WorldWideScience

Sample records for plant amsinckia grandiflora

  1. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  2. Detoxification and decolorization of a simulated textile dye mixture by phytoremediation using Petunia grandiflora and, Gailardia grandiflora: a plant-plant consortial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2014-05-01

    In vitro grown Petunia grandiflora and Gaillardia grandiflora plantlets showed 76 percent and 62 percent American Dye Manufacturers Institute value (color) removal from a simulated dyes mixture within 36h respectively whereas their consortium gave 94 percent decolorization. P. grandiflora, G. grandiflora and their consortium could reduce BOD by 44 percent, 31 percent and, 69 percent and COD by 58 percent, 37 percent and 73 percent respectively. Individually, root cells of P. grandiflora showed 74 and 24 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase and laccase respectively; whereas G. grandiflora root cells showed 379 percent, 142 percent and 77 percent induction in the activities of tyrosinase, riboflavin reductase and lignin peroxidase respectively. In the consortium set, entirely a different enzymatic pattern was observed, where P. grandiflora root cells showed 231 percent, 12 percent and 65 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase and 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase respectively, while G. grandiflora root cells gave 300 percent, 160 percent, 79 percent and 55 percent inductions in the activities of lignin peroxidase, riboflavin reductase, tyrosinase and laccase respectively. Because of the synergistic effect of the enzymes from both the plants, the consortium was found to be more effective for the degradation of dyes from the mixture. Preferential dye removal was confirmed by analyzing metabolites of treated dye mixture using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and biotransformation was visualized using HPTLC. Metabolites formed after the degradation of dyes revealed the reduced cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots cells when compared with untreated dye mixture solution. Phytotoxicity study exhibited the less toxic nature of the metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing toxic plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium, and Echium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2011-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are found throughout the world and are probably the most common plant cause of poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs are potent liver toxins that under some conditions can be carcinogenic. This article briefly introduces high-risk North American PA-containing plants, summarizing their toxicity and subsequent pathology. Current diagnostic techniques, treatments, and strategies to avoid losses to PA poisoning are also reviewed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent liver toxins that have been identified in over 6,000 plants throughout the world. Alkaloids are nitrogen-based compounds with potent biological activity. About half of the identified PAs are toxic and several cause cancer (carcinogenic). PA-containing plants...

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing toxic plants (Scenecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium, and Echium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) containing plants are found throughout the world and are probably the most common plant cause of poisoning of livestock, wildlife and humans. PAs are potent liver toxins that under some conditions can be carcinogenic. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce hi...

  6. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  7. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  8. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  9. Profiling of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in herbarium-preserved specimens of amsinckia species using HPLC-esi(+)MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Welsh, Stanley L; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

    2014-07-30

    Species of the Amsinckia genus (Boraginaceae) are known to produce potentially hepato-, pneumo-, and/or genotoxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. However, the taxonomic differentiation of Amsinckia species can be very subtle and there seems to be marked differences in toxicity toward grazing livestock. Methanol extracts of mass-limited leaf samples from herbarium specimens (collected from 1899 to 2013) of 10 Amsinckia species and one variety were analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the presence of potentially toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and/or their N-oxides. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in all specimens examined ranging from about 1 to 4000 μg/g of plant. Usually occurring mainly as their N-oxides, the predominant alkaloids were the epimeric lycopsamine and intermedine. Also sometimes observed in higher concentrations were the 3'- and 7-acetyl derivatives of lycopsamine/intermedine and their N-oxides. Within a designated species, an inconsistent profile was often observed that may be due to natural variation, taxonomic misassignment, or nonuniform degradation due to plant collection and storage differences.

  10. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, E.; Mahy, G.; Monty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling a...

  11. Iridoid glycosides from Thunbergia grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

    1996-07-01

    The novel iridoid glycosides, isounedoside and grandifloric acid, were isolated from Thunbergia grandiflora. Grandifloric acid contains C-10 as a carboxylic acid group, the presence of which was predicted by recent iridoid biosynthesis studies carried out within T. alata. Isounedoside contains a rare 6,7-epoxide functional group. A revision in some of the NMR spectral assignments for the known iridoid glycoside alatoside was also made.

  12. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  13. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.

  14. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennani, F.; Rossi-Hassani, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  15. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  16. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  17. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  18. Plant Guide: Bigflower agoseris: Agoseris grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower family (Asteraceae). Bigflower agoseris is a short lived perennial forb from a simple or branched taproot. The stems and leaves contain a white milky juice. The leaves are all basal with the flower heads solitary on a naked scape. Leaves are 8 to 25 cm (3 to 10 in) long and 1 to 3 cm (0.4 to 1.2 in) wide, oblanceolate pinnatifid to nearly entire. The...

  19. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling amphibious plants, whether for the purposes of total eradication or for the regulation of their spread, represents an important challenge for managers. A literature review of existing control methods for Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticu was carried out, taking into account efficiency and costs. Of the 87 studies analyzed, a great variation was evident in the research efforts undertaken (number and spatial scale of studies between species and between control methods. However, overall, the different control methods described showed a similar level of efficiency between species. Reports of total eradication of amphibious plants were rare. Such cases resulted from the application of mechanical or chemical methods, most often coupled with complementary methods such as manual finishing. The use of chemical control methods (less laborious and costly than others was found to be frequently documented in the literature. However, except in the case of some active substances, such chemical methods were found to provide low control efficiency. Similarly, to date, biological control has not been found to provide convincing results. In addition, it should be noted that several biological control agents are considered as invasive species in Europe. On the other hand, although little related research has been carried out, methods such as manual or mechanical removal with manual finishing have often

  20. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  1. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  2. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  3. Can climate and soil conditions change the morpho-anatomy among individuals from different localities? A case study in Aldama grandiflora (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vegetative aerial organs are considerably more exposed to environmental conditions and can reflect the specific adaptations of plants to their local environment. Aldama grandiflora species are known to be widely distributed in Brazil; therefore, individuals from different populations of this species are thought to be exposed to different abiotic and biotic conditions. Several anatomical studies conducted on Brazilian Aldama species have mainly focused on the qualitative anatomical characters or traits of these species, but not on their quantitative traits. In this study, we evaluated whether climate and soil conditions can change the morphometry among individuals of A. grandiflora collected from six sites in the Goiás State, Brazil, by assessing their anatomical characters. Further, soil sampling was performed, and climate data were collected from all the six sites. The analysis indicated few statistical differences among the populations evaluated, showing that A. grandiflora presented consistent leaf and stem anatomical characteristics. The small morpho-anatomical differences found among individuals of the different populations evaluated, reflected the soil conditions in which these populations were grown. Therefore, environmental factors have a significant influence on the morpho-anatomy of Aldama grandiflora.

  4. New Apigenin Glycoside, Polyphenolic Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Activities of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab Abd El Moneim; Marzouk, Mohamed S; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Ibrahim, Haitham A

    2017-07-01

    Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The 80% aqueous methanol extracts (AME) were prepared for both plants and evaluated for their biological activities. Phytochemical investigation of both extracts resulted in isolation of twelve compounds, which have been identified on the basis of ultraviolet, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and negative ESI-MS. The new 8-hydroxyapigenin 6- O -β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside was isolated from G. grandiflora for the first time in nature, along with schaftoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, apigenin 6- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, isoorientin, isovitexin, 6-methoxyluteolin and hispidulin, as well as vicenin-2, vitexin, luteolin and apigenin, which were isolated from G. pulchella together with 6-methoxyluteolin. Furthermore, the AME of both species were found to be nontoxic to mice and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities in dose dependent manner. Current results shed light on the phenolic constituents of G. grandiflora and G. pulchella aerial parts and the safety of the AME of both species, in addition to their significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Both plant species may be promising candidates for natural anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective drugs. Phytochemical investigation of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella 80% aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts led

  5. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  6. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus infecting Portulaca grandiflora represents a new strain distinct from phlox isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A; Mukhamedzhanova, Anna A; Smirnov, Alexander A; Rodionova, Nina P; Karpova, Olga V; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2011-04-01

    A southeastern European isolate of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV-MU) of the genus Potexvirus (family Flexiviridae) was purified from the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora. The complete nucleotide sequence (6606 nucleotides) of AltMV-MU genomic RNA was defined. The AltMV-MU genome is different from those of all isolates described earlier and is most closely related to genomes of partly sequenced portulaca isolates AltMV-Po (America) and AltMV-It (Italy). Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that AltMV-MU belongs to a new "portulaca" genotype distinguishable from the "phlox" genotype.

  9. Response of Sesbania grandiflora to Inoculation of Soil with Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, M; Aziz, T

    1985-09-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of two tropical isolates of Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus mosseae on the nutrient uptake and growth of Sesbania grandiflora. Inoculation of sterile soil with the fungi significantly improved growth and nutrient uptake by S. grandiflora, but the response of the legume was markedly better when the soil was inoculated with G. fasciculatum than when it was inoculated with G. mosseae. Nutrient uptake and growth of S. grandiflora in nonsterile soil was also significantly stimulated by inoculation, but the legume did not respond differently to the two endophytes under this condition.

  10. Effects of microhabitat on leaf traits in Digitalis grandiflora L. (Veronicaceae growing at forest edge and interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejek J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits of the leaves of yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. from two microhabitats, forest interior (full shade under oak canopy and forest edge (half shade near shrubs, were studied. The microhabitats differed in the mean levels of available light, but did not differ in soil moisture. The mean level of light in the forest edge microhabitat was significantly higher than in the forest interior. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test the effects of microhabitat. Comparison of the available light with soil moisture revealed that both factors significantly influenced the morphological and anatomical variables of D. grandiflora. Leaf area, mass, leaf mass per area (LMA, surface area per unit dry mass (SLA, density and thickness varied greatly between leaves exposed to different light regimes. Leaves that developed in the shade were larger and thinner and had a greater SLA than those that developed in the half shade. In contrast, at higher light irradiances, at the forest edge, leaves tended to be thicker, with higher LMA and density. Stomatal density was higher in the half-shade leaves than in the full-shade ones. LMA was correlated with leaf area and mass and to a lesser extent with thickness and density in the forest edge microsite. The considerable variations in leaf density and thickness recorded here confirm the very high variation in cell size and amounts of structural tissue within species. The leaf plasticity index (PI was the highest for the morphological leaf traits as compared to the anatomical and biochemical ones. The nitrogen content was higher in the “half-shade leaves” than in the “shade leaves”. Denser leaves corresponded to lower nitrogen (N contents. The leaves of plants from the forest edge had more potassium (K than leaves of plants from the forest interior on an area basis but not on a dry mass basis; the reverse was true for phosphorus.

  11. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Huey-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v, the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1 were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  13. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  14. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  15. KARAKTER MOLEKULER CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB ISOLAT KRISAN (DENDRANTHEMA GRANDIFLORA KITAM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. R. M. Temaja, G. Suastika, S.H. Hidayat dan U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterstics of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam in Indonesia. Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB belongs to Carlavirus genus which type species is Carnation latent virus (CLV. Since CVB is considered a new plant virus in chrysanthemum plantation in Indonesia, a study on its molecular characters is required. The objectives of the study are: 1 to determine molecular characters of CVB; 2 to study genetic diversity among CVB isolates collected from different geographic regions in Indonesia. The research activities cover virus purifications, electron microscope observation, coat protein analysis by SDS PAGE, and nucleic acid analysis. The result of virus purification demonstrated a high purity level with ratio value of A260/A280 =1.22. The total pure virus produced from 200 g of fresh material is 6.250 mg. Purified virus preparation yielded rather straight rod and flexuous virus particles of about 685 nm long and 12 nm wide. Coat protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed specific protein band of approximately 34 kDa. Specific DNA fragment of 739 bp was successfully amplified from chrysanthemum infected by CVB Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates. CVB isolated from Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali have similarity 85-99%. Based on analysis using PAUP 4.10 program, Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates belong to the same group with CVB isolates originated from India (Chattisgarh and Jammu isolates. Cianjur isolate has close relationship to Medan isolate, however Bali isolate showed a close relationship with Malang isolate.

  16. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  17. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  18. Phyto-synthesis and antibacterial studies of bio-based silver nanoparticles using Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, K.; Balasubramanyam, K.; Narasimha, G.; Kim, Haekyoung

    2018-01-01

    Green nanobiotechnology using plants, micro-organisms, and their extracts has improved the utilization of natural resources. More efficient and eco-friendly routes are being developed for the creation of benign, biodegradable materials that have medical applicability. We developed silver nanoparticles encapsulated with Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf extract, which served as a reducing and capping material. The structure and functionalization of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated using UV-vis, XRD, FE-TEM, SAED, and FTIR analyses. The nanoparticles were found to be isotropic and spherical, with a core of Ag wrapped in phytochemicals. The presence of phytochemicals stabilized the nanoparticles during production by preventing agglomeration. Antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were also tested. The phytochemical-wrapped silver nanoparticles were more effective antibiotics than were bare silver nanoparticles. The phytochemicals were likely responsible for both direct and indirect improvements in the bactericidal properties of the Ag particles. Additionally, the developed nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity towards gram-negative bacteria than towards gram-positive bacteria, with the cell wall playing an important role in adsorption and absorption of Ag+.

  19. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...

  20. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND POLLEN FLOW IN PROGENIES OF Qualea grandiflora Mart., A TYPICAL SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the reproductive system and the pollen dispersion pattern of Qualea grandiflora progenies. This is a typical species from the Brazilian Cerrado about which there are not too many studies from the genetics point of view. The study was conducted in an area of 2.2 hectares located in the Conservation Unit managed by the Forest Institute of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Assis State Forest. Total genomic DNA of 300 seeds from 25 plants (12 seeds from each plant was extracted and amplified using specific primers to obtain microsatellite markers. Results showed that selfing is frequent among adults and progenies, and the species reproduces by outcrossing between related and unrelated individuals (0.913. The single-locus outcrossing rate was 0.632, which indicates that mating between unrelated individuals is more frequent than between related plants. The selfing rate was low (0.087, that is, the species is allogamous and self-fertilization is reduced. About 35% of the plants in the progenies were full-sibs, and about 57%, half-sibs. Besides, about 8% of the progenies were selfing siblings. The genetic differentiation coefficient within progenies was 0.139, whereas the fixation rate was about 27%. The estimate of the effective size revealed that the genetic representativeness of descent was lower than expected in random mating progenies: The analyzed samples corresponded to only 13.2 individuals of an ideal panmictic population. In environmental recovery programs, seeds, preferably from different fruits, should be collected from 95 trees to preserve the genetic diversity of the species.

  1. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  2. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  3. Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar de Almeida Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction (RGE on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  4. Rauvolfia grandiflora (apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Carlos, Lanamar; da Silva Amaral, Kenas Aguiar; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva Samarão, Solange; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 μg.mL(-1) RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  5. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii , Hydrocotyle ranunculoides , Ludwigia grandiflora , Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Parmi les espèces invasives connaissant une expansion rapide en Europe, les plantes dites « amphibies » sont particulièrement problématiques. Elles sont capables de former des populations très denses à la surface des plans d’eau, se développant à la fois sous l’eau et hors de l’eau. La lutte contre ces espèces, en vue de l’éradication totale ou du ralentissement de l’invasion, représente un défi de taille pour les gestionnaires. Une synthèse bibliographique des méthodes de lutte existantes po...

  6. Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Thomas da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE, ultrasound-assisted (UAE and microwave-assisted (MAE on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%, but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL. Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth.

  7. Structure prediction and functional analysis of a non-permutated lectin from Dioclea grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Simões, Rafael da Conceição; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Legume lectins have been widely studied and applied for many purposes in the last few decades, but many of their physiological aspects remain elusive. The Diocleinae legume subtribe, which includes intensively explored lectins, such as ConA, presents an unusual and extensive post-translational process which results in minor alterations in protein structure, in turn making its function elusive. Despite previous reports about Diocleinae precursor activity, no structural or functional analyses have ever been carried out to understand the impacts of post-translational processing relative to lectin structure and binding specificity. Here we analyzed the functionality of a non glycosylated, recombinantly expressed lectin precursor from Dioclea grandiflora through inhibition assays, corroborating the experimental data with structural information generated by molecular modeling, docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that Diocleinae precursors are active and share the same carbohydrate specificity as mature lectins. At the same time, however, subtle structural alterations were detected and mostly result in an "incomplete" functionality of the precursor, as consequence of an immature binding site and an unstructured tetramer interface, affecting carbohydrate binding and oligomer formation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuicao dos dados de RMN de dois flavoides glicosilados acilados diastereoisomericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  9. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  10. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  11. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  12. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cardona-Medina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de su importancia ancestral como colorante de alimentos y uso medicinal. Este estudio evaluó los estados de semilla, plántula y planta adulta, en presencia y ausencia de posibles hospederos para inferir sobre su tipo de parasitismo. En las semillas se evaluaron dos condiciones de luz (12 y 0 horas y temperatura (20 °C y 25 °C, el porcentaje y velocidad de germinación. Las semillas no requirieron la presencia del hospedero para germinar. El porcentaje de germinación osciló entre 66 y 85,3 % y no fue afectado por la luz o la temperatura, aunque la velocidad de germinación fue mayor a 25 °C. Las semillas con mayor tamaño presentaron mayor porcentaje de germinación y produjeron plántulas más grandes. Las plántulas sembradas sin hospedero no sobrevivieron, mientras que las sembradas con Paspalum notatum, tuvieron una sobrevivencia del 45 %, evidenciando que este estado es crítico, aún con hospedero. Las plantas de Escobedia grandiflora sembradas con pastos, iniciaron la etapa reproductiva en la semana 28, y aquellas sembradas con Pennisetum purpureum presentaron más haustorios, y mayor materia seca en la planta total, rizoma y tallos aéreos. Las plantas sembradas solas vivieron más de seis meses, pero ellas no desarrollaron flores y ni frutos. Según el comportamiento de las plántulas y las plantas, E. grandiflora es parásita obligada.

  13. 76 FR 39888 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... (Sonoma alopecurus); Amsinckia grandiflora (large-flowered fiddleneck); Arabis mcdonaldiana (McDonald's... of receipt of permit applications; request for comment. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... received on or before August 8, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written data or comments should be submitted to the U.S...

  14. The Aqueous Crude Extracts of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Reduce Immobility Faster Than Fluoxetine Through GABAA Receptors in Rats Forced to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Flores-Aguilar, Luis Ángel; Rosas-Sánchez, Gilberto Uriel; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7.14 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The participation of GABA A receptor in the effects produced by the treatments was explored. Montanoa extracts reduced immobility since day 1 of treatment, while fluoxetine and Remotiv required 14 days. The GABA A antagonism blocked the effects of Montanoa extracts, but not of fluoxetine or Remotiv. Montanoa extracts prevented quickly the stress-induced behaviors in the swimming test through action at the GABA A receptor, exerting a protective effect different to the typical antidepressants drugs.

  15. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Micropropagation of ornamental species Petunia grandiflora and Dianthus chinensis x barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2017-01-01

    Petunia (Petunia sp.) and pink dianthus (Dianthus sp.) are important ornamental plants which are grown on balconies, in flower gardens, parks and other during summer period. Approximately 156 ornamental species are cultivated via tissue culture in different commercial laboratories worldwide. In vitro plant culture is one of the key tools in plant biotechnology that utilizes the totipotency of plant cells. In this research the influence of different concentrations and combinations of BA, GA...

  17. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.; Dostálek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : scrophulariiflora pennell hong * population viability analysis * nardostachys-grandiflora dc. * comparative demography * allium-tricoccum * growth rates * models * conservation * dynamics * forest * conservation * elasticity * Himalayan region * medicinal plants * NTFPs * population dynamics * rhubarb * sustainability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  18. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  19. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Augusto Tulmann; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    1997-01-01

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  20. Antihyperglycemic effect of Sesbania grandiflora seed decoction on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Inflammatory status and the role of interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroni, Ahmad; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Zubaidah, Elok

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world: its prevalence is estimated to reach 642 million people, or one-tenth of adults will have diabetes by 2040. Traditional herbal exploration and investigation are needed in order to discover medicines that have potential anti-diabetic activity, with no or lower side effects than the medicines clinically used today. In this research, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of Sesbania grandiflora seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and analyzed the immune responses that occurred during the counter balance process to reach blood glucose homeostasis. Our results revealed that administration of the aqueous decoction (2.5 g/kg BW) could lower the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice from an initial blood glucose level of 435 mg/dl to 213 mg/dl within 18 days of treatment. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that there was no significant difference in the relative amounts of CD4+CD62L-, CD8+CD62L-, TNF-α or IFN-γ between the experimental groups, which revealed that there were no pro-inflammatory responses involved either in hyperglycemia or in the blood glucose lowering process. On the other hand, an increased amount of interleukin-10 in diabetic mice treated with an S. grandiflora seed decoction indicated a role for IL-10 in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

  1. Functional quality, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.Poir leaves enriched breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Mesa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our modern life, theburdensof non-communicable diseases such as obesity, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,and type-2 diabetes haveincreased. By contrast, life expectancy and also cost of healthcare has increased. Therefore, individuals search other ways to improve or maintain their well-being. Inthis regard, food and pharmaceutical industriesoffer functional foods (FFs with health promotingand disease-preventing properties.Sesbania grandifloraL.Poiris a small, loosely branching tree alsoknown as the local name,Agathi. Agathibelongs to the Fabaceaefamily, and is one of the most popular green vegetables andtraditional medicinal plantsof India.The chemical analysis of Sesbania grandifloraleaves reveal it to be a rich source of nutrientsand beneficial bioactive compounds,such as antioxidants and polyphenols.Bread has been regarded as one of the most popular foodfor centuries, as agood source of calories and othernutrients. Bread is traditionally made from wheat flour.The addition of Agathi leaves led to the enhancementof functionality of common bread.Objective: Against the background of thisinformation, the present investigation was undertaken withaclear objective of evaluatingthe effects of the additionof Agathi leaves on the sensory, textural, andbaking characteristics,byexamining their microbial quality on a 5-daystorage period,at an ambient temperature,in different packaging materials, and assessingthe improvement, if any, in their antioxidant content.Methods: Shade dried Agathi leaf powder was analysedfor proximate,mineral,and phytochemical composition. Bread samples were prepared with ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar, water,shortening, baking time,temperature using straight dough process,and varying levels ofshade dried Agathi leaves.Physical parameters such as loaf weight, loaf volume,and color values were recorded. Breads were subjected to a sensory evaluation, andin vitroanti-oxidant capacitywas evaluated. Results

  2. químicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuição dos dados de RMN de dois flavonóides glicosilados acilados diastereoisoméricos Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Cruz Costa Ayres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  3. Evaluación de la reproducción sexual de Espeletia grandiflora VAR. Multiflora en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Sánchez Zambrano

    2006-01-01

    fenología es diferente en relación con la que se presenta en lugares con mayor grado de conservación. Los resultados se compararon con los encontrados por Fagua (2002 en otro estudio realizado en el Páramo de Chingaza, lugar con mayor grado de conservación. Para el presente sitio de estudio se reportó un porcentaje de viabilidad menor, un índice de autoincompatibilidad mayor, una producción de semillas por planta menor y etapas fenológicas más cortas que en el Páramo de Chingaza. Las diferencias en el estado de conservación, la composición genética de E. grandiflora, y el clima entre los dos sitios, pueden explicar los diferentes resultados.

  4. Characterization of the salt stress vulnerability of three invasive freshwater plant species using a metabolic profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Lise; Deleu, Carole; Berardocco, Solenne; Haury, Jacques; Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    The effects of salt stress on freshwater plants has been little studied up to now, despite the fact that they are expected to present different levels of salt sensitivity or salt resistance depending on the species. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of NaCl at two concentrations on three invasive freshwater species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Ludwigia grandiflora, by examining morphological and physiological parameters and using metabolic profiling. The growth rate (biomass and stem length) was reduced for all species, whatever the salt treatment, but the response to salt differed between the three species, depending on the NaCl concentration. For E. canadensis, the physiological traits and metabolic profiles were only slightly modified in response to salt, whereas M. aquaticum and L. grandiflora showed great changes. In both of these species, root number, photosynthetic pigment content, amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism were affected by the salt treatments. Moreover, we are the first to report the salt-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in both species. Indeed, in response to NaCl, L. grandiflora mainly accumulated sucrose. The response of M. aquaticum was more complex, because it accumulated not only sucrose and myo-inositol whatever the level of salt stress, but also amino acids such as proline and GABA, but only at high NaCl concentrations. These responses are the metabolic responses typically found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50 values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47

  6. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  7. Abertura floral de Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´após rmazenamento a frio seguido de “pulsing” Floral opening of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´after cold storage followed by pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a abertura de inflorescências e a vida de vaso de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ colhido precocemente, montou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 2 x 6 com cinco repetições, realizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. As hastes foram armazenadas a 2ºC ou 5ºC por sete dias, sendo em seguida tratadas com soluções de “pulsing” por 24h e mantidas em vasos com água de torneira, renovada a cada dois dias. As soluções utilizadas foram: Água (testemunha; Tiosulfato de Prata-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Ácido Giberélico-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Hipoclorito de Sódio-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxiquinolina-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1(Tecto 100. Com exceção da testemunha, as outras soluções continham 2% de Sacarose. Com estes tratamentos, observou-se que não foi possível uma abertura perfeita da inflorescência, mas a vantagem foi de prolongar a sua vida, podendo-se colocá-las no mercado num momento mais oportuno.The study of opening of inflorescences and the vase life (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ early picked of chysanthemum, was carried out in an experiment entirely set up in bifactorial 2 x 6 with five repetitions, at the Department of Fitotecnia of Santa Maria’s Federal University. The stems were stored at 2ºC or 5ºC for 7 days, prior to being treated with pulsing solutions for 24 hours and maintained in vases with distilled water, renewed every two days. The solutions used as follows: Water (control; Silver Thiosulfate-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Giberelic Acid-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Sodium Hipochloride-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxyquinoline-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1 (Tecto 100. With the exception of the control, all solutions contained 2% sucrose. Perfect opening of the flower was not achieved, but vase life could be extended in order to place them in the

  8. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  9. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  10. Efeito do armazenamento a frio e desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Teixeira Schwab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido no setor de floricultura do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – Santa Maria, RS, no período de novembro a dezembro de 2007 e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do armazenamento a frio e da desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora, cultivares ‘Satllion’ e ‘Toon Hermans’, tratadas com Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB 0,1%. As estacas herbáceas foram coletadas no matrizeiro localizado no Setor de Floricultura, apresentando 6 cm de comprimento final, e foram então armazenadas a frio por diferentes períodos de tempo (0; 7; 14 e 21 dias, sendo que cada tratamento constou de 20 repetições. As estacas depois de tratadas com AIB 0,1% foram pesadas antes e após o armazenamento para obter o percentual de perda de umidade e, logo após, foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e colocadas em estufa onde permaneceram 15 dias até sua avaliação. Para a avaliação do efeito da estocagem a frio e desidratação, foram realizadas as seguintes medições: comprimento total das raízes nas estacas e número de raízes por estaca. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostraram que certo nível de frio é favorável ao enraizamento, porém este efeito deve ser observado quanto a cultivar e ao tempo de exposição das estacas às baixas temperaturas. Além disso, foi possível observar que a capacidade de formação e crescimento das raízes pelas estacas é um caráter varietal, o que determina um melhor desempenho das plantas.

  11. Antithrombotic and cytotoxic activities of four Bangladeshi plants and PASS prediction of their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Mahamoud, Md Sofi; Chakrabarty, Nishan; Ahmad, Shabbir; Masum, Md Abdullah Al; Hoque, Md Akramul; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Rahman, Md Mominur; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether tested organic extracts possess antithrombotic properties with minimal or no toxicity and to predict the activity of some of their isolated compounds. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W.T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg., and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. In silico prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction was applied for phytoconstituents, namely, nyasicoside, glucomannan, grandifloric acid, serine, and alanine. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed 28.10±1.64%, 42.47±1.96%, 32.86±1.92%, and 25.51±1.67% of clot lysis, respectively. Reference drug streptokinase exhibited 75.00±3.04% clot lysis. Examined herbs showed significant (p<0.001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to negative control. In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed LC50 values 210.64±3.44, 98.51±1.47, 187.29±2.01, and 386.43±3.02 μg/mL, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76±0.04). PASS predicted that examined phytoconstituents have a wide range of biological activity. Through our study it was found that A. bulbifer and P. sikkimensis could be considered as very promising and beneficial thrombolytic agents.

  12. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate - Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares, tama-ño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo-abril (seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae ySphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza en fami-lias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con las mayoresfrecuencias y una amplia distribución correspondes a las clases Ascomycetes y Oomycete.Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en la heteroge-neidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. Pythium vexansy Sordaria fimicolarepresentaron 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a la necromasade Espeletia grandiflora.

  13. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate-Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares,tamaño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo - abril(seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae yActa Sphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza enfamilias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con lasmayores frecuencias y una amplia distribución corresponden a las clases Ascomycetes yOomycete. Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en laheterogeneidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. -Pythium vexansy Sordariafimicolarepresentaron el 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a lanecromasa de Espeletia grandiflora.

  14. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  15. Spreaders, igniters, and burning shrubs: plant flammability explains novel fire dynamics in grass-invaded deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Veldman, Joseph W; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2016-10-01

    Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires often ignite a keystone desert shrub, the fire-intolerant creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville. Ignition of Larrea is likely catalyzed by fuels produced by native plants that grow beneath the shrubs. We hypothesize that invasive and native species exhibit distinct flammability characteristics that in combination determine spatial patterns of fire spread and intensity. We measured flammability metrics of Larrea, two invasive grasses, Schismus arabicus and Bromus madritensis, and two native plants, the sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa and the annual herb Amsinckia menziesii. Results of laboratory experiments show that the grasses carry fire quickly (1.32 cm/s), but burn for short duration (0.5 min) at low temperatures. In contrast, native plants spread fire slowly (0.12 cm/s), but burn up to eight times longer (4 min) and produced hotter fires. Additional experiments on the ignition requirements of Larrea suggest that native plants burn with sufficient temperature and duration to ignite dead Larrea branches (time to ignition, 2 min; temperature at ignition 692°C). Once burning, these dead branches ignite living branches in the upper portions of the shrub. Our study provides support for a conceptual model in which exotic grasses are "spreaders" of fire and native

  16. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  17. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  18. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions.......Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...

  19. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  1. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  2. Floristic and phytosociology in dense “terra firme” rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN. Lemos

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense “Terra Firme” rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1, distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94, Araceae (65 and Arecaceae (43, comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41, Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50 and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28 showed the highest importance values (IV. The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%. The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  3. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  4. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  6. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  7. Piedmont community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for small, medium, and large broadleaf trees and one coniferous tree in the Piedmont region: the species chosen as representative are dogwood (Cornus florida), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  8. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  9. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m -2 . Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m -2 , respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m -2 ). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  10. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  11. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation

  12. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Faruque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF, Use Value (UV, Frequency of Citation (FC, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Relative Importance Index (RI. The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI. A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28% whereas pastes (63.03% were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species and the Lamiaceae (12 species. The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43, Zingiber officinale (0.41, Congea tomentosa (0.40, Matricaria chamomilla (0.33 and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28. The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25. The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83. Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  13. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O.; Uddin, Shaikh B.; Barlow, James W.; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  14. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O; Uddin, Shaikh B; Barlow, James W; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  17. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  18. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  19. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  20. Plant embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sacco C.; Weijers, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Land plants are called ‘embryophytes’ and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos

  1. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos na região central de Rondônia Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in central region of Rondônia state, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vargas Schons

    2012-07-01

    ância das intoxicações por plantas na região Norte do Brasil.A survey about the presence of toxic plants and the occurrence of outbreaks of poisoning in ruminants and equidae was performed in 12 municipalities of the central region of the state of Rondônia. Ninety eight persons were interviewed, including farmers, veterinary practitioners, agronomists, and agrarian technicians. Thirty four farmers reported poisoning by toxic plants, including poisoning by Palicourea marcgravii (12 outbreaks, Palicourea grandiflora and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (seven outbreaks each, and Palicourea juruana, Brachiaria radicans, Brachiaria brizantha, and Manihot esculenta (two outbreaks each. In sheep, farmers reported two outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria decumbens and one outbreak of sudden death caused by Palicourea grandiflora. In the 34 outbreaks, 374 (8,9% bovines were affected and 311 (7.4% died, from a total of 4.192 cattle exposed. In the three outbreaks in sheep, 28 animals were affected and 20 died out of 250 exposed. Amorimia sp., previously misidentified as Mascagnia sepium, a previously unreported toxic plant, was identified as a cause of sudden death in sheep and cattle in 32% of the farms. Fifteen outbreaks of colic in horses grazing Panicum maximum (cultivars 'Massai', 'Tanzânia', and 'Mombaça' during the rainy season were also reported. It is concluded that poisoning by toxic plants is an important cause of economic losses in livestock in the region studied. With the results of this research the number of known toxic plant for ruminants in central region of Rondônia increased from one to nine, indicating that more research is necessary for the knowledge of poisonous plants for livestock in the Brazilian Amazonic region.

  2. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  3. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  4. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  5. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  6. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  7. Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista--A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Gabriel O; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Onyeneke, Chukwu E; Rauf, Khalid

    2015-12-04

    The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases. They serve as an anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic and contraceptive. This review aims to provide for the first time a repository of ethnopharmacological information while critically evaluating the relation between the traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Anthocleista species so as to unveil opportunities for future research. A search for relevant information on Anthocleista species was performed on scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, PubChem and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden and PROTA) and books, PhD and MSc dissertations for un-published resources. Out of the 14 species of Anthocleista, 6 have been reported in literature to be widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The six species include: A. djalonensis, A. vogelii, A. nobilis, A. grandiflora, A. schweinfurthii, and A. liebrechtsiana. The chemical compounds isolated from Anthocleista species fall into the class of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, nor-secoiridoids, xanthones, phytosterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, and others of which majority of the compounds were isolated from A. djalonensis and A. vogelii. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on the crude extracts, fractions and few isolated compounds of Anthocleista species showed antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, hypotensive, spasmogenic, anti-obesity, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti

  8. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  9. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  10. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  11. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  12. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  13. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  14. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  15. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  16. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  18. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  19. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-11-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery.

  20. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  1. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento mutagênico de meristemas multicelulares em plantas de propagação vegetativa geralmente resulta na formação de plantas quiméricas. Os setores mutados podem ser ampliados e estabilizados por meio de podas repetidas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência de podas em distintas posições (da 1a até a 6a gema axilar de um ramo M1V1, na freqüência de obtenção de mutantes de coloração de inflorescência e no tamanho dos setores mutados, em plantas de crisântemo irradiadas com raios-gama. Para tal, mudas enraizadas do cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (de coloração rosa escuro foram tratadas com 20 Gy de raios-gama. Após 40 dias do plantio foram realizadas as podas. Avaliaram-se a freqüência de mutantes e o espectro de mutação para a coloração da inflorescência nos ramos M1V2. Não foram observados mutantes no controle. No total de plantas avaliadas, 22,1% apresentavam mutações na coloração das flores sendo que, do total de plantas mutantes, 1,8% eram mutantes periclinais (com coloração única e as restantes (98,2%, apresentavam apenas alguns setores mutados. Não se observou diferença significativa quanto ao tamanho do setor mutado e ao número de mutantes nos diversos tratamentos (podas em diferentes gemas axilares. Com relação ao espectro de mutação, observaram-se mutantes com flores de coloração bronze, rosa claro, chá-rosa, variegado, amarelo, branco, vinho e creme. Um mutante de coloração vinho foi selecionado, multiplicado e avaliado em ensaio de produção. Este mutante denominado ‘Magali’ foi multiplicado para lançamento como novo cultivar.Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the application of this method in the M1V2 population

  2. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  3. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...

  4. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  5. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  6. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  7. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  8. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  9. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  10. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  11. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  12. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  13. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  14. Non-reciprocal Interspecies Hybridization Barriers in the Capsella Genus Are Established in the Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A Rebernig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s separating both species.

  15. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  16. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  17. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  18. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  19. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  20. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  1. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  2. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  3. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  5. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  6. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  7. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  8. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  9. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  11. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  12. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  13. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  14. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  15. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  16. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  17. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  18. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  19. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  20. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  1. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  2. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  3. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  4. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  5. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  6. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  7. Oil content and physicochemical characteristics of some wild oilseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant seed oils content reported in this study are comparatively higher than some food crop plants such as soybean and olive. Five of these oils have oil melting range as that of edible oils. C. grandiflora, C. halicacabum, M. eminii and the two species of Myrianthus are in the range of common cooking oils by their ...

  8. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  9. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  10. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  12. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  13. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  14. Late Palaeozoic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo

    2017-09-11

    Land plants are one of the major constituents of terrestrial ecosystems on Earth, and play an irreplaceable role in human activities today. If we are to understand the extant plants, it is imperative that we have some understanding of the fossil plants from the deep geological past, particularly those that occurred during their early evolutionary history, in the late Palaeozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  16. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  17. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  19. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  20. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  1. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  2. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  4. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  5. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  6. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  7. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  8. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  9. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  10. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  11. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  12. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  13. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  14. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Every plant requires mineral elements for growth. A mnemonic ... lar coils. More commonly, the hypha forms highly branched, .... stamps on the edible and poisonous mushrooms (Figure 2). One of the ... but these days dogs are used for truffle. 'hunting' . .... example is a non-chlorophyllous plant known as Indian pipe or.

  15. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  16. Slavery in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2017-01-01

    The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of

  17. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  18. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  19. Methylome evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over

  20. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  3. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a ... to Expect at the Emergency Room Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ...

  4. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  5. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  6. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  7. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  8. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  9. Plants and fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    A report is given about the contents of fluorine in soil and different plants. It is stated that spinach and several spice herbages are rich in fluorine (0.98 - 21.8 ppm) while in other plants are not more than 5 ppm maximum. An exception is found in Thea sinensis with 178 ppm and more. Tea is, therefore, a source of fluorine for contamination of the human body. An increase of the fluorine contents of plants by manuring with F-salts or mineral manure is possible but of long duration. Damage to plants by uptake of fluorine from soil as well as in a gaseous condition from the atmosphere are described. The rate of damage is related to the type of soil in which the plant is grown.

  10. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  11. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  12. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  13. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  14. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  15. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  16. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  17. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  18. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  19. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  20. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  1. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conger, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  2. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  3. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  4. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  5. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  6. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  7. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  8. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  9. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  10. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  11. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  12. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  13. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  14. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  15. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  16. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  17. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  18. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  19. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  20. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  1. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  2. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  4. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  5. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  6. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  7. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  8. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  9. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  10. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  11. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  13. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  14. Photomorphogenesis in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendrick, Richard E; Kronenberg, G. H. M

    1994-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... VII VIII XXXI Part 1 Introduction 1. Introduction by Lars Olof Bjorn 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 A developing research field ... Plant vision...

  15. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  16. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  17. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  18. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  19. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  20. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  1. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  2. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  3. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Medicinal plants of Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla ahmadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection and determination of medicinal plants in Lorestan province have been carried out for 6 years in the agriculture and natural resources research of center of Lorestan. The aims of this study were collection and identification the medicinal plans that grow in Loretta province, their distribution, habitat, traditional uses, utilized organ, manner of usage, botany specification, local name, Persian name and scientific name. Material and methods: Medicinal plants were collected from different regions by using field and library study for these goals we prepared a list of recorded medicinal plants from Lorestan, identified the local herbal experts. Results: Finally we collected 151 medicinal plant identified that related to 63 families and 90 genuses. The Lamiaceae, Compositae, Legominosae , Liliaceae, Umbelliferae and . Rosaceae are the greatest family in the Lorestan province. Diction: According to the literature 96 medicinal plans were recorded from Lorestan, but during this study we collected and identified 151 medicinal plants in Lorestan province. Comparing with those that recorded from Bushehr 70 sp.(9, Hormozgan 113 sp.(10, Markazi 144 sp. And Kordestan 144 sp(11. We have more diversity but comparing with Zanjan 163 sp.(13, Hamedan 315 sp.(14 And Qazvin 250 sp.(15 We have less diversity in medicinal plants.

  5. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  7. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  8. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a data collecting section for periodically collecting processed data sent from plant equipments, a top node induction and processing section for an important plant function model for inducing the plant function to be noted particularly by an operator from important plant function models by using process data and a window screen selection section for selecting a window screen to be displayed based on the result of the evaluation for each of function nodes based on the processing described above and determining the layout and automatically forming the display screen. It is constituted so that the kind and the layout of the window under display are checked if they are the same as those one cycle before or not and, if they are different, the screen is automatically switched to a new screen display. Then, operator's psychological burdens such as selection of information and judgement for the operation upon occurrence of plant abnormality and accident can be mitigated, to provide a safe operation circumstance having reinforced monitoring of the function of the whole plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  9. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  10. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

  11. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  12. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kunio.

    1991-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

  13. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  14. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  15. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  16. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  17. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  18. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  19. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  20. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  1. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  2. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant

  3. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  4. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  5. Plant arginyltransferases (ATEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Domitrovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of protein stability and/or degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are essential cellular processes. A part of this regulation is mediated by the so-called N-end rule proteolytic pathway, which, in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, drives protein degradation depending on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. One important enzyme involved in this process is arginyl-t-RNA transferase, known as ATE. This enzyme acts post-translationally by introducing an arginine residue at the N-terminus of specific protein targets to signal degradation via the UPS. However, the function of ATEs has only recently begun to be revealed. Nonetheless, the few studies to date investigating ATE activity in plants points to the great importance of the ATE/N-end rule pathway in regulating plant signaling. Plant development, seed germination, leaf morphology and responses to gas signaling in plants are among the processes affected by the ATE/N-end rule pathway. In this review, we present some of the known biological functions of plant ATE proteins, highlighting the need for more in-depth studies on this intriguing pathway.

  6. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  7. AECL's plant Information Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Lupton, L.; Didsbury, R.; Judd, R.

    1998-01-01

    The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

  8. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  9. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  10. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  11. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  12. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  13. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  14. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  15. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs......In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  16. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  17. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  19. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  20. Individual plant examination: Submittal guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants, the performance of a plant examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power plant. The plant examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that plant examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  3. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  4. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  5. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  6. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  7. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  8. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  9. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  10. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  12. Plant engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Goossen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Plant Engineering Network (PEN) is a utility-vendor relationship focussed on reducing O and M costs, while maintaining the safe and reliable operation of partner plants through sharing resources, using telecommunications systems for collaborative engineering, coordinating and streamlining work processes, and sharing financial risk and reward. This paper examines how Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) established a PEN organization and realized over =0.5 million U.S. in 1994, the first year of implementation, and approximately =2 million U.S. savings in 1995. (author)

  13. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  14. Methylome evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-12-20

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over long timescales is largely a byproduct of genomic changes. By contrast, methylome evolution over short timescales appears to be driven mainly by spontaneous epimutational events. We argue that novel methods based on analyses of the methylation site frequency spectrum (mSFS) of natural populations can provide deeper insights into the evolutionary forces that act at each timescale.

  15. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  16. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  17. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  18. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  19. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  20. Monitoring wood heating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The overall aim of the project is to support the increased use of biomass heating plant in the UK by improving the quality and quantity of information available to suppliers and users. This aim will be achieved by: providing a qualitative assessment of the operational performance of a representative range of biomass heating installations including summaries of technical information; providing good case studies for a range of installations addressing the varied market demands; collating performance data of existing installations so as to improve the performance and/or reduce capital and operating costs of existing and future installations; and providing basic operator training and recommending methods optimising/improving plant performance. (author)

  1. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako eMitsumasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root-parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones (SLs, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  2. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  3. B Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  4. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  5. Plant research '76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  6. Drought Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depending upon the source and nature of signaling: (i) hormone signal, (ii) .... plants to regulate the rate of transpiration through minor structural .... cell has to keep spending energy (in the form of A TP) to maintain a .... enzymes and proteins in the regulation of cellular metabolism can be determined by either inactivating.

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  8. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552 ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  9. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  10. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  11. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.; Manazir, R.; Rescori, R.; Harmon, D.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  12. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  13. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  14. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  15. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  16. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  17. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  18. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  19. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  20. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  1. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  2. Radiosensitivity in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

  3. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  5. Plant cell culture initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  6. Screening for Plant Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Polder, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, an overview of different plant features is given, from (sub)cellular to canopy level. A myriad of methods is available to measure these features using image analysis, and often, multiple methods can be used to measure the same feature. Several criteria are listed for choosing a

  7. The plant exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants

  8. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  9. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  10. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  11. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  13. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  14. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  15. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  16. Evolution of plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mike

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic

  17. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  18. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  19. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foyer, C.H.; Lelandais, M.; Kunert, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that

  20. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  1. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  2. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  3. Remediation Using Plants and Plant Enzymes: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In every case, the sources are plants growing near the sediment. The use of plants for remediation of hazardous materials such as TNT or other munitions like RDX and HMX has led to a new approach to remediation-- phytoremediation...

  4. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  5. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  6. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  7. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  8. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  9. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  11. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  12. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Byrne, H.M.; King, J.R.; Bennett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more

  13. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... To consider food as medicine is part of a culture and a millennial human ... propagation, and introduction of nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the .... some respondents also mentioned that these plants were being ...

  14. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  15. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  16. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  17. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  18. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  19. Power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacking, D [Marconi Simulation (United Kingdom)

    1992-09-01

    Over many years in the field of simulation Marconi has developed and adopted a number of procedures and methodologies for the management, design and development of an extensive range of training equipment. This equipment encompasses desktop computer-based training systems, generic training devices. The procurement of a training simulator is clearly dictated by the perceived training requirement or problem. Also, it should preferably involve or follow a detailed training needs analysis. Although the cost benefits of training are often difficult to quantify, a simulator is frequently easier to justify if plant familiarisation and training can be provided in advance of on-the-job experience. This is particularly true if the target operators have little hands-on experience of similar plant either in terms of processes or the operator interface. (author).

  20. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  1. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  2. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  3. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  4. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  5. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  6. The intelligent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Firth [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The current advances in electronics and smart sensors, coupled with the large amount of information that modern distributed control systems can create, provide opportunities but posses some significant problems. The potential suite of data measurements could provide plant operators, maintenance staff and supervisors with a comprehensive understanding of the current health of a coal preparation plant. Analysis of this issue would also provide a tool for the recognition of where important data is not or poorly (timeframe and/or quality) currently available. A suitable system for categorisation of the information associated with the description of the 'Health of a Plant' has been developed. A relational data base model for these categories was derived. The process and performance information relationships were established via the use of models derived from the wide body of literature available. Given the availability of the above model relationships and measurements, the best way to utilise this information in a simple intelligent manner was addressed. It involved the construction of a high level fuzzy set diagnosis chart and an underlying set of unit operation diagnostic charts. These charts provided the basis for the implementation of a generic diagnosis system. This was deliberately developed in EXCEL so that it can be used and/or modified to suit a particular plant. A sensing system which combines a limited set of measurements with an algorithm or logic system for optimisation of a process can be termed a smart sensor. These are vey useful in the optimisation of difficult process situations, and can be used to supplement expert systems. It is believed that the models developed in this project can also provide the basis for appropriate smart sensors when access to appropriate measurements is available.

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  8. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  11. Automation of solar plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yebra, L.J.; Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Valverde, A. [CIEMAT - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Almeria Univ. (Spain). Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion

    2004-07-01

    This work overviews some of the main activities and research lines that are being carried out within the scope of the specific collaboration agreement between the Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (PSA-CIEMAT) and the Automatic Control, Electronics and Robotics research group of the Universidad de Almeria (TEP197) titled ''Development of control systems and tools for thermosolar plants'' and the projects financed by the MCYT DPI2001-2380-C02-02 and DPI2002-04375-C03. The research is directed by the need of improving the efficiency of the process through which the energy provided by the sun is totally or partially used as energy source, as far as diminishing the costs associated to the operation and maintenance of the installations that use this energy source. The final objective is to develop different automatic control systems and techniques aimed at improving the competitiveness of solar plants. The paper summarizes different objectives and automatic control approaches that are being implemented in different facilities at the PSA-CIEMAT: central receiver systems and solar furnace. For each one of these facilities, a systematic procedure is being followed, composed of several steps: (i) development of dynamic models using the newest modeling technologies (both for simulation and control purposes), (ii) development of fully automated data acquisition and control systems including software tools facilitating the analysis of data and the application of knowledge to the controlled plants and (iii) synthesis of advanced controllers using techniques successfully used in the process industry and development of new and optimized control algorithms for solar plants. These aspects are summarized in this work. (orig.)

  12. Antibodies from plants for bionanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Edgue, G.; Twyman, R.M.; Beiss, V.; Fischer, R.; Sack, M.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of a...

  13. Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Deborah L.; Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Anne J.

    1996-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant. Recent plant experiments with super dwarf wheat aboard the NASA Space Shuttle and NASA/Russian Mir Space Station returned from the mission with severe degrees of fungal contamination. Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies ...

  14. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  15. From plant genomes to phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Marie; Gundlach, Heidrun; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus; Usadel, Björn; Schwacke, Rainer; Schmutzer, Thomas; Chen, Jinbo; Arend, Daniel; Oppermann, Markus; Weise, Stephan; Lange, Matthias; Fiorani, Fabio; Spannagl, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly accelerated the rate of plant genome and applied breeding research. Despite this advancing trend, plant genomes continue to present numerous difficulties to the standard tools and pipelines not only for genome assembly but also gene annotation and downstream analysis.Here we give a perspective on tools, resources and services necessary to assemble and analyze plant genomes and link them to plant phenotypes.

  16. Deep Learning for Plant Phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Plant Phenotyping is an emerging science which provides us the knowledge to better understand plants. Indeed, the study of the link between genetic background and environment in which plants develop can help us to determine cures for plants’ sicknesses and new ways to improve yields using limited resources. In this regard, one of the main aspects of Plant Phenotyping that were studied in the past, was Root Phenotyping, which is based on the study of the root architectures. In particular, toda...

  17. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  18. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  19. Genetics and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  1. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  2. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  3. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  4. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  5. Try This: Plant Leaf Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Plants are often overlooked in favour of animals when teaching about living things. Focusing on familiar animals that share human characteristics helps young children learn about similar features. Examining plants for their differences, though, helps foster wonder. In the author's experience, children find it intriguing that plants need…

  6. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  7. PERSPECTIVE IN PLANT DRUG RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.H.; Singh, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Plant medicine becomes more popular thought the world in these days probably of its latest toxicity. Ayurveda that leads in plant medicine preserves the natural form of herbs maximum, in various pharmaceutical preparations. Isolation of active principles has not proved much fruitful. However, the need of hour is cultivation of more medicinal plants along with popularization of their use traditional simpler forms. PMID:22557691

  8. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  9. Gamma irradiation plants using reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, W.

    1976-11-01

    Recent irradiation plants utilizing fuel elements are described. Criteria for optimizing such plants, evaluation of the plants realized so far, and applications for the facilities are discussed. (author)

  10. Four planting devices for planting no-till maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute (CSIR-CRI Experimental station at Ejura in Ghana to compare the efficiency of four devices for planting no-till maize: Tractor drawn seeder, Chinese made jab planter, Locally made jab planter and a Cutlass. It took two (2 hours 48 minutes to plant one hectare of maize with the tractor drawn seeder, which was significantly (p less than 1% faster than all the planting methods. Cutlass was the slowest planting device lasting more than 14 hours per hectare. There was no significant difference in planting time between the Chinese planter and local planter. Economic analysis showed that cutlass planting produced the highest net benefit, whilst tractor drawn seeder produced the least benefit. In this study cutlass planting was done with precision by collaborating farmers. In actual farm situation however, hired laborers (planting gangs often plant in haste which often results in poor plant population leading to low yields. Tractor drawn seeders or jab planters could reduce drudgery in planting and encourage farm expansion.

  11. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  13. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The present review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones. Plant ecdysteroids (phytoecdysteroids) are natural polyhydroxylated compounds that have a four-ringed skeleton, usually composed of either 27 carbon atoms or 28-29 carbon atoms (biosynthetically derived from cholesterol or other plant sterols, respectively). Their physiological roles in plants have not yet been confirmed and their occurrence is not universal. Nevertheless, they are present at high concentrations in various plant species, including commonly consumed vegetables, and have a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties in mammals, including hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic effects, and anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, without androgenic side-effects. Furthermore, phytoecdysteroids can enhance stress resistance by promoting vitality and enhancing physical performance; thus, they are considered adaptogens. This review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones.

  14. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  15. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  17. The plants in the Florilegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnklit, Folmer; Frederiksen, Signe; Hansen, Hans Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The Gottorfer Codex and The Green Florilegium contain a total of more than 1,500 pictures of plants. In this article the botanists who recently identified the plants in the two albums take a look at the works as seen through the eyes of a botanist. Based on their knowledge of the plants behind...... the pictures the authors shed light on a range of different aspects, e.g. the relationship between figures and real plants and the horticultural background of the plants. They also offer botanical explanations for peculiarities such as double and proliferous flowers....

  18. Towards Multi Fuel SOFC Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Complete Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plants fed by several different fuels are suggested and analyzed. The plants sizes are about 10 kW which is suitable for single family house with needs for both electricity and heat. Alternative fuels such as, methanol, DME (Di-Methyl Ether) and ethanol...... are also considered and the results will be compared with the base plant fed by Natural Gas (NG). A single plant design will be suggested that can be fed with methanol, DME and ethanol whenever these fuels are available. It will be shown that the plant fed by ethanol will have slightly higher electrical...

  19. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  20. Plant-plant competition outcomes are modulated by plant effects on the soil bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, S; Lozano, Y M; Bastida, F; Armas, C; Moreno, J L; Garcia, C; Pugnaire, F I

    2017-12-19

    Competition is a key process that determines plant community structure and dynamics, often mediated by nutrients and water availability. However, the role of soil microorganisms on plant competition, and the links between above- and belowground processes, are not well understood. Here we show that the effects of interspecific plant competition on plant performance are mediated by feedbacks between plants and soil bacterial communities. Each plant species selects a singular community of soil microorganisms in its rhizosphere with a specific species composition, abundance and activity. When two plant species interact, the resulting soil bacterial community matches that of the most competitive plant species, suggesting strong competitive interactions between soil bacterial communities as well. We propose a novel mechanism by which changes in belowground bacterial communities promoted by the most competitive plant species influence plant performance and competition outcome. These findings emphasise the strong links between plant and soil communities, paving the way to a better understanding of plant community dynamics and the effects of soil bacterial communities on ecosystem functioning and services.

  1. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  2. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  3. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  4. Taylor Hydro plant goes live

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The 12.75 MW Taylor Hydroelectric Plant in Magrath, Alberta, synchronized its generator with the Alberta Power Grid and began production in April 2000. The plant is located on Government of Alberta irrigation works and is owned by Canadian Hydro Developers. During the irrigation season the plant will generate approximately 40 million kilowatt hours of zero-emission 'green' power for consumption, enough to power 5,000 homes for a year. The Taylor plant is a joint venture with EPCOR Power Development Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of EPCOR Inc., the City of Edmonton utility. Canadian Hydro Developers also owns a 19 MW wind plant and a 6 MW gas plant in Alberta and five other 'run of river' hydro plants in Ontario and British Columbia. The company is committed to the concept of low-impact power generation; its ownership of wind run-of-river hydro and gas-fired facilities is proof of that commitment

  5. Effects of fluorides on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, F

    1975-11-01

    Fluorine compounds known to be air pollutants, such as hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrachloride, are highly poisonous to plants even at ppm - ppb levels. As solid microparticles, acidic sodium fluoride and cryolite cause problems by adhering to plant leaves and absorbing into plant bodies. Plants are classified by their susceptibility to hydrogen fluoride: gladiolus, apricot, buckwheat, turnip and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are most susceptible showing slight injury at less than 5 ppb for 7-9 days; maize, pepper, and dahlia are fairly susceptible, followed by azalea, rose, lilac, and alfalfa, then by oak and tomato. Gladiolus is used as an indicator plant. The exposure factor for one species was known. The symptoms of plants exposed to gaseous fluorine compounds are described in detail at various concentrations. The causal mechanism of the injuries due to fluorine compounds is described in detail, with the method of determining the fluorine content of plant parts. 7 references.

  6. Industrial safety in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the VGB conference 'Industrial safety in power plants' held in the Gruga-Halle, Essen on January 21 and 22, 1987, contain the papers reporting on: Management responsibility for and legal consequences of industrial safety; VBG 2.0 Industrial Accident Prevention Regulation and the power plant operator; Operational experience gained with wet-type flue gas desulphurization systems; Flue gas desulphurization systems: Industrial-safety-related requirements to be met in planning and operation; the effects of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance on power plant operation; Occupational health aspects of heat-exposed jobs in power plants; Regulations of the Industrial Accident Insurance Associations concerning heat-exposed jobs and industrial medical practice; The new VBG 30 Accident Prevention Regulation 'Nuclear power plants'; Industrial safety in nuclear power plants; safe working on and within containers and confined spaces; Application of respiratory protection equipment in power plants. (HAG) [de

  7. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  8. Plant toxicity, adaptive herbivory, and plant community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.; Liu, R.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Bryant, J.P.; Kielland, K.; Stuart, Chapin F.; Swihart, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We model effects of interspecific plant competition, herbivory, and a plant's toxic defenses against herbivores on vegetation dynamics. The model predicts that, when a generalist herbivore feeds in the absence of plant toxins, adaptive foraging generally increases the probability of coexistence of plant species populations, because the herbivore switches more of its effort to whichever plant species is more common and accessible. In contrast, toxin-determined selective herbivory can drive plant succession toward dominance by the more toxic species, as previously documented in boreal forests and prairies. When the toxin concentrations in different plant species are similar, but species have different toxins with nonadditive effects, herbivores tend to diversify foraging efforts to avoid high intakes of any one toxin. This diversification leads the herbivore to focus more feeding on the less common plant species. Thus, uncommon plants may experience depensatory mortality from herbivory, reducing local species diversity. The depensatory effect of herbivory may inhibit the invasion of other plant species that are more palatable or have different toxins. These predictions were tested and confirmed in the Alaskan boreal forest. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B S; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M; Cranston, Karen A; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J; White, Jeffery W; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J; Spalding, Edgar P; Vision, Todd J; Myers, Christopher R; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  10. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Goff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006. iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  11. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Kinkel, Linda; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in plants as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary with plant species, changes in the diversity of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical characteristics. Fusarium communities in soil associated with the roots of two perennial prairie plant species maintained as monocultures or growing within polyculture plant communities were characterized using targeted metagenomics. Amplicon libraries targeting the RPB2 locus were generated from rhizosphere soil DNAs and sequenced using pyrosequencing. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and assigned a taxonomy using the Evolutionary Placement Algorithm. Fusarium community composition was differentiated between monoculture and polyculture plant communities, and by plant species in monoculture, but not in polyculture. Taxonomic classification of the Fusarium OTUs showed a predominance of F. tricinctum and F. oxysporum as well of the presence of a clade previously only found in the Southern Hemisphere. Total Fusarium richness was not affected by changes in plant community richness or correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics. However, OTU richness within two predominant phylogenetic lineages within the genus was positively or negatively correlated with soil physiochemical characteristics among samples within each lineage. This work shows that plant species, plant community richness, and soil physiochemical characteristics may all influence the composition and richness of Fusarium communities in soil.

  12. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  13. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  14. Pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories undertook the design and fabrication of an 8 ton/day dry sewage sludge irradiatior. The facility is intended (1) to function as a high-gamma-dose rate research facility; (2) to be a testbed for the unique electrical and mechanical components to be used in larger facilities; (3) to fulfill the formal requirements of a pilot plant so that design and construction of a demonstration facility could proceed; and (4) to provide accurate data base on construction and operating experience for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and the cost analyses for a larger facility. The facility and its component systems are described in detail

  15. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  16. Triterpene biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ramesha; Geisler, Katrin; Louveau, Thomas; O'Maille, Paul; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The triterpenes are one of the most numerous and diverse groups of plant natural products. They are complex molecules that are, for the most part, beyond the reach of chemical synthesis. Simple triterpenes are components of surface waxes and specialized membranes and may potentially act as signaling molecules, whereas complex glycosylated triterpenes (saponins) provide protection against pathogens and pests. Simple and conjugated triterpenes have a wide range of applications in the food, health, and industrial biotechnology sectors. Here, we review recent developments in the field of triterpene biosynthesis, give an overview of the genes and enzymes that have been identified to date, and discuss strategies for discovering new triterpene biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  18. Robots and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1996-02-01

    The application of robots in the harsh environments in which TELEMAN equipment will have to operate has large benefits, but also some drawbacks. The main benefit is the ability gained to perform tasks where people cannot go, while there is a possibility of inflicting damage to the equipment handled by the robot, and the plant when mobile robots are involved. The paper describes the types of possible damage and the precautions to be taken in order to reduce the frequency of the damaging events. A literature study for the topic only gave some insight into examples, but no means for a systematic treatment of the topic. (au) 16 refs

  19. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  20. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  1. Air condensation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelp, F.; Pohl, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this plant the steam is distributed by a ventilator from the bottom to symmetrically fixed, inclined cooling elements with tubes. The upper part of the current side of the cooling elements as well as the bottom part of the outflow side can be covered by cover plates via a control circuit. This way, part of the air amount is deviated and in case of unfavourable atmospheric conditions (cold) the air is heated. This heating is enough to prevent freezing of the condensate on the cooling tubes. (DG) [de

  2. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  3. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  4. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  5. 7 CFR 1005.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... other order than are made to plants regulated under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic...

  6. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  7. Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

  8. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  9. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  10. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  11. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  12. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  13. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  14. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  15. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Sang Jae and others; Park, Youn Il; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2003-05-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose gamma radiation on germination, early growth and yield in a wide range of vegetable crops. The stimulating effects of gamma radiation was evaluated through investigating germination rate, early growth and physiological activities such as enzyme activities, hormones and photosynthetic responses etc. Induction of increased shikonin production in the plants by low dose gamma radiation was challenged to open up the possibility of applying radiation hormesis to the industrial mass production system of the natural materials useful to humans. Effects of natural radiation emitted from solid ceramics was compared on the plants with those of low dose gamma radiation. Finally, activation of aged seeds by low dose gamma radiation, probably facilitating their commercial circulation in the agriculture, was challenged in association with an industrial seed company. Moreover, the shift in resistance of the crops to environmental stresses including UV and low temperature was addressed as well as DNA damage, repair and protein expression after gamma irradiation

  16. The Marcoule pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Calame Longjean, A.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Revol, G.

    1986-06-01

    The Marcoule spent fuel reprocessing pilot facility was built in 1960-1961 for extended testing of the PUREX process with various types of fuel under conditions similar to those encountered in a production plant. Extensive modification work was undertaken on the facility in 1983 in the scope of the TOR project, designed with the following objectives: - increase the throughput capacity to at least 5 metric tons of PHENIX equivalent fuel per year, - extend equipment and process R and D capability, - improve job safety by maximum use of remote handling facilities, - maximize waste conditioning treatments to produce waste forms suitable for direct storage, - provide a true industrial process demonstration in continuous operation under centralized control using computerized procedures. The redesigned plant is scheduled to begin operation during the second half of 1986. The proximity of the Industrial Prototypes Service and the ATALANTE radiochemical research laboratory scheduled to begin operation in 1990, will provide a synergistic environment in which R and D program may be carried out under exceptional conditions

  17. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Hui; Xu, Xin-Ya; Shi, Ni; Tsang, Siu Wai; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2018-05-06

    Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum . As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002) reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  19. Antimalarial Activity of Plant Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, as a major global health problem, continues to affect a large number of people each year, especially those in developing countries. Effective drug discovery is still one of the main efforts to control malaria. As natural products are still considered as a key source for discovery and development of therapeutic agents, we have evaluated more than 2000 plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. As a result, we discovered dozens of plant leads that displayed antimalarial activity. Our phytochemical study of some of these plant extracts led to the identification of several potent antimalarial compounds. The prior comprehensive review article entitled “Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites” by Schwikkard and Van Heerden (2002 reported structures of plant-derived compounds with antiplasmodial activity and covered literature up to the year 2000. As a continuation of this effort, the present review covers the antimalarial compounds isolated from plants, including marine plants, reported in the literature from 2001 to the end of 2017. During the span of the last 17 years, 175 antiplasmodial compounds were discovered from plants. These active compounds are organized in our review article according to their plant families. In addition, we also include ethnobotanical information of the antimalarial plants discussed.

  20. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  1. [Distribution of HCB discharged from a chemical plant in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-Ling; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Song-Hu; Liu, Xi-Xiang; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Qian; Mei, Ling-Fang

    2009-04-15

    The distribution characteristics of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in plant and rhizosphere soil in contamination conduit, a nearby river and a cropland were studied and the impact factors were also discussed. The results are summarized as follows: the range of the HCB concentration in plant and rhizosphere soil in investigation area were respectively from 4.45 microg x kg(-1) to 1,189.89 microg x kg(-1) (dw) and from 27.93 microg x kg(-1) to 3,480.71 microg x kg(-1) (dw). Higher enrichment of HCB in woodplant than herbs due to higher fat concentration in woodplant in the contamination conduit and the rich concentrtion factor of woodplant and herbs were 0.41-2.55 and 0.01-1.34. The range of HCB concentrations in plants in nearby croplands was significantly wide (4.45-333.1 microg x kg(-1)) while HCB concentrations in different parts of plant were various, e.g. HCB concentrations in fruit, root and shoot of taro were 318.77 microg x kg(-1), 281.02 microg x kg(-1) and 10.94 microg x kg(-1). There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant while no relativity between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils in the contamination conduit and cropland. The concentration levels of HCB in plant and rhizosphere soil in river were dramatically decreased with increasing distance from contaminated conduit. There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils but no relation between concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant in river. The distribution characteristics of HCB in plants were influenced by contaminated levels, fat concentration and Partition-transfer model.

  2. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  3. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  4. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  5. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J. E.; Ryba-White, M.; Sun, Q.; Wu, C. J.; Hilaire, E.; Gartner, C.; Nedukha, O.; Kordyum, E.; Keck, M.; Leung, H.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment.

  7. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  8. Perspectives on plant vulnerabilities ampersand other plant and containment improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Kahn, J.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Program was for licensees to identify plant-unique vulnerabilities and actions to address these vulnerabilities. A review of these vulnerabilities and plant improvements that were identified in the IPEs was performed as part of the IPE Insights Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this effort was to characterize the identified vulnerabilities and the impact of suggested plant improvements. No specific definition for open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes was provided in NRC Generic Letter 88-20 or in the subsequent NRC IPE submittal guidance documented in NUREG-1335. Thus licensees were left to use their own definitions. Only 20% of the plants explicitly stated that they had vulnerabilities. However, most licensees identified other plant improvements to address issues not explicitly classified as vulnerabilities, but pertaining to areas in which overall plant safety could potentially be increased. The various definitions of open-quotes vulnerabilityclose quotes used by the licensees, explicitly identified vulnerabilities, proposed plant improvements to address these vulnerabilities, and other plant improvements are summarized and discussed

  9. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. curdieana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; Albach, Dirk C; Barfod, Anders S; Oxelman, Bengt; Muasya, A Muthama

    2017-01-01

    Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L. curdieana is sister to the African L. grandiflora; or (2) it is closely related to a group of other African species and the northern circumpolar L. aquatica. We tested these hypotheses in a phylogenetic framework using DNA sequence data from four plastid DNA regions and the nuclear ITS region. These were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. We obtained moderately resolved, partially conflicting phylogenies, supporting that accessions of L. grandiflora form the sister group to the rest of the genus and that L. curdieana groups with the African taxa, L. africana and L. major, and L. aquatica. Thus, the molecular evidence supports the second hypothesis. A biogeographic analysis suggests an out-of-southern Africa scenario and several dispersal events in the Southern Hemisphere. Past dispersal from southern Africa to Australasia is suggested, yet it cannot be excluded that a route via tropical Africa and temperate Asia has existed.

  11. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  12. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1994-12-31

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2), designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes [e.g. space farming in CE Life-Support-Systems]. We concentrate on the visible ({lambda} between 400 and 700 nm) and far red (FR; {lambda} > 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  14. Plant life management at Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytoenen, Y.; Savikoski, A.

    1998-01-01

    IVO, Power Engineering Ltd. has developed a company-wide approach to plant life management. The first stage of plant life management comprises operational and maintenance histories, design and plant inspection data using advanced computer systems. The life of the plant can be controlled by maintenance, refurbishment and inspection programs, and by varying the method of plant operation. On-line monitoring is needed, and cost control and training must be taken into account if the life of the plant is to be managed efficiently. Identifying the life-limiting factors is essential at Loviisa. It has been concentrated on the aging in the form of materials degradation due to fatigue, erosion, corrosion, radiation and thermal effects. Certain other life-limiting factors are also mentioned

  15. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  16. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  17. Base case industrial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper briefly describes an industrial scale plant for reprocessing thermal oxide fuel. This description was used as a base case by the Group for their later assessments and for comparing actual national plans for reprocessing plants. The plant described uses the Purex process and assumes an annual throughput of 1000 t/U. The maintenance, safety and safeguards philosophy is described. An indication of the construction schedule and capital and operating costs is also given

  18. Description of reference (model) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For the workshop on Safeguards System design for a fuel fabrication plant, a generic example of a LEU bulk-handling facility that is based on the Exxon LWR fuel fabrication plants is used. The model plant information is given in the following separate sections: (1) process assumptions; (2) six-month material balance model; (3) measurements; (4) error parameters, measurements, and sigma MUF calculations; (5) material control areas; (6) accounting, records, and reports; (7) tamper-safing; and (8) measurement control program

  19. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  20. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik

    that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  1. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  2. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  3. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  5. Atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit decay heat to be reliably removed after reactor shut-down at such instance as occurrence of loss of power by means of an emergency water supply pump. Structure: An atomic power plant having a closed cycle constructed by connecting a vapor generator, a vapor valve, a turbine having a generator, a condenser, and a water supply pump in the mentioned order, and provided with an emergency water supply pump operated when there is a loss of power to the water supply pump, a degasifier pressure holding means for holding the pressure of the degasifier by introducing part of the vapor produced from said vapor generator, and a valve for discharge to atmosphere provided on the downstream side of said vapor generator. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The four-member New York Power Pool Panel concluded that, for a number of reasons, no nuclear power plant in New York State is prone to the type of accident that occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI). The Panel further concluded that changes in operating practices, both regulatory and voluntary, and heightened sensitivity to reactor-core-cooling requirements will substantially reduce the chances for another such accident anywhere. Panel members found that New York State utilities have taken a responsible attitude with regard to requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a result of the TMI accident. In a cover letter that accompanied the report to Federal and New York state officials, New York Power Pool Executive Committee Chairman Francis E. Drake, Jr. expressed hope that the report will alleviate public fears of nuclear reactors and promote wider acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic and safe means of power production. 17 references

  7. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  10. Western Areas new U plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    On March 30, 1982 Western Areas Gold Mining Company Limited's uranium plant was officialy opened. The plant is designed to treat 100 000t/month of uranium bearing ore. The majority of this ore is from the Middle Elsburg series, while the miner part comes from routing upgrated Upper Elsburg products into the uranium plant treatment route. The forward leach concept of gold and uranium extraction is adopted, i.e. the gold is extracted before the uranium. The flow of work, instrumentation, electrical installation and other facilities at the plant are also discussed

  11. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  12. Man and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    According to the Inst. fuer Unfallforschung/TUeV Rheinland, Koeln, the interpretation of empirical data gained from the operation of nuclear power plants at home and abroad during the period 1967-1975 has shown that about 38% of all reactor accidents were caused by human failures. These occured either during the design and construction, the commissioning, the reconditioning or the operation of the plants. This very fact stresses human responsibility for the safety of nuclear power plants, in spite of those plants being automated to a high degree and devices. (orig.) [de

  13. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia, M. A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different plant developmental stages. In the past 2 decades, biotechnology research has provided considerable insights into the mechanism of biotic stress tolerance in plants at the molecular level. Furthermore, different abiotic stress factors may provoke osmotic stress, oxidative stress and protein denaturation in plants, which lead to similar cellular adaptive responses such as accumulation of compatible solutes, induction of stress proteins, and acceleration of reactive oxygen species scavenging systems. Recently, the authores try to improve plant tolerance to salinity injury through either chemical treatments (plant hormones, minerals, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines and vitamins or biofertilizers treatments (Asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhiza or enhanced a process used naturally by plants to minimise the movement of Na+ to the shoot, using genetic modification to amplify the process, helping plants to do what they already do - but to do it much better."

  14. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  15. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  16. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  17. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  18. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  19. Hybrid combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veszely, K.

    2002-01-01

    In case of re-powering the existing pressurised water nuclear power plants by the proposed HCCPP solution, we can increase the electricity output and efficiency significantly. If we convert a traditional nuclear power plant unit to a HCCPP solution, we can achieve a 3.2-5.5 times increase in electricity output and the achievable gross efficiency falls between 46.8-52% and above, depending on the applied solution. These figures emphasise that we should rethink our power plant technologies and we have to explore a great variety of HCCPP solutions. This may give a new direction in the development of nuclear reactors and power plants as well.(author)

  20. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)