that can assist decisionmakers in effectively allocating limited resources across the vast array of potential investments that could mitigate risks from terrorism and other threats to the homeland. Decisionmakers demand models, analyses, and decision support that are useful for this task and based on the state of the art. Since terrorism risk analysis is new, no single method is likely to meet this challenge. In this article we explore a number of existing and potential approaches for terrorism risk analysis, focusing particularly on recent discussions regarding the applicability of probabilistic and decision analytic approaches to bioterrorism risks and the Bioterrorism Risk Assessment methodology used by the DHS and criticized by the National Academies and others.

  1. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  2. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  3. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available tec

  4. Spatial risk assessment of alien plants in China using biodiversity resistance theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YouHua Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the potential occurrence risk of invasive plants across different provinces of China is studied using disease risk mapping techniques (empirical Bayesian smoothing and Poisson-Gamma model. The biodiversity resistance theory which predicts that high-biodiversity areas will have reduced risk of species invasion serves as the base for performing spatial risk assessment of plant invasion across provinces. The results show that, both risk mapping methods identified that north-eastern part of China have the highest relative risk of plant invasion. In contrast, south-western and south-eastern parts of China, which have high woody plant richness, are predicted to possess low relative risks of plant invasion. Through spatial regression analysis (simultaneous autoregression model, nine environmental variables representing energy availability, water availability, seasonality, and habitat heterogeneity are used to explain the relative risk of plant invasion across provinces of China. The fitting results suggest that, PRECrange and TEMrange are the most two important covariates correlated with the occurrence risks of alien plants at provincial level in China. As indicated by Moran's I index, spatial regression analysis can effectively eliminate the potential biases caused by spatial autocorrelation.

  5. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  6. RISK ANALYSIS IN MILK PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PIRVUTOIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate Risk bankruptcy using “Score Method” based on Canon and Holder’s Model. The data were collected from the Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account for the period 2005-2007, recorded by a Meat processing Plant (Rador Commercial Company .The study has put in evidence the financial situation of the company,the level of the main financial ratios fundamenting the calculation of Z score function value in the three years The low values of Z score function recorded every year reflects that the company is still facing backruptcy. However , the worst situation was recorded in the years 2005 and 2006, when baknruptcy risk was ranging between 70 – 80 % . In the year 2007, the risk bankruptcy was lower, ranging between 50-70 % , as Z function recorded a value lower than 4 .For Meat processing companies such an analysis is compulsory at present as long as business environment is very risky in our country.

  7. Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Scientific uncertainty plays a major role in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles. Moreover, there is uncertainty within fundamental data and information regarding the potential environmental and health risks of nanoparticles, hampering risk assessments based on standard a...

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment with MCDM of Some Invasive Alien Plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guowen; Chen, Weiguang; Lin, Meizhen; Zheng, Yanling; Guo, Peiguo; Zheng, Yisheng

    Alien plant invasion is an urgent global issue that threatens the sustainable development of the ecosystem health. The study of its ecological risk assessment (ERA) could help us to prevent and reduce the invasion risk more effectively. Based on the theory of ERA and methods of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), and through the analyses of the characteristics and processes of alien plant invasion, this paper discusses the methodologies of ERA of alien plant invasion. The assessment procedure consisted of risk source analysis, receptor analysis, exposure and hazard assessment, integral assessment, and countermeasure of risk management. The indicator system of risk source assessment as well as the indices and formulas applied to measure the ecological loss and risk were established, and the method for comprehensively assessing the ecological risk of alien plant invasion was worked out. The result of ecological risk analysis to 9 representative invasive alien plants in China shows that the ecological risk of Erigeron annuus, Ageratum conyzoides, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Mikania midrantha is high (grade1-2), that of Oxalis corymbosa and Wedelia chinensis comes next (grade3), while Mirabilis jalapa, Pilea microphylla and Calendula officinalis of the last (grade 4). Risk strategies are put forward on this basis.

  9. Quantified Risk Assessment for Plants Producing and Storing Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis A. Papazoglou; Panagiotis Saravanos; Ieronymos Giakoumatos; Olga N. Aneziris

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of plants producing and storing explosives. The major procedural steps for quantified risk assessment (QRA) in explosive plants are the following: hazard identification, accident sequence modeling, data acquisition, accident sequence quantification, consequence assessment and integration of results.This methodology is demonstrated and applied in an explosive plant consisting of four separate units, which produce detonating cord, nitroglycol, dynamites and ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). A GIS platform is used for depicting individual risk from explosions in this plant. Total individual risk is equal to 1.0 × 10-4/y in a distance of 340m from the center of the plant, and 1.0 × 10-6/y in a distance of 390m from the center of the plant.

  10. Risk Analysis of Coal Gangue Power Plant Project Based on ISM Model%基于ISM模型的煤矸石电厂项目风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀巨海; 梁微

    2011-01-01

    近年来,我国政府部门出台一系列支持和鼓励政策,建立以煤矸石综合利用电厂,使其变废为宝。新电力体制下,火电厂项目竞争激烈,管理中存在很大的风险。根据对煤矸石电厂项目风险因素的分析,从定性的角度给出了影响煤矸石电厂项目的风险因素,将系统工程理论中的解释结构(ISM)模型运用在风险因素分析中,针对风险因素,建立ISM模型,并且运用模型对风险因素进行层次划分,找出各个风险相互影响的内在联系,并且根据ISM模型的分析得到煤矸石电厂项目的规避风险的建议。%In recent years,China's government introduced a series of policies to support and encourage the establishment of coal gangue power plant,to turning waste into treasure.Under the new power system,thermal power plant project competition,there is a big risk of the management.Based on risk analysis of the factors of the gangue power plant project,this paper gives the impact of the risk factors of gangue power plant project from qualitative point,used the Interpretative Systems Model(ISM) method of the engineering theory in the analysis of risk factors,for the risk factors,to establish the ISM,and use the model to divide the level of risk factors.Then identify the various mutual influence inherent relationship of risks,and according to the ISM has been to get the suggestions of avoiding the risk,so that the managers could manage scientifically.

  11. Initial Risk Analysis and Decision Making Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-01

    Commercialization of new carbon capture simulation initiative (CCSI) technology will include two key elements of risk management, namely, technical risk (will process and plant performance be effective, safe, and reliable) and enterprise risk (can project losses and costs be controlled within the constraints of market demand to maintain profitability and investor confidence). Both of these elements of risk are incorporated into the risk analysis subtask of Task 7. Thus far, this subtask has developed a prototype demonstration tool that quantifies risk based on the expected profitability of expenditures when retrofitting carbon capture technology on a stylized 650 MW pulverized coal electric power generator. The prototype is based on the selection of specific technical and financial factors believed to be important determinants of the expected profitability of carbon capture, subject to uncertainty. The uncertainty surrounding the technical performance and financial variables selected thus far is propagated in a model that calculates the expected profitability of investments in carbon capture and measures risk in terms of variability in expected net returns from these investments. Given the preliminary nature of the results of this prototype, additional work is required to expand the scope of the model to include additional risk factors, additional information on extant and proposed risk factors, the results of a qualitative risk factor elicitation process, and feedback from utilities and other interested parties involved in the carbon capture project. Additional information on proposed distributions of these risk factors will be integrated into a commercial implementation framework for the purpose of a comparative technology investment analysis.

  12. Risk Analysis on Safety Injection Test of PWR Nuclear Power Plant%压水堆核电厂安注试验风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永华

    2012-01-01

    During the safety injection (SI) test in the PWR nuclear power plant, full water in pressurizer and high-high level, low-low level in SG may take place. This paper analyzes the risks and response measures in the SI test. Focusing on the full scale problem of pressurizer thermal calibration level gauge in the SI test of nuclear power plant, the test process is analyzed and the problems that should be noted in the SI test are summed up.%在压水堆核电厂安注试验期间,可能出现稳压器满水及主蒸汽发生器(SG)高高、低低液位等问题.本文分析了安注试验的风险及应对措施;针对某核电厂进行安注试验时稳压器热态标定液位计满量程问题,对试验过程进行分析,并总结出安注试验中应注意的问题.

  13. International Conference on Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Teresa; Rigas, Alexandros; Gulati, Sneh

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest results in the field of risk analysis. Presented topics include probabilistic models in cancer research, models and methods in longevity, epidemiology of cancer risk, engineering reliability and economical risk problems. The contributions of this volume originate from the 5th International Conference on Risk Analysis (ICRA 5). The conference brought together researchers and practitioners working in the field of risk analysis in order to present new theoretical and computational methods with applications in biology, environmental sciences, public health, economics and finance.

  14. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  15. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsne Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risks of plant pests that have previously been used in pest risk assessment. The limitations identified by the review led the Panel to define the new methodology for environmental risk assessment which is described in this guidance document. The guidance is primarily addressed to the EFSA PLH...

  16. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  17. MATHEMATICAL RISK ANALYSIS: VIA NICHOLAS RISK MODEL AND BAYESIAN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this second part of a two-phased study was to explorethe predictive power of quantitative risk analysis (QRA method andprocess within Higher Education Institution (HEI. The method and process investigated the use impact analysis via Nicholas risk model and Bayesian analysis, with a sample of hundred (100 risk analysts in a historically black South African University in the greater Eastern Cape Province.The first findings supported and confirmed previous literature (KingIII report, 2009: Nicholas and Steyn, 2008: Stoney, 2007: COSA, 2004 that there was a direct relationship between risk factor, its likelihood and impact, certiris paribus. The second finding in relation to either controlling the likelihood or the impact of occurrence of risk (Nicholas risk model was that to have a brighter risk reward, it was important to control the likelihood ofoccurrence of risks as compared with its impact so to have a direct effect on entire University. On the Bayesian analysis, thus third finding, the impact of risk should be predicted along three aspects. These aspects included the human impact (decisions made, the property impact (students and infrastructural based and the business impact. Lastly, the study revealed that although in most business cases, where as business cycles considerably vary dependingon the industry and or the institution, this study revealed that, most impacts in HEI (University was within the period of one academic.The recommendation was that application of quantitative risk analysisshould be related to current legislative framework that affects HEI.

  18. Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants | Hussain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Abstract. Four medicinal plants including Ranunculus arvensis, Equisetum ravens, Carathamus lanatus and Fagonia critica were used for the study.

  19. Quantitative Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The US energy sector is vulnerable to multiple hazards including both natural disasters and malicious attacks from an intelligent adversary. The question that utility owners, operators and regulators face is how to prioritize their investments to mitigate the risks from a hazard that can have the most impact on the asset of interest. In order to be able to understand their risk landscape and develop a prioritized mitigation strategy, they must quantify risk in a consistent way across all hazards their asset is facing. Without being able to quantitatively measure risk, it is not possible to defensibly prioritize security investments or evaluate trade-offs between security and functionality. Development of a methodology that will consistently measure and quantify risk across different hazards is needed.

  20. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  1. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  2. Plant metabolomics is not ripe for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert D; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2014-08-01

    Metabolomics separates and detects small molecules and helps determine the composition of plant materials. This makes it appear to be a possible contributor to environmental risk assessment (ERA) of transgenic plants. Here we argue that, despite important advances in the technology, limited annotation and our limited knowledge of the role of metabolites in plant-environment interactions means that metabolomics is not yet ripe for ERA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... the actual risk assessment procedures and the risk evaluation, which must proceed the data collection. The report use the terminology ecological risk assessment rather than environmental risk assessment because at present this work does not include bio-geochemical effects and environmental impacts from...... for uncertainties in the extrapolation from limited laboratory studies to the species rich field environment. The relationship between the size of the safety factor and the number of species is therefore an issue of the risk assessment. Some of the issues raised in this report overlap with data needs...

  4. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  5. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing...

  6. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy, E-mail: gasandylang@live.com; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia); Kim, Seon Jin [Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering of Pukyong National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  7. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  8. Workshop One : Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlson, T.J.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The workshop looked at the assessment of risk to aquatic animals exposed to anthropogenic sound. The discussion focused on marine mammals given the worldwide attention being paid to them at the present time, particularly in relationship to oil and gas exploration, ocean power, and increases in ship

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON ENTITY'S RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MONEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, because of the complexity of this topic, the purpose is to discuss the main aspects involved by risk analysis; starting with few conceptual approaches about risk and to outline the contributions about methods to assess different risks categories, especially methods to assess bankruptcy risk prediction (entity insolvency from economic literature. The methods used to estimate bankruptcy risk are based on the score function which helps to find if an entity is confronted with financial difficulties. The score functions are a diagnosis method elaborated relying on the discriminant analysis, allowing to assess and to predict the bankruptcy risk of the entity using a set of relevant financial ratios.

  10. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  11. POEAS: Automated Plant Phenomic Analysis Using Plant Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Naika, Mahantesha Bn; Mathew, Oommen K; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2014-01-01

    Biological enrichment analysis using gene ontology (GO) provides a global overview of the functional role of genes or proteins identified from large-scale genomic or proteomic experiments. Phenomic enrichment analysis of gene lists can provide an important layer of information as well as cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes associated with gene lists. Plant phenomic enrichment analysis will be useful for performing new experiments to better understand plant systems and for the interpretation of gene or proteins identified from high-throughput experiments. Plant ontology (PO) is a compendium of terms to define the diverse phenotypic characteristics of plant species, including plant anatomy, morphology, and development stages. Adoption of this highly useful ontology is limited, when compared to GO, because of the lack of user-friendly tools that enable the use of PO for statistical enrichment analysis. To address this challenge, we introduce Plant Ontology Enrichment Analysis Server (POEAS) in the public domain. POEAS uses a simple list of genes as input data and performs enrichment analysis using Ontologizer 2.0 to provide results in two levels, enrichment results and visualization utilities, to generate ontological graphs that are of publication quality. POEAS also offers interactive options to identify user-defined background population sets, various multiple-testing correction methods, different enrichment calculation methods, and resampling tests to improve statistical significance. The availability of such a tool to perform phenomic enrichment analyses using plant genes as a complementary resource will permit the adoption of PO-based phenomic analysis as part of analytical workflows. POEAS can be accessed using the URL http://caps.ncbs.res.in/poeas.

  12. Risk rating in the tea planting industry: The employees′ opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bobby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workers in the tea planting industry are exposed to a variety of occupational health and safety hazards. Whether the workers perceive the risks involved and to what degree is an interesting point in question. Aims: To identify occupational health and safety risks involved in the tea planting sector and to rate these risks from the workers′ perspective. Settings and Design: Permanent workers from four estates belonging to one tea planting company in southern India were enlisted in this descriptive study . Materials and Methods: The sample was randomly and then proportionately selected to give a total number equal to the calculated sample size of 341. Data were collected by reviewing medical records, conducting focus group discussions with field officers and supervisors, worker interviews and key informant interviews with the management in these four estates. Proportions were used to describe occurrence and distribution of work-related injuries. The risks as perceived by the workers were rated on their severity and frequency, using a Risk Rating Matrix. Results and Conclusion: The incidence of injuries was greater among male workers, those working both in the field and factory and those handling multiple tasks. The most common morbidities suffered were "small cuts and abrasions" in about 53%of the workers. Backache and insect bites were assigned the highest risk rating scores. Continued monitoring of the risk assessment by the workers could help in a planned reduction of commonly occurring injuries by agreeing on a specified risk limit.

  13. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  14. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  15. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  17. 76 FR 65165 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Risk-Based Sampling and Inspection Approach and Propagative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to implement a risk... will evaluate the risk associated with combinations of taxa of plants for planting and countries from... planting from a certain country is determined to present a medium or low risk, it will be sampled at the...

  18. Forecasting risk of bankruptcy for machine-building plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telipenko, E.; Zakharova, A.; Sopova, Svetlana

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents an overview of well-known bankruptcy risk forecasting models, elaborated as by Russian so by foreign authors, on the basis of the data about financial and business activities of the biggest machine-building Russian plants. The authors substantiate and confirm appropriateness of a fuzzy set model to the problem of bankruptcy risk forecasting. This model is worked out on the basis of 10 most important factors, which have the greatest influence on sales proceeds as the main financial source for a production plant.

  19. Quantitative risks analysis of maritime terminal petrochemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Leandro Silveira; Leal, Cesar A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica (PROMEC)]. E-mail: leandro19889900@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a computer program (RISKAN) developed for studies of quantification of industrial risks and also a revision of the models used in the program. As part the evaluation made, a test was performed with the application of the computer program to estimate the risks for a marine terminal for storage of petrochemical products, in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil. Thus, as part of the work, it was performed a Quantitative Risk Analysis associated to the terminal, both for the workers and for the population nearby, with a verification of acceptability using the tolerability limits established by the State Licensing Agency (FEPAM-RS). In the risk analysis methodology used internationally, the most used way of presenting results of social risks is in the graphical form with the use of the FN curves and for the individual risk it is common the use of the iso-risk curves traced on the map of the area where is the plant. In the beginning of the study, both a historical analysis of accidents and use of the technique of Preliminary Analysis of Risks were made in order to aid in the process of identification of the possible scenarios of accidents related to the activities in the terminal. After identifying the initiating events, their frequencies or probabilities of occurrence were estimated and followed by the calculations of the physical effects and deaths, with the use, inside the computer program, of published models of Prins Mauritz Laboratory and of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The average social risk obtained for the external populations was of 8.7x10{sup -7} fatality.year{sup -1} and for the internal population (people working inside the terminal), 3.2x10{sup -4} fatality.year-1. The accident scenario that most contributed to the social risk was death due to exposure to the thermal radiation caused by pool fire, with 84.3% of the total estimated for external populations and 82.9% for the people inside the terminal. The

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... assessment of GM plants when application for placing on the market is made. It is our hope that both the scientific community, the biotechnological industry and the regulatory bodies will participate in the process of improving the present draft, so that it can develop into a useful tool for both...... the industry as well as the national regulatory bodies. Furthermore, we hope that these efforts will improve the transparency of risk assessment and harmonisation of the requirements for data. The report suggests a structured way to identify the data need for risk assessment of GMHPs. It does not discuss...

  1. Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, K D; McKay, M K; Sattison, M.B. Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S T [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rasmuson, D M [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 4.0 and is the subject of this Reference Manual. Version 4.0 of IRRAS provides the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance.

  2. Risk informed decision-making in nuclear power plants (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il

    2000-11-01

    The risk insight resulted from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is used in risk-informed decision-making including in-service inspection, in-service testing, graded quality assurance, and technical specification. This report is introducing the state of the art of the risk-informed decision-making. The contents of 1998 final version of U.S. regulatory guide concerning the risk informed decision-making are described. This report is also introducing U.S. maintenance rule since it is closely related to the risk informed desision-making. Research results of risk-informed in-service testing and technical specification optimization applided to Korean nuclear power plants are described.

  3. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsne Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risks of plant pests that have previously been used in pest risk assessment. The limitations identified by the review led the Panel to define the new methodology for environmental risk assessment which is described in this guidance document. The guidance is primarily addressed to the EFSA PLH...... Panel and has been conceived as an enhancement of the relevant parts of the “Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA”. Emphasizing the importance of assessing the consequences on both the structural...... (biodiversity) and the functional (ecosystem services) aspects of the environment, this new approach includes methods for assessing both aspects for the first time in a pest risk assessment scheme. A list of questions has been developed for the assessor to evaluate the consequences for structural biodiversity...

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE TAX RISK OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonova M. F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author considers the essence of tax risks, summarized methodological approaches to the determination of tax risk classification and systematization of tax risks; stages in the analysis of tax risks

  5. Conceptual risk assessment framework for global change risk analysis SRP

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elphinstone, CD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is submitted as a deliverable of the SRP project Global Change Risk Analysis which aims at applying risk analysis as a unifying notion for quantifying and communicating threats to ecosystem services originating from global change...

  6. A Study on Methodologies for Assessing Safety Critical Network's Risk Impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The objectives of this project is to establish methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant by developing reliability analysis models for the safety-critical network. It is essential to develop reliability analysis models for safety-critical network, and it is very important to adapt the model to the current methodologies for assessing risk impact on nuclear power plants. Major outputs of the first year study are preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks and those of the second year study are methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant.

  7. Feasibility and Risk Study of a Geothermal Power Plant at the Salton Sea KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-10

    This report contains the results of a feasibility and risk study performed by Bechtel National, Inc. and the Ben Holt Company under contract to the San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E). The purpose of the study was to define the most technically feasible and lowest cost near-term energy conversion process for a 50 MWe geothermal power plant at the Salton Sea known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Using the latest information from the Geothermal This report contains the results of a feasibility and risk study performed by Bechtel National, Inc. and the Ben Holt Company under contract to the San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E). The purpose of the study was to define the most technically feasible and lowest cost near-term energy conversion process for a 50 MWe geothermal power plant at the Salton Sea known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Using the latest information from the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF), which is currently in operation at the Salton Sea KGRA, conceptual designs, capital cost estimates, and busbar energy production cost estimates were developed for power plants employing several versions of flashed steam and flash binary energy conversion processes. A power plant and well field risk analysis was also performed. The results show that while the flashed steam plant has the advantage of lower plant capital cost, the brine flow rate required by the binary plant is lower. This results in busbar energy production costs for the two plants that are the same. However, the risk analysis indicates that the technical risks are less for the flashed steam further work at the GLEF. The version of the flashed steam process with lowest energy production cost was the dual-flash process with three 50 percent capacity trains of flash tanks with unmodified brine. Thus, it was determined that GLEF testing in the immediate future should be directed primarily toward this process. A series of GLEP tests and further studies were defined for the

  8. Levels of Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Compounds in Plant food Supplements and Associated Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Restani, P.; Boersma, M.G.; Delmulle, L.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the selection, analysis and risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds of botanicals and botanical preparations which can be found in plant food supplements (PFS). First an inventory was made of botanical compounds that are of possible concern for human healt

  9. 78 FR 13303 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., Environmental Risk Analysis Programs, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147... Act (PPA) (7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), the regulations in 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and... Believe Are Plant Pests,'' regulate, among other things, the introduction (importation, interstate...

  10. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda

    . This document describes the six steps for the ERA of GM plants, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC, starting with (1) problem formulation including hazard identification; (2) hazard characterisation; (3) exposure characterisation; (4) risk characterisation; (5) risk management strategies; and (6) an overall...... assessment; (5) impact of the specific cultivation, management and harvesting techniques; including consideration of the production systems and the receiving environment(s); (6) effects on biogeochemical processes; and (7) effects on human and animal health. Each specific area of concern is considered......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...

  11. A Stackelberg Game Theoretic Analysis of Incentive Effects under Perceived Risk for China’s Straw-Based Power Plant Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the biomass power generation industry has resulted in the conversion of substantial agricultural waste (crop straw into energy feedstock, thereby increasing the income of farmers and promoting the development of rural areas. However, the promising industry faces financial deficits because of difficulties in collecting straw from farmers. To determine strategies for overcoming the biomass supply problem, we apply Stackelberg game theory in modeling the Chinese biomass supply chain and design incentive scenarios under stakeholder risk perception. We illustrate the proposed methodology through an empirical case study on China and demonstrate the effects of incentives on farmers and middlemen. Results show that with incentives, straw quantity and stakeholder profit are expected to increase. Incentives exert a particularly remarkable effect on farmers, with such inducements producing the highest social welfare. Moreover, perceived risk dramatically affects stakeholder profit. Mitigating the risk perception of farmers is expected to significantly advance the development of the biomass power generation industry, increase stakeholder profit, and decrease the amount of incentives needed.

  12. 76 FR 5779 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Litchi From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of... sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via...

  13. Real-time management (RTM) by cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) for risk analysis of Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-03-15

    The earthquake and tsunami induced accident of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Fukushima disaster is investigated by the real-time management (RTM) method. This non-linear logic of the safety management is applied to enhance the methodological confidence in the NPP reliability. The case study of the earthquake is modeled for the fast reaction characteristics of the RTM. The system dynamics (SD) modeling simulations and cloud computing are applied for the RTM method where the real time simulation has the fast and effective communication for the accident remediation and prevention. Current tablet computing system can improve the safety standard of the NPP. Finally, the procedure of the cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) modeling is constructed.

  14. Explosion risk analysis and electrical design for ozone generation workshop in water treatment plant%净水厂臭氧制备车间的爆炸危险性分析及电气设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双凤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the design and operation experiences for ozone generator system in water treatment plant domestic or abroad and the reality of equipments supply, this paper questioned the 9. 9. 19 code of the "Code for design of outdoor -water supply engineering (GB 50013-2006)". Considering the correlated standards of the ozone generator for water treatment, the characteristics analysis of the ozone, the relatively comprehensive real time monitoring and controlling system in the ozone generation workshop, and the internal and external operation conditions of ozone generator, this paper analyzed the risk of chemical and physical explosion in ozone generation workshop under the normal and malfunction situation of the ozone generator system. It was concluded that the explosion risk in water treatment plant ozone generation workshop was relatively low and the non- explosion-proof electrical design code for the industrial plants in Yi category could be used for the generation workshop design.%基于国内外净水厂臭氧发生器系统的设计及运行经验,结合设备供应情况,对《室外给水设计规范》(GB50013-2006)第9.9.19条提出质疑.依据水处理臭氧发生器的相关标准规范,通过分析臭氧的气体性质,并综合考虑臭氧制备车间内较为完善的实时监测及控制系统,以及臭氧发生器的内外部运行条件,分析了臭氧发生器系统正常运行及故障状态下臭氧制备车间发生化学及物理爆炸的危险性,认为净水厂洁净臭氧制备车间的爆炸危险性较低,可按照乙类工业厂房进行非防爆电气设计.

  15. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  16. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  17. 75 FR 6346 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh... to mitigate the pest risk. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  18. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life.

  19. Quantitative analysis of protein turnover in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Clark J; Li, Lei; Millar, A Harvey

    2014-03-01

    Proteins are constantly being synthesised and degraded as plant cells age and as plants grow, develop and adapt the proteome. Given that plants develop through a series of events from germination to fruiting and even undertake whole organ senescence, an understanding of protein turnover as a fundamental part of this process in plants is essential. Both synthesis and degradation processes are spatially separated in a cell across its compartmented structure. The majority of protein synthesis occurs in the cytosol, while synthesis of specific components occurs inside plastids and mitochondria. Degradation of proteins occurs in both the cytosol, through the action of the plant proteasome, and in organelles and lytic structures through different protease classes. Tracking the specific synthesis and degradation rate of individual proteins can be undertaken using stable isotope feeding and the ability of peptide MS to track labelled peptide fractions over time. Mathematical modelling can be used to follow the isotope signature of newly synthesised protein as it accumulates and natural abundance proteins as they are lost through degradation. Different technical and biological constraints govern the potential for the use of (13)C, (15)N, (2)H and (18)O for these experiments in complete labelling and partial labelling strategies. Future development of quantitative protein turnover analysis will involve analysis of protein populations in complexes and subcellular compartments, assessing the effect of PTMs and integrating turnover studies into wider system biology study of plants.

  20. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  1. Error estimation in plant growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gregorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme is presented for calculation of errors of dry matter values which occur during approximation of data with growth curves, determined by the analytical method (logistic function and by the numerical method (Richards function. Further formulae are shown, which describe absolute errors of growth characteristics: Growth rate (GR, Relative growth rate (RGR, Unit leaf rate (ULR and Leaf area ratio (LAR. Calculation examples concerning the growth course of oats and maize plants are given. The critical analysis of the estimation of obtained results has been done. The purposefulness of joint application of statistical methods and error calculus in plant growth analysis has been ascertained.

  2. Dam risk assistant analysis system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the labor intensity and task difficulty of dam risk analysis and to meet the actual requirement of dam risk analysis,it is necessary to establish a dam risk assistant analysis system.The program structure and the implementation ways of the dam risk assistant analysis system are analyzed,and a procedural framework with "three-tier and multi-database" structure and "level structure" is established.The concept of dam risk assessment system modular development is proposed and the coupled mode of function module and data is improved.Finally,the dam risk assistant analysis system is developed using Delphi visual programming language.

  3. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  4. Plutonium and the risk of cancer. A comparative analysis of Pu-body burdens due to releases from nuclear plants (Chelyabinsk-65, Gomel area) and global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohryakov, V F; Syslova, C G; Skryabin, A M

    1994-03-01

    Results of the analysis of dynamic body burdens of Pu in adult inhabitants of Chelyabinsk-65 (not occupationally exposed) and different areas of the Gomel region are presented for 1990-1991. The data are based on radiochemical analyses of Pu in human organs and tissues. Comparison with the published data on global Pu and our data for human autopsies (Ufa, Russia) revealed that estimates of Pubody burdens in Chelyabinsk-65 residents were up to 30 times higher than global levels and depended on the period of residence in town. The Pu body contents of Gomel citizens 4-5 years after the Chernobyl accident are on average 3-4 times higher than the global levels. Activity of Pu-238 in various organs constitutes 4.7-26.0% (on the average 13.5 +/- 5.0%) of the total alpha-activity of Pu-238 and Pu-239, 240. The expected number of cancers induced by incorporated plutonium is approximately the same for the two population groups despite their different sizes and does not differ from the global level by more than one order of magnitude.

  5. Aquatic plants exposed to pharmaceuticals: effects and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Hanson, Mark L; Solomon, Keith R; Brooks, Bryan W

    2008-01-01

    largely overlooked in the risk assessment process to date, which typically relies heavily on physiological and/or morphological endpoints for deriving toxicity data. However, a small number of studies have indicated that measuring the response of a pathway- or receptor-specific target in conjunction with a physiological endpoint with direct relatedness can yield sublethal responses that are two to three times more sensitive that the traditional gross morphological endpoints typically employed in risk assessment. The risk assessment for this review was based almost entirely on evaluations of gross morphological endpoints, which generally indicated that the risk pharmaceuticals pose to aquatic plants is generally low, with a few exceptions, particularly blue-green algae exposed to antibiotics, and both green and blue-green algae exposed to triclosan. It is critical to note, however, that the application of sublethal pathway or receptor-specific responses in risk assessment has largely been unconsidered, and future research is needed to elucidate whether evaluating the toxicity of pharmaceuticals using these endpoints provides a more sensitive, subtle, yet meaningful indication of toxicity than the traditional endpoints used in prospective and retrospective risk assessments for aquatic plants.

  6. 38 CFR 75.115 - Risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sensitive personal information, the risk analysis must also contain operational recommendations for responding to the data breach. Each risk analysis, regardless of findings and operational recommendations... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Risk analysis. 75.115...

  7. 新建核电站模拟机建造风险分析及对策%The new Built Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Development Risk Analysis and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来; 胡松; 曲伟

    2015-01-01

    模拟机按期可用于培训是核电站建设二级里程碑关键进度节点,其能否按期完成建造、测试并被批准可用于培训将直接影响到电站操纵员培训、考试、取照进度,进而影响到后续整个电站建设进度。本文通过对三门核电AP1000全范围模拟机建设过程中出现的风险、问题进行全面分析、总结,进而对如何控制新建电站全范围模拟机的建造风险给出了建议方案。%The simulator ready for training is one key point of the nuclear power plant construction level two milestone progress schedule ,whether the simulator can be built, tested and approved for training on time will directly impact the progress of the nuclear power plant operator training , examination and licensing, further will impact the whole nuclear power plant construction progress . This article comprehensively analyses the problem and risk of Sanmen nuclear power plant full scope simulator built process, farther gives the suggestion plan on how to control the risk of the new built nuclear power plant simulator.

  8. A method for risk informing procedures at operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The technical approach presented establishes a framework intended to provide the necessary elements for a deployable human performance monitoring program that incorporates insights from plant specific probabilistic risk assessments, human reliability analysis, as well as the development of plant specific human failure data. A human performance monitoring program of this structure would be used to provide the ability to risk inform procedures (e.g., operations or maintenance) to determine the operational risk significance of procedural performance (i.e., precautions, prerequisites, procedure steps), the likelihood of consequential human error dur the performance of the procedure, and the identification of procedure specific barriers to reduce or eliminate consequential human errors. The program would provide the means to assess procedures prior to execution and the means to record and trend human failure events leading to a plant specific human failure database for human activities characterized as pre-initiator. The technical methods and data processing for each of these areas are developed and presented, as well as an example application of an operational procedure error leading to a plant level event (i.e, plant trip). (Author)

  9. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

  10. Analysis of foreign schools of risk management

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Posokhov

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the scientific development of foreign scientific schools of risk management and analysis of their main publications; the allocation of foreign scientific schools of risk management. The results of the analysis. Research of modern risk management is carried out leading foreign schools. The most famous school in the theory of financial risk and risk management is American school. Among its current members are D. Galai, H. Greuning, A...

  11. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk.... SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks... will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious...

  12. Cognitive Analysis of Management Risk Sources from Planting Farmers in Xinjiang%新疆种植业农户经营风险来源认知比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宜挺; 王丹

    2014-01-01

    The planting famers in Xinjiang are troubled by six management risks, among which the risks from nature and market are the biggest. The big difference of cognizing risk sources is resulted in the factors such as area, planting scale, crop variety, family characteristics, level of organization in production and management and participation in agriculture insurance. This paper puts forward the idea that the planting farmers are aware of risks in system, finance and personnel; that improving organization of farmers alleviates the influence of natural and market risks; that participation in agriculture insurance reduces the influence of natural risks.%新疆种植业农户受到6大类经营风险的影响均较大,尤其是自然风险和市场风险。受地区、种植规模、作物品种、家庭特性、生产经营组织化程度、参与农业保险情况等因素影响,新疆种植业农户经营风险来源认知存在较大差异。该文认为新疆种植业农户对制度风险、财务风险及人员风险认知度相对较高;农户组织化提升有助于降低自然风险和市场风险对农户的影响;参加农业保险有助于降低自然风险对农户的影响等。

  13. Robots cut risks and costs in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, H.T. (PSE and G (US))

    1991-07-01

    The electric utility industry, the third largest user of computers in the United States, is realizing the value of a relatively new computer-related technology; robotics. Since its use in the cleanup of Three Mile Island, 44 utility companies have used robotic devices to save radiation exposure to their employees and to achieve measurable and often significant cost savings. This paper reports on the use of robots to reduce risk and cost in electric utilities especially in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants.

  14. 76 FR 60450 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Pomegranate From India Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation into the... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh pomegranate fruit...

  15. 75 FR 6345 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation into the continental... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander...

  16. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the...: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the... measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or...

  17. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the...: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the... measures will be sufficient to mitigate ] the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or...

  18. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame...... of the proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  19. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  20. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  1. Risk Analysis in Road Tunnels – Most Important Risk Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Florian; Knaust, Christian; Thöns, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    the effects and highlights the most important risk indicators with the aim to support further developments in risk analysis. Therefore, a system model of a road tunnel was developed to determine the risk measures. The system model can be divided into three parts: the fire part connected to the fire model Fire...... Dynamics Simulator (FDS); the evacuation part connected to the evacuation model FDS+Evac; and the frequency part connected to a model to calculate the frequency of fires. This study shows that the parts of the system model (and their most important risk indicators) affect the risk measures in the following......, further research can focus on these most important risk indicators with the aim to optimise risk analysis....

  2. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  3. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  4. Exergoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, Mehmet Selcuk [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: msmert@yalova.edu.tr; Dilmac, Omer Faruk; Ozkan, Semra; Bolat, Esen [Yildiz Technical University Chemical Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: omerfarukdl@yahoo.com, email: ozkans@yildiz.edu.tr, email: ebolat@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Cogeneration, or combined heat and power, is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat generally in the form of steam or hot water. By capturing the excess heat, it uses thermal energy that would be wasted in a conventional power plant, provides high energy conversion efficiency, and also reduces emissions. Exergy analysis has been found to be an effective tool for predicting the efficiencies of system components and the total thermodynamic effectiveness of the system, as well as for highlighting possible improvements. By using both exergy concepts and economics, an exergoeconomic analysis is possible which helps designers to find ways to improve the performance of a system in a cost effective way. This study presents the exergoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration plant at Erdemir, Turkey. The mass, energy and exergy balances were done, and the exergoeconomic analysis of the plant, with a 39.5 MW electricity total net power and 20.83 kg/s steam production capacity, was also done.

  5. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  6. 78 FR 24155 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate... we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the interstate... movement of sapote fruit from Puerto Rico. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  7. 75 FR 78207 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Rambutan Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation into the continental... importation of fresh rambutan fruit from Malaysia and Vietnam. We are making the pest risk analysis...

  8. 76 FR 80871 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... received a petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status of soybean... are making available for public comment the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and...

  9. Submarine Pipeline Routing Risk Quantitative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 于莉; 胡云昌; 王金英

    2004-01-01

    A new method for submarine pipeline routing risk quantitative analysis was provided, and the study was developed from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis.The characteristics of the potential risk of the submarine pipeline system were considered, and grey-mode identification theory was used. The study process was composed of three parts: establishing the indexes system of routing risk quantitative analysis, establishing the model of grey-mode identification for routing risk quantitative analysis, and establishing the standard of mode identification result. It is shown that this model can directly and concisely reflect the hazard degree of the routing through computing example, and prepares the routing selection for the future.

  10. Risk assessment of riparian plant invasions into protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-04-01

    Protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated. River corridors represent crucial links to the surrounding landscape but are also major conduits for invasion of alien species. We developed a framework to assess the risk that alien plants in watersheds adjacent to a protected area will invade the protected area along rivers. The framework combines species- and landscape-level approaches and has five key components: (1) definition of the geographical area of interest, (2) delineation of the domain into ecologically meaningful zones, (3) identification of the appropriate landscape units, (4) categorization of alien species and mapping of their distribution and abundance, and (5) definition of management options. The framework guides the determination of species distribution and abundance through successive, easily followed steps, providing the means for the assessment of areas of concern. We applied the framework to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We recorded 231 invasive alien plant species (of which 79 were major invaders) in the domain. The KNP is facing increasing pressure from alien species in the upper regions of the drainage areas of neighboring watersheds. On the basis of the climatic modeling, we showed that most major riparian invaders have the ability to spread across the KNP should they be transported down the rivers. With this information, KNP managers can identify areas for proactive intervention, monitoring, and resource allocation. Even for a very large protected area such as the KNP, sustainable management of biodiversity will depend heavily on the response of land managers upstream managing alien plants. We suggest that this framework is applicable to plants and other passively dispersed species that invade protected areas situated at the end of a drainage basin.

  11. Assessing Risk in Chemical Plant with Pattern Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses potential application of fuzzy set theory, more specifically, pattern matching, in assessing risk in chemical plants. Risk factors have been evaluated using linguistic representations of the quantity of the hazardous substance involved, its frequency of interaction with the environment, severity of its impact and the uncertainty involved in its detection in advance. For each linguistic value there is a corresponding membership function ranging over a universe of discourse. The risk scenario created by a hazard/hazardous situation having highest degree of featural value is taken as the known pattern. Each sample pattern of hazard/hazardous situation with their known featural values is then matched with the known pattern. The concept of multifeature pattern matching based on fuzzy logic is used to derive the rank ordering of process hazards. In multifeature pattern recognition/matching, a sample pattern is compared to a number of known data patterns or a known pattern is compared to a number of sample data patterns. The process assesses which known pattern resembles most closely data sample using Wang's approaching degree method. A methodology has been developed and the same has been exemplified by presenting a case example with a limited number of hazards.

  12. Plants as models for chromium and nickel risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargašová, A

    2012-07-01

    The adverse effects of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Ni(II) expressed as root and shoot growth inhibition, metal accumulation and translocation throughout plants, and genotoxicity study were examined. To examine phytoxicity and metal accumulation, Vicia sativa, Raphanus sativus, Zea mays and Sinapis alba plants were used. Except for S. alba root growth inhibition, Ni had the strongest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth. The inhibitory rank order based on IC₅₀ values was Ni(II) > Cr(VI) > Cr(III). Z. mays was the least sensitive to all metals. While the accumulation of Cr was higher in the roots than the upper plant parts, Ni transport to shoots was at least two times higher than that of Cr. The highest accumulation of Cr was found in Z. mays and that of Ni in V. sativa and Z. mays roots. For all plants, the translocation factor was higher for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III). The translocation factor for Ni was several times higher than those of Cr. For mutagenicity assay, root tips of V. sativa, R. sativus and Z. mays were used. All metals exerted a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations and the rank order of aberrations was: Cr(VI) > Ni(II) > Cr(III). Genotoxic effects of metals were also determined by analysis of micronuclei frequency in the pollen tetrads of Tradescantia plants. None of metals significantly stimulated micronuclei frequency and the genotoxic effect decreased in the following order: Cr(VI) ≥ Ni(II) > Cr(III).

  13. The development of a 3D risk analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Yet-Pole; Cheng, Te-Lung

    2008-05-01

    Much attention has been paid to the quantitative risk analysis (QRA) research in recent years due to more and more severe disasters that have happened in the process industries. Owing to its calculation complexity, very few software, such as SAFETI, can really make the risk presentation meet the practice requirements. However, the traditional risk presentation method, like the individual risk contour in SAFETI, is mainly based on the consequence analysis results of dispersion modeling, which usually assumes that the vapor cloud disperses over a constant ground roughness on a flat terrain with no obstructions and concentration fluctuations, which is quite different from the real situations of a chemical process plant. All these models usually over-predict the hazardous regions in order to maintain their conservativeness, which also increases the uncertainty of the simulation results. On the other hand, a more rigorous model such as the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model can resolve the previous limitations; however, it cannot resolve the complexity of risk calculations. In this research, a conceptual three-dimensional (3D) risk calculation method was proposed via the combination of results of a series of CFD simulations with some post-processing procedures to obtain the 3D individual risk iso-surfaces. It is believed that such technique will not only be limited to risk analysis at ground level, but also be extended into aerial, submarine, or space risk analyses in the near future.

  14. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  15. Dynamic Blowout Risk Analysis Using Loss Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Majeed; Khan, Faisal

    2017-08-11

    Most risk analysis approaches are static; failing to capture evolving conditions. Blowout, the most feared accident during a drilling operation, is a complex and dynamic event. The traditional risk analysis methods are useful in the early design stage of drilling operation while falling short during evolving operational decision making. A new dynamic risk analysis approach is presented to capture evolving situations through dynamic probability and consequence models. The dynamic consequence models, the focus of this study, are developed in terms of loss functions. These models are subsequently integrated with the probability to estimate operational risk, providing a real-time risk analysis. The real-time evolving situation is considered dependent on the changing bottom-hole pressure as drilling progresses. The application of the methodology and models are demonstrated with a case study of an offshore drilling operation evolving to a blowout. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  17. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  18. Risk Analysis of Telecom Enterprise Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua; SHU Hua-ying

    2005-01-01

    The main research objects in this paper are the causes searching and risk estimating method for telecom enterprises' financial risks. The multi-mode financing for telecom enterprises makes it flexible to induce the capital and obtain the profit by corresponding projects. But there are also potential risks going with these financing modes. After making analysis of categories and causes of telecom enterprises' financing risk, a method by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is put forward to estimating the financing risk. And the author makes her suggestion and opinion by example analysis, in order to provide some ideas and basis for telecom enterprise's financing decision-making.

  19. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being.

  20. Potential use of an arthropod database to support the non-target risk assessment and monitoring of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Bigler, Franz; Bohan, David A; Devos, Yann; Malone, Louise A; Pons, Xavier; Rauschen, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, plants obtained through genetic modification are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market. An area of concern addressed in environmental risk assessments is the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to adversely affect non-target arthropods and the valued ecosystem services they provide. Environmental risk assessments are conducted case-by-case for each GM plant taking into account the plant species, its trait(s), the receiving environments into which the GM plant is to be released and its intended uses, and the combination of these characteristics. To facilitate the non-target risk assessment of GM plants, information on arthropods found in relevant agro-ecosystems in Europe has been compiled in a publicly available database of bio-ecological information during a project commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Using different hypothetical GM maize case studies, we demonstrate how the information contained in the database can assist in identifying valued species that may be at risk and in selecting suitable species for laboratory testing, higher-tier studies, as well as post-market environmental monitoring.

  1. Dynamic operational risk management at industrial irradiation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lustosa, Leonardo J. [Pontifical Catholic Univ. (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Although feasibility studies indicate that industrial irradiation can be sound business, some initiatives fail in few years. In Brazil, the operation of some industrial irradiation plants has been discontinued in spite of the growing export market for tropical fruits like mangoes and papayas, of which Brazil is one of the major producers. This paper discusses the overall aspects of the food irradiation in Brazil, singles out dynamic operation risk management as an important need and provides suggestions for further developments. This research work involves literature review as well as interviews with irradiation industry stake holders in order to identify the ORs and to assess the situation in a logical and integrated way. The results show that public acceptance is not a major issue for the food preservation industry in Brazil. On the contrary, evidences show that there is public support, provided that information on the subject is disseminated among consumers. Need for improvements have been detected in the areas of industrial operational risk management, external relations for export, and regulatory issues, among others to support decision making in establishing and developing industrial food irradiation capabilities to serve Brazilian tropical fruit exports. (author)

  2. 76 FR 49726 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk... mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation...

  3. 76 FR 15280 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Persimmon From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk... mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation...

  4. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  6. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  7. Supply-Chain Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    security score upon first submission – 3/1/2010 Measured Against CWE/SANS Top-25 Errors 24 SQL Database Query Output: All records with ID = 48983...exploitable design or coding errors • Very little data for software supply chains 8 Software Supply Chain Complexity-1 Composite inherits risk from any point... Relative Effort Operational Capabilities Knowledge of Supplier Capabilities Knowledge of Product Attributes 13 Supply-Chain Risk Categories Category

  8. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Hellmich, Richard L; Candolfi, Marco P; Carstens, Keri; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Herman, Rod A; Huesing, Joseph E; McLean, Morven A; Raybould, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Waggoner, Annabel

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in risk assessments to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on non-target arthropods (NTAs). While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in this discussion, the concepts apply to other arthropod-active proteins. A risk may exist if the newly acquired trait of the GE plant has adverse effects on NTAs when they are exposed to the arthropod-active protein. Typically, the risk assessment follows a tiered approach that starts with laboratory studies under worst-case exposure conditions; such studies have a high ability to detect adverse effects on non-target species. Clear guidance on how such data are produced in laboratory studies assists the product developers and risk assessors. The studies should be reproducible and test clearly defined risk hypotheses. These properties contribute to the robustness of, and confidence in, environmental risk assessments for GE plants. Data from NTA studies, collected during the analysis phase of an environmental risk assessment, are critical to the outcome of the assessment and ultimately the decision taken by regulatory authorities on the release of a GE plant. Confidence in the results of early-tier laboratory studies is a precondition for the acceptance of data across regulatory jurisdictions and should encourage agencies to share useful information and thus avoid redundant testing.

  9. Bank Liquidity Risk: Analysis and Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilė Jasienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s banking business, liquidity risk and its management are some of the most critical elements that underlie the stability and security of the bank’s operations, profit-making and clients confidence as well as many of the decisions that the bank makes. Managing liquidity risk in a commercial bank is not something new, yet scientific literature has not focused enough on different approaches to liquidity risk management and assessment. Furthermore, models, methodologies or policies of managing liquidity risk in a commercial bank have never been examined in detail either. The goal of this article is to analyse the liquidity risk of commercial banks as well as the possibilities of managing it and to build a liquidity risk management model for a commercial bank. The development, assessment and application of the commercial bank liquidity risk management was based on an analysis of scientific resources, a comparative analysis and mathematical calculations.

  10. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  11. Risk management of domino effects considering dynamic consequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    Domino effects are low-probability high-consequence accidents causing severe damage to humans, process plants, and the environment. Because domino effects affect large areas and are difficult to control, preventive safety measures have been given priority over mitigative measures. As a result, safety distances and safety inventories have been used as preventive safety measures to reduce the escalation probability of domino effects. However, these safety measures are usually designed considering static accident scenarios. In this study, we show that compared to a static worst-case accident analysis, a dynamic consequence analysis provides a more rational approach for risk assessment and management of domino effects. This study also presents the application of Bayesian networks and conflict analysis to risk-based allocation of chemical inventories to minimize the consequences and thus to reduce the escalation probability. It emphasizes the risk management of chemical inventories as an inherent safety measure, particularly in existing process plants where the applicability of other safety measures such as safety distances is limited. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. 75 FR 39203 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Importation... prepared a pest risk analysis with respect to perennial wall rocket leaves grown in the United Kingdom. The... plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of wall rocket leaves from the United Kingdom. We...

  13. Are non-native plants perceived to be more risky? Factors influencing horticulturists' risk perceptions of ornamental plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Humair

    Full Text Available Horticultural trade is recognized as an important vector in promoting the introduction and dispersal of harmful non-native plant species. Understanding horticulturists' perceptions of biotic invasions is therefore important for effective species risk management. We conducted a large-scale survey among horticulturists in Switzerland (N = 625 to reveal horticulturists' risk and benefit perceptions from ornamental plant species, their attitudes towards the regulation of non-native species, as well as the factors decisive for environmental risk perceptions and horticulturists' willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Our results suggest that perceived familiarity with a plant species had a mitigating effect on risk perceptions, while perceptions of risk increased if a species was perceived to be non-native. However, perceptions of the non-native origin of ornamental plant species were often not congruent with scientific classifications. Horticulturists displayed positive attitudes towards mandatory trade regulations, particularly towards those targeted against known invasive species. Participants also expressed their willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior. Yet, positive effects of risk perceptions on the willingness to engage in risk mitigation behavior were counteracted by perceptions of benefits from selling non-native ornamental species. Our results indicate that the prevalent practice in risk communication to emphasize the non-native origin of invasive species can be ineffective, especially in the case of species of high importance to local industries and people. This is because familiarity with these plants can reduce risk perceptions and be in conflict with scientific concepts of non-nativeness. In these cases, it might be more effective to focus communication on well-documented environmental impacts of harmful species.

  14. POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS IN SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Kudlackova

    2013-09-01

    mainly from linseeds. The findings suggest that limited consumption of animal food and dominant consumption of plant food can be connected with possible health risks higher incidence of deficient values of vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron and long-chain n 3 fatty acids.

  15. Risk assessment for the mercury polluted site near a pesticide plant in Changsha, Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haochen; Lin, Zhijia; Wan, Xiang; Feng, Liu

    2017-02-01

    The distribution characteristics of mercury fractions at the site near a pesticide plant was investigated, with the total mercury concentrations ranging from 0.0250 to 44.3 mg kg(-1). The mercury bound to organic matter and residual mercury were the main fractions, and the most mobile fractions accounted for only 5.9%-9.7%, indicating a relatively low degree of potential risk. The relationships between mercury fractions and soil physicochemical properties were analysed. The results demonstrated that organic matter was one of the most important factors in soil fraction distribution, and both OM and soil pH appeared to have a significant influence on the Fe/Mn oxides of mercury. Together with the methodology of partial correlation analysis, the concept and model of delayed geochemical hazard (DGH) was introduced to reveal the potential transformation paths and chain reactions among different mercury fractions and therefore to have a better understanding of risk development. The results showed that the site may be classified as a low-risk site of mercury DGH with a probability of 10.5%, but it had an easy trend in mercury DGH development due to low critical points of DGH burst. In summary, this study provides a methodology for site risk assessment in terms of static risk and risk development.

  16. Development of a risk-analysis model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This report consists of a main body, which provides a presentation of risk analysis and its general and specific application to the needs of the Office of Buildings and Community Systems of the Department of Energy; and several case studies employing the risk-analysis model developed. The highlights include a discussion of how risk analysis is currently used in the private, regulated, and public sectors and how this methodology can be employed to meet the policy-analysis needs of the Office of Buildings and Community Systems of the Department of Energy (BCS/DOE). After a review of the primary methodologies available for risk analysis, it was determined that Monte Carlo simulation techniques provide the greatest degree of visibility into uncertainty in the decision-making process. Although the data-collection requirements can be demanding, the benefits, when compared to other methods, are substantial. The data-collection problem can be significantly reduced, without sacrificing proprietary-information rights, if prior arrangements are made with RD and D contractors to provide responses to reasonable requests for base-case data. A total of three case studies were performed on BCS technologies: a gas-fired heat pump; a 1000 ton/day anaerobic digestion plant; and a district heating and cooling system. The three case studies plus the risk-analysis methodology were issued as separate reports. It is concluded that, based on the overall research of risk analysis and the case-study experience, that the risk-analysis methodology has significant potential as a policy-evaluation tool within BCS.

  17. Collision Risk Analysis for HSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1999-01-01

    High Speed Craft (HSC) have a risk profile, which is distinctly different from conventional ferries. Due to different hull building material, structural layout, compartmentation and operation, both frequency and consequences of collision and grounding accidents must be expected to be different from...... conventional ships. To reach a documented level of safety, it is therefore not possible directly to transfer experience with conventional ships. The purpose of this paper is to present new rational scientific tools to assess and quantify the collision risk associated with HSC transportation. The paper...

  18. Quantum analysis of a plant metacommunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Özkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of statistical methods have been frequently used in the area of ecology. Especially probability based analytic approaches have been become more popular in the ecological studies in recent years. On the other hand, the core of quantum is based on calculation of energy footprint by probability approach. That is why it has been expected that quantum analysis will have found a significant place in the ecological studies in the future. As a result, the book of quantum ecology written by László Orlóci Frsc made a profound contribution to enter within this process. This study aims at calculations of the potential energy footprints of specific processes including phylogeny, environmental mediation and emergent effects by using quantum analysis for a plant metacommunity. In this study, the fundamental formulate was based on Max Planck’s energy based entropy modified by László Orlóci Frsc. A plant metacommunity example includes 3 complexes taken from various slope positions of Yazılı Canyon Nature Park located in the Lake districts was subjected to quantum analysis. Energy structure parameters were calculated for each complex. Variations among the complexes’ H(cx energy footprints were found insignificant. Calculations at the level of catena was shown that potential energy footprint of phylogeny overwhelms the effect of slope position in the nH terms. However this is turned in favor of the slope position gradient when the H footprints are compared. In the study, stability values of the complexes were also calculated and, the highest instability value was found for the complex taken from valley bottom of the canyon.

  19. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0023] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and... period. SUMMARY: We are reopening the comment period for a petition received from the Monsanto Company... prepare and submit comments on the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our...

  20. 77 FR 41366 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant... received a petition from Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status of... available for public comment the Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and...

  1. Risk factors for lower extremity fatigue among assembly plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Nancy; Werner, Robert A; Hartigan, Anne; Wiggermann, Neal; Keyserling, W Monroe

    2011-03-01

    Work-related fatigue of the lower extremities is a known cause of lost productivity and significant employer costs. Common workplace solutions to reduce fatigue levels include anti-fatigue matting, shoe orthoses, or sit/stand work stations. However, assessment of these anti-fatigue measures within the workplace has been limited. This was a cross sectional study in an automotive assembly plant on employees with at least 6 months tenure. Subject data were collected via questionnaires including Likert-scale questions to define fatigue severity. Jobs were evaluated for lower extremity ergonomic exposures via videotaping, pedometers, interviews, and industrial engineering records. Lower extremity fatigue at the end of the work day was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, job dissatisfaction, use of shoes with firmer outsoles, and increased time on the job spent standing or walking. Supervisor support and increased time spent on carpet were protective. Lower extremity fatigue that interfered with activities outside of work had additional risk factors including higher BMI, prior diagnosis of osteoarthritis, and increased hours per week spent working. While these results identify carpet as being protective against lower extremity fatigue, no similar relationship was identified for anti-fatigue mats. No adverse relationship was found between hard surfaces such as concrete and lower extremity fatigue. Given the high costs associated with work-related fatigue, future areas for potential intervention include smoking cessation, specific shoe recommendations, and enhancing psychosocial aspects of work such as supervisor support. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs.

  3. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context.

  4. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  5. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  6. Collision Risk Analysis for HSC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1999-01-01

    for a HSC on a given route, an analysis of the released energy during a collision, analytical closed form solutions for the absorbed energy in the structure and finally an assessment of the overall structural crushing behaviour of the vessel, including the level of acceleration and the size of the crushing...... analysis tools to quantify the effect of the high speed have been available. Instead nearly all research on ship accidents has been devoted to analysis of the consequences of given accident scenarios. The proposed collision analysis includes an analysis which determines the probability of a collision...

  7. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  8. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  9. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  10. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  11. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  13. Analysis of foreign schools of risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Posokhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study the scientific development of foreign scientific schools of risk management and analysis of their main publications; the allocation of foreign scientific schools of risk management. The results of the analysis. Research of modern risk management is carried out leading foreign schools. The most famous school in the theory of financial risk and risk management is American school. Among its current members are D. Galai, H. Greuning, A. Damodaran, P. Jorion, J. Kallman, M. Crouhy, M. Mccarthy, R. Mark, T. Flynn and other scientists. Important contribution to the development of the theory and practice of risk management made British scientists and economists – the representatives of English Schools of Risk Management: T. Andersen, T. Bedford, A. Griffin, A. Zaman, R. Cooke, P. Sweeting, P. Hopkin, a German P. Schroder and others. A significant advance to the theory of risk management of German scientific school, based on the classic work of Zadeh has received significant results of the risk assessment using fuzzy logic and fuzzy sets. Graduate School of Risk Management of the University of Cologne is training and research group funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG under the project «Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Risk Management». The aim of Graduate School of Risk Management is to promote young scientists. The school risk management of the University of Cologne outstanding research conducted by German and foreign professors, such as: K. Mosler, A. Kempf, C. Kuhner, T. Hartmann-Wendels, C. Homburg, D. Hess, D. Sliwka, F. Schmid, H. Schradin. The author noted the existence and fruitful work in the capital of Switzerland Laboratory of risk management (Risk Lab Switzerland and its leading scientists: P. Embrechts, A. Gisler, M. Wüthrich, H. Bühlmann, V. Bignozzi, M. Hofert, P. Deprez, and the Basel Committee on banking supervision – Developer international standards of Basel

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  15. Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment.

  16. Legal and institutional aspects of the Public Auction 038/08 to approve changes in the authorizations of small hydroelectric power plant: absence of risk analysis; Aspectos legais e institucionais da audiencia publica 038/08 para aprovar mudancas na autorizacao de PCHS: a analise de riscos que faltou fazer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugnaloni, Ivo Augusto de Abreu [Enercons Consultoria em Energia Ltda, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: ivo@enercons.com.br

    2011-07-15

    The National Regulation Agency of Electrical Energy of Brazil, ANEEL, submitted to the Public Auction 038/08, a new project of regulation destined to turn easier the authorization of small hydropower stations, without mention to the risks that the new criteria could bring, moreover to the environment. This work does an analysis about this risks to the investors, to the riverside communities, and the society. With information from the site www.aneel.gov.br the work shows the important difficulties that ANEEL has, in terms of personal quantities, to approve projects and accomplish the supervising of construction activities. The work concludes that this is the true cause of the actual retard in the project and conclusion of the plants and that the new rules contain many and important risks. And more, that if the actual ANEEL difficulties still being, they have the capacity to turn Brazil more dependant of natural gas to supply its necessities of electric energy. (author)

  17. A risk assessment system for alien plant bio-invasion in Xiamen of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Jian; LU Changyi; DesmondK.O'TOOLE

    2008-01-01

    Bio-invasion has caused serious ecosystem damage and enormous economic losses in China, and it has been the greatest factor to island bio-diversity reduction. Xiamen, as an important seaport with a relatively high conservation value, is particularly vulnerable to bio-invasion for its typical island ecosystem as well as frequent human-made disturbance. As a result of field surveys, literature review, and consultation with experts, a list of 67 alien plants identified as major invaders (12 species) and emerging invaders (55 species) in Xiamen has been compiled. Based on the analysis of the current situation of bio-invasion in Xiamen, a risk assessment system for alien plant invasion has been designed using a ranking system and an analytic hierarchy process. The system consists of 17 secondary indices, grouped into 6 primary indices reflecting the different stages in the bio-invasion process: introduction, establishment, dispersion, current range, infestation, and artificial control. Biogeographical, ecological, and experience-linked aspects of the species as well as artificial disturbance were taken into account in the index selection and criterion development. The system was then validated (and worked well) using fifty well-known alien plant species as candidates. Appropriate recommendations are proposed to help local policy-makers prioritize their decisions on such alien plants.

  18. Asbestos Workshop: Sampling, Analysis, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    coatings Vinyl/asbestos floor tile Automatic transmission components Clutch facings Disc brake pads Drum brake linings Brake blocks Commercial and...1EMDQ March 2012 ASBESTOS WORKSHOP: SAMPLING, ANALYSIS , AND RISK ASSESSMENT Paul Black, PhD, Neptune and Company Ralph Perona, DABT, Neptune and...Sampling, Analysis , and Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  19. Plant databases and data analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is anticipated that the coming years will see the generation of large datasets including diagnostic markers in several plant species with emphasis on crop plants. To use these datasets effectively in any plant breeding program, it is essential to have the information available via public database...

  20. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Project cost analysis under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica LUBAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated approach based on Monte Carlo simulation and Six Sigma methodology is used to analyze the risk associated with a project's total cost. Monte Carlo simulation is applied to understand the variability in total cost caused by the probabilistic cost items. By Six Sigma methodology the range of variation of the project cost can be reduced by operating on the input factors with the greatest impact on total cost to cover the variation of 6 between the limits that were established in the design phase of Six Sigma.

  2. A performance overview about fire risk management in the Brazilian hydroelectric generating plants and transmission network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Dayse [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Dept. de Engenharia de Producao, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-01-01

    Power plants and substations have been around for quite some time, so ample engineering experience exists and the public is familiar with their equipment and structures (i.e. transformer, circuit break, transmission lines, etc). They also have a substantial economic incentive to prevent accidents. In spite of mature technology, good management, and incentives to keep the plant or substation from blowing up, uncontrollable fire rages within them on occasion, killing operators and causing substantial losses. Fire in substations range from those which have a relatively minor impact, in which there is little or no interruption of the operation to the interconnect network to major catastrophe: the blackout in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1995 being synonymous. While the engineers who design the substation have the knowledge and understanding to recognise the fire hazard throughout the system interactions and take measures, which will reduce the risk of a fire occurring, it is the substation operators who are responsible for its safe operation on a day-to-day basis. They must be aware, not only of the inherent hazard of the process of which they are in charge, but also of what can go wrong and, perhaps more importantly, how it can go wrong. However, professional fire safety practice today is dominated by traditional regulatory codes, standards and insurance considerations that are based on our past experience, i.e. failures. These methods should be suffice in a simple workplace producing simple and unchanging products or services. However, today's power plant or substation are rarely simple and unchanging. Their complexities require a more effective approach to fire safety. A new way of thinking is essential. It should enable us to use the wisdom of past experience and state-of-the-art knowledge in foreseeing fire hazard interactions. The approach to fire and explosion espoused in this paper is based on performance. The performance analysis involves two steps

  3. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Luis M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via, 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, Jose M. [University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre, 83,48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO{sub 2} emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows compute the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. (author)

  4. Gender Analysis of Risk in Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayinde, Ope; Muchie, Mammo; Abaniyan, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed risk by gender in innovation in Kwara state, Nigeria, using downy mildew resistant maize production as case study. The study employed primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from well-structured questionnaires administered to both male and female producing...... the new maize variety. The analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, regression model; risk utility functions and risk parameter analysis. The result showed that invasion by animals, disease and pest, lack of access to credit wind and price fluctuation were the major risk facing the maize...... producers in the area in the usage of the new innovation. The study also revealed that male producers were willing to take risk in the new maize variety production than the female, while the females were more indifferent to the risk involved in the new maize production variety than males. None...

  5. Intentional risk management through complex networks analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chapela, Victor; Moral, Santiago; Romance, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This book combines game theory and complex networks to examine intentional technological risk through modeling. As information security risks are in constant evolution,  the methodologies and tools to manage them must evolve to an ever-changing environment. A formal global methodology is explained  in this book, which is able to analyze risks in cyber security based on complex network models and ideas extracted from the Nash equilibrium. A risk management methodology for IT critical infrastructures is introduced which provides guidance and analysis on decision making models and real situations. This model manages the risk of succumbing to a digital attack and assesses an attack from the following three variables: income obtained, expense needed to carry out an attack, and the potential consequences for an attack. Graduate students and researchers interested in cyber security, complex network applications and intentional risk will find this book useful as it is filled with a number of models, methodologies a...

  6. Relative risk regression analysis of epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, R L

    1985-11-01

    Relative risk regression methods are described. These methods provide a unified approach to a range of data analysis problems in environmental risk assessment and in the study of disease risk factors more generally. Relative risk regression methods are most readily viewed as an outgrowth of Cox's regression and life model. They can also be viewed as a regression generalization of more classical epidemiologic procedures, such as that due to Mantel and Haenszel. In the context of an epidemiologic cohort study, relative risk regression methods extend conventional survival data methods and binary response (e.g., logistic) regression models by taking explicit account of the time to disease occurrence while allowing arbitrary baseline disease rates, general censorship, and time-varying risk factors. This latter feature is particularly relevant to many environmental risk assessment problems wherein one wishes to relate disease rates at a particular point in time to aspects of a preceding risk factor history. Relative risk regression methods also adapt readily to time-matched case-control studies and to certain less standard designs. The uses of relative risk regression methods are illustrated and the state of development of these procedures is discussed. It is argued that asymptotic partial likelihood estimation techniques are now well developed in the important special case in which the disease rates of interest have interpretations as counting process intensity functions. Estimation of relative risks processes corresponding to disease rates falling outside this class has, however, received limited attention. The general area of relative risk regression model criticism has, as yet, not been thoroughly studied, though a number of statistical groups are studying such features as tests of fit, residuals, diagnostics and graphical procedures. Most such studies have been restricted to exponential form relative risks as have simulation studies of relative risk estimation

  7. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk... have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of sweet... application of one or more designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the pest risk....

  8. Aliens in Transylvania: risk maps of invasive alien plant species in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Zimmermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the MAXENT algorithm, we developed risk maps for eight invasive plant species in southern Transylvania, Romania, a region undergoing drastic land-use changes. Our findings show that invasion risk increased with landscape heterogeneity. Roads and agricultural areas were most prone to invasion, whereas forests were least at risk.

  9. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrocino, Giovanni; Iervolino, Iunio; Orlando, Francesca; Salzano, Ernesto

    2005-08-31

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects ('domino effects'). The issue of integrating structural seismic risk into quantitative probabilistic seismic risk analysis (QpsRA) is addressed in this paper by a representative study case regarding an oil storage plant with a number of atmospheric steel tanks containing flammable substances. Empirical seismic fragility curves and probit functions, properly defined both for building-like and non building-like industrial components, have been crossed with outcomes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for a test site located in south Italy. Once the seismic failure probabilities have been quantified, consequence analysis has been performed for those events which may be triggered by the loss of containment following seismic action. Results are combined by means of a specific developed code in terms of local risk contour plots, i.e. the contour line for the probability of fatal injures at any point (x, y) in the analysed area. Finally, a comparison with QRA obtained by considering only process-related top events is reported for reference.

  10. Analysis and estimation of risk management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankhva Vadim Sergeevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present time risk management is an integral part of state policy in all the countries with developed market economy. Companies dealing with consulting services and implementation of the risk management systems carve out a niche. Unfortunately, conscious preventive risk management in Russia is still far from the level of standardized process of a construction company activity, which often leads to scandals and disapproval in case of unprofessional implementation of projects. The authors present the results of the investigation of the modern understanding of the existing methodology classification and offer the authorial concept of classification matrix of risk management methods. Creation of the developed matrix is based on the analysis of the method in the context of incoming and outgoing transformed information, which may include different elements of risk control stages. So the offered approach allows analyzing the possibilities of each method.

  11. Relay Feedback Analysis for Double Integral Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Double integral plants under relay feedback are studied. Complete results on the uniqueness of solutions, existence, and stability of the limit cycles are established using the point transformation method. Analytical expressions are also given for determining the amplitude and period of a limit cycle from the plant parameters.

  12. Risk analysis of the liquid ammonia leakage accident in the DeNOx system of themal power plant%火电厂脱硝工程液氨泄漏事故风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程民生

    2013-01-01

    结合火电厂脱硝工艺特点与液氨的毒理特性,分析了选择性催化还原烟气脱硝系统液氨的储存与使用可能潜在的生产安全事故风险;计算了设定液氨泄漏场景下的事故后果,用于液氨泄漏事故的预测、预警及应急救援.并结合电厂安全管理特点及存在的问题,从工艺系统监控、液氨储运、应急处置等方面,提出了必要的防范与应急措施建议.%According to the toxicological properties of liquid ammonia and the characteristics of the DeNOx process, the potential accident risk of liquid ammonia storage and use in the SCR flue gas DeNOx system are analyzed. The accident consequences of the set ammonia leakage scenario are calculated for the prediction, early warning and e-mergency rescue of the liquid ammonia leakage accident. Combined with the characteristics of power plant safety management and the existing problems, the necessary suggestion on prevention and emergency measures are put forward from the process system monitoring, liquid ammonia storage, emergency disposal and other aspects.

  13. Multicriteria Decision Analysis for banks risks evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotoarivelo, Jean-Baptiste; ZARATÉ, Pascale; Razafimandimby, Josvah Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This poster aims to observe a better choice for risks evaluation Financial organisms. Our aim is to support banks during operations of customers with respect to funding opportunities, investment or credits reaching. First of all, we identify different types of risks associated with this activity and we secondly analysed them thanks to a method of multicriteria analysis AHP (Analytic hierachy Process) with different means adopted to identify them. It should be noted tha...

  14. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  15. Quantitative Fluorimetric Analysis of Plant Nicotinamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽斌; 冯闻铮; 曹竹安; 刘进元

    2001-01-01

    Fluorimetry was used to measure the amount of nicotinamide in plant samples. The nicotinamide was extracted and purified from plant tissues with ethyl acetate; converted to the fluorescent derivative, N1-methylnicotinamide, by reacting with methyl iodide; and quantified according to its fluorescent strength. The nicotinamide in the leaf tissue of ten kinds of plants was measured, and the results showed that the nicotinamide content for different plants varied from 0. 1 to 3.0 μg/g of fresh leaf weight. In addition, the crossing value of the fluorescent strength and the nicotinamide amount demonstrated that the linear correlation coefficient generally reached 0. 997, with a detectable limit of 0. 02 mg/L and the relative standard deviation of less than 9%. The results suggested that this method of quantifying nicotinamide in plants is useful and beneficial for functional research.

  16. PlantPAN 2.0: an update of plant promoter analysis navigator for reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi-Nga; Zheng, Han-Qin; Wu, Nai-Yun; Chien, Chia-Hung; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Chiang-Hsieh, Yi-Fan; Hou, Ping-Fu; Yang, Tien-Yi; Chang, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins acting as critical regulators of gene expression. The Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator (PlantPAN; http://PlantPAN2.itps.ncku.edu.tw) provides an informative resource for detecting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), corresponding TFs, and other important regulatory elements (CpG islands and tandem repeats) in a promoter or a set of plant promoters. Additionally, TFBSs, CpG islands, and tandem repeats in the conserve regions between similar gene promoters are also identified. The current PlantPAN release (version 2.0) contains 16 960 TFs and 1143 TF binding site matrices among 76 plant species. In addition to updating of the annotation information, adding experimentally verified TF matrices, and making improvements in the visualization of transcriptional regulatory networks, several new features and functions are incorporated. These features include: (i) comprehensive curation of TF information (response conditions, target genes, and sequence logos of binding motifs, etc.), (ii) co-expression profiles of TFs and their target genes under various conditions, (iii) protein-protein interactions among TFs and their co-factors, (iv) TF-target networks, and (v) downstream promoter elements. Furthermore, a dynamic transcriptional regulatory network under various conditions is provided in PlantPAN 2.0. The PlantPAN 2.0 is a systematic platform for plant promoter analysis and reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks.

  17. Gender Analysis of Risk in Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayinde, Ope; Muchie, Mammo; Abaniyan, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    that information and knowledge on new technology and innovation should be made available to the farmers. And also those farmers with less experience and more female should be encouraged and integrated into the agricultural production and innovation systems. Supply of inputs of the innovative facilities should...... the new maize variety. The analytical tools used include descriptive statistics, regression model; risk utility functions and risk parameter analysis. The result showed that invasion by animals, disease and pest, lack of access to credit wind and price fluctuation were the major risk facing the maize...

  18. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs.

  19. Riparian plant community responses to increased flooding : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, Annemarie G.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B.

    2015-01-01

    A future higher risk of severe flooding of streams and rivers has been projected to change riparian plant community composition and species richness, but the extent and direction of the expected change remain uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize globally available experimental

  20. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1; Saettningsanalys Forsmarks kaernkraftverk - aggregat 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied.

  1. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E

    2012-09-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents.

  2. Assessing emergency planning zone for new nuclear power plant considering risk of extreme external events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzbutas, Robertas

    2015-04-01

    In general, the Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) are defined as well as plant site and arrangement structures are designed to minimize the potential for natural and manmade hazards external to the plant from affecting the plant safety related functions, which can affect nearby population and environment. This may include consideration of extreme winds, fires, flooding, aircraft crash, seismic activity, etc. Thus the design basis for plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. It has been observed that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodologies to deal with EPZ and extreme external events have not reached the same level of maturity as for severe internal events. The design basis for any plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. As a prime example of an advanced reactor and new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with enhanced safety, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) and Site selection for New NPP in Lithuania had been considered in this work. In the used Safety-by-Design™ approach, the PSA played obviously a key role; therefore a Preliminary IRIS PSA had been developed along with the design. For the design and pre-licensing process of IRIS the external events analysis included both qualitative evaluation and quantitative assessment. As a result of preliminary qualitative analyses, the external events that were chosen for more detailed quantitative scoping evaluation were high winds and tornadoes, aircraft crash, and seismic events. For the site selection in Lithuania a detail site evaluation process was performed and related to the EPZ and risk zoning considerations. In general, applying the quantitative assessment, bounding site characteristics could be used in order to

  3. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  4. RNAi-based GM plants: food for thought for risk assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Matthew; Devos, Yann; Lanzoni, Anna; Liu, Yi; Gomes, Ana; Gennaro, Andrea; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technology that offers new opportunities for the generation of new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Potential risks associated with RNAi-based GM plants and issues specific to their risk assessment were discussed during an international scientific workshop (June 2014) organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Selected key outcomes of the workshop are reported here. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Imposed risk controversies: a critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G.L.

    The author focuses on risk controversies where someone in one locale is concerned about being seriously injured as a result of human activities carried on elsewhere. Discussion is limited to unintentional risks, such as, nuclear power plants, dams, toxic pollutants and biological laboratories containing virulent organisms. He attempts to fashion a new judicial institution for settling disputes where liability is not well defined. The proposed system is a two-step process. The first is arbitration where defendant participation is voluntary. If judgment at first stage is against the defendant the system progresses to the second stage; otherwise the process is completed. The second stage is a full-scale hearing where burden of proof shifts to defendant. (PSB)

  6. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and C

  7. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.;

    2014-01-01

    . By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant...

  8. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and... Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87712, which... Monsanto Company (Monsanto) of St. Louis, MO, seeking a determination of nonregulated status of...

  9. An Overview of Risk Quantification Issues for Digitalized Nuclear Power Plants using a Static Fault Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Kim, Man Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Ho Jung; Eom, Heung Seop; Chol, Jong Gyun; Jang, Seung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Risk caused by safety-critical instrumentation and control (I and C) systems considerably affects overall plant risk. As digitalization of safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants progresses, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required and must be included in a plant safety model in order to assess this risk effect on the plant. Unique features of a digital system cause some challenges in risk modeling. This article aims at providing an overview of the issues related to the development of a static fault-tree-based risk model. We categorize the complicated issues of digital system probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) into four groups based on their characteristics: hardware module issues, software issues, system issues, and safety function issues. Quantification of the effect of these issues dominates the quality of a developed risk model. Recent research activities for addressing various issues, such as the modeling framework of a software-based system, the software failure probability and the fault coverage of a self monitoring mechanism, are discussed. Although these issues are interrelated and affect each other, the categorized and systematic approach suggested here will provide a proper insight for analyzing risk from a digital system

  10. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Nafiz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: nafiz@erciyes.edu.tr; Cengel, Yunus A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/312, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective.

  11. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  12. Availability assessment and risk assessment regarding handling and preparation of biomass in combustion plants; Tillgaenglighets- och riskbedoemning av system foer hantering och beredning av biobraensle i foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biguen, Helen; Bodlund, Gunnar; Dahlloef, Lars; Pettersson, Lars [SwedPower, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In the design of new, or refurbishment of old, bio-fuel fired plants, the design of the fuel-handling systems is often based on experiences from existing plants. The size of the bio-fuel storage is decided from fuel consumption during a long holiday with no transports, and available storage area on the site. Auxiliary capacities and redundancies in the bio-fuel handling systems are often determined by investment costs rather than by life-cycle costs. Risk analyses are realized according to Swedish legislation for Occupation and Health and its regulations for work in environment with risk of explosion. The plant is designed to minimize the risk for explosion and also to minimize the consequences of an explosion. The plant is provided with fire protection functions according to applicable legislations and regulations. Safety functions can either be passive as physical separations or active as different kinds of detecting and consequence reducing systems. The aim of this report is to emphasize the use of quantitative tools for analysis to evaluate alternative system designs from the viewpoint of availability and risk. The availability analysis gives the opportunity to quantitatively analyse suggested alternative solutions of a system and to study the influence of redundant system functions, storage volumes etceteras. The analysis also gives the opportunity to evaluate effects on manning, work on three shifts or daytime with extra duty on call, as well as the optimization of spare parts toward delivery times and agreements for service. The probabilistic risk analysis gives opportunities to place in order of precedence and quantitatively evaluate the effect on total risk from suggested passive protective measures and different types of active protection functions such as fire sprinkling. The methods of analysis are above all an aid and support to optimize system design and life cycle cost during the design phase. During continuous operation the quantitative analyses are

  13. Competence Set Analysis Under Risk and Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The competence set analysis technology can be applied to solve the decision making problems successfully and satisfactorily. This paper mainly focuses on the expanding strategy research and development of the competence set under risk and uncertainty. A systematic expression of the competence set analysis is described, several expanding principles and strategies with regard to several different cases are presented, and their applications in the personnel training program are discussed, some conclusions and suggestions to be developed in a further work are included.

  14. Risk-taking plants: anisohydric behavior as a stress-resistance trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-07-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant's ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed.

  15. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  16. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect, and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect. Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  17. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  18. Design of process displays based on risk analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundtang Paulsen, J

    2004-05-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, especially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems. The state of the art is discussed: How are supervision systems designed today and why? Which strategies are used? What kind of research is going on? Four different plants and their display systems, designed by the author, are described and discussed. Next we outline different methods for eliciting knowledge of a plant, particularly the risks, which is necessary information for the display designer. A chapter presents an overview of the various types of operation references: constitutive equations, set points, design parameters, component characteristics etc., and their validity in different situations. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engineer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described in some detail. Finally we address the problem of where to put the dot and the lines: when all information is on the table, how should it be presented most adequately. Included, as an appendix is a paper concerning the analysis of maintenance reports and visualization of their information. The purpose was to develop a software tool for maintenance supervision of components in a nuclear power plant. (au)

  19. Best practices for mitigating soiling risk on PV power plants

    KAUST Repository

    AlDowsari, A.

    2015-09-24

    Solar power generates proven, predictable and economical energy and new innovations have made solar PV power plants easy to deploy, integrate and maintain. Areas with large solar energy potential are among the dustiest in the world. At first glance, solar would be a natural fit in many of these environments but humidity, airborne dust, and wind of these regions often bring high soiling rates that can accumulate to reduce performance by up to 10% per month on average, where soiling can be a major loss factor that affects the energy yield for PV plants especially in humid and dusty climates. Therefore, to achieve the desired performance ratio and obtain stable generation, mitigation solutions are proposed to overcome dust issues that affect the performance of PV plants. This makes PV module cleaning a key component for long-term plant performance and sustainable profitability. In this paper, a review of the mechanisms and mitigation solutions to overcome soiling on solar installations using real-world testing and verification is investigated with emphasis on dry type cleaning methods. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Benefits for Plants in Ant-Plant Protective Mutualisms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Matthew D.; Bhotika, Smriti; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Andrade, Gilda V.; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; McKeon, C. Seabird; Osenberg, Craig W.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model) and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75) indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial) explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several questions to guide

  1. Benefits for plants in ant-plant protective mutualisms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Trager

    Full Text Available Costs and benefits for partners in mutualistic interactions can vary greatly, but surprisingly little is known about the factors that drive this variation across systems. We conducted a meta-analysis of ant-plant protective mutualisms to quantify the effects of ant defenders on plant reproductive output, to evaluate if reproductive effects were predicted from reductions in herbivory and to identify characteristics of the plants, ants and environment that explained variation in ant protection. We also compared our approach with two other recent meta-analyses on ant-plant mutualisms, emphasizing differences in our methodology (using a weighted linear mixed effects model and our focus on plant reproduction rather than herbivore damage. Based on 59 ant and plant species pairs, ant presence increased plant reproductive output by 49% and reduced herbivory by 62%. The effects on herbivory and reproduction within systems were positively correlated, but the slope of this relationship (0.75 indicated that tolerance to foliar herbivory may be a common plant response to absence of ant guards. Furthermore, the relationship between foliar damage and reproduction varied substantially among systems, suggesting that herbivore damage is not a reliable surrogate for fitness consequences of ant protection. Studies that experimentally excluded ants reported a smaller effect of ant protection on plant reproduction than studies that relied upon natural variation in ant presence, suggesting that study methods can affect results in these systems. Of the ecological variables included in our analysis, only plant life history (i.e., annual or perennial explained variation in the protective benefit of mutualistic ants: presence of ants benefitted reproduction of perennials significantly more than that of annuals. These results contrast with other quantitative reviews of these relationships that did not include plant life history as an explanatory factor and raise several

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS RELATED TO ACCIDENTS AT PULP AND PAPER PLANTS: THE CASE OF THE MANTUROVO PULP AND PAPER PLANT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gunko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to quantitative and spatial assessment of emergency environmental risks at new sites of pulp and paper production using mathematical statistics, probability theory, and cartographic modeling. Damage assessment is based on the type and sphere (atmosphere, soil, and underground and surface waters of impact. Although damage assessment considers governmentally approved methodology, the formula suggested for the assessment contains some suitable improvements. In addition, a brief characterization of technological process at pulp and paper plants provides objective substantiation of possible accident scenarios. Conclusions discuss economic and social benefits of pulp and paper plants versus their ecological disadvantages.

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  4. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vehec, T.A.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Fort Calhoun was selected as the sixth plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Fort Calhoun plant.

  5. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, N.E.; Lloyd, R.C.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Garner, L.W. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. H. B. Robinson was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the H. B. Robinson plant.

  6. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the South Texas Project nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. South Texas Project was selected as a plant for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by the NRC inspectors in preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk important components at the South Texas Project plant.

  7. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Point Beach nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R C; Moffitt, N E; Gore, B F; Vo, T V; Vehec, T A [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Point Beach was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Point Beach plant.

  8. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the McGuire nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgardner, J.D.; Lloyd, R.C.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. McGuire was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the McGuire plant.

  9. The development of a plant risk evaluation (PRE) tool for assessing the invasive potential of ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool for ornamental plants. The 19 questions in the final PRE tool were narrowed down from 56 original questions from existing WRA tools. We evaluated the 56 WRA questions by screening 21 known invasive and 14 known non-invasive ornamental plants. After statistically comparing the predictability of each question and the frequency the question could be answered for both invasive and non-invasive species, we eliminated questions that provided no predictive power, were irrelevant in our current model, or could not be answered reliably at a high enough percentage. We also combined many similar questions. The final 19 remaining PRE questions were further tested for accuracy using 56 additional known invasive plants and 36 known non-invasive ornamental species. The resulting evaluation demonstrated that when "needs further evaluation" classifications were not included, the accuracy of the model was 100% for both predicting invasiveness and non-invasiveness. When "needs further evaluation" classifications were included as either false positive or false negative, the model was still 93% accurate in predicting invasiveness and 97% accurate in predicting non-invasiveness, with an overall accuracy of 95%. We conclude that the PRE tool should not only provide growers with a method to accurately screen their current stock and potential new introductions, but also increase the probability of the tool being accepted for use by the industry as the basis for a nursery certification program.

  10. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  11. Contribution of European research to risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenke, A

    2001-12-01

    The European Commission's, Quality of Life Research Programme, Key Action 1-Health, Food & Nutrition is mission-oriented and aims, amongst other things, at providing a healthy, safe and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer confidence in the safety, of European food. Its objectives also include the enhancing of the competitiveness of the European food supply. Key Action 1 is currently supporting a number of different types of European collaborative projects in the area of risk analysis. The objectives of these projects range from the development and validation of prevention strategies including the reduction of consumers risks; development and validation of new modelling approaches, harmonization of risk assessment principles methodologies and terminology; standardization of methods and systems used for the safety evaluation of transgenic food; providing of tools for the evaluation of human viral contamination of shellfish and quality control; new methodologies for assessing the potential of unintended effects of genetically modified (genetically modified) foods; development of a risk assessment model for Cryptosporidium parvum related to the food and water industries, to the development of a communication platform for genetically modified organism, producers, retailers, regulatory authorities and consumer groups to improve safety assessment procedures, risk management strategies and risk communication; development and validation of new methods for safety testing of transgenic food; evaluation of the safety and efficacy of iron supplementation in pregnant women, evaluation of the potential cancer-preventing activity of pro- and pre-biotic ('synbiotic') combinations in human volunteers. An overview of these projects is presented here.

  12. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizelj, L. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Donoghue, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects of affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.

  13. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John C

    2011-01-01

    The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear a

  14. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caren E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarr...

  15. Sensitivity analysis of FDS 6 results for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvear, Daniel; Puente, Eduardo; Abreu, Orlando [Cantabria Univ., Santander (Spain). Group GIDAI - Fire Safety-Research and Technology; Peco, Julian [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, Rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) allows the new approaches of risk informed performance based design (PBD) The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) for demonstrating the safe shutdown capability in case of fire in nuclear power plants. In this sense, fire computer models have become an interesting tool to study real fire scenarios. Such models use a set of input parameters that define the features of the physical domain, material, radiation, turbulence, etc. This paper analyses the impact of the grid size and different sub-models of the fire simulation code FDS, version 6 with the objective to evaluate and define their relative weight in the final simulation results. For the grid size analysis, two different scale scenarios were selected, the bench scale test PENLIGHT and a large-scale test similar to Appendix B of NUREG - 1934 (17 m x 10 m x 4.6 m, with an ignition source of 2 MW and 16 cable trays). For the sub-model analysis, the PRS-INT4 real scale configuration of the INTEGRAL experimental campaign of the international OECD PRISME Project has been used. The results offer relevant data for users and show the critical parameters that must be selected properly to guarantee the quality of the simulations.

  16. Selected Tools for Risk Analysis in Logistics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulińska, Ewa

    2012-03-01

    As each organization aims at managing effective logistics processes, risk factors can and should be controlled through proper system of risk management. Implementation of complex approach to risk management allows for the following: - evaluation of significant risk groups associated with logistics processes implementation, - composition of integrated strategies of risk management, - composition of tools for risk analysis in logistics processes.

  17. Plant phenotyping: from bean weighing to image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Achim; Liebisch, Frank; Hund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenotyping refers to a quantitative description of the plant's anatomical, ontogenetical, physiological and biochemical properties. Today, rapid developments are taking place in the field of non-destructive, image-analysis -based phenotyping that allow for a characterization of plant traits in high-throughput. During the last decade, 'the field of image-based phenotyping has broadened its focus from the initial characterization of single-plant traits in controlled conditions towards 'real-life' applications of robust field techniques in plant plots and canopies. An important component of successful phenotyping approaches is the holistic characterization of plant performance that can be achieved with several methodologies, ranging from multispectral image analyses via thermographical analyses to growth measurements, also taking root phenotypes into account.

  18. 76 FR 80872 - Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Dow AgroScience LLC; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... petition from Dow AgroScience LLC seeking a determination of nonregulated status of corn designated as DAS... likely to pose a plant pest risk. We are making available for public comment the Dow AgroScience...

  19. Risk analysis for earth dam overtopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Chongxun

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of overtopping risk under the joint effects of floods and wind waves, which is based on risk analysis theory and takes into account the uncertainties of floods, wind waves, reservoir capacity and discharge capacity of the spillway, is proposed and applied to the Chengbihe Reservoir in Baise City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The simulated results indicate that the flood control limiting level can be raised by 0.40 m under the condition that the reservoir overtopping risk is controlled within a mean variance of 5×10-6. As a result, the reservoir storage will increase to 16 million m3 and electrical energy generation and other functions of the reservoir will also increase greatly.

  20. Risk analysis for earth dam overtopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo Chongxun; Liu Fanggui; Yu Mei; Ma Rongyong; Sun Guikai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a model of overtopping risk under the joint effects of floods and wind waves, which is based on risk analysis theory and takes into account the uncertainties of floods, wind waves, reservoir capacity and discharge capacity of the spillway, is proposed and applied to the Chengbihe Reservoir in Baise City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The simulated results indicate that the flood control limiting level can be raised by 0.40 m under the condition that the reservoir overtopping risk is controlled within a mean variance of 5×10-6. As a result, the reservoir storage will increase to 16 million m3 and electrical energy generation and other functions of the reservoir will also increase greatly.

  1. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  2. Health-safety and environmental risk assessment of power plants using multi criteria decision making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Ali Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of environmental issues at global and regional levels including pollution of water, air etc. as well as the outcomes such as global warming and climate change has led to being considered environmental aspects as effective factors for power generation. Study ahead, aims at examination of risks resulting from activities of Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Iran. Method applied in the research is analytical hierarchy process. After identification of factors causing risk, the analytical hierarchy structure of the power plant risks were designed and weight of the criteria and sub-criteria were calculated by intensity probability product using Eigenvector Method and EXPERT CHOICE Software as well. Results indicate that in technological, health-safety, biophysical and socio economic sections of the power plant, factors influenced by the power plant activities like fire and explosion, hearing loss, quantity of groundwater, power generation are among the most important factors causing risk in the power plant. The drop in underground water levels is the most important natural consequence influenced on Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant.

  3. LISSAT Analysis of a Generic Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H; Elayat, H A; O?Connell, W J; Szytel, L; Dreicer, M

    2007-05-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems for current and future plants in the nuclear power fuel cycle. The DOE is engaging several DOE National Laboratories in efforts applied to safeguards for chemical conversion plants and gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. As part of the development, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed an integrated safeguards system analysis tool (LISSAT). This tool provides modeling and analysis of facility and safeguards operations, generation of diversion paths, and evaluation of safeguards system effectiveness. The constituent elements of diversion scenarios, including material extraction and concealment measures, are structured using directed graphs (digraphs) and fault trees. Statistical analysis evaluates the effectiveness of measurement verification plans and randomly timed inspections. Time domain simulations analyze significant scenarios, especially those involving alternate time ordering of events or issues of timeliness. Such simulations can provide additional information to the fault tree analysis and can help identify the range of normal operations and, by extension, identify additional plant operational signatures of diversions. LISSAT analyses can be used to compare the diversion-detection probabilities for individual safeguards technologies and to inform overall strategy implementations for present and future plants. Additionally, LISSAT can be the basis for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis of safeguards and design options. This paper will describe the results of a LISSAT analysis of a generic centrifuge enrichment plant. The paper will describe the diversion scenarios analyzed and the effectiveness of various safeguards systems alternatives.

  4. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  5. Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

  6. A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosa Leimu

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.

  7. Risk Analysis of Accounting Information System Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALACHE, Arsenie-Samoil

    2011-01-01

    National economy and security are fully dependent on information technology and infrastructure. At the core of the information infrastructure society relies on, we have the Internet, a system designed initially as a scientists’ forum for unclassified research. The use of communication networks and systems may lead to hazardous situations that generate undesirable effects such as communication systems breakdown, loss of data or taking the wrong decisions. The paper studies the risk analysis of...

  8. Recent developments in fast spectroscopy for plant mineral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie evan Maarschalkerweerd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ideal fertilizer management to optimize plant productivity and quality is more relevant than ever, as global food demands increase along with the rapidly growing world population. At the same time, sub-optimal or excessive use of fertilizers leads to severe environmental damage in areas of intensive crop production. The approaches of soil and plant mineral analysis are briefly compared and discussed here, and the new techniques using fast spectroscopy that offer cheap, rapid and easy-to-use analysis of plant nutritional status are reviewed. The majority of these methods use vibrational spectroscopy, such as Visual-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR and to a lesser extent Ultraviolet (UV and Mid-Infrared (MIR spectroscopy. Advantages of and problems with application of these techniques are thoroughly discussed. Spectroscopic techniques considered having major potential for plant mineral analysis, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS are also described.

  9. LANDSAFE: LANDING SITE RISK ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency (ESA is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs, hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  10. 75 FR 52304 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... No. APHIS-2010-0061] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that... plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of guavas from Hawaii. We are making the...

  11. General recommendations for soil ecotoxicological tests suitable for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Meier, Matthias; Hilbeck, Angelika; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix

    2010-04-01

    Before a genetically modified plant (GMP) can be placed on the market in the European Union (EU), an environmental risk assessment has to be conducted according to EU-Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council. However, no harmonized concept for ecotoxicological testing is available today that considers the characteristics of GMPs as a whole. In fact, to date, mainly ecotoxicological tests originally developed and standardized for pesticides are used for this purpose. Frequently in these tests, not the whole GMP is tested but only specific transgene products (mainly toxins). In this contribution, ecotoxicological methods developed for the testing of pesticides are evaluated for whether they are suitable for risk assessment of GMPs as well. In total, 105 test methods covering a wide range of terrestrial invertebrates, microbes, and plants (laboratory, semifield, and field levels) were assessed. Only 7 of them had already been used with GMPs, and in about 20 studies the existing tests methods were modified, mostly in a way such that nonstandard species were used. In the laboratory, few earthworm and nontarget arthropod (NTA) species as well as collembolans and isopods were tested, and, in the field, only the litter-bag test was used. Clearly, more species than these few standard organisms currently in use have to be selected for testing purposes. A more detailed analysis of GMP tests with soil invertebrates published in the literature revealed that some of the relevant GMP exposure routes, such as via bulk soil, soil porewater, and litter from GMPs, are well covered. However, studies addressing either consumption of GMPs themselves or secondary exposure after GMPs have been taken up by invertebrates that feed on living or dead GMPs are underrepresented. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  12. Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) Risk Analysis Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Eric B.; Boyer, Roger L.; Stewart, Michael A.; Fougere, Pete

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) directorate at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied its knowledge and experience with Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to projects in industries ranging from spacecraft to nuclear power plants. PRA is a comprehensive and structured process for analyzing risk in complex engineered systems and/or processes. The PRA process enables the user to identify potential risk contributors such as, hardware and software failure, human error, and external events. Recent developments in the oil and gas industry have presented opportunities for NASA to lend their PRA expertise to both ongoing and developmental projects within the industry. This paper provides an overview of the PRA process and demonstrates how this process was applied in estimating the probability that a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) operating in the Gulf of Mexico and equipped with a generically configured Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) loses location and needs to initiate an emergency disconnect. The PRA described in this paper is intended to be generic such that the vessel meets the general requirements of an International Maritime Organization (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC)/Circ. 645 Class 3 dynamically positioned vessel. The results of this analysis are not intended to be applied to any specific drilling vessel, although provisions were made to allow the analysis to be configured to a specific vessel if required.

  13. Automated phenotyping of plant shoots using imaging methods for analysis of plant stress responses - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplík, Jan F; Lazár, Dušan; Husičková, Alexandra; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of in-house plant phenotyping are providing a powerful new tool for plant biology studies. The self-constructed and commercial platforms established in the last few years, employ non-destructive methods and measurements on a large and high-throughput scale. The platforms offer to certain extent, automated measurements, using either simple single sensor analysis, or advanced integrative simultaneous analysis by multiple sensors. However, due to the complexity of the approaches used, it is not always clear what such forms of plant phenotyping can offer the potential end-user, i.e. plant biologist. This review focuses on imaging methods used in the phenotyping of plant shoots including a brief survey of the sensors used. To open up this topic to a broader audience, we provide here a simple introduction to the principles of automated non-destructive analysis, namely RGB, chlorophyll fluorescence, thermal and hyperspectral imaging. We further on present an overview on how and to which extent, the automated integrative in-house phenotyping platforms have been used recently to study the responses of plants to various changing environments.

  14. Forest species diversity reduces disease risk in a generalist plant pathogen invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Sarah E.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that biodiversity loss can increase disease transmission, yet our understanding of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' for generalist pathogens in natural ecosystems is limited. We used a landscape epidemiological approach to examine two scenarios regarding diversity effects on the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum across a broad, heterogeneous ecoregion: (1) an amplification effect exists where disease risk is greater in areas with higher plant diversity due to the pathogen's wide host range, or (2) a dilution effect where risk is reduced with increasing diversity due to lower competency of alternative hosts. We found evidence for pathogen dilution, whereby disease risk was lower in sites with higher species diversity, after accounting for potentially confounding effects of host density and landscape heterogeneity. Our results suggest that although nearly all plants in the ecosystem are hosts, alternative hosts may dilute disease transmission by competent hosts, thereby buffering forest health from infectious disease.

  15. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  16. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  17. Use Of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) In Expert Systems To Advise Nuclear Plant Operators And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Robert E.

    1988-03-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. f2 Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the "source term" and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other. PRISIM,4 a personal computer program to calculate the ratio of core melt probabilities described above (based on previously performed PRAs), has been developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When one or several components are removed from service, PRISM then calculates the ratio of the core melt probabilities. The inference engine of the expert system then uses this ratio and a constant risk criterion,5 along with information from its knowledge base (which includes information from the PRA), to advise plant personnel as to what action, if any, should be taken.

  18. Energy choices and risk beliefs: is it just global warming and fear of a nuclear power plant accident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Truelove, Heather Barnes

    2011-05-01

    A survey of 3,200 U.S. residents focused on two issues associated with the use of nuclear and coal fuels to produce electrical energy. The first was the association between risk beliefs and preferences for coal and nuclear energy. As expected, concern about nuclear power plant accidents led to decreased support for nuclear power, and those who believed that coal causes global warming preferred less coal use. Yet other risk beliefs about the coal and nuclear energy fuel cycles were stronger or equal correlates of public preferences. The second issue is the existence of what we call acknowledged risk takers, respondents who favored increased reliance on nuclear energy, although also noting that there could be a serious nuclear plant accident, and those who favored greater coal use, despite acknowledging a link to global warming. The pro-nuclear group disproportionately was affluent educated white males, and the pro-coal group was relatively poor less educated African-American and Latino females. Yet both shared four similarities: older age, trust in management, belief that the energy facilities help the local economy, and individualistic personal values. These findings show that there is no single public with regard to energy preferences and risk beliefs. Rather, there are multiple populations with different viewpoints that surely would benefit by hearing a clear and comprehensive national energy life cycle policy from the national government. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.

  1. Real-time analysis of water movement in plant sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Harumi; Furukawa, Jun; Tanoi, Keitaro [Graduate School, Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    To know the effect of drought stress on two cultivars of cowpea, drought tolerant (DT) and drought sensitive (DS), and to estimate vanadium treatment on plant activity, we performed real time{sup 18}F labeled water uptake measurement by PETIS. Fluoride-18 was produced by bombarding a cubic ice target with 50 MeV protons using TIARA AVF cyclotron. Then {sup 18}F labeled water was applied to investigate water movement in a cowpea plant. Real time water uptake manner could be monitored by PETIS. After the analysis by PETIS, we also measured the distribution of {sup 18}F in a whole plant by BAS. When a cowpea plant was treated with drought stress, there was a difference in water uptake manner between DT and DS cultivar. When a cowpea plant was treated with V for 20 hours before the water uptake experiment, the total amount of {sup 18}F labeled water absorption was found to be drastically decreased. (author)

  2. Conceptual issues with risk analysis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lévy, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Risk analysis is a tricky procedure, where one can easily make mistakes. Indeed, although risk equations are rather general, transferring a methodology to another context or hazard type can often lead to inaccuracies or even significant errors. To illustrate this, common mistakes made with the Swiss methodology are presented, together with possible solutions. This includes the following: Risk analysis for moving objects only takes the process dimension into account (e.g. the length of a road section potentially affected by a landslide), but not the object dimension (e.g. the cars length). This is a fair simplification as long as the object dimension is considerably smaller than the process dimension. However, when the object is large compared to the process (e.g. rockfalls on a train), the results will be wrong. This problem can be illustrated by considering two blocs. According to this methodology a 1 m diameter bloc will be twice more susceptible to reach a train than a 50 cm bloc. This is obviously not correct. When it comes to rockfalls risk analysis on roads or railway found in the literature, the bloc dimension is usually neglected, in favour of the object dimension, which is a fair assumption in this context. However, it is possible to include both dimensions by using the sum of the lengths instead of one of them. Risk analysis is usually performed using 3 different scenarios, for 3 different ranges of return periods, namely 1-30, 30-100 and 100-300 years. In order to be conservative, the operator commonly considers the magnitude of the worst event that happens with a return period included between the class bounds, which means that the operator evaluates the magnitude reached or overpassed with a return period of 30, 100 and 300 years respectively. Then, since the magnitude corresponds to the upper bounds of the classes, risk is calculated using the frequency corresponding to these return periods and not to the middle of the class (and also subtracting the

  3. Analysis of Operational Risks in Shipbuilding Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper emphasizes the opportunities provided both for the academic research and companies by using a proposed model of analyzing the operational risks within business in general and shipbuilding industry in particular. The model aims to display the loss distribution from the operational risk for each business line/ type of event, based on frequency and severity estimation of the events. These estimations are derived mainly from the history logs of internal loss events. The calculations extend over a certain period of time in the future with a certain level of confidence. It should also be mentioned that the proposed model estimates unexpected losses, without making any suppositions concerning the values of the expected and unexpected losses. Several ideas could be extracted by analyzing and synthesizing the theoretical models from available literature. These ideas were analyzed in order to develop a model for operational risk analysis that is adapted to shipbuilding. This paper describes a new model, which can be applied to the naval industry to quantify operational risks.

  4. 76 FR 24848 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Category of Plants for Planting Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Collection; Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized for Importation Pending Pest Risk Analysis AGENCY... pending pest risk analysis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before July 5, 2011... pending pest risk analysis, contact Dr. Arnold Tschanz, Senior Plant Pathologist, Plants for...

  5. Model risk analysis for risk management and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing complexity of products in financial markets, market participants rely more and more on quantitative models for trading and risk management decisions. This introduces a fairly new type of risk, namely, model risk. In the first part of this thesis we investigate the quantitative inf

  6. Riparian plant community responses to increased flooding: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2015-08-01

    A future higher risk of severe flooding of streams and rivers has been projected to change riparian plant community composition and species richness, but the extent and direction of the expected change remain uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize globally available experimental evidence and assess the effects of increased flooding on (1) riparian adult plant and seedling survival, (2) riparian plant biomass and (3) riparian plant species composition and richness. We evaluated which plant traits are of key importance for the response of riparian plant species to flooding. We identified and analysed 53 papers from ISI Web of Knowledge which presented quantitative experimental results on flooding treatments and corresponding control situations. Our meta-analysis demonstrated how longer duration of flooding, greater depth of flooding and, particularly, their combination reduce seedling survival of most riparian species. Plant height above water level, ability to elongate shoots and plasticity in root porosity were decisive for adult plant survival and growth during longer periods of flooding. Both 'quiescence' and 'escape' proved to be successful strategies promoting riparian plant survival, which was reflected in the wide variation in survival (full range between 0 and 100%) under fully submerged conditions, while plants that protrude above the water level (>20 cm) almost all survive. Our survey confirmed that the projected increase in the duration and depth of flooding periods is sufficient to result in species shifts. These shifts may lead to increased or decreased riparian species richness depending on the nutrient, climatic and hydrological status of the catchment. Species richness was generally reduced at flooded sites in nutrient-rich catchments and sites that previously experienced relatively stable hydrographs (e.g. rain-fed lowland streams). Species richness usually increased at sites in desert and semi-arid climate regions (e.g. intermittent

  7. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  8. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  9. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  10. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  11. Empirical analysis on risk of security investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Peng; LI Sheng-hong

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the theory and application of Markowitz Mean-Variance Model and CAPM model. Firstly, it explains the development process and standpoints of two models and deduces the whole process in detail. Then 30 stocks are choosen from Shangzheng 50 stocks and are testified whether the prices of Shanghai stocks conform to the two models. With the technique of time series and panel data analysis, the research on the stock risk and effective portfolio by ORIGIN and MATLAB software is conducted. The result shows that Shanghai stock market conforms to Markowitz Mean-Variance Model to a certain extent and can give investors reliable suggestion to gain higher return, but there is no positive relation between system risk and profit ratio and CAPM doesn't function well in China's security market.

  12. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...... structuring and enriching the taxonomies of society’s critical functions and threats, which form an important part of the model. Creating terminological ontologies is a time consuming work, and therefore there is a need for automatic tools for extraction of terms, concept relations and characteristics...

  13. Spatial stochastic simulation offers potential as a quantitative method for pest risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafoss, Trond

    2003-08-01

    Pest risk analysis represents an emerging field of risk analysis that evaluates the potential risks of the introduction and establishment of plant pests into a new geographic location and then assesses the management options to reduce those potential risks. Development of new and adapted methodology is required to answer questions concerning pest risk analysis of exotic plant pests. This research describes a new method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study, Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial disease of potato. This method combines current quantitative methodologies, stochastic simulation, and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information about pest establishment potential in a geographical region where a pest had not been introduced. This proposed method extends an existing methodology for matching pest characteristics with environmental conditions by modeling and simulating dissemination behavior of a pest organism. Issues related to integrating spatial variables into risk analysis models are further discussed in this article.

  14. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  15. Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T Jonathan; Smith, Gideon F; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Boatwright, James S; Bytebier, Benny; Cowling, Richard M; Forest, Félix; Harmon, Luke J; Muasya, A Muthama; Schrire, Brian D; Steenkamp, Yolande; van der Bank, Michelle; Savolainen, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    It is widely recognized that we are entering an extinction event on a scale approaching the mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. Present-day rates of extinction are estimated to be several orders of magnitude greater than background rates and are projected to increase further if current trends continue. In vertebrates, species traits, such as body size, fecundity, and geographic range, are important predictors of vulnerability. Although plants are the basis for life on Earth, our knowledge of plant extinctions and vulnerabilities is lagging. Here, we disentangle the underlying drivers of extinction risk in plants, focusing on the Cape of South Africa, a global biodiversity hotspot. By comparing Red List data for the British and South African floras, we demonstrate that the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk differs significantly between regions, inconsistent with a simple, trait-based model of extinction. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic tree for the Cape, we reveal a phylogenetic signal in the distribution of plant extinction risks but show that the most threatened species cluster within short branches at the tips of the phylogeny--opposite to trends in mammals. From analyzing the distribution of threatened species across 11 exemplar clades, we suggest that mode of speciation best explains the unusual phylogenetic structure of extinction risks in plants of the Cape. Our results demonstrate that explanations for elevated extinction risk in plants of the Cape flora differ dramatically from those recognized for vertebrates. In the Cape, extinction risk is higher for young and fast-evolving plant lineages and cannot be explained by correlations with simple biological traits. Critically, we find that the most vulnerable plant species are nonetheless marching towards extinction at a more rapid pace but, surprisingly, independently from anthropogenic effects. Our results have important implications for conservation priorities and cast doubts on the

  16. Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jonathan Davies

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that we are entering an extinction event on a scale approaching the mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. Present-day rates of extinction are estimated to be several orders of magnitude greater than background rates and are projected to increase further if current trends continue. In vertebrates, species traits, such as body size, fecundity, and geographic range, are important predictors of vulnerability. Although plants are the basis for life on Earth, our knowledge of plant extinctions and vulnerabilities is lagging. Here, we disentangle the underlying drivers of extinction risk in plants, focusing on the Cape of South Africa, a global biodiversity hotspot. By comparing Red List data for the British and South African floras, we demonstrate that the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk differs significantly between regions, inconsistent with a simple, trait-based model of extinction. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic tree for the Cape, we reveal a phylogenetic signal in the distribution of plant extinction risks but show that the most threatened species cluster within short branches at the tips of the phylogeny--opposite to trends in mammals. From analyzing the distribution of threatened species across 11 exemplar clades, we suggest that mode of speciation best explains the unusual phylogenetic structure of extinction risks in plants of the Cape. Our results demonstrate that explanations for elevated extinction risk in plants of the Cape flora differ dramatically from those recognized for vertebrates. In the Cape, extinction risk is higher for young and fast-evolving plant lineages and cannot be explained by correlations with simple biological traits. Critically, we find that the most vulnerable plant species are nonetheless marching towards extinction at a more rapid pace but, surprisingly, independently from anthropogenic effects. Our results have important implications for conservation priorities and cast

  17. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graubard Barry I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS. Methods In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls. With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history. All plants were summed for cumulative exposure. Factor and cluster analyses were used to obtain scores and groups, respectively. Individual plants and soils in three levels of exposure with Ptrend ≤ 0.15 were retained in a backward elimination regression model. Results Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81. In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10 and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13, including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol used to cultivate durum wheat. None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus. Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17, but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35 and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05. Conclusions KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to

  18. Mapping habitat suitability for at-risk plant species and its implications for restoration and reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questad, Erin J; Kellner, James R; Kinney, Kealoha; Cordell, Susan; Asner, Gregory P; Thaxton, Jarrod; Diep, Jennifer; Uowolo, Amanda; Brooks, Sam; Inman-Narahari, Nikhil; Evans, Steven A; Tucker, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The conservation of species at risk of extinction requires data to support decisions at landscape to regional scales. There is a need for information that can assist with locating suitable habitats in fragmented and degraded landscapes to aid the reintroduction of at-risk plant species. In addition, desiccation and water stress can be significant barriers to the success of at-risk plant reintroduction programs. We examine how airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data can be used to model microtopographic features that reduce water stress and increase resource availability, providing information for landscape planning that can increase the success of reintroduction efforts for a dryland landscape in Hawaii. We developed a topographic habitat-suitability model (HSM) from LiDAR data that identifies topographic depressions that are protected from prevailing winds (high-suitability sites) and contrasts them with ridges and other exposed areas (low-suitability sites). We tested in the field whether high-suitability sites had microclimatic conditions that indicated better-quality habitat compared to low-suitability sites, whether plant-response traits indicated better growing conditions in high-suitability sites, whether the locations of individuals of existing at-risk plant species corresponded with our habitat-suitability classes, and whether the survival of planted individuals of a common native species was greater in high-suitability, compared to low-suitability, planting sites. Mean wind speed in a high-suitability field site was over five times lower than in a low-suitability site, and soil moisture and leaf wetness were greater, indicating less stress and greater resource availability in high-suitability areas. Plant height and leaf nutrient content were greater in high-suitability areas. Six at-risk species showed associations with high-suitability areas. The survival of planted individuals was less variable among high-suitability plots. These results

  19. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Nuclear risk analysis of the Ulysses mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, B.W.; Vaughan, F.R. (NUS Corporation, 910 Clopper Road, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877-0962 (USA)); Englehart, D.R.W. (Office of New Production Reactors, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The use of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide on the Space Shuttle-launched Ulysses mission implies some level of risk due to potential accidents. This paper describes the method used to quantify risks in the Ulysses mission Final Safety Analysis Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The starting point for the analysis described herein is following input of source term probability distributions from the General Electric Company. A Monte Carlo technique is used to develop probability distributions of radiological consequences for a range of accident scenarios thoughout the mission. Factors affecting radiological consequences are identified, the probability distribution of the effect of each factor determined, and the functional relationship among all the factors established. The probability distributions of all the factor effects are then combined using a Monte Carlo technique. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) by mission sub-phase, phase, and the overall mission. The CCDFs show the total probability that consequences (calculated health effects) would be equal to or greater than a given value.

  1. FORTRAN computer program for seismic risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robin K.

    1976-01-01

    A program for seismic risk analysis is described which combines generality of application, efficiency and accuracy of operation, and the advantage of small storage requirements. The theoretical basis for the program is first reviewed, and the computational algorithms used to apply this theory are described. The information required for running the program is listed. Published attenuation functions describing the variation with earthquake magnitude and distance of expected values for various ground motion parameters are summarized for reference by the program user. Finally, suggestions for use of the program are made, an example problem is described (along with example problem input and output) and the program is listed.

  2. 14 CFR 417.225 - Debris risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.225 Debris risk analysis. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that the risk to the public potentially exposed to inert and explosive debris hazards from any one flight of a launch vehicle satisfies the public risk criterion of...

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment of the modular HTGR plant. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everline, C.J.; Bellis, E.A.; Vasquez, J.

    1986-06-01

    A preliminary probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been performed for the modular HTGR (MHTGR). This PRA is preliminary in the context that although it updates the PRA issued earlier to include a wider spectrum of events for Licensing Basis Events (LBE) selection, the final version will not be issued until later. The primary function of the assessment was to assure compliance with the NRC interim safety goals imposed by the top-level regulatory criteria, and utility/user requirements regarding public evacuation or sheltering. In addition, the assessment provides a basis for designer feedback regarding reliability allocations and barrier retention requirements as well as providing a basis for the selection of licensing basis events (LBEs) and the safety classification of structures, systems, and components. The assessment demonstrates that both the NRC interim safety goals and utility/user imposed sheltering/evacuation requirements are satisfied. Moreover, it is not anticipated that design changes introduced will jeopardize compliance with the interim safety goals or utility/user requirements. 61 refs., 48 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. 76 FR 35186 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate... Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of rambutan from...

  5. 78 FR 44924 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... APHIS Web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/petitions_table_pending.shtml under APHIS..., Biotechnology Environmental Analysis Branch, Environmental Risk Analysis Programs, Biotechnology Regulatory... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which...

  6. 78 FR 44926 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... APHIS Web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/petitions_table_pending.shtml under APHIS..., Biotechnology Environmental Analysis Branch, Environmental Risk Analysis Programs, Biotechnology Regulatory... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which...

  7. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  8. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA. Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain. HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  9. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  10. 78 FR 45169 - GENECTIVE SA; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ..., seeking a determination of nonregulated status of maize designated as VCO-01981-5, which has been....) designated as event VCO-01981-5, which has been genetically engineered for resistance to the herbicide... prepared a PPRA and has concluded that maize event VCO- 01981-5 is unlikely to pose a plant pest risk....

  11. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  12. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  13. 78 FR 79658 - Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... from Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status of apple events... No. APHIS-2012-0025] Okanagan Specialty Fruits, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Apples Genetically Engineered To...

  14. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  15. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  16. Ozone risk assessment for plants: Central role of metabolism-dependent changes in reducing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizengremel, Pierre [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.dizengremel@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr; Le Thiec, Didier [INRA, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F-54280 Champenoux (France)], E-mail: le_thiec@nancy.inra.fr; Bagard, Matthieu [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: matthieu.bagard@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr; Jolivet, Yves [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Nancy-Universite, BP239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: yves.jolivet@scbiol.uhp-nancy.fr

    2008-11-15

    The combination of stomatal-dependent ozone flux and total ascorbate level is currently presented as a correct indicator for determining the degree of sensitivity of plants to ozone. However, the large changes in carbon metabolism could play a central role in the strategy of the foliar cells in response to chronic ozone exposure, participating in the supply of reducing power and carbon skeletons for repair and detoxification, and modifying the stomatal mode of functioning. To reinforce the accuracy of the definition of the threshold for ozone risk assessment, it is proposed to also consider the redox pool (NAD(P)H), the ratio between carboxylases and the water use efficiency as indicators of the differential ozone tolerance of plants. - We propose reducing power, Rubisco/PEPc ratio and water use efficiency as additional indicators in ozone risk assessment for plants.

  17. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  18. MATING DESIGNS: HELPFUL TOOL FOR QUANTITATIVE PLANT BREEDING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Nduwumuremyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding programme. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies, in plant breeding, plant breeders and geneticists, theoretically and practically, they use different form of mating designs and arrangements for targeted purpose. The choice of a mating design for estimating genetic variances should be dictated by the objectives of the study, time, space, cost and other biological limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. Therefore, this review aimed at highlighting the most used mating design in plant breeding and genetics studies. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding.

  19. High-throughput Binary Vectors for Plant Gene Function Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Lei; Ping Zhao; Min-Jie Cao; Rong Cui; Xi Chen; Li-Zhong Xiong; Qi-Fa Zhang; David J. Oliver; Cheng-Bin Xiang

    2007-01-01

    A series of high-throughput binary cloning vectors were constructed to facilitate gene function analysis in higher plants. This vector series consists of plasmids designed for plant expression, promoter analysis, gene silencing,and green fluorescent protein fusions for protein localization. These vectors provide for high-throughput and efficient cloning utilizing sites for λ phage integrase/excisionase. In addition, unique restriction sites are incorporated in a multiple cloning site and enable promoter replacement. The entire vector series are available with complete sequence information and detailed annotations and are freely distributed to the scientific community for non-commercial uses.

  20. Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    27  DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication...Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE... graphic analysis was polished using diamond incrusted polishing pads. The polished sample was imaged using a Zeiss Stereo Discovery V20 mi- croscope

  1. An approach for using risk assessment in risk-informed decisions on plant-specific changes to the licensing basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Mark A.; Cheok, Michael C.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Holahan, Gary M.; King, Thomas L.; Parry, Gareth W.; Ramey-Smith, Ann M.; Rubin, Mark P.; Thadani, Ashok C

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses an acceptable approach that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has proposed for using Probabilistic Risk Assessment in making decisions on changes to the licensing basis of a nuclear power plant. First, the overall philosophy of risk-informed decision-making, and the process framework are described. The philosophy is encapsulated in five principles, one of which states that, if the proposed change leads to an increase in core damage frequency or risk, the increases must be small and consistent with the intent of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Safety Goal Policy Statement. The second part of the paper discusses the use of PRA to demonstrate that this principle has been met. The discussion focuses on the acceptance guidelines, and on comparison of the PRA results with those guidelines. The difficulties that arise because of limitations in scope and analytical uncertainties are discussed and approaches to accommodate these difficulties in the decision-making are described.

  2. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Availability assessment and risk assessment regarding handling and preparation of biomass in combustion plants; Tillgaenglighets- och riskbedoemning av system foer hantering och beredning av biobraensle i foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biguen, Helen; Bodlund, Gunnar; Dahlloef, Lars; Pettersson, Lars [SwedPower, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    In the design of new, or refurbishment of old, bio-fuel fired plants, the design of the fuel-handling systems is often based on experiences from existing plants. The size of the bio-fuel storage is decided from fuel consumption during a long holiday with no transports, and available storage area on the site. Auxiliary capacities and redundancies in the bio-fuel handling systems are often determined by investment costs rather than by life-cycle costs. Risk analyses are realized according to Swedish legislation for Occupation and Health and its regulations for work in environment with risk of explosion. The plant is designed to minimize the risk for explosion and also to minimize the consequences of an explosion. The plant is provided with fire protection functions according to applicable legislations and regulations. Safety functions can either be passive as physical separations or active as different kinds of detecting and consequence reducing systems. The aim of this report is to emphasize the use of quantitative tools for analysis to evaluate alternative system designs from the viewpoint of availability and risk. The availability analysis gives the opportunity to quantitatively analyse suggested alternative solutions of a system and to study the influence of redundant system functions, storage volumes etceteras. The analysis also gives the opportunity to evaluate effects on manning, work on three shifts or daytime with extra duty on call, as well as the optimization of spare parts toward delivery times and agreements for service. The probabilistic risk analysis gives opportunities to place in order of precedence and quantitatively evaluate the effect on total risk from suggested passive protective measures and different types of active protection functions such as fire sprinkling. The methods of analysis are above all an aid and support to optimize system design and life cycle cost during the design phase. During continuous operation the quantitative analyses are

  4. Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

  5. Plant Phosphoproteomics: Analysis of Plasma Membrane Transporters by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Young, Clifford

    important physiological functions, such as stomata aperture, cell elongation, or cellular pH regulation. It is known that the activity of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation. Therefore, we first investigated the phosphorylation profile of plant H+-ATPase by enriching...... the phosphopeptides with optimized TiO2 and IMAC enrichment methods prior to MS analysis. We further investigated the global phosphorylation profile of the whole plant plasma membrane proteins using the combination of our recently established phosphopeptide enrichment method, Calcium phosphate precipitation......  Phosphorylation is a key regulatory factor in all aspects of eukaryotic biology including the regulation of plant membrane-bound transport proteins. To date, mass spectrometry (MS) has been introduced as powerful technology for study of post translational modifications (PTMs), including protein...

  6. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  7. [Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks. Part 1: Plant foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Today vegetarian nutrition is more accepted and widespread in Europe than in former years. For a long time scientific research on vegetarian diets has focused mostly on malnutrition, whereas nowadays research centers increasingly on the preventive potential of plant-based diets. We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE research was performed for all plant food groups relevant for a vegetarian diet (key words: all relevant food groups, "vegetarian diet", "chronic disease", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, cancer risk reduction by a high intake of vegetables and fruits is assessed as probable or possible, while a lowered risk of cardiovascular disease is convincing and a lowered risk of osteoporosis is probable. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible, whereas it is probable relating to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. There is an insufficient risk-reducing effect of legumes like soja relating to epithelial tumours and cardiovascular disease. The evidence of a risk-reducing effect of nuts to cardiovascular disease is assessed as probable, and in relation to cholelithiasis and diabetes mellitus type 2 as possible and insufficient, respectively. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases.

  8. Mortality risk in a historical cohort of nuclear power plant workers in Germany: results from a second follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzenich, Hiltrud; Hammer, Gaël P; Tröltzsch, Katrin; Ruecker, Kai; Buncke, Johanna; Fehringer, Franz; Blettner, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Possible health effects of low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are relevant for persons who are exposed to an occupational context like nuclear industry workers. A historical cohort study was therefore conducted to examine mortality risks following occupational radiation exposure among 4,844 German nuclear power plant workers. This cohort included workers from ten nuclear power plants with an observational period from 1991 until 1997. The results of an enlarged cohort with 8,972 workers from all 17 nuclear power plants in West Germany are now available. During the extended follow-up period from 1991 to 2008, a total of 310 deaths among men were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from all causes of deaths was estimated at 0.50 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.56]. A total of 126 deaths due to cancer occurred (SMR = 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82) and seven deaths due to leukemia (SMR = 1.23; 95 % CI 0.42-2.84). Overall, a reduced mortality compared to the general population of West Germany was observed indicating a healthy worker effect. In the dose-response analysis, no statistically significant risk due to ionizing radiation was seen. The hazard ratio (HR/mSv) for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia was estimated at 1.004 (95 % CI 0.997-1.011). In conclusion, the cohort is small and made up of young workers, most of whom were still employed at the end of the observational period in 2008. Results of the external analysis are difficult to interpret as influenced by a healthy worker effect. In the internal analysis, no excess of risk due to radiation was detected.

  9. Mortality risk in a historical cohort of nuclear power plant workers in Germany: results from a second follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzenich, Hiltrud; Troeltzsch, Katrin; Ruecker, Kai; Buncke, Johanna; Blettner, Maria [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Hammer, Gael P. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Laboratoire National de Sante E.P., Registre Morphologique des Tumeurs, Dudelange (Luxembourg); Fehringer, Franz [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BGETEM), Cologne (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Possible health effects of low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are relevant for persons who are exposed to an occupational context like nuclear industry workers. A historical cohort study was therefore conducted to examine mortality risks following occupational radiation exposure among 4,844 German nuclear power plant workers. This cohort included workers from ten nuclear power plants with an observational period from 1991 until 1997. The results of an enlarged cohort with 8,972 workers from all 17 nuclear power plants in West Germany are now available. During the extended follow-up period from 1991 to 2008, a total of 310 deaths among men were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from all causes of deaths was estimated at 0.50 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.56]. A total of 126 deaths due to cancer occurred (SMR = 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82) and seven deaths due to leukemia (SMR = 1.23; 95 % CI 0.42-2.84). Overall, a reduced mortality compared to the general population of West Germany was observed indicating a healthy worker effect. In the dose-response analysis, no statistically significant risk due to ionizing radiation was seen. The hazard ratio (HR/mSv) for leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia was estimated at 1.004 (95 % CI 0.997-1.011). In conclusion, the cohort is small and made up of young workers, most of whom were still employed at the end of the observational period in 2008. Results of the external analysis are difficult to interpret as influenced by a healthy worker effect. In the internal analysis, no excess of risk due to radiation was detected. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  11. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose....... By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant...... pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial...

  12. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  13. Guidance on methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of options for reducing the risk of introduction and spread of organisms harmful to plant health in the EU territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requested the Panel on Plant Health (PLH Panel) to provide guidance for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the options for plants and plant products for reducing the risk of introduction and spread of harmful organisms in the European Union territory...... and guidance documents for assessing a proposed RRO. In addition, the current document provides recommendations for assessing RROs, specifically: on experimental design; on the use of statistical methods including approaches for studying uncertainty; on the use of quantitative pathway analysis and spread...

  14. Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Barry, Kathryn E.; Becklund, Kristen K.; Dale, Sarah; Gei, Maria G.; Keller, Adrienne B.; Lopez, Omar R.; Markesteijn, Lars; Mangan, Scott; Riggs, Charlotte E.; Rodríguez-Ronderos, María Elizabeth; Segnitz, R. Max; Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil properties beneath individual plants differ from those of neighbours by an average of 41%. Although the magnitudes of individual plant effects exhibit weak relationships with climate and latitude, they are significantly stronger in deserts and tundra than forests, and weaker in intensively managed ecosystems. The ubiquitous effects of plant individuals and species on local soil properties imply that individual plant effects have a role in plant–soil feedbacks, linking individual plants with biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26224711

  15. Recent insights into plant-virus interactions through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2012-10-05

    Plant viruses represent a major threat for a wide range of host species causing severe losses in agricultural practices. The full comprehension of mechanisms underlying events of virus-host plant interaction is crucial to devise novel plant resistance strategies. Until now, functional genomics studies in plant-virus interaction have been limited mainly on transcriptomic analysis. Only recently are proteomic approaches starting to provide important contributions to this area of research. Classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is still the most widely used platform in plant proteome analysis, although in the last years the application of quantitative "second generation" proteomic techniques (such as differential in gel electrophoresis, DIGE, and gel-free protein separation methods) are emerging as more powerful analytical approaches. Apparently simple, plant-virus interactions reveal a really complex pathophysiological context, in which resistance, defense and susceptibility, and direct virus-induced reactions interplay to trigger expression responses of hundreds of genes. Given that, this review is specifically focused on comparative proteome-based studies on pathogenesis of several viral genera, including some of the most important and widespread plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus, Sobemovirus, Cucumovirus and Potyvirus. In all, this overview reveals a widespread repression of proteins associated with the photosynthetic apparatus, while energy metabolism/protein synthesis and turnover are typically up-regulated, indicating a major redirection of cell metabolism. Other common features include the modulation of metabolisms concerning sugars, cell wall, and reactive oxigen species as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The fine-tuning between plant development and antiviral defense mechanisms determines new patterns of regulation of common metabolic pathways. By offering a 360-degree view of protein modulation

  16. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in a closed-loop power plant; risk assessment and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanes, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes Medicales; Pringuez, E.; Siclet, F.; Khalanski, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Bard, D. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France); Pernin, P. [Faculte de Pharmacie de Lyon, 69 (France)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1980, the water used for cooling in French power plants has been tested for pathogenic amoebae, especially Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapid fatal disease of the central nervous system. The replacement of brass condensers by stainless steel condensers resulted in increased Naegleria fowleri development, to a density of as much as 3000 l{sup -1} in the Dampierre power plant cooling water. Downstream from Dampierre, the maximum detected density of this amoeba during the summer of 1995 was 80 l{sup -1}, at low river flow. The replacement of a second condenser in 1996 at the same power plant was expected to double the amoebae concentration in the river. The hypothetical PAM risk for swimmers was then predicted to be 10{sup -4} per swim. To reduce the risk continuous chlorination of the closed-loop cooling system was implemented at a free residual chlorine level in the range of 0.3-0.5 mg.l{sup -1}. Naegleria fowleri concentrations decreased immediately and thereafter remained under 4 l{sup -1}. Total residual chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds were also monitored in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this preventive action. (authors)

  17. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  18. Genomic analysis of plant chromosomes based on meiotic pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Chamma Davide

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the principles and applications of classical genomic analysis, with emphasis on plant breeding. The main mathematical models used to estimate the preferential chromosome pairing in diploid or polyploid, interspecific or intergenera hybrids are presented and discussed, with special reference to the applications and studies for the definition of genome relationships among species of the Poaceae family.

  19. Preprocessing and exploratory analysis of chromatographic profiles of plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Cruz-Juarez, L.; Bont, de D.; Hall, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of herbal extracts to compare samples from different origin is important for robust production and quality control strategies. This characterization is now mainly performed by analysis of selected marker compounds. Metabolic fingerprinting of full metabolite profiles of plant ex

  20. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  1. Linking plant disease risk and precipitation drivers: a dynamical systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens often respond sensitively to changes in their environmental conditions and consequently represent a potentially important ecological response to global change. Although several studies have considered the effects of increased temperature and CO(2) concentrations on plant pathogen risk, the effects of changing precipitation regimes have drawn less attention. Many classes of plant pathogen, however, are sensitive to changes in the water potential of their local environment. This study applied existing ecohydrological frameworks to connect precipitation, soil, and host properties with scenarios of pathogen risk, focusing on two water-sensitive pathogens: Phytophthora cinnamomi and Botryosphaeria doithidea. Simple models were developed to link the dynamics of these pathogens to water potentials. Model results demonstrated that the risk of host plants being colonized by the pathogens varied sensitively with soil and climate. The model was used to predict the distribution of Phytophthora in Western Australia and the severity of disease in horticultural blueberry trials with variable irrigation rates, illustrating potential applications of the framework. Extending the modeling framework to include spatial variation in hydrology, epidemic progression, and feedbacks between pathogens and soil moisture conditions may be needed to reproduce detailed spatial patterns of disease. At regional scales, the proposed modeling approach provides a tractable framework for coupling climatic drivers to ecosystem response while accounting for the probabilistic and variable nature of disease.

  2. The Risk Management in New Technology Deployment to Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kil Young; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper figures out that it is required to build the structured and integrated risk management system in enterprise level. By means of it, the accumulated data and experience of work can be shared and transferred effectively among workers, and consequently design mistake or error can be reduced. It has been requested to upgrade and replace equipment in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with new technology because of obsolescence and spare parts issues, and demands for higher performance. The processes for the new technology deployment to NPP, however, may have risks causing the unpredictable outcomes leading to the degradation of performance or operation. Therefore, the proper risk management is essential for ensuring safety and performance of NPP since it provides means to identify risks and minimizing their impacts. For these reason, this paper aims at investigating how the risk is managed and presents the proper risk management in project for the deployment of new technology to NPP. This paper investigated how the risk is managed in the NPP industry. Risk is perceived as a negative term that brings negative impact on project objectives. 10 key risks are identified and classified as high risk on cost, time, scope, or quality in compliance with the criteria seeking 'Safety First'. Design mistake or error' can significantly influence three project objectives while the rest risks can significantly influence one or two project objectives. However, it is also found that there are neither structured ways nor a systematical approach to perform the proper risk management. As a result, risk management such as identification, assessment, and response is mostly performed in the individual level laying much weight on experience since the most common methods are past experience and review of similar case.

  3. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of fresh mango fruit... importation of fresh mango fruits, Mangifera indica L., into the continental United States. Currently, fresh...

  4. Potential of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Plant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H.

    2008-11-01

    Various mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopic methods applied to the analysis of valuable plant substances or quality parameters in selected horticultural and agricultural crops are presented. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow to identify simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). In contrast to MIR methods Raman spectroscopy mostly does not need any sample pre-treatment; even fresh plant material can be analysed without difficulty because water shows only weak Raman scattering properties. In some cases a significant sensivity enhancement of Raman signals can be achieved if the exciting laser wavelength is adjusted to the absorption range of particular plant chromophores such as carotenoids (Resonance Raman effect). Applying FT-IR or FT Raman micro-spectroscopy the distribution of certain plant constituents in the cell wall can be identified without the need for any physical separation. Furthermore it is also possible to analyse secondary metabolites occurring in the cell vacuoles if significant key bands do not coincide with the spectral background of the plant matrix.

  5. Environmental risk analysis for nanomaterials: Review and evaluation of frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2012-01-01

    In response to the challenges of conducting traditional human health and ecological risk assessment for nanomaterials (NM), a number of alternative frameworks have been proposed for NM risk analysis. This paper evaluates various risk analysis frameworks proposed for NM based on a number of criteria...

  6. Direct Conjugation of Emerging Contaminants in Arabidopsis: Indication for an Overlooked Risk in Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Jianbo; Borchardt, Dan; Schlenk, Daniel; Gan, Jay

    2017-06-06

    Agricultural use of treated wastewater, biosolids, and animal wastes introduces a multitude of contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) into the soil-plant system. The potential for food crops to accumulate CECs depends largely on their metabolism in plants, which at present is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the metabolism of naproxen and ibuprofen, two of the most-used human drugs from the Profen family, in Arabidopsis thaliana cells and the Arabidopsis plant. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and (14)C labeling allowed the characterization of both free and conjugated metabolites, as well as nonextractable residues. Naproxen and ibuprofen, in their parent form, were conjugated quickly and directly with glutamic acid and glutamine, and further with peptides, in A. thaliana cells. For example, after 120 h, the metabolites of naproxen accounted for >90% of the extractable chemical mass, while the intact parent itself was negligible. The structures of glutamate and glutamine conjugates were confirmed using synthesized standards and further verified in whole plants. Amino acid conjugates may easily deconjugate, releasing the parent molecule. This finding highlights the possibility that the bioactivity of such CECs may be effectively preserved through direct conjugation, a previously overlooked risk. Many other CECs are also carboxylic acids, such as the profens. Therefore, direct conjugation may be a common route for plant metabolism of these CECs, making it imperative to consider conjugates when assessing their risks.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  8. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-12-20

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.

  9. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joy Lanou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Joy Lanou1, Barbara Svenson21Department of Health and Wellness, 2Ramsey Library, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC, USAAbstract: This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.Keywords: diet, vegan, prevention

  10. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  11. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  12. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate the rate and effect of mercury emissions in the atmosphere and technologies to control the emissions. The US DOE sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate health risks of mercury emissions from coal combustion. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the compound predominantly responsible for human exposure to atmospheric mercury in the United States, through fish ingestion. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single large power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized are near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms (paresthesia) was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE RISK-BASED MAINTENANCE OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM FOR FOSSIL POWER PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Watanabe; Y.Chuman; N.Nishimura; H.Matsumoto; K.Tominaga; F.Sakata; T.Kuroishi

    2004-01-01

    Cost reduction in electric power generation is a major management concern, and it is therefore necessary to reduce maintenance expenses while upholding plant reliability.A maintenance optimization system "FREEDOM", which uses RBM technique, DCF (discounted cash flow) and NPV (net present value) calculation functions, has been newly developed. This system probabilistically evaluates the lifetime of boiler and turbine and quantitatively calculates the risk defined as the cumulative probability of failure multiplied by the consequence of failure. Economically optimized timing of inspection and alternative countermeasure such as repair and replacement are then recommended. This system has already been applied to seven plants in Japan, and its effectiveness has been confirmed.

  14. Seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Varpasuo

    2013-01-01

    The seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) begin with the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development for the site.The following steps are needed for the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development:a.the development of regional seismo-tectonic model with seismic source areas within 500 km radius centered to the site; b.the development of strong motion prediction equations;c.logic three development for taking into account uncertainties and seismic hazard quantification; d.the development of uniform hazard response spectra for ground motion at the site; e.simulation of acceleration time histories compatible with uniform hazard response spectra.The following phase two in seismic design of NPP structures is the analysis of structural response for the design ground motion.This second phase of the process consists of the following steps:a.development of structural models of the plant buildings; b.development of the soil model underneath the plant buildings for soil-structure interaction response analysis; c.determination of in-structure response spectra for the plant buildings for the equipment response analysis.In the third phase of the seismic design and analysis the equipment is analyzed on the basis of in-structure response spectra.For this purpose the structural models of the mechanical components and piping in the plant are set up.In large 3D-structural models used today the heaviest equipment of the primary coolant circuit is included in the structural model of the reactor building.In the fourth phase the electrical equipment and automation and control equipment are seismically qualified with the aid of the in-structure spectra developed in the phase two using large three-axial shaking tables.For this purpose the smoothed envelope spectra for calculated in-structure spectra are constructed and acceleration time is fitted to these smoothed envelope spectra.

  15. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R Gordon

    Full Text Available We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders, and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  16. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Doria R; Gantz, Crysta A; Jerde, Christopher L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P; Champion, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  18. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  19. 大棚菜农腰痛危险因素的结构方程模型分析%Structural equation model analysis of risk factors for low back pain among greenhouse vegetable-planting farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红运; 杨曦伟; 于素芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨大棚菜农腰痛的危险因素并估计其相对水平.方法 采用整群抽样方法,对某大棚种植区的639名大棚菜农进行回顾性问卷调查,并运用Smart PLS软件进行腰痛的结构方程模型分析.结果 潜变量腰痛的决定系数为0.827,动态负荷、静态负荷、力量施加、人体工效学环境、重复性负荷等潜变量与腰痛的结构系数分别为0.206、0.432、0.266、0.045、0.034,对腰痛的总体影响分别为0.206、0.432、0.266、0.333、0.034.结论 大棚菜农腰痛的主要危险因素是静态负荷、人体工效学环境、力量施加和动态负荷.%Objective To explore the risk factors of low back pain (LBP) among greenhouse vegetableplanting farmers and estimate the level of the effects.Methods A self-made questionnaire based on the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Nordic Questionnaire was conducted to 639 greenhouse vegetableplanting farmers and then structural equation model was used to analyze the risk factors of LBP in SmartPLS software.Results The coefficient of determination of the model was 0.827,and the structural coefficients of dynamic loads,static loads,force exertion,ergonomic environment and repetitive loads on LBP were 0.21,0.43,0.27,0.045 and 0.034 respectively,and the total effects of the above latent variables on LBP were 0.21,0.43,0.27,0.33 and 0.034 respectively.Conclusion The main risk factors of LBP among greenhouse vegetableplanting farmers were static loads,ergonomic environment,force exertion and dynamic loads.

  20. Water imaging in living plant by nondestructive neutron beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, M. Tomoko [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Analysis of biological activity in intact cells or tissues is essential to understand many life processes. Techniques for these in vivo measurements have not been well developed. We present here a nondestructive method to image water in living plants using a neutron beam. This technique provides the highest resolution for water in tissue yet obtainable. With high specificity to water, this neutron beam technique images water movement in seeds or in roots imbedded in soil, as well as in wood and meristems during development. The resolution of the image attainable now is about 15um. We also describe how this new technique will allow new investigations in the field of plant research. (author)

  1. Metabolomics and Cheminformatics Analysis of Antifungal Function of Plant Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum, such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

  2. The Risk analysis and Optimization of Primary Frequency Regulation for Nuclear Power Plant%核电机组一次调频风险分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 肖付伟

    2016-01-01

    核电机组一次调频在保证核电的安全运行等方面起着重要的作用,因此,研究一次调频动作对汽轮机和反应堆带来何种危害是十分有必要的。针对机组在满功率状态情况下,研究一次调频动作的风险并对其进行分析、仿真,最后提出相应的优化方法。这种研究对核电机组避免此种情况下一次调频带来的动作风险有一定的指导意义,有利于核电的安全运行以及提高电网频率质量和安全稳定运行水平。%Primary frequency regulation of nuclear power unit is very important in ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power. Therefore, it is very necessary to study the effect of primary frequency modulation on steam turbine and the reactor. On the condition that nuclear power unit is in full power state, the risk of primary frequency regulation is analyzed and simulated, and the corresponding optimization methods are proposed. This study has a certain guiding significance in helping the nuclear power unit to avoid the risk of primary frequency regulation, and is conductive to the safe operation of nuclear power and improve the safe and stable operation of power grid frequence quality .

  3. Environmental risk assessment of GE plants under low-exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew; Devos, Yann; Raybould, Alan; Bigelow, Patrick; Gray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    The requirement for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically engineered (GE) plants prior to large scale or commercial introduction into the environment is well established in national laws and regulations, as well as in international agreements. Since the first introductions of GE plants in commercial agriculture in the 1990s, a nearly universal paradigm has emerged for conducting these assessments based on a few guiding principles. These include the concept of case-by-case assessment, the use of comparative assessments, and a focus of the ERA on characteristics of the plant, the introduced trait, and the receiving environment as well as the intended use. In practice, however, ERAs for GE plants have frequently focused on achieving highly detailed characterizations of potential hazards at the expense of consideration of the relevant levels of exposure. This emphasis on exhaustive hazard characterization can lead to great difficulties when applied to ERA for GE plants under low-exposure conditions. This paper presents some relevant considerations for conducting an ERA for a GE plant in a low-exposure scenario in the context of the generalized ERA paradigm, building on discussions and case studies presented during a session at ISBGMO 12.

  4. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Putting problem formulation at the forefront of GMO risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfer, Mark; Racovita, Monica; Craig, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    When applying risk assessment and the broader process of risk analysis to decisions regarding the dissemination of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the process has a tendency to become remarkably complex. Further, as greater numbers of countries consider authorising the large-scale dissemination of GMOs, and as GMOs with more complex traits reach late stages of development, there has been increasing concern about the burden posed by the complexity of risk analysis. We present here an improved approach for GMO risk analysis that gives a central role to problem formulation. Further, the risk analysis strategy has been clarified and simplified in order to make rigorously scientific risk assessment and risk analysis more broadly accessible to diverse stakeholder groups.

  6. Heat-inducible RNAi for gene functional analysis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Controlling gene expression during plant development is an efficient method to explore gene function and RNA interference (RNAi) is now considered as a powerful technology for gene functional analysis. However, constitutive gene silencing cannot be used with genes involved in fundamental processes such as embryo viability or plant growth and alternative silencing strategies avoiding these limitations should be preferred. Tissue-specific and inducible promoters, able to control gene expression at spatial and/or temporal level, can be used to circumvent viability problems. In this chapter, after a rapid overview of the inducible promoters currently used for transgenic approaches in plants, we describe a method we have developed to study gene function by heat-inducible RNAi. This system is easy to use and complementary to those based on chemical gene inducer treatments and might be useful for both research and biotechnological applications.

  7. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    CERN Document Server

    Goupil, C; Khamsing, A; Apertet, Y; Bouteau, F; Mancuso, S; Patino, R; Lecoeur, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant's electrophysiological response. Therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  8. 重庆市北碚区入侵植物风险评估%On Risk Assessment of Invasive Plants in Beibei District of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严桧; 杨柳; 邓洪平; 齐雪丹; 丁艳霞; 邹建平; 田晨

    2016-01-01

    通过对重庆市北碚区入侵植物种类的调查,结果显示入侵植物共41种,隶属于19个科,34个属。调查发现,部分物种已形成较大危害,部分存在潜在危害。本文采用国际上有害生物风险分析“PRA”(Pest Risk Analy‐sis),以及国内外来入侵植物风险评价指标体系等,将北碚区外来入侵植物进行定量分析并排序。结果显示,41种外来入侵植物中,有18种属于高危害风险植物、12种中危害风险植物、11种低危害风险植物。有30种物种危险性综合评价均达到二级及以上,属于中、高度危害性植物。其中风险等级由高到低排列前10的分别为小白酒草、落葵薯、空心莲子草、反枝苋、相思草、三叶鬼针草、凤眼莲、日本菟丝子、土荆芥、刺苋。%Based on the Chongqing Beibei species of invasive plants survey ,the results show that a total of 41 invasive plant ,belonging to 19 families ,34genera .It has been found in the survey that some species have been form a larger ,part of a potential hazard .The paper uses the international Pest Risk Analysis on"PRA"(Pest Risk Analysis) Risk evaluation index system of alien plant and sorted .The results show that ,of the 41 specials of invasive plants ,there are 18 special belong to high risk of harm plants ,12 kinds of hazard risk in plants ,dangerously low hazard ,11 kinds of plants .T here are 30 specials risk comprehen‐sive evaluation are reaching level 2 and above ,belongs to the highly dangerous plants .The risk level from high to low arrangement top ten are :Conyza canadnsis ,Anredera cordifolia ,Alternantheraphiloxe‐roide ,Amaranthus retroflexus ,Conyzabonariensis ,Bidens pilosa ,Eichhorniacrassipes ,Cuscutajapon‐ica Choisy ,Dysphania ambrosioides ,Amaranthus spinosus .

  9. Developing risk-based screening guidelines for dioxin management at a Melbourne sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, J; Mival, K; Wright, J; Howell, M

    2003-01-01

    Dioxin is a generic term used to refer to the congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The principal source of dioxin production is generally thought to be from unintended by-products of waste incineration, but dioxins are also naturally formed from volcanic activity and forest fires (WHO, 1998). Estimates of dioxin emissions in Australia suggest that approximately 75% of the total PCDD and PCDF emissions derive from prescribed burning and wild bushfires. Currently, no screening guidelines for dioxins within soils are available in Australia. This paper presents the general approach and results of a human health risk-based assessment performed by URS Australia in 2001 to develop site specific reference criteria for remediation of a former sewage plant in Melbourne. Risk-based soil remediation concentrations for dioxins at the sewage treatment plant site were developed using tolerable daily intake values of 4, 2 and 1 pg/kg/day. The potentially significant exposure pathways and processes for exposure to dioxins were identified and risk-based soil concentrations derived in accordance with the general method framework presented in the National Environmental Protection Measure (Assessment of Site Contamination). The derived dioxin reference criteria were used to develop an effective risk management program focussed on those conditions that present the greatest contribution to overall risk to human health.

  10. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  11. 核电厂地震风险量化方法%Quantification Method for Nuclear Power Plant Seismic Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凯; 林模俤

    2016-01-01

    In the seismic risk analysis for the nuclear power plant,the appropriate data processing method and analytical technique are required.In this study,seismic risk quantification software is developed independently for the first time in China.It uses Monte Carlo sampling method to simulate the seismic frequencies and component conditional failure probabilities,and integrates with accident sequences to assess the plant seismic risk.This method overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional probabilistic risk assessment modelling software in the seismic risk evaluation.Compared with the similar software abroad,this software is more reasonable in the uncertainty process.%核电厂地震风险评价应该采用合适的数据处理方法和分析技巧.自主开发地震量化软件,采用蒙特卡洛抽样方法,对地震发生频率及设备失效条件概率进行模拟,并结合地震事故序列对电厂地震风险水平进行评价.该方法弥补了传统概率安全评价(PSA)建模软件在处理地震风险评价方面的不足.与国外同类型软件相比,在不确定性方法的处理上更合理,功能上更完善.

  12. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  13. Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seock-Yoon; Shin, Seung-Yung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In an attempt to analysis the POD isoenzymes (swpa1, swpa2, swpa3, and swpn1) expression in response to gamma-irradiation in sweet potato. In suspension cells POD isoenzymes was highly expressed at 6 h postirradiation, and the transcript levels increased at 0 and 6 h at 50 Gy in plants. POD isoenzymes expression in response to irradiation appears not to be regulated in a different manner in cultured cells and plants. The gamma radiation-induced changes of proteins in tobacco suspension cells were investigated by SDS-PAGE. In tobacco cultured cells gamma irradiation did not significantly change the protein patterns. This indicates that the gamma irradiation-induced protein was not highly expressed or might be overlap with others. In the tobacco transgenic plants simultaneously expressing SOD and/or APX in chloroplast, the specific activities of SOD and APX of gamma-irradiated plants increased according to the dose of gamma-irradiation. These results indicate that antioxidative genes depends on antioxidative isoenzymes differently respond to gamma irradiation in transgenic tobacco plant lines. 35 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  14. Model development for the determination of the influence of management on plant risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; O' Brien, J.N.; Ryan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of an organizational model which will be used to determine the influence of supervisory and management functions in a nuclear power plant (NPP) on risk. A theoretical conceptualization, derived from the empirical literature, is used to describe the organizational structure of NPPs. The parameters and variables associated with this dynamic, process-oriented model are detailed. Applications of the model and preliminary insights derived from this conceptualization are discussed.

  15. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  16. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L. [Safety and Reliability Optimization Services (SAROS), Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  17. Geothermal Power Plant Maintenance: Evaluating Maintenance System Needs Using Quantitative Kano Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynir S. Atlason

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative Kano model is used in this study to identify which features are preferred by top-level maintenance engineers within Icelandic geothermal power plants to be implemented in a maintenance tool or software. Visits were conducted to the largest Icelandic energy companies operating geothermal power plants. Thorough interviews with chiefs of operations and maintenance were used as a basis for a quantitative Kano analysis. Thirty seven percent of all maintenance engineers at Reykjavik Energy and Landsvirkjun, responsible for 71.5% of the total energy production from geothermal resources in Iceland, answered the Kano questionnaire. Findings show that solutions focusing on (1 planning maintenance according to condition; (2 shortening documentation times; and (3 risk analysis are sought after by the energy companies but not provided for the geothermal sector specifically.

  18. Characterization of silver nanoparticles internalized by Arabidopsis plants using single particle ICP-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping eBao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continual improvement of quality of life with nanotechnological applications, nanoparticles (NPs will inevitably reach our living environment and various ecosystems. Plants act as a crucial interface between humans and their environment. The wide use of NPs has raised great concerns about the risk of potential toxicity in crop health and food safety, leading to an emerging research theme about the interaction between plants and NPs. However, even the basic issue concerning the eventual fate and characteristics of NPs after internalization is not clearly delineated due to lack of a well-established technique for NP analysis in plant tissues. With the aid of enzymatic digestion, single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS is employed to determine the size distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exposure to 10 nm Ag NPs. Our results show that Macerozyme R-10 is an appropriate enzyme to release Ag NPs from Arabidopsis plants without changing the properties of nanomaterials. The characteristics of Ag NPs obtained by SP-ICP-MS in both roots and shoots are in agreement with our transmission electron micrographs, demonstrating that SP-ICP-MS coupled with enzymatic digestion procedure is a powerful technique for quantitative determination of NPs in plant tissues. Our data reveal that Ag NPs tend to accumulate predominantly at root tissues whereby a minor portion is transported to shoot tissues. Furthermore, the measured size distribution of Ag NPs in plant tissue is centred at around 20.70 nm, larger than the average 12.84 nm in diameter, strongly implying that many internalized Ag NPs do not exist as intact individual particles but are aggregated and/or biotransformed by plant cells.

  19. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  20. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1 image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  1. Exergy analysis of a co-generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdelji Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of traditional first-law analysis, based upon thermodynamic performance of process unit coupled with mass and energy balances, are not a serious limitation when dealing with familiar systems. However, when dealing with more uncongenial, complex ones, it provides incomplete insight for such evaluation. These limitations came from the fact that first-law analysis does not indicate the sources or magnitudes of entropy production, which is, by the second law, essential criterion for scaling losses. An evaluation of plant performance will usually require a comparison of the thermodynamic performance of process units with available data from existing plants. Therefore, exergy analysis is more than useful, providing information about magnitudes of losses and their distribution throughout the system as well. Such analysis is very thankful at the level of process units but applied on higher system levels e.g. the comparison of overall plant performance (total system or the performance of subsystems, represents the valuable method for indicating where research resources can be directed to best advantage.

  2. Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in

  3. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  4. Radiation hormesis in plant - Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng Soon; Kwon, Seok Yoon; Shin, Seung Yung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In the tobacco transgenic plants simultaneously expressing SOD and APX in chloroplast, the specific activities of SOD and APX (CA, AM, C/A, A/C) were much higher than in the transgenic plants expressing SOD (CuZnSOD, MnSOD) or APX alone, respectively. Plant growth was severely inhibited showing a well correlation with the dose of gamma-irradiation. In 70 Gy-irradiation, C/A plants showed a slight resistance to gamma radiation. The stAPX gene in tobacco was not as strongly affected by gamma irradiation. After irradiation, the stAPX transcript level decreased at 2 h, then slightly increased at 6 h and the level was maintained until 48 h. Catalase transcripts level decreased at the early time point but at the late time points the level slightly increased. The gamma radiation-induced changes of proteins in tobacco suspension cells were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In the gamma-irradiated cells, a few polypeptides of were newly synthesized, increased, and decreased by comparing total proteins from gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated tobacco suspension cells. With the isolation and analysis of these polypeptides, irradiation-induced proteins could be developed. 35 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  5. Growth analysis of soybean plants treated with plant growth regulators Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Domingos Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effect of plant growth regulators on soybean plant growth and chlorophyll content. In an experiment carried out in a greenhouse, soybean plants were cultivated (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. BRS-184 in 10-liter pots containing soil from the arable layer, corrected and fertilized according to the soil analysis. The treatments used were: control; GA3 100mg.L-1; BAP 100mg.L-1; IBA 100mg.L-1; Stimulate® (IBA, GA3 and kinetin 20mL.L-1; mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 and mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 + BAP 100mg.L-1 + IBA 100mg.L-1. Treatments were applied three times at 30-day intervals. Six samplings were taken at 13-day intervals. The results indicated that the highest total dry weight value resulted from the application of IBA and Stimulate®, and that the application of mepiquat chloride in association with IBA and BAP reduced total dry matter production. The leaf area was smaller than the control in most treatments. The chlorophyll content and growth rate were slightly influenced by the treatments. The cytokinin treatment alone or in association with other plant growth regulators retained the chlorophyll content. RGR and NAR decreased from 99 days after sowing with the application of mepiquat chloride.

  6. System Analysis and Risk Assessment system (SARA) Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M B; Russell, K D; Skinner, N L [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This NUREG is the tutorial for the System Analysis and Risk Assessment System (SARA) Version 4.0, a microcomputer-based system used to analyze the safety issues of a family (i.e., a power plant, a manufacturing facility, any facility on which a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) might be performed). A series of lessons are provided that walk the user through some basic steps common to most analyses performed with SARA. The example problems presented in the lessons build on one another, and in combination, lead the user through all aspects of SARA sensitivity analysis.

  7. Determining larval host plant use by a polyphagous lepidopteran through analysis of adult moths for plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert G; Head, Graham; Mierkowski, Mary

    2007-06-01

    Many polyphagous insect species are important economic pests on one or more of their crop hosts. For most important insect pests, the common crop hosts are well-known, but knowledge of weedy and unmanaged hosts is limited. Furthermore, the relative contribution of different hosts to local and regional populations has rarely been ascertained because this requires having some way to determine which plant hosts are the source of the adult moths observed ovipositing in a crop field at a given place and time. One way of determining the larval host of polyphagous pest species is to analyze for several plant-derived chemicals that are each specific to a different small set of related plant species and are preserved in detectable amounts in adult moths. In this paper, we describe novel methods for analyzing adults of the polyphagous lepidopteran, the tobacco budworm (TBW) Heliothis virescens (F.), for plant secondary metabolites, specifically cotinine and gossypol, which are diagnostic for larval feeding on tobacco and cotton, respectively. Cotinine was extracted from individual TBW moths with acetic acid and methanol, then concentrated and analyzed directly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The same moths then were analyzed for bound gossypol by creating a Schiff's base that used aniline, and the resulting dianilino-gossypol complex was quantified using high pressure chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) as the detector. Based on analysis of standards, the detection limit for the cotinine was less than 1.5 ppb by dry weight. Comparable standards were not available for the gossypol derivative so a quantitative limit of detection could not be calculated. When TBW moths reared on known hosts were analyzed for gossypol and/or cotinine, all of the moths reared on tobacco or cotton were correctly identified, although some false positives were recorded with the gossypol method. Analysis of TBW moths of various ages and at various

  8. Risk analysis of colorectal cancer incidence by gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Che; Chang, Yu-Tien; Jian, Chen-En; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Liu, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yao, Chung-Tay

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers worldwide. Several studies have performed microarray data analyses for cancer classification and prognostic analyses. Microarray assays also enable the identification of gene signatures for molecular characterization and treatment prediction. Objective Microarray gene expression data from the online Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to to distinguish colorectal cancer from normal colon tissue samples. Methods We collected microarray data from the GEO database to establish colorectal cancer microarray gene expression datasets for a combined analysis. Using the Prediction Analysis for Microarrays (PAM) method and the GSEA MSigDB resource, we analyzed the 14,698 genes that were identified through an examination of their expression values between normal and tumor tissues. Results Ten genes (ABCG2, AQP8, SPIB, CA7, CLDN8, SCNN1B, SLC30A10, CD177, PADI2, and TGFBI) were found to be good indicators of the candidate genes that correlate with CRC. From these selected genes, an average of six significant genes were obtained using the PAM method, with an accuracy rate of 95%. The results demonstrate the potential of utilizing a model with the PAM method for data mining. After a detailed review of the published reports, the results confirmed that the screened candidate genes are good indicators for cancer risk analysis using the PAM method. Conclusions Six genes were selected with 95% accuracy to effectively classify normal and colorectal cancer tissues. We hope that these results will provide the basis for new research projects in clinical practice that aim to rapidly assess colorectal cancer risk using microarray gene expression analysis. PMID:28229027

  9. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  10. An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plant: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Dollinger, M.; Kohlschmid, E.; Maltby, L.; Ochoa-Acuna, H.; Poulsen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The registration of plant protection products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use t

  11. Automating Risk Analysis of Software Design Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Frydman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.

  12. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  13. Meta analysis of pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) as rumniant feed.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Herrera, Michael; WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Rojas-Baurillón, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential use of pineapple by-products in the diet of ruminants. A compilation of data and subsequent statistical analysis was performed on globally published research up until 2013. The results were used to create a nutritional characterization of the pineapple organ by organ, including whole plant, stover (leaves, stem and ratoons), fruit crown, heart, skin and fruit pulp, stem and roots. This characterization aims to optimize its use in rumi...

  14. A comparative analysis of risk and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynette, Jennifer Elyse

    2017-01-01

    independently, decision making and judgement processes have the potential to be positively impacted by furthering research and developing a deeper understanding of these constructs. By understanding risk management principles and combining that with a quality systems approach, decision making can be improved......Within the field of emergency management and fire response, risk and quality are conceptualized to some degree in every response effort. Quality is viewed as a relatively new concept within the field of emergency management and fire response. Whereas, within this same field the concept of risk...... interest to the field of emergency management and fire response, includes the methods used by risk research to measure risk in the field, and how that concept can be utilized for future research focusing on quality in the same field. By analyzing the subjective assessments that involve risk and quality...

  15. Essays on Systemic Risk : An analysis from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Muns (Sander)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis is about systemic risk in the financial sector. It considers several aspects of systemic risk. It is a building block for an analysis of the impact of systemic risk on the real economy. It appears that stocks in the financial industry show a strong interdependence comp

  16. Network analysis using organizational risk analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The tool system of the organizational risk analyzer (ORA) to study the network of East Turkistan terrorists is selected. The model of the relationships among its personnel, knowledge, resources and task entities is represented by the meta-matrix in ORA, with which to analyze the risks and vulnerabilities of organizational structure quantitatively, and obtain the last vulnerabilities and risks of the organization. Case study in this system shows that it should be a shortcut to destroy effectively the network...

  17. Deterministic and risk-informed approaches for safety analysis of advanced reactors: Part II, Risk-informed approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock, E-mail: innseockkim@gmail.co [ISSA Technology, 21318 Seneca Crossing Drive, Germantown, MD 20876 (United States); Ahn, Sang Kyu; Oh, Kyu Myung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Technical insights and findings from a critical review of deterministic approaches typically applied to ensure design safety of nuclear power plants were presented in the companion paper of Part I included in this issue. In this paper we discuss the risk-informed approaches that have been proposed to make a safety case for advanced reactors including Generation-IV reactors such as Modular High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR), Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), or Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Also considered herein are a risk-informed safety analysis approach suggested by Westinghouse as a means to improve the conventional accident analysis, together with the Technology Neutral Framework recently developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a high-level regulatory infrastructure for safety evaluation of any type of reactor design. The insights from a comparative review of various deterministic and risk-informed approaches could be usefully used in developing a new licensing architecture for enhanced safety of evolutionary or advanced plants.

  18. Landowners' perceptions of risk in grassland management: woody plant encroachment and prescribed fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan N. Harr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists recognize that fire and herbivory are essential to maintaining habitat quality in grassland ecosystems. Prescribed fire and grazing are typically used on public reserves to increase biodiversity, improve grassland productivity, and control encroachment of woody plants. However, these tools, particularly prescribed fire, have not been widely adopted by private landowners. Fire suppression and prescribed fire are strategies that present competing risks to owners who make management decisions. We explore landowner perceptions of risk associated with (1 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana encroachment, and (2 the use of prescribed fire to control woody species in the Grand River Grasslands of Iowa and Missouri, USA. We found that although mapping data of eastern redcedar in this region showed substantial encroachment over the past three decades, concept mapping of landowner beliefs and in-person interviews of local community leaders revealed that perceived risks associated with prescribed fire often outweighed those associated with loss of forage and grassland habitats.

  19. Mixture Distribution Approach In Financial Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, Keziban; Calis, Nazif; Unal, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, major changes occurred in the prices of stock exchange appeared the necessity of measuring the financial risk. Nowadays, Value-atRisk (VaR) is often used to calculate the financial risk. Parametric methods which need normality are mostly used in the calculation of VaR.If the financial data does not fit the normal distribution, mixture of normal distribution models can be fitted to this data. In this study, the financial risk is calculated by using normal mixture distribution ...

  20. Toward consensus-based actions that balance invasive plant management and conservation of at-risk fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A; Norment, Jeffrey L; Boland, Kelly; O'Brien, Kate; Stevens, Rachel; Keirstead, Donald; Lee, Thomas; Oehler, James D; Taylor, Jeffery M; Bickford, Susan; Tarr, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    Limiting the spread of invasive plants has become a high priority among natural resource managers. Yet in some regions, invasive plants are providing important habitat components to native animals that are at risk of local or regional extirpation. In these situations, removing invasive plants may decrease short-term survival of the at-risk taxa. At the same time, there may be a reluctance to expand invaded habitats to benefit at-risk species because such actions may increase the distribution of invasive plants. Such a dilemma can result in "management paralysis," where no action is taken either to reduce invasive plants or to expand habitats for at-risk species. A pragmatic solution to this dilemma may be to develop an approach that considers site-specific circumstances. We constructed a "discussion tree" as a means of initiating conversations among various stakeholders involved with managing habitats in the northeastern USA to benefit several at-risk taxa, including New England cottontails (Sylvilagus transitionalis). Major components of this approach include recognition that expanding some invaded habitats may be essential to prevent extirpation of at-risk species, and the effective control of invasive plants is dependent on knowledge of the status of invasives on managed lands and within the surrounding landscape. By acknowledging that management of invasive plants is a complex issue without a single solution, we may be successful in limiting their spread while still addressing critical habitat needs.

  1. Preliminary risk analysis of an Hydrogen production plant using the reformed process of methane with vapor coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor; Analisis preliminar de riesgo de una planta de produccion de hidrogeno utilizando el proceso de reformado de metano con vapor acoplada a un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to identify the different types of dangers, as well as their causes, probabilities and consequences of the same ones, inside plants, industries and any process to classify the risks. This work is focused in particular to a study using the technical HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) for a plant of reformed of methane with vapor coupled to a nuclear reactor of the type HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor), which is designed to be built in Japan. In particular in this study the interaction is analyzed between the nuclear reactor and the plant of reformed of methane with vapor. After knowing the possible causes of risk one it is built chart of results of HAZOP to have a better vision of the consequences of this faults toward the buildings and constructions, to people and the influence of the fault on each plant; for what there are proposed solutions to mitigate these consequences or to avoid them. The work is divided in three sections: a brief introduction about the technique of HAZOP; some important aspects of the plant of reformed of methane with vapor; and the construction of the chart of results of HAZOP. (Author)

  2. Analysis and management of risks experienced in tunnel construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Pamukcu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, first of all, the definitions of "risk", "risk analysis", "risk assessment" and "risk management" were made to avoid any confusions about these terms and significance of risk analysis and management in engineering projects was emphasized. Then, both qualitative and quantitative risk analysis techniques were mentioned and within the scope of the study, Event Tree Analysis method was selected in order to analyze the risks regarding TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine operations in tunnel construction. After all hazards that would be encountered during tunnel construction by TBM method had been investigated, those hazards were undergoing a Preliminary Hazard Analysis to sort out and prioritize the risks with high scores. When the risk scores were taken into consideration, it was seen that the hazards with high risk scores could be classified into 4 groups which are excavation + support induced accidents, accidents stemming from geologic conditions, auxiliary works, and project contract. According to these four classified groups of initiating events, Event Tree Analysis was conducted by taking into care 4 countermeasures apart from each other. Finally, the quantitative and qualitative consequences of Event Tree Analyses, which were undertaken for all initiating events, were investigated and interpreted together by making comparisons and referring to previous studies.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Xylella fastidiosa in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment and an evaluation of risk reduction options for Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa has been detected in olive in the EU with a distribution restricted to the region of Apulia in Italy and is under official control. X. fastidiosa has a very broad host range, including many common cultivated and wild plants. All xylem fluid-feeding insects in Europe are considered to be potential vectors. Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae, a polyphagous spittlebug widespread in the whole risk assessment area, has been identified as a vector in Apulia. The probability of entry of X. fastidiosa from countries where X. fastidiosa is reported is very high with plants for planting and moderate with infectious insect vectors carried with plant commodities or travelling as stowaways. Establishment and spread in the EU is very likely. The consequences are considered to be major because yield losses and other damage would be high and require costly control measures. The systematic use of insecticides for vector control may create environmental impacts. With regard to risk reduction options, strategies for the prevention of introduction and for the containment of outbreaks should focus on the two main pathways (plants for planting and infectious insect vectors and combine the most effective options in an integrated approach. For plants for planting, these could be pest-free production areas, surveillance, certification, screened greenhouse production, vector control and testing for infection and, for some plant species, treatments (e.g. thermotherapy. To prevent entry of the infectious vectors, insecticide treatments and inspection of consignments and production sites are required. The Panel has also reviewed the effectiveness of risk reduction options for X. fastidiosa and its vectors listed in Directive 2000/29/EC and in the EU emergency measures. The Panel recommends the continuation and

  4. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, D.M.; Oldenhof, M.T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection...... and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring...... of undetected failure mode(s) can be estimated quantitatively, for each individual failure mode, for a set of failure modes, and the full analytical procedure....

  5. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mines, Greg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  6. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  7. A comparative quadrant analysis of turbulence in a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wusi; Meneveau, Charles; Parlange, Marc B.; Zhu, Weihong; van Hout, René; Katz, Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulence in plant canopies has traditionally been validated using bulk statistical quantities such as mean velocity and variance profiles. However, turbulent exchanges between a plant canopy and the atmosphere are dominated by large-scale coherent structures, and therefore LES must also be validated using statistical tools that are sensitive to details of coherent structures. In this study, LES and measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) are compared near the top of the canopy by means of a quadrant-hole analysis of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate. The LES resolves coarse features of individual corn plants and uses the Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic subgrid model. At the measurement location, there is good agreement between the LES predictions and the field data in terms of most conditionally sampled quantities, confirming the applicability of LES for fundamental studies of vegetation-air interactions and coherent structures. The simulation results confirm that sweeps (the fourth-quadrant events) contribute the largest fraction of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity, and dissipation rate inside the plant canopy. The magnitudes of the vorticity and dissipation rate at the top of the canopy are highest in the first quadrant (rare events of outward interactions).

  8. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme `Risk Analysis`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biesiot, W.; Hendrickx, L. [eds.] [University of Groningen, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Ham, J. [TNO Institute for Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Olsthoorn, A.A. [VUA, Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    An overview and assessment are presented of the three research projects carried out under NRP funding that concern risk-related topics: (1) The risks of nonlinear climate changes, (2) Socio-economic and policy aspects of changes in incidence and intensity of extreme (weather) events, and (3) Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy strategies. 1 tab., 6 refs.

  9. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. A study on the overall economic risks of a hypothetical severe accident in nuclear power plant using the delphi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Ki; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Potential economic impact of a hypothetical severe accident at a nuclear power plant(Uljin units 3/4) was estimated by applying the delphi method, which is based on the expert judgements and opinions, in the process of quantifying uncertain factor. For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that the radioactive plume directs the inland direction. Since the economic risk can be divided into direct costs and indirect effects and more uncertainties are involved in the latter, the direct costs were estimated first and the indirect effects were then estimated by applying a weighting factor to the direct cost. The delphi method however subjects to risk of distortion or discrimination of variables because of the human behavior pattern. A mathematical approach based on the Bayesian inferences was employed for data processing to improve the delphi results. For this task, a model for data processing was developed. One-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to get a distribution of values of the weighting factor. The mean and median values of the weighting factor for the indirect effects appeared to be 2.59 and 2.08, respectively. These values are higher than the value suggested by OECD/NEA, 1.25. Some factors such as small territory and public attitude sensitive to radiation could affect the judgement of panel. Then the parameters of the model for estimating the direct costs were classified as U- and V-types, and two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to quantify the overall economic risk. The resulting median of the overall economic risk was about 3.9% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of Korea in 2006. When the cost of electricity loss, the highest direct cost, was not taken into account, the overall economic risk was reduced to 2.2% of GDP. This assessment can be used as a reference for justifying the radiological emergency planning and preparedness.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman var. fragariae in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health assessed the risk to plant health from Phytophthora fragariae for the European Union and evaluated the current EU legislation and possible risk reduction options. The pest is present in most areas of Europe except southern Mediterranean regions. Entry through the plants for planting, but not seeds, pathway, is assessed as a major pathway, with the probability of entry rated as unlikely and the uncertainty as high. The probability of establishment is likely in the absence of existing disease control practices with low uncertainty. The probability of spread in the absence of a scheme for the production of certified plants for planting is considered to be very likely. With certification, spread is considered to be unlikely to moderately likely, depending on the inclusion of testing for the pathogen as part of certification. These ratings have medium uncertainty. Potential impact is rated as minor with medium uncertainty. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU legislation regarding the introduction and spread of P. fragariae. According to the regulation the import of Fragaria plants for planting, other than seeds, is prohibited from specified countries, whereas for import of these plants from other countries and for movement of these plants within the EU special requirements with respect to P. fragariae must be fulfilled. If the current legislation specific to P. fragariae were removed, no major consequences would be expected, unless the industry simultaneously ceased its voluntary certification activity. This is largely because of the important level of protection afforded to the industry by the widely used certification schemes for Fragaria, which significantly reduce the risks of entry, establishment, spread and impact. Certification schemes for the movement of Fragaria plants for planting offer the greatest efficiency and feasibility and the least uncertainty, especially if effective detection is

  12. Quantitative risk assessment integrated with process simulator for a new technology of methanol production plant using recycled CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Julia; Vaz, Carlos André; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra

    2014-06-15

    The use of process simulators can contribute with quantitative risk assessment (QRA) by minimizing expert time and large volume of data, being mandatory in the case of a future plant. This work illustrates the advantages of this association by integrating UNISIM DESIGN simulation and QRA to investigate the acceptability of a new technology of a Methanol Production Plant in a region. The simulated process was based on the hydrogenation of chemically sequestered carbon dioxide, demanding stringent operational conditions (high pressures and temperatures) and involving the production of hazardous materials. The estimation of the consequences was performed using the PHAST software, version 6.51. QRA results were expressed in terms of individual and social risks. Compared to existing tolerance levels, the risks were considered tolerable in nominal conditions of operation of the plant. The use of the simulator in association with the QRA also allowed testing the risk in new operating conditions in order to delimit safe regions for the plant.

  13. Nuclear power plant of Fessenheim: evaluation of the seismic risk; Centrale Nucleaire de Fessenheim: appreciation du risque sismique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The seismic risk taken into account during the sizing of the nuclear power plant of Fessenheim seems to have been under evaluated at this time. The revaluation of the seismic risk, as proposed, until this day by EDF in order to the third ten-year visit of the power plant, planned for 2009, leads to a significant under evaluation of the risk and then is not acceptable. The present expertise details point by point the weaknesses of these revaluation. The power plant has been sized in an elastic manner that is generally strongly for the safety side. It is imperative to proceed the most quickly as possible to a deep control of the seismic resistance of the power plant of Fessenheim and then after having proceeded to a revision of the seismic risk in taking into account the actual knowledge in this field. (N.C.)

  14. Proposal - At-Risk Plant Occurrences on National Wildlife Refuges within the South Carolina Lowcountry and Savannah Complexes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal involves the population detection and estimation of 11 at-risk plant species on 7 national wildlife refuges at the Lowcountry and Savannah National Wildlife...

  15. Combining Phylogenetic and Occurrence Information for Risk Assessment of Pest and Pathogen Interactions with Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Robles-Fernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary agencies conduct plant biosecurity activities, including early detection of potential introduction pathways, to improve control and eradication of pest and pathogen incursions. For such actions, analytical tools based on solid scientific knowledge regarding plant-pest or pathogen relationships for pest risk assessment are needed. Recent evidence indicating that closely related species share a higher chance of becoming infected or attacked by pests has allowed the identification of taxa with different degrees of vulnerability. Here, we use information readily available online about pest-host interactions and their geographic distributions, in combination with host phylogenetic reconstructions, to estimate a pest-host interaction (in some cases infection index in geographic space as a more comprehensive, spatially explicit tool for risk assessment. We demonstrate this protocol using phylogenetic relationships for 20 beetle species and 235 host plant genera: first, we estimate the probability of a host sharing pests, and second, we project the index in geographic space. Overall, the predictions allow identification of the pest-host interaction type (e.g., generalist or specialist, which is largely determined by both host range and phylogenetic constraints. Furthermore, the results can be valuable in terms of identifying hotspots where pests and vulnerable hosts interact. This knowledge is useful for anticipating biological invasions or spreading of disease. We suggest that our understanding of biotic interactions will improve after combining information from multiple dimensions of biodiversity at multiple scales (e.g., phylogenetic signal and host-vector-pathogen geographic distribution.

  16. Operational Risk Management A Practical Approach to Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kenett, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The book will introduce modern Operational Risk (OpR) Management and illustrates the various sources of OpR assessment and OpR mitigation. This book discusses how various data sources can be integrated and analyzed and how OpR is synergetic to other risk management activities such as Financial Risk Management and Internationalization. The topics will include state of the art technology such as semantic analysis, ontology engineering, data mining and statistical analysis.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of a straw-fired power plant in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Dragan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable energy sources have played an increasingly important role in potential energy production. The integration of renewable energy technologies into existing national energy system has therefore become a major challenge for many countries. Due to the importance of this matter, this paper deals with the comprehensive analysis for implementation of a power plant on biomass (straw. The analysis is conducted regarding several key indicators: availability of biomass, regulation, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, location, land use, electricity price and social impacts. The analysis also includes favorable price for electricity produced from biomass relevant to national feed in tariffs. In order to demonstrate all above mentioned indicators, the region in Serbia (Province of Vojvodina with significant potential in biomass, especially in straw, is selected. The results of the analysis are validated trough environmental and social aspects. Special attention is given to identifying risks for this application.

  18. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  19. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  20. Ecological effect and risk towards aquatic plants induced by perfluoroalkyl substances: Bridging natural to culturing flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunqiao; Wang, Tieyu; Jiang, Zhaoze; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qifeng; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Pei; Liu, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments (in different seasons) from the Qing River were investigated. The highest concentration of PFASs in water (207.59 ng L(-1)) was found in summer. The composition of PFASs in water changed with time, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant compound in spring and summer, while long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), started to increase in autumn and winter. The PFASs concentration in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 4.05 ng g(-1) dw. The proportion of long-chain PFASs was higher than that of short-chain PFASs in sediments, the dominant component in sediments was PFOA with a contribution of 24.6-75.4% to total PFASs in sediments, followed by PFOS. The concentrations of PFASs in roots of emergent plants were relatively higher than those in submerged plants. However, the translocation effect of PFASs was not remarkable. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the aquatic plants indicated the absorption of PFASs were effective. BAFs in submerged plants basically increased with increasing chain length accordingly. In general, aquatic plants had the absorption preference for long-chain PFASs, especially PFOS, which was the predominant compounds in both submerged and emergent plants. Based on the results above, hornworts were selected to be cultivated indoor in the nutrient solution spiked gradient concentrations of PFOS to assess the general ecological risk. The results revealed that hornworts were resistant to PFOS and might be used as remediation flora to eliminate PFOS contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advanced probabilistic risk analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-06-01

    RAVEN, under the support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program [1], is advancing its capability to perform statistical analyses of stochastic dynamic systems. This is aligned with its mission to provide the tools needed by the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) path-lead [2] under the Department Of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability program [3]. In particular this task is focused on the synergetic development with the RELAP-7 [4] code to advance the state of the art on the safety analysis of nuclear power plants (NPP). The investigation of the probabilistic evolution of accident scenarios for a complex system such as a nuclear power plant is not a trivial challenge. The complexity of the system to be modeled leads to demanding computational requirements even to simulate one of the many possible evolutions of an accident scenario (tens of CPU/hour). At the same time, the probabilistic analysis requires thousands of runs to investigate outcomes characterized by low probability and severe consequence (tail problem). The milestone reported in June of 2013 [5] described the capability of RAVEN to implement complex control logic and provide an adequate support for the exploration of the probabilistic space using a Monte Carlo sampling strategy. Unfortunately the Monte Carlo approach is ineffective with a problem of this complexity. In the following year of development, the RAVEN code has been extended with more sophisticated sampling strategies (grids, Latin Hypercube, and adaptive sampling). This milestone report illustrates the effectiveness of those methodologies in performing the assessment of the probability of core damage following the onset of a Station Black Out (SBO) situation in a boiling water reactor (BWR). The first part of the report provides an overview of the available probabilistic analysis capabilities, ranging from the different types of distributions available, possible sampling

  2. Laser fluorometric analysis of plants for uranium exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, T.F.; Ward, F.N.; Erdman, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary test of biogeochemical exploration for locating uranium occurrences in the Marfa Basin, Texas, was conducted in 1978. Only 6 of 74 plant samples (mostly catclaw mimosa, Mimosa biuncifera) contained uranium in amounts above the detection limit (0.4 ppm in the ash) of the conventional fluorometric method. The samples were then analyzed using a Scintrex UA-3 uranium analyzer* * Use of trade names in this paper is for descriptive purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. - an instrument designed for direct analysis of uranium in water, and which can be conveniently used in a mobile field laboratory. The detection limit for uranium in plant ash (0.05 ppm) by this method is almost an order of magnitude lower than with the fluorometric conventional method. Only 1 of the 74 samples contained uranium below the detection limit of the new method. Accuracy and precision were determined to be satisfactory. Samples of plants growing on mineralized soils and nonmineralized soils show a 15-fold difference in uranium content; whereas the soils themselves (analyzed by delayed neutron activation analysis) show only a 4-fold difference. The method involves acid digestion of ashed tissue, extraction of uranium into ethyl acetate, destruction of the ethyl acetate, dissolution of the residue in 0.005% nitric acid, and measurement. ?? 1981.

  3. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis of plant cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewen; Alonso, Ana P; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of plant cell wall synthesis pathways remains poorly understood. This has become a bottleneck in designing bioenergy crops. The goal of this study was to analyze the regulation of plant cell wall precursor metabolism using metabolic flux analysis based on dynamic labeling experiments. Arabidopsis T87 cells were cultured heterotrophically with (13)C labeled sucrose. The time course of ¹³C labeling patterns in cell wall precursors and related sugar phosphates was monitored using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry until steady state labeling was reached. A kinetic model based on mass action reaction mechanisms was developed to simulate the carbon flow in the cell wall synthesis network. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by fitting the model to the labeling time course data, cell wall composition, and synthesis rates. A metabolic control analysis was performed to predict metabolic regulations that may improve plant biomass composition for biofuel production. Our results describe the routes and rates of carbon flow from sucrose to cell wall precursors. We found that sucrose invertase is responsible for the entry of sucrose into metabolism and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase plays a dominant role in UDP-Gal synthesis in heterotrophic Aradidopsis cells under aerobic conditions. We also predicted reactions that exert strong regulatory influence over carbon flow to cell wall synthesis and its composition.

  4. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors.

  5. PGSB/MIPS PlantsDB Database Framework for the Integration and Analysis of Plant Genome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2017-01-01

    Plant Genome and Systems Biology (PGSB), formerly Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) PlantsDB, is a database framework for the integration and analysis of plant genome data, developed and maintained for more than a decade now. Major components of that framework are genome databases and analysis resources focusing on individual (reference) genomes providing flexible and intuitive access to data. Another main focus is the integration of genomes from both model and crop plants to form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny). Data exchange and integrated search functionality with/over many plant genome databases is provided within the transPLANT project.

  6. Bioinformatic Identification and Analysis of Extensins in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wolfe, Richard; Welch, Lonnie R.; Domozych, David S.; Popper, Zoë A.; Showalter, Allan M.

    2016-01-01

    Extensins (EXTs) are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. Structurally, EXTs are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (Ser) followed by three to five prolines (Pro) residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (Hyp) and glycosylated. Some EXTs have Tyrosine (Tyr)-X-Tyr (where X can be any amino acid) motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermolecular cross-linkings. EXTs can be divided into several classes: classical EXTs, short EXTs, leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs), proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases (PERKs), formin-homolog EXTs (FH EXTs), chimeric EXTs, and long chimeric EXTs. To guide future research on the EXTs and understand evolutionary history of EXTs in the plant kingdom, a bioinformatics study was conducted to identify and classify EXTs from 16 fully sequenced plant genomes, including Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pinus taeda, Picea abies, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Brassica rapa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum, to supplement data previously obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. A total of 758 EXTs were newly identified, including 87 classical EXTs, 97 short EXTs, 61 LRXs, 75 PERKs, 54 FH EXTs, 38 long chimeric EXTs, and 346 other chimeric EXTs. Several notable findings were made: (1) classical EXTs were likely derived after the terrestrialization of plants; (2) LRXs, PERKs, and FHs were derived earlier than classical EXTs; (3) monocots have few classical EXTs; (4) Eudicots have the greatest number of classical EXTs and Tyr-X-Tyr cross-linking motifs are predominantly in classical EXTs; (5) green algae have no classical EXTs but have a number of long chimeric EXTs that are absent in

  7. Bioinformatic Identification and Analysis of Extensins in the Plant Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Extensins (EXTs are a family of plant cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs that are implicated to play important roles in plant growth, development, and defense. Structurally, EXTs are characterized by the repeated occurrence of serine (Ser followed by three to five prolines (Pro residues, which are hydroxylated as hydroxyproline (Hyp and glycosylated. Some EXTs have Tyrosine (Tyr-X-Tyr (where X can be any amino acid motifs that are responsible for intramolecular or intermolecular cross-linkings. EXTs can be divided into several classes: classical EXTs, short EXTs, leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs, proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases (PERKs, formin-homolog EXTs (FH EXTs, chimeric EXTs, and long chimeric EXTs. To guide future research on the EXTs and understand evolutionary history of EXTs in the plant kingdom, a bioinformatics study was conducted to identify and classify EXTs from 16 fully sequenced plant genomes, including Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Physcomitrella patens, Selaginella moellendorffii, Pinus taeda, Picea abies, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Brassica rapa, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum, to supplement data previously obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. A total of 758 EXTs were newly identified, including 87 classical EXTs, 97 short EXTs, 61 LRXs, 75 PERKs, 54 FH EXTs, 38 long chimeric EXTs, and 346 other chimeric EXTs. Several notable findings were made: (1 classical EXTs were likely derived after the terrestrialization of plants; (2 LRXs, PERKs, and FHs were derived earlier than classical EXTs; (3 monocots have few classical EXTs; (4 Eudicots have the greatest number of classical EXTs and Tyr-X-Tyr cross-linking motifs are predominantly in classical EXTs; (5 green algae have no classical EXTs but have a number of long chimeric EXTs that are absent in

  8. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  9. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant’s electrophysiological response. therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP. This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii combustion of the fuel, and (iii heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP). This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i) oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii) combustion of the fuel, and (iii) heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC) through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.

  12. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, R.S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis.

  13. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  14. Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Bendel, D.

    2010-09-01

    Use of meteorological information in the risk analysis of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio H.-T. Mengelkamp*,** , D. Bendel** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH The renewable energy industry has rapidly developed during the last two decades and so have the needs for high quality comprehensive meteorological services. It is, however, only recently that international financial institutions bundle wind farms and solar power plants and offer shares in these aggregate portfolios. The monetary value of a mixed wind farm and solar power plant portfolio is determined by legal and technical aspects, the expected annual energy production of each wind farm and solar power plant and the associated uncertainty of the energy yield estimation or the investment risk. Building an aggregate portfolio will reduce the overall uncertainty through diversification in contrast to the single wind farm/solar power plant energy yield uncertainty. This is similar to equity funds based on a variety of companies or products. Meteorological aspects contribute to the diversification in various ways. There is the uncertainty in the estimation of the expected long-term mean energy production of the wind and solar power plants. Different components of uncertainty have to be considered depending on whether the power plant is already in operation or in the planning phase. The uncertainty related to a wind farm in the planning phase comprises the methodology of the wind potential estimation and the uncertainty of the site specific wind turbine power curve as well as the uncertainty of the wind farm effect calculation. The uncertainty related to a solar power plant in the pre-operational phase comprises the uncertainty of the radiation data base and that of the performance curve. The long-term mean annual energy yield of operational wind farms and solar power plants is estimated on the basis of the actual energy production and it

  15. A quantitative risk assessment tool for the external safety of industrial plants with a dust explosion hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Klein, A.J.J.; Maaijer, M. de; Berg, A.C. van den; Deursen, J.R. van; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) tool has been developed by TNO for the external safety of industrial plants with a dust explosion hazard. As a first step an industrial plant is divided into groups of modules, defined by their size, shape, and constructional properties. Then the relevant explosi

  16. EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Clook, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Guidance Document is intended to provide guidance for notifiers and authorities in the context of the review of plant protection products (PPPs) and their active substances under Regulation (EC) 1107/2009. The scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-09-01

    The appropriateness of the initial response and countermeasures taken following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 should be further examined. Implementation of a prospective epidemiological study on human health risks from low-dose radiation exposure and comprehensive health protection from radiation should be emphasized on a basis of the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In contrast, the doses to a vast majority of the population in Fukushima were not high enough to expect to see any increase in incidence of cancer and health effects in the future, however, public concerns about the long-term health effects of radioactive environmental contamination have increased in Japan. Since May 2011, the Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project with the purpose of long-term health care administration and early medical diagnosis/treatment for prefectural residents. In this report, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence after nuclear accidents, especially due to early exposure of radioactive iodine, will be focused upon to understand the current situation of risk of thyroid cancer in Fukushima, and the difficult challenges surrounding accurate estimations of low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures will be discussed.

  18. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-09-29

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected.

  19. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, R.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  20. Plant extracts for the topical management of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; May, B H; Zhang, A L; Lu, C; Xue, C C L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with psoriasis frequently use preparations of plant extracts. Physicians need to be aware of the current evidence concerning these products. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of preparations of plant extracts used topically for psoriasis. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, two Chinese databases and article reference lists. Randomized controlled trials investigating extracts of single plants were included. Preparations of multiple plants and combinations of plant extracts plus conventional therapies were excluded. Two authors conducted searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes used in meta-analyses were: clinical efficacy, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score, and quality of life and symptom scores. The 12 included studies investigated extracts of: Mahonia aquifolium (n = 5), Aloe vera (n = 3), indigo naturalis (n = 2), kukui nut oil (n = 1) and Camptotheca acuminata nut (n = 1). Methodological quality was variable. Six studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis of clinical efficacy, and five were vs. placebo (relative risk 3·37, 95% confidence interval 1·36-8·33). Experimental studies indicate components of indigo naturalis, Mahonia and Camptotheca have anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and other actions of relevance to psoriasis. The clinical trial evidence provides limited support for preparations containing extracts of M. aquifolium, indigo naturalis and Aloe vera for the topical management of plaque psoriasis based on multiple studies. No serious adverse events were reported. Because of the small size of most studies and methodological weaknesses, strong conclusions cannot be made. The magnitudes of any effects cannot be measured with accuracy, so it is difficult to assess the clinical relevance of these preparations.

  1. Analysis of Operational Risks in Shipbuilding Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniela MATEI; Mioara CHIRITA

    2012-01-01

    Our paper emphasizes the opportunities provided both for the academic research and companies by using a proposed model of analyzing the operational risks within business in general and shipbuilding...

  2. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew F; Devos, Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N Y; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment.

  3. Ranking Tool Created for Medicinal Plants at Risk of Being Overharvested in the Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marie Castle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an adaptable, transparent tool that can be used to quantify and compare vulnerability to overharvest for wild collected medicinal plants. Subsequently, we are creating a list of the most threatened medicinal plants in temperate North America. The new tool scores species according to their life history, the effects of harvest, their abundance and range, habitat, and demand. The resulting rankings, based on explicit criteria rather than expert opinion, will make it easier to discuss areas of vulnerability and set conservation priorities. Here we present scores for 40 species assessed using the At-Risk Tool and discuss the traits that led to different scores for six example species: echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia DC. Asteraceae, peyote (Lophophora williamsii (Lem. ex Salm-Dyck J.M. Coult. Cactaceae, sandalwood (Santalum spp. L. Santalaceae, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. Araliaceae and mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L. Berberidaceae.

  4. Handbook of human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A D; Guttmann, H E

    1983-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Handbook is to present methods, models, and estimated human error probabilities (HEPs) to enable qualified analysts to make quantitative or qualitative assessments of occurrences of human errors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) that affect the availability or operational reliability of engineered safety features and components. The Handbook is intended to provide much of the modeling and information necessary for the performance of human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of NPPs. Although not a design guide, a second purpose of the Handbook is to enable the user to recognize error-likely equipment design, plant policies and practices, written procedures, and other human factors problems so that improvements can be considered. The Handbook provides the methodology to identify and quantify the potential for human error in NPP tasks.

  5. The Network's Data Security Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the networks security risk can be a very difficult operation especially for the small companies which, from financial reasons can't appeal at specialist in this domain, or for the medium or large companies that don't have experience. The following method proposes not to use complex financial calculus to determine the loss level and the value of impact making the determination of risk level a lot easier.

  6. The Operational Risk – Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Victoria Anghelache

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In many cases operational risks tend to be underestimated, considering that the losses they cause are generally minor can’t threatening the survival of a bank. Losses resulting from these events come from a complex interaction between organizational factors, personal and market that do not fit into a simple classification scheme. Observing what happened in the past we can say that operational risk is an important question of the financial losses in the banking sector.

  7. Stress Analysis in Managing the Region’s Budget Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pavlovna Pazdnikova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the implementation of budget risk management methods into the practices of governmental authorities. Drawing on the example of a particular region the article aims to demonstrate the possible methods of budget risk management. The authors refine the existing approaches to the notion of risk in its relation to budget system by introducing the notion of “budget risk.” Here the focus is the risk of default of budget spending in full which causes underfunding of territories and decrease in quality of life in the region. The authors have particularized the classification of budget risks and grouped together the criteria and factors which significantly influence the assessment and choice of method to manage budget risks. They hypothesize that budget risk is a financial risk. Therefore, the methods of financial risks management can be applied to budget risks management. The authors suggest a methodological approach to risk assessment based on correlation and regression analysis of program financing. The application of Kendall rank correlation coefficient allowed to assess the efficiency of budget spending on the implementation of state programs in Perm Krai. Two clusters — “Nature management and infrastructure” and “Public security” — turned out to be in the zone of high budget risk. The method of stress analysis, which consists in calculating Value at Risk (VaR, was applied to budget risks that in terms of probability are classified as critical. In order to assess risk as probability rate, the amount of Perm Krai deficit budget was calculated as induced variable from budget revenues and spending. The results demonstrate that contemporary management of public resources in the regions calls for the implementation of new management tools of higher quality and budget risk management is one of them.

  8. Are Limits of Concern a useful concept to improve the environmental risk assessment of GM plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezel, Marion; Miklau, Marianne; Heissenberger, Andreas; Reichenbecher, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has introduced a concept for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants which foresees the definition of ecological threshold values defining acceptable adverse effects of the GM plant on the environment (Limits of Concern, LoC). We analysed the LoC concept by scrutinising its feasibility with regard to important aspects of the environmental risk assessment. We then considered its relationship with protection goals, the comparative safety assessment and the stepwise testing approach. We finally discussed its usefulness for assessing long-term effects, effects on non-target organisms and species of conservation concern. The LoC concept is a possible approach to introduce ecological thresholds into environmental risk assessment in order to evaluate environmental harm. However, the concept leaves many important aspects open. Thresholds for environmental harm for protection goals need spatial and temporal differentiation from LoCs used for ERA indicators. Regionalisation of LoCs must be provided for as biodiversity levels and protection goals vary across the EU. Further guidance is needed with respect to the consequences, in case LoCs are exceeded and a link needs to be established between environmentally relevant results from the comparative safety assessment and the LoC concept. LoCs for long-term effects have to be evaluated by long-term monitoring. LoCs for non-target organisms need to be discriminated according to the species and parameters assessed. The overall LoC concept is considered useful if LoCs are further specified and differentiated. Although LoCs will finally be determined by political decisions, they should be based on scientific grounds in order to increase confidence in the conclusions on the safety of GM plants.

  9. Flux analysis in plant metabolic networks: increasing throughput and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Björn H

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants.

  10. Analysis in environmental radioactivity around Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, again of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied form KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin NPPs and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  11. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  12. Impact of plant invasions on local arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, T.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive plants can have a major impact on local plant and animal communities. However, effects of plant invasions on arthropod communities and the potential drivers have rarely been studied. 2. We present a meta-analysis of 56 studies on the impact of plant invasions on abundance and richness of

  13. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskin, Nurdil; Oezdemir, Koray [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical Univ., 34437 Istanbul (Turkey); Gungor, Afsin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde Univ., 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively. (author)

  15. A Literature Review on Risk Analysis of Production Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dadpouri, Mohammad; Nunna, Kiran

    2011-01-01

    This report is the result of a master thesis with a focus on risk analysis of production location decisions. The project is a part of “PROLOC-manufacturing footprint during the product’s life cycle”. The main aim of this thesis is to point out how current applicable risk analysis techniques evaluate the risks involved in production location decisions and then underline the most important risks involved in production location decisions and elicit strengths and weaknesses of these methods.A sys...

  16. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  17. Second law analysis of a conventional steam power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Turner, Robert H.; Cengel, Yunus A.

    1993-11-01

    A numerical investigation of exergy destroyed by operation of a conventional steam power plant is computed via an exergy cascade. An order of magnitude analysis shows that exergy destruction is dominated by combustion and heat transfer across temperature differences inside the boiler, and conversion of energy entering the turbine/generator sets from thermal to electrical. Combustion and heat transfer inside the boiler accounts for 53.83 percent of the total exergy destruction. Converting thermal energy into electrical energy is responsible for 41.34 percent of the total exergy destruction. Heat transfer across the condenser accounts for 2.89 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow with friction is responsible for 0.50 percent of the total exergy destruction. The boiler feed pump turbine accounts for 0.25 percent of the total exergy destruction. Fluid flow mixing is responsible for 0.23 percent of the total exergy destruction. Other equipment including gland steam condenser, drain cooler, deaerator and heat exchangers are, in the aggregate, responsible for less than one percent of the total exergy destruction. An energy analysis is also given for comparison of exergy cascade to energy cascade. Efficiencies based on both the first law and second law of thermodynamics are calculated for a number of components and for the plant. The results show that high first law efficiency does not mean high second law efficiency. Therefore, the second law analysis has been proven to be a more powerful tool in pinpointing real losses. The procedure used to determine total exergy destruction and second law efficiency can be used in a conceptual design and parametric study to evaluate the performance of other steam power plants and other thermal systems.

  18. Maternal migration and autism risk: systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafa, Daina; Warfa, Nasir

    2015-02-01

    Autism (AUT) is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders emerging during childhood, and can be amongst the most incapacitating mental disorders. Some individuals with AUT require a lifetime of supervised care. Autism Speaks reported estimated costs for 2012 at £34 billion in the UK; and $3.2 million-$126 billion in the US, Australia and Canada. Ethnicity and migration experiences appear to increase risks of AUT and relate to underlying biological risk factors. Sociobiological stress factors can affect the uterine environment, or relate to stress-induced epigenetic changes during pregnancy and delivery. Epigenetic risk factors associated with AUT also include poor pregnancy conditions, low birth weight, and congenital malformation. Recent studies report that children from migrant communities are at higher risk of AUT than children born to non-migrant mothers, with the exception of Hispanic children. This paper provides the first systematic review into prevalence and predictors of AUT with a particular focus on maternal migration stressors and epigenetic risk factors. AUT rates appear higher in certain migrant communities, potentially relating to epigenetic changes after stressful experiences. Although AUT remains a rare disorder, failures to recognize its public health urgency and local community needs continue to leave certain cultural groups at a disadvantage.

  19. Invasive giant hogweeds in Poland: Risk of burns among forestry workers and plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The Caucasian giant hogweeds (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Lever) are aggressive invaders that are successfully spreading in different parts of the world. Exposure of human skin to these plants may lead to phototoxicity and even chemical burns manifested by cutaneous, full-thickness, and long-lasting dermatitis, and in extreme cases, massive skin necrosis. Forestry workers are a group with potentially increased risk of exposure to these plants because of the outdoor nature of their work and their active involvement in managing invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating their level of awareness with regard to the giant hogweeds in Poland. The morphology of the plants, health threats, treatment, and control methods were all considered. We also evaluated the distribution of these plants within forest districts in Poland. For this reason, we surveyed 1563 employees (forest rangers, manual workers, and administration staff) of the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland "State Forests," working in 367 different forest districts. It was initially found that the forestry workers were generally aware of the giant hogweeds' morphology and phototoxicity. More than 20% of the surveyed individuals had been exposed to these plants at least once in their lives, but only less than half of them were aware of proceeding afterward. At the same time, <35% of those surveyed had any knowledge of the control and management of these giant hogweeds. As demonstrated by our study, stands of these species are widely distributed within the Polish forest districts (reported in over 50%). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement an efficient, multistrategic, and long-term approach to both control their spread and protect human health.

  20. Accumulation and Risk of Triclosan in Surface Sediments Near the Outfalls of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Jing, Zhaoqian; Wang, Zhulai; Cao, Shiwei; Yu, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which is widely used in many personal care products. This toxic chemical is frequently found in the aquatic environment. The municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been reported to be one of the major sources for triclosan in the aquatic system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accumulation of triclosan in the surface sediments near the outfalls of the five major municipal WWTPs of Nanjing, China, as well as to evaluate its potential ecological risk. The concentration of triclosan in the sediment samples ranged from 48.3 to 226 ng/g dry weight, which was well correlated with the acute and genetic toxicity by bioassay. The results suggested that triclosan released from municipal WWTPs could accumulate in the surface sediments nearby and may pose undetermined risk to aquatic organisms.

  1. A fuzzy pert approach to evaluate plant construction project scheduling risk under uncertain resources capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsian Jong Hsiau

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A plant construction project always involves lots of activities. Precise information about the activities duration is unfortunately unavailable due to the uncertain resources capacity. The fuzzy program evaluation and review technique (PERT has been widely applied to solve the fuzzy project scheduling problem. This paper presents an extended fuzzy PERT approach with four major improvement aspects to support the construction project scheduling management: 1 Evaluate operation fuzzy times based on available working volumes, resources quantity and fuzzy capacity of resources, 2 Adopting a maximal alpha_i-level cut method to compare the fuzzy precedent activities times to determine the reasonable earliest starting times of each activity, 3 Using fuzzy algebra method instead of fuzzy subtraction method to compute the fuzzy latest starting times and 4 Developing a project scheduling risk index (PSRI to assist the decision maker to evaluate the project scheduling risk. Simulations experiments are conducted and demonstrated satisfactory results.

  2. Risk factors for retained surgical items: a meta-analysis and proposed risk stratification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D; Cook, Charles H; Steinberg, Steven M; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2014-08-01

    Retained surgical items (RSI) are designated as completely preventable "never events". Despite numerous case reports, clinical series, and expert opinions few studies provide quantitative insight into RSI risk factors and their relative contributions to the overall RSI risk profile. Existing case-control studies lack the ability to reliably detect clinically important differences within the long list of proposed risks. This meta-analysis examines the best available data for RSI risk factors, seeking to provide a clinically relevant risk stratification system. Nineteen candidate studies were considered for this meta-analysis. Three retrospective, case-control studies of RSI-related risk factors contained suitable group comparisons between patients with and without RSI, thus qualifying for further analysis. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (BioStat, Inc, Englewood, NJ) software was used to analyze the following "common factor" variables compiled from the above studies: body-mass index, emergency procedure, estimated operative blood loss >500 mL, incorrect surgical count, lack of surgical count, >1 subprocedure, >1 surgical team, nursing staff shift change, operation "afterhours" (i.e., between 5 PM and 7 AM), operative time, trainee presence, and unexpected intraoperative factors. We further stratified resulting RSI risk factors into low, intermediate, and high risk. Despite the fact that only between three and six risk factors were associated with increased RSI risk across the three studies, our analysis of pooled data demonstrates that seven risk factors are significantly associated with increased RSI risk. Variables found to elevate the RSI risk include intraoperative blood loss >500 mL (odds ratio [OR] 1.6); duration of operation (OR 1.7); >1 subprocedure (OR 2.1); lack of surgical counts (OR 2.5); >1 surgical team (OR 3.0); unexpected intraoperative factors (OR 3.4); and incorrect surgical count (OR 6.1). Changes in nursing staff, emergency surgery, body

  3. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  4. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  5. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  6. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for the grapevine insect pest, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (an aphid species commonly known as phylloxera, in the European Union, identified risk reduction options and evaluated the effectiveness of the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry was assessed as potentially very likely for plants intended for planting (although the pathway is closed by Article 15 of Annex III and very unlikely for fruit for consumption because transport and transfer would be very difficult, even though phylloxera has a moderate likelihood of association with the pathway. Establishment is very likely as the pest is already very widespread in the risk assessment area, occurring almost everywhere Vitis plants are present. Successful eradication is very unlikely and small populations can persist undetected in the soil. Spread within the EU is considered to be very likely because there are no effective barriers, it can disperse up to a few kilometres aided by the wind and it can readily be moved long distances with planting material. Grafting with resistant rootstocks throughout the EU ensures that the production of fruit and plants for planting is rarely affected by phylloxera infestations and, if so, only at a limited level. The Panel considers that the IIAII measures for D. vitifoliae do not assist in preventing entry and are ineffective in preventing spread because detection is so difficult. Restricting movements of plants for planting to cuttings grafted on resistant rootstocks, in combination with treatments (e.g. particularly fungicides and hot water treatments, was found to be the most effective risk reduction option. Limitations in the Cyprus protected zone regulations were identified.

  7. Methods and tools for analysis and optimization of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen

    2000-09-01

    The most noticeable advantage of the introduction of the computer-aided tools in the field of power generation, has been the ability to study the plant's performance prior to the construction phase. The results of these studies have made it possible to change and adjust the plant layout to match the pre-defined requirements. Further development of computers in recent years has opened up for implementation of new features in the existing tools and also for the development of new tools for specific applications, like thermodynamic and economic optimization, prediction of the remaining component life time, and fault diagnostics, resulting in improvement of the plant's performance, availability and reliability. The most common tools for pre-design studies are heat and mass balance programs. Further thermodynamic and economic optimization of plant layouts, generated by the heat and mass balance programs, can be accomplished by using pinch programs, exergy analysis and thermoeconomics. Surveillance and fault diagnostics of existing systems can be performed by using tools like condition monitoring systems and artificial neural networks. The increased number of tools and their various construction and application areas make the choice of the most adequate tool for a certain application difficult. In this thesis the development of different categories of tools and techniques, and their application area are reviewed and presented. Case studies on both existing and theoretical power plant layouts have been performed using different commercially available tools to illuminate their advantages and shortcomings. The development of power plant technology and the requirements for new tools and measurement systems have been briefly reviewed. This thesis contains also programming techniques and calculation methods concerning part-load calculations using local linearization, which has been implemented in an inhouse heat and mass balance program developed by the author

  8. Developing population models: A systematic approach for pesticide risk assessment using herbaceous plants as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Amelie; Kapo, Katherine E; Rueda-Cediel, Pamela; Thorbek, Pernille; Brain, Richard; Forbes, Valery

    2017-12-01

    Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development. The resulting conceptual model includes the necessary complexity to address the model purpose on the basis of current understanding and available data. We provide specific guidance for the development of population models for herbaceous plant species in pesticide risk assessment and demonstrate the approach with an example of a conceptual model developed following the decision guide for herbicide risk assessment of Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii), a species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision guide specific to herbaceous plants demonstrates the details, but the general approach can be adapted for other species groups and management objectives. Population models provide a tool to link population-level dynamics, species and habitat characteristics as well as information about stressors in a single approach. Developing such models in a systematic, transparent way will increase their applicability and credibility, reduce development efforts, and result in models that are readily available for use in species management and risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima.

  10. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  11. PlantPAN: Plant promoter analysis navigator, for identifying combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with distance constraint in plant gene groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsien-Da

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of transcriptional regulation in plant genes is important area of research for plant scientists, following the mapping of various plant genomes, such as A. thaliana, O. sativa and Z. mays. A variety of bioinformatic servers or databases of plant promoters have been established, although most have been focused only on annotating transcription factor binding sites in a single gene and have neglected some important regulatory elements (tandem repeats and CpG/CpNpG islands in promoter regions. Additionally, the combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs is important in regulating the gene group that is associated with the same expression pattern. Therefore, a tool for detecting the co-regulation of transcription factors in a group of gene promoters is required. Results This study develops a database-assisted system, PlantPAN (Plant Promoter Analysis Navigator, for recognizing combinatorial cis-regulatory elements with a distance constraint in sets of plant genes. The system collects the plant transcription factor binding profiles from PLACE, TRANSFAC (public release 7.0, AGRIS, and JASPER databases and allows users to input a group of gene IDs or promoter sequences, enabling the co-occurrence of combinatorial transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs within a defined distance (20 bp to 200 bp to be identified. Furthermore, the new resource enables other regulatory features in a plant promoter, such as CpG/CpNpG islands and tandem repeats, to be displayed. The regulatory elements in the conserved regions of the promoters across homologous genes are detected and presented. Conclusion In addition to providing a user-friendly input/output interface, PlantPAN has numerous advantages in the analysis of a plant promoter. Several case studies have established the effectiveness of PlantPAN. This novel analytical resource is now freely available at http://PlantPAN.mbc.nctu.edu.tw.

  12. Risk analysis of complex hydrogen infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Marangon, Alessia; Carcassi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Developing a future sustainable refuelling station network is the next important step to establish hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles and related services. Such stations will most likely be integrated in existing refuelling stations and result in multi-fuel storages with a variety of fuels being...... assessment methodologies, and how functional models could support coherent risk and sustainability (Risk Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment /Life Cycle Costing) assessments, in order to find optimal solutions for the development of the infrastructure on a regional or national level....

  13. Analysis of photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluck, D.F.; Kelley, W.A.

    1979-03-01

    A conceptual definition and performance evaluation of a 100 megawatt (MW) hybrid photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant has been carried out. The concept utilizes the ability of gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells to achieve high conversion efficiency at high incident fluxes and elevated temperatures. Solar energy is focused by a field of steerable mirrors (heliostats) onto a tower mounted receiver whose outer surface is covered with gallium arsenide (AlGaAs/GaAs) solar cells and whose inner surface is a water boiler. The solar cells convert a fraction of the incident radiation into electrical energy, and the remaining energy is extracted at approximately 200/sup 0/C and used to power a Rankine cycle turbine generator (bottoming cycle). Water is used as the solar cell array coolant, as the thermodynamic working fluid, and as the thermal energy storage medium. Parametric studies were conducted to select conceptual design parameters and operational characteristics which imply the lowest levelized busbar electric energy costs. Parameters varied were collector area, condenser surface area, fan power, ambient temperature, and electric and thermal energy storage capacities. The report describes the concept, outlines the design analysis method, summarizes the parametric study results, and defines the selected plant configuration. The lowest levelized busbar electric energy generation cost, 70 mills/kilowatt-hr., was achieved with a relatively small collector area, 0.8 x 10/sup 6/ square meters, and no stored energy. A rough comparison of this combined power plant with a similar photovoltaic plant, operated at lower solar cell temperature and with no bottoming cycle, showed the busbar cost of electricity (BBEC) from the combined system to be approximately 9% lower.

  14. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  15. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment.

  16. Risk characterization of vapor intrusion in former manufactured gas plant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHate, Robin B; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2011-03-01

    Soil vapor intrusion (SVI) has recently garnered much interest as a potential exposure route for occupants of properties overlying and surrounding former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs). This investigation evaluates SVI at 10 commercial buildings and 26 single family and multi-family residential properties overlying and/or adjacent to three former MGPs. SVI was evaluated in three categories according to thickness of the vadose zones: no vadose zone; 0-6 feet thick, and 6-25 feet thick. Indoor and outdoor air, and soil vapor samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Comparative risks were evaluated based on maximum and mean concentrations for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes relative to background levels. All calculated Hazard Indices were less than 1 or were comparable to mean and maximum background levels. Cancer risks for exposure to benzene ranged from 9.75×10(-6) to 4.52×10(-4). Comparative background cancer risk from benzene exposure not related to former MGP sites ranged from 9.9×10(-6) to 3.59×10(-3). The results did not identify evidence of MGP-related soil vapor intrusion from any of the 36 sites. No increased public health risks were associated with occupied residential or commercial properties overlying or surrounding MGPs.

  17. Geographic profiling to assess the risk of rare plant poaching in natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.A.; Van Manen, F.T.; Thatcher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an expert-assisted spatial model to examine geographic factors influencing the poaching risk of a rare plant (American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L.) in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Following principles of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we identified a hierarchy of 11 geographic factors deemed important to poaching risk and requested law enforcement personnel of the National Park Service to rank those factors in a series of pair-wise comparisons. We used those comparisons to determine statistical weightings of each factor and combined them into a spatial model predicting poaching risk. We tested the model using 69 locations of previous poaching incidents recorded by law enforcement personnel. These locations occurred more frequently in areas predicted by the model to have a higher risk of poaching than random locations. The results of our study can be used to evaluate resource protection strategies and to target law enforcement activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011.

  18. Risk Analysis and Security Countermeasure Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Explains how to evaluate the appropriateness of security countermeasures, from a cost-effectiveness perspective. This title guides readers from basic principles to complex processes in a step-by-step fashion, evaluating DHS-approved risk assessment methods, including CARVER, API/NPRA, RAMCAP, and various Sandia methodologies

  19. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks...... to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant...

  20. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). System Analytics; Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Gleason, Nathaniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Imbro, Dennis Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Sumner, Matthew C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  1. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  2. Use of sewage sludge as secondary fuel in a cement plant: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Mari, Montse; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008, sewage sludge is being used as alternative fuel in a cement plant placed in Vallcarca (Catalonia, Spain). To evaluate the temporal trend of the environmental levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn), as well as the potentially associated human health risks, samples of soil, herbage, and air were collected around the facility, after approximately one year of the permanent partial substitution of fuel. The temporal evolution of the pollutant levels was assessed by comparing the measured concentrations (2009) with those from samples collected in previous surveys (2003 and 2006) at the same sampling sites. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in herbage and soil were 0.10 and 1.11 ng I-TEQ·kg⁻¹ dw, respectively, values very similar to those found in our previous surveys. For metals, although a clear tendency could not be observed, there were fluctuations through time. In this study, the levels of metals, which had not been analyzed in previous campaigns, were also determined in air, additionally to soil and vegetation. Airborne metal concentrations were similar to those found in other industrial areas worldwide. The human health risks for the population living around the cement plant were comparable to those obtained in previous studies, when petroleum coke was exclusively used as combustible, being in both cases tolerable according to the international standards.

  3. Site-Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located near Paducah , Kentucky, under the same IAG and is reported under...Specific Earthquake Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by David W. Sykora, Jennifer J. Davis Geotechnical Laboratory...PAPER Miscellaneous Paper GL-93-13 August 1993 Site-Specific Earthquke Response Analysis for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant , Portsmouth, Ohio by

  4. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  5. Novel solar tower structure to lower plant cost and construction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, J. H.; White, S.; Hellwig, U.

    2016-05-01

    In recent times the interest in solar tower power plants is increasing with various plants being built in the last years and currently under construction, e.g. Ivanpah and Crescent Dunes in the US and Khi Solar One in South Africa. The higher cycle efficiency leads to lower levelised cost of electricity. However, further cost reductions are required and this paper compares a novel and patented solar tower structure with a conventional concrete tower. The novel solar tower design is cable-stayed which has the benefit that the cables absorb a large part of the wind and buckling loads. A tower that has to cope with fewer wind and buckling forces can have a significantly smaller diameter than a concrete tower, which enables workshop manufacture, sea and road transport, and rapid on-site installation. The case study provided in this paper finds that the tower area affected by wind can be reduced by up to 45%, installation time shortened by up to 66%, and tower cost by 20-40%. The novel design allows the construction and transport of the solar tower in few large modules, which are pre-manufactured including piping, cables, platform, ladders etc. The few modules can be assembled and installed rapidly not only lowering plant cost and construction time but also project risk.

  6. Panel Random Analysis of Credit Risk in Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; ZHOU Yue-mei; ZHOU Ke

    2005-01-01

    Market economy is a kind of credit economy.The survival and development of an individual in the society are closely related with his credit. Without credit, market economy can not continue, the society can hardly run in good order and good health. This paper defines the basic concept of trade credit risk with its manifestation and brings forward the basic mode quantitatively analyzing the credit risk. The data structure of information is analyzed, the decomposition model of credit risk is structured and with the aid of statistical analysis, including regression analysis, analysis of variance, test of hypothesized, the description, classification, certification and confirmation of credit risk model are completed, then, we can describe and control the credit risk with the model to provide basis when building credit support system in today's society.

  7. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. A risk analysis model in concurrent engineering product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Desheng Dash; Kefan, Xie; Gang, Chen; Ping, Gui

    2010-09-01

    Concurrent engineering has been widely accepted as a viable strategy for companies to reduce time to market and achieve overall cost savings. This article analyzes various risks and challenges in product development under the concurrent engineering environment. A three-dimensional early warning approach for product development risk management is proposed by integrating graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT) and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA). Simulation models are created to solve our proposed concurrent engineering product development risk management model. Solutions lead to identification of key risk controlling points. This article demonstrates the value of our approach to risk analysis as a means to monitor various risks typical in the manufacturing sector. This article has three main contributions. First, we establish a conceptual framework to classify various risks in concurrent engineering (CE) product development (PD). Second, we propose use of existing quantitative approaches for PD risk analysis purposes: GERT, FMEA, and product database management (PDM). Based on quantitative tools, we create our approach for risk management of CE PD and discuss solutions of the models. Third, we demonstrate the value of applying our approach using data from a typical Chinese motor company.

  10. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk Based Inspection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Hillier, Elizabeth; Andersen, Erlend S.

    2016-01-01

    Operating offshore oil and gas production facilities is often associated with high risk. In order to manage the risk, operators commonly use aids to support decision making in the establishment of a maintenance and inspection strategy. Risk Based Inspection (RBI) analysis is widely used in the of......Operating offshore oil and gas production facilities is often associated with high risk. In order to manage the risk, operators commonly use aids to support decision making in the establishment of a maintenance and inspection strategy. Risk Based Inspection (RBI) analysis is widely used...... in the offshore industry as a means to justify the inspection strategy adopted. The RBI analysis is a decision-making technique that enables asset managers to identify the risk related to failure of their most critical systems and components, with an effect on safety, environmental and business related issues....... Risk is a measure of possible loss or injury, and is expressed as the combination of the incident probability and its consequences. A component may have several associated risk levels depending on the different consequences of failure and the different probabilities of those failures occurring...

  11. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    OpenAIRE

    Luchakivska Yu. S.; Komarnytskii I. K.; Kurchenko I. M.; Yurieva O. M.; Zhytkevich N. V.; Kuchuk M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the sali...

  12. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IN ENHANCING PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Piński; Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopa...

  13. Methodology for risk analysis of projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roșu Maria Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk in the organization activity as an economic and social system open, adaptive, with varying degrees of permeability to the influences from the current business environment, which is increasingly unpredictable and in which the only constant is the change, refers to the probability of not complying with the objectives set in terms of performance, execution and cost. The insufficient application of the recognized project management methodologies can be one of the main causes of projects failures in the organization with major influences on the activity efficiency and the performance recorded. Therefore, the methodology proposed in the paper, wants to be an effective tool, a formalized risk management tool, considered as a cyclical process, with several distinct phases, indispensable to the current organizational practice which should contribute to optimizing the project performance and its successful completion.

  14. Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Existing Risk Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article lies on the specific features of the existing software packages for risk management differentiating three categories. Representative for these categories we consider the Crystal Ball, Haufe Risikomanager and MIS - Risk Management solutions, outlining the strenghts and weaknesses in a comparative analysis.

  15. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  16. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  17. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  18. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment sch...... of the currently used vegetation distribution factor was investigated. It is proposed that new tests be included in order to address exposure via oral uptake of residues and uncertainties related to differences in species sensitivity.......Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  19. USAWC Coronary Risk and Fitness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-04

    Dr. Wood and associates of the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program compared the lipopro- tein patterns of sedentary and active men 35-39 years... insulates the body and increases the risk of heat exhaus- tion and heat stroke; it lowers the body’s efficient use of oxy- gen and reduces an...around the heart and throughout the body, and at the same time keep undiseased blood vessels ,,24 soft and pliable . It has also been established that

  20. Schedule Risk Analysis Simulator using Beta Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Sharma,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of simulation and Modelling in Software risk management. This paper describes a simulation based software risk management tool which helps manager to identifyhigh risk areas of software process. In this paper an endeavour has been made to build up a Stochastic Simulator which helps in decision making to identify the critical activities which are given due priorities during the development of Software Project. In response to new information or revised estimates, it may be necessary to reassign resources, cancel optional tasks, etc. Project management tools that make projections while treating decisions about tasks and resource assignments as static will not yield realistic results. The usual PERT procedure may lead to overly optimistic results as many pass which are not critical but slightly shorter than critical on the basis of estimated activity duration or average durations.Due to randomness of durations, these pass under some combination of activity durations, could become longer than the average longest path. Such paths would be ignored while using the PERT technique onthe basis of the average durations. In order to overcome this problem and be more reasonable, the said Stochastic Simulator has been designed by generating random samples from a specific probabilitydistribution associated with that particular activity of SPM. The said simulator is also not bugged with overly estimated results.