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Sample records for plant accident west

  1. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  2. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  3. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  4. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  5. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  6. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  7. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  8. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  9. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  10. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  11. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  12. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  13. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nucler Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...... for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented....

  14. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang Xinxin [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow Modeling is given and a detailed presentation of the foundational means-end concepts is presented and the conditions for proper use in modelling accidents are identified. It is shown that Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used for modelling and reasoning about design basis accidents. Its possible role for information sharing and decision support in accidents beyond design basis is also indicated. A modelling example demonstrating the application of Multilevel Flow Modelling and reasoning for a PWR LOCA is presented.

  15. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  16. Incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Palestine. Quantitative data were collected through a field survey of a random sample of 1882 people from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and qualitative data through 15 focus groups discussions with men and women from diverse sectors of Palestinian society, which contributed to the interpretation of some of the results more deeply. The most important result from the study was that more women's were exposed to home accidents (40.0%) than men (25.1%). The most common type of accident for both women and men was from a blunt or sharp object casing blunt trauma or puncture wound. Economic situation of the family, family size, presence of children and place of residence were significantly associated with exposure to domestic accidents. There is a need to educate the people of Palestine on the causes of home accidents and methods of prevention, to reduce it incidence.

  17. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Teruaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  18. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  19. Severe Accident Simulation of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA simulation in the boiling water reactor (BWR of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP at 105% of rated power is analyzed in this work. The LVNPP model was developed using RELAP/SCDAPSIM code. The lack of cooling water after the LOCA gets to the LVNPP to melting of the core that exceeds the design basis of the nuclear power plant (NPP sufficiently to cause failure of structures, materials, and systems that are needed to ensure proper cooling of the reactor core by normal means. Faced with a severe accident, the first response is to maintain the reactor core cooling by any means available, but in order to carry out such an attempt is necessary to understand fully the progression of core damage, since such action has effects that may be decisive in accident progression. The simulation considers a LOCA in the recirculation loop of the reactor with and without cooling water injection. During the progression of core damage, we analyze the cooling water injection at different times and the results show that there are significant differences in the level of core damage and hydrogen production, among other variables analyzed such as maximum surface temperature, fission products released, and debris bed height.

  20. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  1. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  2. ATV Accidents continue to be a major public health issue in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William D; Helmpkamp, James C

    2005-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding continues to be a major public health problem in West Virginia because the state leads the nation in the rate of deaths from ATV incidents and has significantly higher death rates than all five of the bordering states. Annually, there are 24 deaths a year in West Virginia due to ATV accidents and thousands of nonfatal injuries. Sporting events using ATVs such as motocross racing have added to the burden of caring for patients who are injured in recreational activities. We report a case study of 10 patients treated over an 18-hour period in a state trauma center for injuries received while riding ATVs casually and in competition. The addition of these 10 patients to the other 108 patients seen in the ED during this period totally disrupted patient flow, caused significant delays in care of the non-trauma patients, and tied up the Radiology Department and operating rooms for an extended period.

  3. Consideration of Command and Control Performance during Accident Management Process at the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Nisrene M. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants shifted the nuclear safety paradigm from risk management to on-site management capability during a severe accident. The kernel of on-site management capability during an accident at a nuclear power plant is situation awareness and agility of command and control. However, little consideration has been given to accident management. After the events of September 11, 2001 and the catastrophic Fukushima nuclear disaster, agility of command and control has emerged as a significant element for effective and efficient accident management, with many studies emphasizing accident management strategies, particularly man-machine interface, which is considered a key role in ensuring nuclear power plant safety during severe accident conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model for evaluating command and control performance during the accident management process at a nuclear power plant. Communication and information processing while responding to an accident is one of the key issues needed to mitigate the accident. This model will give guidelines for accurate and fast communication response during accident conditions.

  4. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated.

  5. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  7. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  8. Incorporation of severe accidents in the licensing of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz, E-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: sidney@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Severe accidents are the result of multiple faults that occur in nuclear power plants as a consequence from the combination of latent failures and active faults, such as equipment, procedures and operator failures, which leads to partial or total melting of the reactor core. Regardless of active and latent failures related to the plant management and maintenance, aspects of the latent failures related to the plant design still remain. The lessons learned from the TMI accident in the U.S.A., Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union and, more recently, in Fukushima, Japan, suggest that severe accidents must necessarily be part of design-basis of nuclear power plants. This paper reviews the normative basis of the licensing of nuclear power plants concerning to severe accidents in countries having nuclear power plants under construction or in operation. It was addressed not only the new designs of nuclear power plants in the world, but also the design changes in plants that are in operation for decades. Included in this list are the Brazilian nuclear power plants, Angra-1, Angra-2, and Angra-3. This paper also reviews the current status of licensing in Brazil and Brazilian standards related to severe accidents. It also discusses the impact of severe accidents in the emergency plans of nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

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    Dalbir Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  10. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  11. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  12. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  13. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  14. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendices VII, VIII, IX, and X. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the release of radioactivity in reactor accidents; physical processes in reactor meltdown accidents; safety design rationale for nuclear power plants; and design adequacy.

  15. Internal dose assessment for environmental monitoring in nuclear power plant accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianji Fereidoun A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for exploiting human's internal contamination data for radioactive release estimation in nuclear power plant accidents is proposed. Nevertheless, such data is often very rough and uncertain; it is accessible even in toughest situations when most of the active and passive monitors are damaged by the accident. These data can be used in combination with other collectable data for estimating the event scale in severe nuclear power plan accidents. The rationale behind the method is that nuclear power plant accidents are often associated with internal contamination of radiation workers involved in the early stages of emergency response activities mainly due to the release of 131I in atmosphere. The proposed inverse analytical approach uses the 131I intake of contaminated workers, their working conditions, chronology of events, and applied personal safety measures during the first hours or days of the emergency response activities to estimate the magnitude of 131I concentration in the air.

  16. NIRS report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This report is a detailed account of the roles that National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) played at the criticality accident in the title, which occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999 and resulted in death of two workers after all, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The accident caused many residents concern on their health and rumors had both social and economic consequences. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; demand for acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the criticality'' accident; the acceptance and initial treatment; the exposure dose estimation (based on acute symptoms, on physics, on chromosomal analyses and on neutron-activated dental metals, and detailed analyses for dose distribution); decision made for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency and with other medical facilities; the urgent import of medicine; treatment and processes (patients, nursing system and radiation injuries); radiation protection in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hopefully useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (N.I.)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUKUSIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES BY THE POPULATION IN THE FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the attitude of the population in the five regions of the Far East to the consequences of the accident at the Fukushimai nuclear power plant, as well as the issues of informing about the accident. The analysis of public opinion is based on the data obtained by anonymous questionnaire survey performed in November 2011. In spite of the rather active informing and objective information on the absence of the contamination, most of the population of the Russian Far East believes that radioactive contamination is presented in the areas of their residence, and the main cause of this contamination is the nuclear accident in Japan.

  18. Level of work accidents in the woodworking industry plants in the Opole Silesia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Polek-Duraj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a short characteristic of woodworking industry with the consideration of work accidents level in the chosen plants of woodworking industry in the Opole Silesia region. Moreover, it indicates the most frequent causes of work accidents and occupational risks. On the basis of the conducted analysis it can be assumed that the level of work accidents occurring in the woodworking industry is still very high, and the elementary cause of it, are inappropriate behaviour of workers and obsolete machines in use.  

  19. A defense in depth approach for nuclear power plant accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih-Yao Hsieh; Hwai-Pwu Chou [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, TW (China)

    2015-07-01

    An initiating event may lead to a severe accident if the plant safety functions have been challenged or operators do not follow the appropriate accident management procedures. Beyond design basis accidents are those corresponding to events of very low occurrence probability but such an accident may lead to significant consequences. The defense in depth approach is important to assure nuclear safety even in a severe accident. Plant Damage States (PDS) can be defined by the combination of the possible values for each of the PDS parameters which are showed on the nuclear power plant simulator. PDS is used to identify what the initiating event is, and can also give the information of safety system's status whether they are bypassed, inoperable or not. Initiating event and safety system's status are used in the construction of Containment Event Tree (CET) to determine containment failure modes by using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique. Different initiating events will correspond to different CETs. With these CETs, the core melt frequency of an initiating event can be found. The use of Plant Damage States (PDS) is a symptom-oriented approach. On the other hand, the use of Containment Event Tree (CET) is an event-oriented approach. In this study, the Taiwan's fourth nuclear power plants, the Lungmen nuclear power station (LNPS), which is an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) with fully digitized instrumentation and control (I and C) system is chosen as the target plant. The LNPS full scope engineering simulator is used to generate the testing data for method development. The following common initiating events are considered in this study: loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), total loss of feedwater (TLOFW), loss of offsite power (LOOP), station blackout (SBO). Studies have indicated that the combination of the symptom-oriented approach and the event-oriented approach can be helpful to find mitigation strategies and is useful for the accident

  20. Radiation Exposure and Thyroid Cancer Risk After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Comparison with the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Takamura, N; Ohtsuru, A; Suzuki, S

    2016-09-01

    The actual implementation of the epidemiological study on human health risk from low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure and the comprehensive long-term radiation health effects survey are important especially after radiological and nuclear accidents because of public fear and concern about the long-term health effects of low-dose radiation exposure have increased considerably. Since the Great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, Fukushima Prefecture has started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Especially on a basis of the lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident, both thyroid examination and mental health care are critically important irrespective of the level of radiation exposure. There are considerable differences between Chernobyl and Fukushima regarding radiation dose to the public, and it is very difficult to estimate retrospectively internal exposure dose from the short-lived radioactive iodines. Therefore, the necessity of thyroid ultrasound examination in Fukushima and the intermediate results of this survey targeting children will be reviewed and discussed in order to avoid any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the high detection rate of childhood thyroid cancer.

  1. Patterns of Road Traffic Accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year Holidays: Complications and Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the patterns,complications and casualties of road traffic accidents in North West of Iran during 2013 New Year holidays. Methods: One hundred and eighty one patients with trauma-related vehicle crashes were investigated in a cross sectional-descriptive study. We only included those road traffic accidents which were recorded during the 2013 Iranian New Year holidays. Severity of injury based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, patient transmission type, damaged organ and the final diagnosis was determined. The mortality rate as well as complications were also recorded and reported. The pattern was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Overall we included 181 patients who were victims of road traffic accidents during the study period. Most cases of multiple traumas were from two car accident (49.2%. Of 181 cases, 71 (39.2%, 66 (36.5%, 16 (8.8% and 11 (6.1% subjects had limb, head and neck, abdominal, and spinal cord injuries respectively, while 16 cases (8.8% did not have any organ damage. In final diagnosis, a limb fracture was noticed in 32 cases (17.7% and skull fractures in 5 subjects (2.8% as the first and second causes. Conclusion: As head and neck were the most damaged organs after the limbs in patients with multiple traumas, it seems that there is a necessity for these patients in transmission and examination of head traumas. So there is a need for a proper referral system.

  2. Severe accident analysis in a two-loop PWR nuclear power plant with the ASTEC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, Sinisa; Amizic, Milan; Grgic, Davor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2013-12-15

    The ASTEC/V2.0 computer code was used to simulate a hypothetical severe accident sequence in the nuclear power plant Krsko, a 2-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. ASTEC is an integral code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident. The analysis was conducted in 2 steps. First, the steady state calculation was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the plant model and to obtain correct initial conditions for the accident analysis. The second step was the calculation of the station blackout accident with a leakage of the primary coolant through degraded reactor coolant pump seals, which was a small LOCA without makeup capability. Two scenarios were analyzed: one with and one without the auxiliary feedwater (AFW). The latter scenario, without the AFW, resulted in earlier core damage. In both cases, the accident ended with a core melt and a reactor pressure vessel failure with significant release of hydrogen. In addition, results of the ASTEC calculation were compared with results of the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM calculation for the same transient scenario. The results comparison showed a good agreement between predictions of those 2 codes. (orig.)

  3. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copus, E R

    1982-04-01

    Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10/sup -3/ times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10/sup -5/ times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment.

  4. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  5. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-03-03

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  6. Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, L E; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

    2011-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

  7. The report of the criticality accident in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Hajime (ed.) [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy; Akashi, Makoto (ed.) [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The criticality accident in the title occurred at around 10:35, on Sep. 30, 1999, cost the lives of two workers and caused many residents concern on their health. Moreover, rumors had both social and economic consequences. This report is a detailed account of the roles that many individuals and groups in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) performed in a range of the areas, and is published to discharge NIRS responsibilities in regards to the accident. The report involves chapters of detailed outline of the accident; acceptance of the victims and communications until the identification of the ''criticality'' accident; initial treatment; dose estimation (medical, hematological, physical and biological ones and that by dental metals activated by the neutron); decision making for therapeutic strategies; cooperation with the Network Council for Radiation Emergency Medicine and other medical facilities; emergency importation of medical supplies; treatment and progress (nursing system and radiation injuries); protection from radiation in medical facilities; response to nearby residents of the Plant; international response; press release; Uranium Processing Plant Criticality Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Management Committee organized by the Nuclear Safety Commission; handling of information; and radiation emergency medical preparedness at the NIRS (future issues and prospect). The report is hoped to be useful in preventing the occurrence of future accidents. (K.H.)

  8. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  9. Tritium in Japanese precipitation following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Shimoda, Gen; Obata, Hajime; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hagino, Kyoko; Tomioka, Naotaka; Sambandam, Chinmaya; Brummer, Daniela; Klaus, Philipp Martin; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    We have measured the concentrations of tritium in Japanese precipitation samples collected after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1). Tritium concentrations exceeding the pre-accident background level were detected at three out of seven localities (Tsukuba, Kashiwa and Hongo) southwest of the FNPP1, with their distances varying between 170 and 220 km from the source. The highest tritium content was found in the first rainfall in Tsukuba after the accident, but its tritium content was about 500 times less than the regulatory limit for tritium in drinking water, so that the risk of radiation from tritium released in the accident can be considered negligible. Tritium levels at the localities studied here decreased steadily and rapidly with time and became indistinguishable from the pre-accident values within five weeks. The atmospheric tritium level in the vicinity of the FNPP1 during the earliest stage of the accident was roughly estimated to be 1.5 × 103 Bq/m3, which is potentially capable of producing rainwater exceeding the regulatory limit, but only in the immediate vicinity of the source.

  10. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

  11. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Min [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec II, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mlee@mail.ess.nthu.edu.tw; Ko, Y.-C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, and Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec II, Kung Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2008-04-15

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment.

  12. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  13. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  14. Evacuation effect on excess mortality among institutionalized elderly after the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake hit Fukushima Prefecture on March 11, 2011, just over 3 years ago and it continues to affect our lives. In Fukushima, many people are confirmed dead or still missing due to the earthquake and/or tsunami. Additional "disaster-related deaths" have been attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Mortality among the institutionalized elderly rates after the NPP accident were exceptionally high during the first 3 months, and persisted at a lower level for 9 months, in comparison with similar periods before the accident. This study demonstrates the great impact of evacuation on mortality of institutionalized elderly, excluding inpatients. We need to pay special attention to evacuation of the elderly, regardless of whether voluntary or forced.

  15. Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Sugino, M; Simizu, H; Akimoto, A; Hori, K; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Narita, H; Fukushi, M

    2012-11-01

    Environmental radiation at Izu-Oshima Island was observed 6 months after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1-NPP). A car-borne survey of the dose rate in air was conducted over the entire island and the results were compared with measurements performed in 2005 (i.e. before the accident). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also measured using a germanium detector. The dose rate in air was found to be 2.9 ± 1.2 times higher than that in 2005 and (134)Cs was detected on Izu-Oshima Island. These results are attributed to the accident at the F1-NPP.

  16. Tritium in Japanese precipitation following the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Shimoda, Gen; Obata, Hajime; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Koshi; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hagino, Kyoko; Tomioka, Naotaka; Sambandam, Chinmaya; Brummer, Daniela; Klaus, Philipp Martin; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-02-15

    Tritium concentrations in Japanese precipitation samples collected after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) were measured. Values exceeding the pre-accident background were detected at three out of seven localities (Tsukuba, Kashiwa and Hongo) southwest of the FNPP1 at distances varying between 170 and 220 km from the source. The highest tritium content was found in the first rainfall in Tsukuba after the accident; however concentrations were 500 times less than the regulatory limit for tritium in drinking water. Tritium concentrations decreased steadily and rapidly with time, becoming indistinguishable from the pre-accident values within five weeks. The atmospheric tritium activities in the vicinity of the FNPP1 during the earliest stage of the accident was estimated to be 1.5×10(3) Bq/m(3), which is potentially capable of producing rainwater exceeding the regulatory limit, but only in the immediate vicinity of the source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SAMPSON Parallel Computation for Sensitivity Analysis of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, M.; Bautista Gomez, L.; Maruyama, N.; Naitoh, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Cappello, F.

    2014-06-01

    On March 11th 2011 a high magnitude earthquake and consequent tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, resulting in a nuclear accident unprecedented in time and extents. After scram started at all power stations affected by the earthquake, diesel generators began operation as designed until tsunami waves reached the power plants located on the east coast. This had a catastrophic impact on the availability of plant safety systems at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi, leading to the condition of station black-out from unit 1 to 3. In this article the accident scenario is studied with the SAMPSON code. SAMPSON is a severe accident computer code composed of hierarchical modules to account for the diverse physics involved in the various phases of the accident evolution. A preliminary parallelization analysis of the code was performed using state-of-the-art tools and we demonstrate how this work can be beneficial to the nuclear safety analysis. This paper shows that inter-module parallelization can reduce the time to solution by more than 20%. Furthermore, the parallel code was applied to a sensitivity study for the alternative water injection into TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi unit 3. Results show that the core melting progression is extremely sensitive to the amount and timing of water injection, resulting in a high probability of partial core melting for unit 3.

  18. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  19. [Genetic effects in populations of plants growing in the zone of Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V A; Kal'chenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Rubanovich, A V; Shevchenko, V V; Grinikh, L I

    1999-01-01

    Studies to analyze the genetic processes in natural populations of plants were started on the territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) in 1962 and in the zone of the Chernobyl accident in May 1986. The main directions of the genetic studies in both radioactive areas were similar: 1) study of the mutation process intensity depending on the dose and dose rate and analysis of dose-effect relationships for different genetic changes (point mutations, chromosome aberrations in mitosis and meiosis) in irradiated plant populations; 2) study of the mutation process dynamics in generations of chronically (prolongly) irradiated populations of plants; 3) analysis of microevolutionary processes in irradiated plant populations. The report presents an analysis of observed dose-effect relationships under the action of radiation on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, Pinus sylvestris and a number of other plant species. Analysis of the mutation processes dynamics in 8 Arabidopsis populations growing in the zone of the Chernobyl catastrophe has demonstrated that the level of the embryo lethal mutations 10 years after the accident in the irradiated populations significantly exceeds the control level. The following phenomena observed in chronically irradiated populations have also been considered: increased radioresistance of irradiated populations (radioadaptation), the appearance of abnormal karyotypes and selective markers upon chronic irradiation. The authors call attention to the high importance of monitoring of genetic processes in irradiated plant populations for understanding of the action of radiation on human populations.

  20. Over Three years of Monitoring 129I spread in Pacific Ocean After the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. C.; Burr, G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Priyadarshi, A.; Thiemens, M. H.; Biddulph, D.; Russell, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    129I is a long-lived radionuclide that has been used as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1990 levels. The anthropogenic 129I signal produced from industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is known to be the primary source of 129I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic, and elevated 129I values are found globally. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the induced tsunami in 2011 triggered the nuclear shutdowns, failures, and partial meltdowns of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The accident resulted in a series of radioactive material releases into the environment and spread out through atmospheric and ocean circulation. We will present 129I results of water samples collected weekly near Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA for the past 3 years. We also have several measurements collected a year apart from Kaohsiung, Taiwan, which represent west margin of Pacific Ocean, and from Alaska, Washington, and Oregon. By establishing 129I time series, we can observe the spread of 129I in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean that resulted from the accidental releases.

  1. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management-global radiocontamination and information disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-06-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, has now increased the importance of the epidemiological study in comprehensive health risk management and radiation protection; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Fukushima Health Management Survey Project" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and early diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. Basic survey is under investigation on a retrospective estimation of external exposure of the first four months. As one of the four detailed surveys, the thyroid ultrasound examination has clarified the increased detection rate of childhood thyroid cancers as a screening effect in the past three years and so thyroid cancer occurrence by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite of difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures. Through the on-site valuable experience and a difficult challenge for recovery, we should learn the lessons from this severe and large-scale nuclear accident, especially how to countermeasure against public health emergency at the standpoint of health risk and also social risk management.

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS RELATED TO ACCIDENTS AT PULP AND PAPER PLANTS: THE CASE OF THE MANTUROVO PULP AND PAPER PLANT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gunko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to quantitative and spatial assessment of emergency environmental risks at new sites of pulp and paper production using mathematical statistics, probability theory, and cartographic modeling. Damage assessment is based on the type and sphere (atmosphere, soil, and underground and surface waters of impact. Although damage assessment considers governmentally approved methodology, the formula suggested for the assessment contains some suitable improvements. In addition, a brief characterization of technological process at pulp and paper plants provides objective substantiation of possible accident scenarios. Conclusions discuss economic and social benefits of pulp and paper plants versus their ecological disadvantages.

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-09-01

    The appropriateness of the initial response and countermeasures taken following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 should be further examined. Implementation of a prospective epidemiological study on human health risks from low-dose radiation exposure and comprehensive health protection from radiation should be emphasized on a basis of the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In contrast, the doses to a vast majority of the population in Fukushima were not high enough to expect to see any increase in incidence of cancer and health effects in the future, however, public concerns about the long-term health effects of radioactive environmental contamination have increased in Japan. Since May 2011, the Fukushima Prefecture started the Fukushima Health Management Survey Project with the purpose of long-term health care administration and early medical diagnosis/treatment for prefectural residents. In this report, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence after nuclear accidents, especially due to early exposure of radioactive iodine, will be focused upon to understand the current situation of risk of thyroid cancer in Fukushima, and the difficult challenges surrounding accurate estimations of low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures will be discussed.

  5. Radionuclide Release after End Fitting Failure Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon; Kim, Yun Ho; Lee, Kwang Ho [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The total amount of mass and energy discharged into containment building from primary heat transport system in the event of end fitting failure accident in CANDU-6 plant is similar to that of small loss of coolant accident. But the ejection of fuel bundles into fuelling machine room is unique phenomenon and causes radio nuclides release from the physically broken fuel rod to outside containment building. The only objective of containment behavior analysis for end fitting failure event is to assess the amount of radio nuclides release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in case of end fitting failure with all safety system available, that is containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  6. ANALYSIS OF MEDIA PUBLICATIONS ON THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zykova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of informing the public about radiation and radiation risks is made on the basiс of publications on the Fukushima nuclear accident after the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, by five newspapers and the official internet sites of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being and the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The analysis of the data suggests that the population is satisfied with its request in timely, clear, and reliable information on the radiation situation, protective measures and forecast of the situation development in the future. The possibility to learn about different viewpoints positively affects the mood of readers and reduces their anxiety. However, it should be recognized that, if the information have been provided by a single media only, the population would not have adequate understanding of the situation related to the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

  7. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  8. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Park, R. J.; Hong, S. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H

    2007-04-15

    nuclear power plants, a technical basis report and computational aid tools were developed in parallel with the experimental and analytical works for the resolution of the uncertain safety issues. ELIAS experiments were carried out to quantify the boiling heat removal rate at the upper surface of a metallic layer for precise evaluations on the effect of a late in-vessel coolant injection. T-HERMES experiments were performed to examine the two-phase natural circulation phenomena through the gap between the reactor vessel and the insulator in the APR1400. Detailed analyses on the hydrogen control in the APR1400 containment were performed focused on the effect of spray system actuation on the hydrogen burning and the evaluation of the hydrogen behavior in the IRWST. To develop the technical basis report for the severe accident management, analyses using SCDAP/RELAP5 code were performed for the accident sequences of the OPR1000. Based on the experimental and analytical results performed in this study, the computational aids for the evaluations of hydrogen flammability in the containment, criteria of the in-vessel corium cooling, criteria of the external reactor vessel cooling were developed. An ASSA code was developed to validate the signal from the instrumentations during the severe accidents and to process the abnormal signal. Since ASSA can perform the signal processing from the direct input of the nuclear power plant during the severe accident, it can be platform of the computational aids. In this study, the ASSA was linked with the computaional aids for the hydrogen flammability.

  9. Comprehensive Health Risk Management after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on 11 March 2011. Countermeasures aimed at human protection during the emergency period, including evacuation, sheltering and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese Government. However, there is an apparent need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection, and also in the management of radiation health risk during and even after the accident. Continuous monitoring and characterisation of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are now essential for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the radio-contaminated areas and also on returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is allowed; it is also important to carry out a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. Until now, various types of radiation health risk management projects and research have been implemented in Fukushima, among which the Fukushima Health Management Survey is the largest health monitoring project. It includes the Basic Survey for the estimation of external radiation doses received during the first 4 months after the accident and four detailed surveys: thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and lifestyle survey, and survey on pregnant women and nursing mothers, with the aim to prospectively take care of the health of all the residents of Fukushima Prefecture for a long time. In particular, among evacuees of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, concern about radiation risk is associated with psychological stresses. Here, ongoing health risk management will be reviewed, focusing on the difficult challenge of post-disaster recovery and resilience in Fukushima.

  10. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  11. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  12. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  13. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts over the five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities. High radioactivity-contaminated area in land were formed by the dispersion of the radioactive cloud and precipitation, depending on land topography and local meteorological conditions, whereas extremely high concentrations of (131)I and radiocesium in seawater occurred due to direct release of radioactivity-contaminated stagnant water in addition to atmospheric deposition. For both of atmosphere and ocean, numerical model simulations, including local, regional and global-scale modeling, were extensively employed to evaluate source terms of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides from the monitoring data. These models also provided predictions of the dispersion and high deposition areas of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, there are significant differences between the observed and simulated values. Then, the monitoring data would give a good opportunity to improve numerical modeling.

  15. [Radiation measures and trend after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-02-01

    The radioactive materials spread by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in March, 2011 caused NPP workers to be exposed to radiation above ordinance limits. The number of workers exposed to radiation within ordinance limits is increasing. Decontamination began at many places in Fukushima, although new laws were enforced in the decontamination work, in the current situation, medical examinations for radiation are limited due to a shortage of doctors. In this paper, I introduce the ordinances on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards and the revised points about radiation exposure doses of the NPP workers, as well as the new ordinance for decontamination.

  16. Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Blake; Schöppner, Michael; Tinker, Rick; Plastino, Wolfango

    2013-12-01

    A series of (133)Xe detections in April 2011 made at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System noble gas station in Darwin, Australia, were analysed to determine the most likely source location. Forward and backwards atmospheric transport modelling simulations using FLEXPART were conducted. It was shown that the most likely source location was the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Other potential sources in the southern hemisphere were analysed, including the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical facility, but it was shown that sources originating from these locations were highly unlikely to be the source of the observed (133)Xe Darwin detections.

  17. Safety Implementation of Hydrogen Igniters and Recombiners for Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accident Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianjun; ZHOU Zhiwei; JING Xingqing

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building may threaten the integrity of the containment. Hydrogen recombiners and igniters are two methods to reduce hydrogen levels in containment buildings during severe accidents. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety implementation of hydrogen igniters and recombiners. This paper analyzes the risk of deliberate hydrogen ignition and investigates three mitigation measures using igniters only, hydrogen recombiners only or a combination of recombiners and igniters. The results indicate that steam can effectively control the hydrogen flame acceleration and the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  18. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  19. Iodine-129 concentration in seawater near Fukushima before and after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suzuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic radionuclides were released into the environment in large quantities by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP accident. To evaluate accident-derived 129I, the 129I concentrations in seawater before and after the accident were compared. Before the accident (2008–2009, the 129I concentrations in the western margin of the North Pacific between 32° N and 44° N showed a latitudinal gradient that was expressed as a linear function of latitude. The highest and average 129I concentrations after the accident were 73 times and approximately 8 times, respectively, higher than those before the accident in this study area. Considering the distribution of 129I in surface seawater, the accident-derived 129I in the southern and northern stations of the 1FNPP was predominantly supplied by seawater advection and atmospheric deposition (including microbial volatilization, respectively. As of October 2011, depth profiles of 129I revealed that 129I originating from the 1FNPP existed mainly in the upper 100 m depth. From the depth profiles, the cumulative inventories of accident-derived 129I were estimated to be (1.6–9.6 × 1012 atoms m−2 in this study area. On the basis of the 129I data in the seawater near Fukushima, the effective dose of 129I from seafood ingestion was much smaller than the annual dose limit.

  20. In-Plant Fission Product Behavior in SGTR Accident with Long-Term SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The off-site AC power was recovered in 9 days after the accident in the NPS. Therefore safety injection by fire pump truck with fresh water or seawater is only available in the Fukushima accident. However, safety injection by fire pump truck is not always effective due to the high pressure of RPV inside or leakages of alternative water injection flow paths. In the SBO situations in pressurized water reactor plant (PWR), turbine driven auxiliary feedwater (TD-AFW) pump can inject water to the secondary side of steam generator. However, turbine inlet steam flow control valve cannot work properly when loss of vital DC power occurs. Vital DC power is designed to be maintained during 4 or 8 hours in the SBO conditions. In this paper motor-driven and turbine driven AFW pumps are all assumed to be not working at time 0 sec as a worst case assumption. Iodine pool-scrubbing can occur in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator. However, iodine pool-scrubbing in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator is assumed not to be working, due to the assumption of the loss of DC battery for turbine inlet flow control valve. Iodine pool-scrubbing is one of the long-term research issues in safety assessment of nuclear power plant severe accident. PHEBUS FPT series and THAI experiment projects are typical projects on the resolving source term issues in severe accident of nuclear power plants. However, iodine retention by pool scrubbing is still a debating issue. In such containment bypass sequences, fission products can be released out to environment directly from RCS without retention or deposition in containment structures. SGTR is one of the hazardous accident scenarios in the typical PSA, because SGTR induces a large release amount of source term to environment directly. A key operation strategy was the isolation of the broken reactor coolant system loop from the intact loop. Typical core degradation in SGTR scenarios occurs with multiple failures of the isolation

  1. Questions concerning safety and risk after the nuclear accidents in Japan. Deepened accident analysis for the Fukushima Daiichi power plant; Sicherheits- und Risikofragen im Nachgang zu den nuklearen Stoer- und Unfaellen in Japan. Vertiefte Ereignisanalyse zur Anlage Fukushima-Daini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph; Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    The study questions concerning safety and risk in Japanese power plants following the disastrous nuclear accident covers the following issues: the nuclear facility Fukushima Daiichi, site characterization, important technical equipment, important electro-technical equipment, personal; description of the accident progression in the Fukushima nuclear power plant: impact of the earthquake, impact of the tsunami, short-term measures of the operating personnel, pressure and temperature situation in the containments, restoration of the after-heat cooling system in the units 1/2 and 4, fuel element storage pool, summarized parameters during the accident progress; comparative analysis of the accident progression at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  2. Emergency/disaster medical support in the restoration project for the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naoto; Asari, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Kazunari; Tase, Choichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Aruga, Tohru

    2013-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F) suffered a series of radiation accidents after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. In a situation where halting or delaying restoration work was thought to translate directly into a very serious risk for the entire country, it was of the utmost importance to strengthen the emergency and disaster medical system in addition to radiation emergency medical care for staff at the frontlines working in an environment that posed a risk of radiation exposure and a large-scale secondary disaster. The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) launched the 'Emergency Task Force on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident' and sent physicians to the local response headquarters. Thirty-four physicians were dispatched as disaster medical advisors, response guidelines in the event of multitudinous injury victims were created and revised and, along with execution of drills, coordination and advice was given on transport of patients. Forty-nine physicians acted as directing physicians, taking on the tasks of triage, initial treatment and decontamination. A total of 261 patients were attended to by the dispatched physicians. None of the eight patients with external contamination developed acute radiation syndrome. In an environment where the collaboration between organisations in the framework of a vertically bound government and multiple agencies and institutions was certainly not seamless, the participation of the JAAM as the medical academic organisation in the local system presented the opportunity to laterally integrate the physicians affiliated with the respective organisations from the perspective of specialisation.

  3. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in nuclear power plant containment under severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present a hydrogen-concentration prediction method in an NPP containment. • The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) is used in this prediction model. • The CFNN model is much better than the existing FNN model. • This prediction can help prevent severe accidents in NPP due to hydrogen explosion. - Abstract: Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have attracted worldwide interest since the Fukushima accident. If the hydrogen concentration in an NPP containment is increased above 4% in atmospheric pressure, hydrogen combustion will likely occur. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration must be kept below 4%. This study presents the prediction of hydrogen concentration using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model was developed using data on severe accidents in NPPs. The data were obtained by numerically simulating the accident scenarios using the MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The root-mean-square error level predicted by the CFNN model is below approximately 5%. It was confirmed that the CFNN model could accurately predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. If NPP operators can predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment using the CFNN model, this prediction can assist them in preventing a hydrogen explosion.

  4. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  5. [Nuclear-power-plant accidents: thyroid cancer incidence and radiation-related health effects from the Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Martin; Le Guen, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, enormous amounts of radioisotopes were released in the atmosphere and have contaminated surrounding populations in the absence of rapid protective countermeasures. The highest radiation doses were delivered to the thyroid gland, and the only direct consequence of radiation exposure observed among contaminated population is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among subjects who were children in 1986 and who lived at that time in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  6. Detection of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident radioactive traces in Monaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, M K; Eriksson, M; Levy, I; Nies, H; Osvath, I; Betti, M

    2012-12-01

    Daily air monitoring of radionuclides in the Principality of Monaco (43°73'N, 7°43'E) after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed that only Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Caesium isotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were detected. The peak of (131)I varied and reached its maximum between March 29th and April 5th, meanwhile both peaks of (134)Cs and (137)Cs arrived later and attained a maximum between April 1st and 4th. Their maximum activity concentrations in air were 354, 30, and 37 μBq m(-3) respectively. The (134)Cs to (137)Cs activity ratio was close to 1, which is different from that one observed after the Chernobyl accident (around 0.54). Up to 95% of caesium isotopes were washed out by wet scavenging during 27-28th of March, where the maximum deposition rates of (134)Cs and (137)Cs (13.7 and 19.1 mBq m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were observed. The significant input of (134)Cs and (137)Cs into the Mediterranean seawater column (30 m depth) was detected later, on the 24th of May. Radioisotopes of caesium and iodine were found far above the applied detection limits, but still with no concern for harmful radiation exposure and public health. The contamination gradually decreased in air and activity concentrations returned to background values after one or two months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing logistical barriers to radioactive soil remediation after the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated assessment of soil contamination due to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011. A safe limit for the spatial dose rate (micro-Sv/h) of gamma rays from 134,137Cs has been established in this work. Based on this value, the highly contaminated region within Fukushima Prefecture that must be decontaminated could be defined. Moreover, a conceptual model for the chemical speciation that occurred during the accident has been delineated. The compound model Cs2CO3 was found to be meaningful and practical (non-radioactive) to simulate contamination in our decontamination experiments. Finally, we explain the mechanism of action of our soil remediation technique, which effectively reduces the total volume of contaminated soil by isolating the highly Cs-adsorptive clay fraction. The adsorption of non-radioactive Cs atoms on clay particles with diameters <25 μm were analyzed using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE).

  8. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%.

  9. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  10. The European Research on Severe Accidents in Generation-II and -III Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Van Dorsselaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three organisations from 22 countries network their capacities of research in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on severe accidents in existing and future water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPP. After a first project in the 6th Framework Programme (FP6 of the European Commission, the SARNET2 project, coordinated by IRSN, started in April 2009 for 4 years in the FP7 frame. After 2,5 years, some main outcomes of joint research (modelling and experiments by the network members on the highest priority issues are presented: in-vessel degraded core coolability, molten-corium-concrete-interaction, containment phenomena (water spray, hydrogen combustion…, source term issues (mainly iodine behaviour. The ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS to predict the NPP SA behaviour, capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced in the network: a few validation results are presented. For dissemination of knowledge, an educational 1-week course was organized for young researchers or students in January 2011, and a two-day course is planned mid-2012 for senior staff. Mobility of young researchers or students between the European partners is being promoted. The ERMSAR conference is becoming the major worldwide conference on SA research.

  11. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

    2001-03-01

    The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies.

  13. The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

    2001-03-01

    The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies.

  14. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  15. Release of Pu isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to the marine environment was negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Fukuda, Miho; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Ishimaru, Takashi; Kanda, Jota; Yang, Guosheng; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Guo, Qiuju; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-08-19

    Atmospheric deposition of Pu isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has been observed in the terrestrial environment around the FDNPP site; however, their deposition in the marine environment has not been studied. The possible contamination of Pu in the marine environment has attracted great scientific and public concern. To fully understand this possible contamination of Pu isotopes from the FDNPP accident to the marine environment, we collected marine sediment core samples within the 30 km zone around the FDNPP site in the western North Pacific about two years after the accident. Pu isotopes ((239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Pu) and radiocesium isotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in the samples were determined. The high activities of radiocesium and the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratios with values around 1 (decay corrected to 15 March 2011) suggested that these samples were contaminated by the FDNPP accident-released radionuclides. However, the activities of (239+240)Pu and (241)Pu were low compared with the background level before the FDNPP accident. The Pu atom ratios ((240)Pu/(239)Pu and (241)Pu/(239)Pu) suggested that global fallout and the pacific proving ground (PPG) close-in fallout are the main sources for Pu contamination in the marine sediments. As Pu isotopes are particle-reactive and they can be easily incorporated with the marine sediments, we concluded that the release of Pu isotopes from the FDNPP accident to the marine environment was negligible.

  16. Radiocesium contamination of the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) 1.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.

  17. An Entry Point of the Emergency Response Robot for Management of Severe Accident of the Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaiwan; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, from the view point of DID (defense-in depth), we discuss the entry point of the nuclear emergency response robot to cope with a nuclear disaster. A Japanese nuclear disaster preparedness robot system was developed, after the JCO criticality accident in 1999, to cope with INES (International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale) Level 3 serious incidents. INES Level 3 means the loss of DID (defense-in-depth) functions. It also indicates that ESF (engineered safety features) and ECCS (emergency core cooling system) resources, which are used to prevent serious incidents from escalating to severe accidents (core melt-down), have been almost exhausted. In the unit 1 reactor accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, escalation from INES Level 1 (Out of Limiting Condition for Operation) to INES Level 5 (serious core melting-down) took less than two hours. Major facts are briefly described here in based on data gathered immediately after the tsunami over Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Ο 15:35 on March 11, 2nd tsunami arrived. - 15:37, SBO (station black out) Ο 15:42, Interprets as a SBO (INES Level 1) - Loss of DC power for Instrumentation (Unknown of reactor water level) Ο 16:36, Loss of ECCS function (INELS Level 5) (Entry into a BDBA status) The Moni ROBO-A robot of the Japan Nuclear Safety Technology Center (NUSTEC) was a nuclear disaster preparedness robot developed after the JCO criticality accident. It was the only robot that had been steadily maintained and was available at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. However, it was not helpful in mitigating the accident because it is assumed to have arrived at J-Village after the accident had been escalated to INES Level 5 or higher. Based on the paper by S. Kawatsuma of JAEA and response data gathered immediately after the tsunami, it is estimated that the NUSTEC's Moni ROBO-A arrived at J-Village after the designed entry point for INES Level 3

  18. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident.

  19. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  20. Development of stable walking robot for accident condition monitoring on uneven floors in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog; Jang, You Hyun [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Even though the potential for an accident in nuclear power plants is very low, multiple emergency plans are necessary because the impact of such an accident to the public is enormous. One of these emergency plans involves a robotic system for investigating accidents under conditions of high radiation and contaminated air. To develop a robot suitable for operation in a nuclear power plant, we focused on eliminating the three major obstacles that challenge robots in such conditions: the disconnection of radio communication, falling on uneven floors, and loss of localization. To solve the radio problem, a Wi-Fi extender was used in radio shadow areas. To reinforce the walking, we developed two- and four-leg convertible walking, a floor adaptive foot, a roly-poly defensive falling design, and automatic standing recovery after falling methods were developed. To allow the robot to determine its location in the containment building, a bar code landmark reading method was chosen. When a severe accident occurs, this robot will be useful for accident condition monitoring. We also anticipate the robot can serve as a workman aid in a high radiation area during normal operations.

  1. Recovery from the radioactive pollution due to Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, K.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The great East Japan earthquake happened at 14:46 11{sup th} March 2011. After the earthquake, the huge tsunamis of above 16m height hit the east coast of Northeastern Japan. About 20,000 peoples died or went missing and many houses were lost. The tsunamis caused the nuclear accident of Fukushima first nuclear power plant. Three nuclear reactors hydrogen-exploded 12{sup th}, 14{sup th} and 15{sup th} March, one after another, and scattered the huge amount of radioisotopes of {sup 131}I and {sup 134,137}Cs on the prefectures in the eastern region of Japan. Especially, Fukushima prefecture where the nuclear plant is located was contaminated very much. This radiation catastrophe worried about the internal exposure by taking contaminated foods and the external exposure by surrounding radioactivity. The radiation exposure was mainly caused by {sup 131}I the earlier stage of the accident and then by {sup 134,137}Cs. Now, the radiation doses on the asphalt or concrete places and some areas are gradually decreasing and become around a half value of the earlier one. This is well known as the weathering effect. We found that the density of cesium radioisotopes decreases with a function of depth from the ground surface, and almost of all cesium radioisotopes were distributed in the thickness of 1 cm. We washed the contaminated soil 3 times. The radioactivity of soil reduced one twenty fifth of original one. Almost all cesium radioisotopes were contained in remains liquid. Depositing muddy water, we separated clay from water. It was confirmed that the water was no radioactive. This resulted cesium radioisotopes were not ionic in soil and water, and adhered mainly to clay on the ground. Therefore, cesium radioisotopes have not been detected in river water and city water from the early stages of the accident. The volume of clay was about one tenth of the contaminated soil. We applied this idea to decontaminate the school yards (about 7000m{sup 2}) of elementary

  2. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments.

  3. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived

  4. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  5. A Study on Fission Product Behavior during a Severe Accident at APR1400 Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Song-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, calculations have been carried out for a SBO sequence similar to the selected scenario, but a faster one with simple assumptions. Instead, a sensitivity study was carried out to take into account the effects of such differences on the fission product behavior. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Shin-Kori 3·4 nuclear power plants, which are APR1400 type reactors, were reviewed. After all, the representing scenarios were determined to be the sequences with station blackout (SBO), interfacing system LOCA (ISLOCA), and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), which are similar to those of the U.S.NRC's State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) study. Among those sequences, SBO occupies the largest portion of the risk from severe accidents, and was selected to be analyzed at first about the fission product behavior in the containment. It includes events such as failure of the alternative AC power generator following a blackout event, successful operation of turbine-driven auxiliary feed water (AFW) pump, late recovery of offsite power before containment failure, in-vessel injection and successful actuation of cavity flooding system and spray system, and failure of hydrogen mitigation system. We use MELCOR 1.8.6 with the 35- and 2-cell compartment models of the containment. Since MELCOR does not treat organic iodide, we tried to make the results up by MELCOR-RAIM which is the MELCOR code coupled with RAIM, a stand-alone code developed for evaluation of the iodine behavior. In order to investigate the fission product behavior during a severe accident at APR1400, we have selected the representing scenarios with SBO, ISLOCA and SGTR. Among them, a SBO sequence similar to the selected scenario, but a faster one with simple assumptions, was analyzed using MELCOR v1.8.6 with 35-cell models of the containment. For the sensitivity analysis, we use the 2-cell containment model and the codes with the iodine chemistry model such as MELCOR with

  6. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or

  7. Post-crisis efforts towards recovery and resilience after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-08-01

    One of the well-known radiation-associated late-onset cancers is childhood thyroid cancer as demonstrated around Chernobyl apparently from 1991. Therefore, immediately after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, iodine thyroid blocking was considered regardless of its successful implementation or not at the indicated timing and places as one of the radiation protection measurements, in addition to evacuation and indoor sheltering, because a short-lived radioactive iodine was massively released into the environment which might crucially affect thyroid glands through inhalation and unrestricted consumption of contaminated food and milk. However, very fortunately, it is now increasingly believed that the exposure doses on the thyroid as well as whole body are too low to detect any radiation-associated cancer risk in Fukushima. Although the risk of radiation-associated health consequences of residents in Fukushima is quite different from that of Chernobyl and is considerably low based on the estimated radiation doses received during the accident for individuals, a large number of people have received psychosocial and mental stresses aggravated by radiation fear and anxiety, and remained in indeterminate and uncertain situation having been evacuated but not relocated. It is, therefore, critically important that best activities and practices related to recovery and resilience should be encouraged, supported and implemented at local and regional levels. Since psychosocial well-being of individuals and communities is the core element of resilience, local individuals, health professionals and authorities are uniquely positioned to identify and provide insight into what would provide the best resolution for their specific needs.

  8. [A questionnaire survey about public's image of radiation after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Abe, Toshiaki; Kuto, Tatsuhiko

    2012-03-01

    A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu)) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, and 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the doctors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation.

  9. Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could

  10. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Sato

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042, anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030, consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001, consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042, and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001 were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects.

  11. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects.

  12. Radiocesium derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in seabed sediments: initial deposition and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2014-05-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1FNPP), significant levels of anthropogenic radionuclides have been detected in seabed sediments off the east coast of Japan. In this paper, the approximate amount of accident-derived radiocesium in seabed sediments off Fukushima, Miyagi and Ibaraki prefectures was estimated from a sediment integration algorithm. As of October 2011, about half a year after the accident, the total amount of sedimentary 134Cs was 0.20±0.06 PBq (decay corrected to March 11, 2011) and more than 90% of the radiocesium was accumulated in the regions shallower than 200 m depth. The large inventory in the coastal sediments was attributed to effective adsorption of dissolved radiocesium onto suspended particles and directly to sediments in the early post-accident stage. Although rivers are also an important source to supply radiocesium to the coastal regions, this flux was much lower than that of the above-mentioned process within half a year after the accident.

  13. 75 FR 43563 - Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of News Corporation, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of... the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant, a... (Konica). Neither of those relationships exists between Dow Jones & Company, West Middlesex,...

  14. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Ghasemi, M; Amrollahi, R; Khamooshi, C; Parsouzi, Z

    2013-05-01

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  15. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. (Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (USA). School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  16. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  17. Japanese consumers' valuation of domestic beef after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Manabu; Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    After the radioactive contamination of agricultural and livestock products caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 11, 2011, consumer aversion against purchasing food products from the affected areas has become a major social problem in Japan. We examine how test results for radioactive materials in beef affect consumer valuation of beef produced in no-risk and affected areas using a choice experiment survey of consumers in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 392). Respondents were divided into two groups: one faced choice experiment tasks under the current test condition (the test status was only "under the limit"), and the other faced choice experiment tasks under the tightened test condition (with three levels: "below the limit," "below one-tenth of the limit," and "undetected"). We found that consumer valuation of "below the limit" beef in the affected area did not differ from that of "below one-tenth of the limit" beef in the affected area. Introducing the tightened status improved consumer valuations of all types of beef in the no-risk area regardless of the test status. However, consumer valuation of "undetected" beef in the affected area was lower than that in the no-risk area. The same measures need to be implemented with great care in both no-risk and affected areas. Otherwise, the effects of measures taken in the affected areas may be diluted.

  18. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Mayumi, E-mail: yoshi887@ffpri.affrc.go.jp [Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nagaikyuutaro 68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855 (Japan); Yokoduka, Tetsuya [Tochigi Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, Sarado 2599, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-0404 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ({sup 137}Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. - Highlight: • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in brown trout was higher than in rainbow trout. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of brown trout in a lake was higher than in a stream. • {sup 137}Cs concentration of stream charr was higher in region with higher aerial activity. • Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in stream charr was higher in older fish. • Difference of contamination among fishes was due to difference in diet and habitat.

  19. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  20. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  1. Recent condition of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    Japanese government pronounced that the second step had been succeeded in the cooling down of the reactors on the middle of Dec 2011 at Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. In future, government aims to take out fuels from 4 reactors and shields their units. The nuclear power plants in Japan are gradually decreasing, because the checking for them has been performed and the permission of the re-start of them are difficult to be gained. On January 1st 2012, only 7 units are operating in Japan, though the about 54 units were set before the accident. At the end of December 2011, most radiations are emitted from cesium. The radioactivity in air and land around the plant was daily reported in newspaper. Government often gave the information about some RI-contamination in foods. They were taken off from the markets. At now stage, the most important project is the decontamination of radioactive materials from houses, schools, public facilities and industries. Government will newly classify three evacuation areas from April 2012. At the end of March, evacuees under 20 mSv/year possibly can go back their homes (evacuation-free area). The environmental doses will be depressed by decontamination under 10 mSv/year. At the range of 20-50 mSv, people will be controlled to live these area, they can go back their houses temporally (evacuation area). Over 50 mSv/year, however, people can go back house until 5 years at least (prohibited area). In new radiation limitation for a risk of human health, government made 100 mSv and 20 mSv for life span for one year, respectively. The aim of decontamination was set up to 10 mSv for 1 year and 5 mSv for next stage. A target at school is under1 mSv for children. Government accepted a new severe limitation per1 Kg at four groups; milk of baby (100 Bq) and milk (100 Bq), drinking water (10 Bq) and food (100 Bq). Tokyo electric Power Company and government should pay the sufficient compensation to evacuees. In future, they should keep health

  2. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  3. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  4. U.S. EPA response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupin, Edward A; Boyd, Michael A; Mosser, Jennifer E; Wieder, Jessica S

    2012-05-01

    During the spring of 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used its national radiation monitoring and sampling system, RadNet, to detect, identify, and inform the public about radioactive material in the United States resulting from Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant release. The RadNet system monitors ambient air, drinking water, precipitation, and pasteurized milk for radionuclides. To supplement its existing stationary (fixed) continuous air monitoring system, EPA deployed additional air monitors to Saipan, Guam, and locations in the western United States. The Agency also accelerated the regular quarterly sampling of milk and drinking water and collected an additional round of samples. For two months, staff located at EPA's Headquarters Emergency Operations Center, west coast regional offices, and National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab worked seven days a week to handle the increased radiochemical sample analysis from air filters, precipitation, drinking water, and milk; provide interagency scientific input; and answer press and public inquiries. EPA's data was consistent with what was expected from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant release. The levels of radioactivity were so low that the readings from the near-real-time RadNet air monitors stayed within normal background ranges. Detailed sample analyses were needed to identify the radionuclides associated with the release. Starting at the end of April and continuing through May 2011, levels of radioactive material decreased as expected.

  5. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  6. Post-accident response of near-surface {sup 129}I levels and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios in areas close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya, E-mail: matsunaka@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Masumi; Satou, Yukihiko [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kitagawa, Jun-ichi [Radiation Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kinoshita, Norikazu [Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, 3-4-17 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of {sup 129}I were investigated within the area highly contaminated by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Depth profiles of {sup 129}I activity and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios were measured in 5-cm-long soil cores that were collected 20–27 months after the accident from three sites (S-1, S-2, and S-3) within 10 km to the west and northwest of the FDNPP. These profiles were compared with the background levels of {sup 129}I from the same areas. The deposition densities of {sup 129}I were 2.17 Bq m{sup −2} at S-1, 0.80 Bq m{sup −2} at S-2, and 1.41 Bq m{sup −2} at S-3, which are, respectively, about 160, 60, and 100 times larger than the background level (12.8–14.8 mBq m{sup −2}). The average {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios in each soil core after the accident (S-1: 2.1 × 10{sup −6}; S-2: 4.2 × 10{sup −7}; S-3: 2.3 × 10{sup −6}) were similar to the value typically found in contaminated surface soil within 80 km of the FDNPP. Therefore, accident-derived {sup 129}I deposited at S-1 (4.3 km west of the FDNPP) was 2.7 times larger than at S-2 (8.2 km west of the FDNPP), and 1.5 times larger than at S-3 (7.5 km northwest of the FDNPP). Depth profiles showed that the {sup 129}I activity and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios decayed exponentially with depth. ∼90% of accident-derived {sup 129}I deposited in the soil cores was concentrated in the upper 25.2–26.4 kg m{sup −2} of mass depth (2.1–3.1 cm depth). The relaxation mass depths (h{sub 0}) of {sup 129}I were 9.49–11.2 kg m{sup −2} at the three sampling sites, and these values are comparable to those of accident-derived {sup 131}I (10.4 kg m{sup −2}) at a site 40 km northwest of the FDNPP.

  7. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident.

  8. Pre- and post-accident (129)I and (137)Cs levels, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in soil near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Satou, Yukihiko; Matsumura, Masumi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of (129)I and (137)Cs in the restricted area that was highly contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, cumulative inventories of (129)I and (137)Cs, concentrations of (129)I and (137)Cs, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratio in 30-cm-long soil columns were compared with pre-accident levels from the same area. The cores were collected before and after the accident from locations of S-1 (4 km west of FDNPP) and S-2 (8 km west of FDNPP). Deposition densities of (129)I and (137)Cs in the soil following the accident were 0.90-2.33 Bq m(-2) and 0.80-4.04 MBq m(-2), respectively, which were 14-39 and 320-510 times larger than the pre-accident levels of (129)I (59.3-63.3 mBq m(-2)) and (137)Cs (2.51-7.88 kBq m(-2)), respectively. Approximately 90% of accident-derived (129)I and (137)Cs deposited in the 30-cm soil cores was concentrated in the surface layer from 0 to 44-95 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-4.3-6.2 cm depth) and from 0 to 16-25 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-1.0-3.1 cm depth), respectively. The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 10.8-11.2 kg m(-2) for (129)I estimated in the previous study were larger than those of 8.1-10.6 kg m(-2) for (137)Cs at both sites, owing to the larger infiltration depth of radioiodine mainly by the gravitational water penetration in the surface soil in our study sites. Approximately 7-9% of the accident-derived (129)I was present in the lower layer from 44 to 100 kg m(-2) (4.3-8.6 cm depth) at S-1, and from 95 to 160 kg m(-2) (6.2-10.2 cm depth) at S-2. Approximately 1% of (137)Cs seems to infiltrate deeper than (129)I in the lower layer at each site in contrast to the surface layer.

  9. Radionuclide Release after Channel Flow Blockage Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon; Jun, Hwang Yong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The channel flow blockage accident is one of the in core loss of coolant accidents, the release path of radionuclide is very different from conventional loss of coolant accidents. The large amount of radionuclide released from broken channel is being washed during it passes through the moderator in Calandria. The objective of containment behavior analysis for channel flow blockage event is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in case of channel flow blockage with all safety system available, that is containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  10. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Time series changes in radiocaesium distribution in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.)) after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko

    2016-02-01

    Radiocaesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) release following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, belonging to the Tokyo Electric Power Company caused severe contamination of new tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.)) shoots by radiocaesium in many prefectures in eastern Japan. Because tea plants are perennial crops, there is the fear that the contamination might last for a long time. The objectives of this study were to reveal time series changes in the distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants after radioactive fallout and to evaluate the effect of pruning on reduction of radiocaesium concentrations in new shoots growing next year. The experimental tea field was located in Shizuoka, Japan, approximately 400 km away from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in a southwest direction. Time series changes in radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea, a tea product primarily produced for making Japanese green tea, from May 2011 to June 2013 and distribution of radiocaesium in tea plants from May 2011 to May 2012 were monitored. The radiocaesium concentrations in unrefined tea exponentially decreased; the effective half-lives for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.30 and 0.36 y during the first 2 y after the accident, respectively. With time, the highest concentrations of (137)Cs moved from the upper to the lower parts of plants. Medium pruning 2-3 months after the accident reduced the concentration of (137)Cs in new shoots harvested in the first crop season of the following year by 56% compared with unpruned tea plants; thus, pruning is an effective measure for reducing radiocaesium concentration in tea.

  12. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rainfall erosivity in catchments contaminated with fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Chartin, Caroline; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Cerdan, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in the fallout of significant quantities of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is quickly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snowmelt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Characterizing the precipitation regime of the fallout-impacted region is thus important for understanding post-deposition radiocesium dynamics. Accordingly, 10 min (1995-2015) and daily precipitation data (1977-2015) from 42 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analyzed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed to depict the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity for catchments entirely contained within this radius. The mean average precipitation in the region surrounding the FDNPP is 1420 mm yr-1 (SD 235) with a mean rainfall erosivity of 3696 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 1327). Tropical cyclones contribute 22 % of the precipitation (422 mm yr-1) and 40 % of the rainfall erosivity (1462 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 (SD 637)). The majority of precipitation (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (82 %) occurs between June and October. At a regional scale, rainfall erosivity increases from the north to the south during July and August, the most erosive months. For the remainder of the year, this gradient occurs mostly from northwest to southeast. Relief features strongly influence the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity at a smaller scale, with the coastal plains and coastal mountain range having greater rainfall erosivity than the inland Abukuma River valley. Understanding these patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal (both inter- and intraannual) variation, is important for contextualizing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of tropical cyclones will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant

  14. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Pphysiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  15. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Emergency medical care and dose estimation for the severely overexposed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Ishigure, Nobuhito [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    A criticality accident occurred in JCO, a plant for nuclear fuel production in 1999 and three workers were exposed to extremely high-level radiation (neutron and {gamma}-ray). This report describes outlines of the clinical courses and the medical cares for the patients of this accident and the emergent medical system for radiation accident in Japan. One (A) of the three workers of JCO had vomiting and diarrhea within several minutes after the accident and another one (B) had also vomiting within one hour after. Based on these evidences, the exposure dose of A and B were estimated to be more than 8 and 4 GyEq, respectively. Generally, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is assigned into three phases; prodromal phase, critical or manifestation phase and recovery phase or death. In the prodromal phase, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea often develop, whereas the second phase is asymptotic. In the third phase, various syndromes including infection, hemorrhage, dehydration shock and neurotic syndromes are apt to occur. It is known that radiation exposure at 1 Gy or more might induce such acute radiation syndromes. Based on the clinical findings of Chernobyl accident, it has been thought that exposure at 0.5 Gy or more causes a lowering of lymphocyte level and a decrease in immunological activities within 48 hours. Lymphocyte count is available as an indicator for the evaluation of exposure dose in early phase, but not in later phase The three workers of JCO underwent chemical analysis of blood components, chromosomal analysis and analysis of blood {sup 24}Na immediately after the arrival at National Institute of Radiological Sciences via National Mito Hospital specified as the third and the second facility for the emergency medical care system in Japan, respectively. (M.N.)

  16. Evaluation of 129I mobility in the crop field soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Maki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Tuchiya, Yoko Sunohara; Nakano, Chuichiro; Matsushi, Yuki; Maejima, Yuji; Nagai, Hisao

    2013-04-01

    Five soil cores from almost the same position in the crop field 20km apart from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (F1NPP) for a period of May 2011 to June 2012 were analyzed. We previously know that the sampling site soil was tilled and well mixed by a farmer to the depth of 30cm until just before the F1NPP accident. Under the condition it is speculated that the crop field soil had been made homogeneous and then contaminated by F1NPP accident, so that the direct accumulation from the accident should be clearly observed. This was confirmed by the observations that depth profiles of 127I concentration (measured by ICP-MS), as well as carbon content (measured by NC analyzer), of these soil cores were roughly constant. In contrast, 129I (measured by AMS) concentration (or specific activity) was particularly high at the top most layer and immediately decreased exponentially along with depth. And below 10 cm depth, it went constant. This enhancement in the top 10cm layer can be considered as the direct accumulation from the F1NPP after the accident. Considering constant level at lower layer (0.0474mBq kg-1) as a background, 129I inventory was estimated as 46mBq m-2 (3.3×1013 atoms m-2). Similar 129I profile was also found in the soil cores of even one year and three months after the F1NPP accident. From these observations, it is concluded that accidental origin 129I had migrated little downward over the years, although the field should have experienced several times of rain and snow. More than 80% of the accidental origin 129I was still present within the top 5cm and more than 90% within the top 10cm.

  17. Tenth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address-the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and comprehensive health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shunichi

    2014-02-01

    Just two years have passed since the Tokyo Electric Power Company-Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident, a multidimensional disaster that combined to destroy the local infrastructure on which the safety system depended and gave a serious impact to the world. Countermeasures including evacuation, sheltering, and control of the food chain were implemented in a timely manner by the Japanese government. However, there is a clear need for improvement, especially in the areas of nuclear safety and protection and also in the management of the radiation health risk during and even after the accident. To date there have been no acute radiation injuries. The radiation-related physical health consequences to the general public, including evacuees, are likely to be much lower than those arising from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, because the radiation fallout and the subsequent environmental contamination were much more limited. However, the social, psychological, and economic impacts of the Fukushima NPP accident are expected to be considerable. Currently, continued monitoring and characterization of the levels of radioactivity in the environment and foods in Fukushima are vital for obtaining informed consent to the decisions on living in the areas already radiocontaminated and returning back to the evacuated areas once re-entry is permitted; it is also important to perform a realistic assessment of the radiation doses on the basis of measurements. We are currently implementing the official plans of the Fukushima Health Management Survey, which includes a basic survey for the estimation of the external doses that were received during the first 4 mo after the accident and four more detailed surveys (thyroid ultrasound examination, comprehensive health check-up, mental health and life-style survey, and survey of pregnant women and nursing mothers), with the aim to take care of the health of all of the residents of the Fukushima Prefecture for a long time

  18. JMA's regional atmospheric transport model calculations for the WMO technical task team on meteorological analyses for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Shimbori, Toshiki; Draxler, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) convened a small technical task team of experts to produce a set of meteorological analyses to drive atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition models (ATDMs) for the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation's assessment of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (DNPP) accident. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) collaborated with the WMO task team as the regional specialized meteorological center of the country where the accident occurred, and provided its operational 5-km resolution mesoscale (MESO) analysis and its 1-km resolution radar/rain gauge-analyzed precipitation (RAP) data. The JMA's mesoscale tracer transport model was modified to a regional ATDM for radionuclides (RATM), which included newly implemented algorithms for dry deposition, wet scavenging, and gravitational settling of radionuclide aerosol particles. Preliminary and revised calculations of the JMA-RATM were conducted according to the task team's protocol. Verification against Cesium 137 ((137)Cs) deposition measurements and observed air concentration time series showed that the performance of RATM with MESO data was significantly improved by the revisions to the model. The use of RAP data improved the (137)Cs deposition pattern but not the time series of air concentrations at Tokai-mura compared with calculations just using the MESO data. Sensitivity tests of some of the more uncertain parameters were conducted to determine their impacts on ATDM calculations, and the dispersion and deposition of radionuclides on 15 March 2011, the period of some of the largest emissions and deposition to the land areas of Japan. The area with high deposition in the northwest of Fukushima DNPP and the hotspot in the central part of Fukushima prefecture were primarily formed by wet scavenging influenced by the orographic effect of the mountainous area in the west of the Fukushima prefecture.

  19. Plant Community Traits of Shohada Protected Area, West Azerbijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shohada Protected Area, consisting of Shohada Valley and its adjacent areas with an area of 577 hectares is located in south of Urmia, and is known as an important natural plant station of Urmia. It is studied with respect to the important factors which influence the vegetation cover in whole, particularly, with regard the composition and formation of plant communities. To study the area, Brown-Blanquets method was used. Plant samples were taken from 77 sample plots. The study resulted in recognition of four herbaceous types and seven shrub types in the studied area. In addition, the investigation led to the fact that the most important factors which influence the vegetation cover, are: geographical orientation, altitude, gradient and soil texture. The study also resulted in preparation of a colored vegetation map with a scale of 1:20000.

  20. Public meeting: Western New York Nuclear Service Center options study. [Problem of West Valley plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This document is a transcript of the meeting, with additional written comments. The main topic is the West Valley Processing Plant and how to dispose of it and its high-level wastes. Objective is to get public input on this topic. (DLC)

  1. Fessenheim plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident; Fessenheim - Rapport d'evaluation complementaire de la surete des installations nucleaires au regard de l'accident de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Fessenheim plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  2. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  4. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI 4; 62 severe accidents among the world’s reactors in 100,000 years of operation has been estimated. This result is compatible with the frequency estimate of a probabilistic safety assessment for a typical pressurised power reactor in Germany. It is used in scenario calculations concerning the development in numbers of reactors in the next twenty years. For the base scenario with constant reactor numbers the time to the next accident among the world's 441 reactors, which were connected to the grid in 2010, is estimated to 11 (95% CI 3.7; 52 years. In two other scenarios a moderate increase or decrease in reactor numbers have negligible influence on the results. The time to the next accident can be extended well above the lifetime of reactors by retiring a sizeable number of less secure ones and by safety improvements for the rest.

  5. Insights into the behavior of nuclear power plant containments during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horschel, D.S.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Parks, M.B.; Lambert, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The containment building surrounding a nuclear reactor offers the last barrier to the release of radioactive materials from a severe accident into the environment. The loading environment of the containment under severe accident conditions may include much greater than design pressures and temperatures. Investigations into the performance of containments subject to ultimate or failure pressure and temperature conditions have been performed over the last several years through a program administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These NRC sponsored investigations are subsequently discussed. Reviewed are the results of large scale experiments on reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, and steel containment models pressurized to failure. In conjunction with these major tests, the results of separate effect testing on many of the critical containment components; that is, aged and unaged seals, a personnel air lock and electrical penetration assemblies subjected to elevated temperature and pressure have been performed. An objective of the NRC program is to gain an understanding of the behavior of typical existing and planned containment designs subject to postulated severe accident conditions. This understanding has led to the development of experimentally verified analytical tools that can be applied to accurately predict their ultimate capacities useful in developing severe accident mitigation schemes. Finally, speculation on the response of containments subjected to severe accident conditions is presented.

  6. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumana Sarkhel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods:The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results:The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions:The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

  8. INFLUENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES LIQUIDATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Manoshkina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study psychological status and influence of antihypertensive therapy (AHT on it in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP accident consequences liquidators, who suffer arterial hyper-tension (AH, with controlled treatment compared to the standard treatment in out-patient clinic. Material and methods. 81 liquidators with AH (all men were included into open compara-tive randomized study. Study duration was 12 months. Patients were randomized into main group (MG and control group (CG. Patients of MG received strictly regulated stepped AHT based on ACE inhibitor spirapril 6 mg daily (Quadropril®, Pliva-AVD, hypothiazide was added if necessary (12.5-25 mg daily and afterwards – atenolol (12.5-100 mg daily. In CG AHT and its correction was set by physician in polyclinic. Brief multifactor questionnaire for personality analysis was used to study psychological status. Results. 57 patients completed the study, 28 in MG and 29 in CG. In MG target blood pres-sure (BP levels were reached in 22 (78.6% patients, in CG – in 11 (38% patients (p<0.01. The main feature of psychological status of liquidators with AH was hypochondriac, depressive and anxious disorders. Controlled AHT made it possible to reach improvement in psychological status, i.e. growth of optimism and activity of patients, more often, than standard treatment in out-patient clinics. Increase in number of patients with pronounced anxious changes was observed in CG. Effi-ciency of AHT in liquidators with AH is connected with severity of depressive disturbances: in subgroups with inefficient treatment patients had the highest level of depression. In liquidators with AH, possessing neurotic disturbances, spirapril was efficient both as monotherapy, and in combina-tion with diuretic hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocker atenolol. Conclusion. Controlled AHT in liquidators with AH has advantages over standard treatment in out-patient clinic and results in more frequent target BP level

  9. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  10. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, H; Inoue, K; Sakano, Y; Hamada, M; Shimizu, H; Fukushi, M

    2015-11-01

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of (137)Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

  11. Uses of graminaceous plants as food by man in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Chuah

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Gramineae, with over 7 000 species is the fifth largest family in the plant kingdom, and has over the years played a very important role in providing food for man in the form of cereals among which the most important and well-known examples are rice, wheat, maize and others. The principal graminaceous plants in man’s diet in West Africa are rice (Oryza spp.; maize (Zea mays L. and a variety of species belonging to the sorghums and millets (species of Pennisetum, Digitaria and Eleusine. Plants collected in times of famine include species of  Echinochloa, Panicum, Paspalum etc.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  13. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP.

  14. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents’ risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  15. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  17. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  18. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations and budget of radiocesium in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Kajino, Mizuo; Tanaka, Taichu; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Hayami, Hiroshi; Hamajima, Yasunori; Gamo, Toshitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiro; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Fukasawa, Masao; Chino, Masamichi

    2013-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We determined the inventory of radiocesium released by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident to the North Pacific Ocean based on measurements of seawater samples collected in the North Pacific Ocean after the accident. Comparison of the observed inventory with the model-simulated results allowed us to obtain realistic values of 10-13 PBq for the total atmospheric deposition of 134Cs and 137Cs released by the FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific. Before the Fukushima accident, 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean was about 69 PBq, the 12 - 15 PBq of 137Cs newly added by atmospheric deposition and the 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq added by direct discharge, therefore increased the total 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific Ocean by 22-27 %. We also determined that the total atmospheric release of 134Cs and 137Cs by the FNPP1 accident was about 14-17 PBq, respectively. Using global simulated results as boundary conditions, a 1-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was also carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared

  20. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  1. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  2. Analysis of Plasma Protein Concentrations and Enzyme Activities in Cattle within the Ex-Evacuation Zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Urushihara; Koh Kawasumi; Satoru Endo; Kenichi Tanaka; Yasuko Hirakawa; Gohei Hayashi; Tsutomu Sekine; Yasushi Kino; Yoshikazu Kuwahara; Masatoshi Suzuki; Motoi Fukumoto; Hideaki Yamashiro; Yasuyuki Abe; Tomokazu Fukuda; Hisashi Shinoda

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on humans and the environment is a global concern. We performed biochemical analyses of plasma from 49 Japanese Black cattle that were euthanized in the ex-evacuation zone set within a 20-km radius of FNPP. Among radionuclides attributable to the FNPP accident, germanium gamma-ray spectrometry detected photopeaks only from 134Cs and 137Cs (radiocesium) commonly in the organs and in soil examined. Radioactivity concentrati...

  3. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  4. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  5. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

  6. 福岛第一核电厂严重事故管理研究%Research on severe accident management in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 王炜

    2013-01-01

    The accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant led to a severe accident of core meltdown, and its process of emergency management exposed various defects which raised great concern about severe accident management in nuclear power plants. In this paper, the specifications of severe accident management that issued by IAEA and Japan were overviewed. Based on Japan specifications, the analysis of sequences and management strategies were presented on severe accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Following identification of defects on severe accident management, possible corrective measures for current and future plants were discussed. Finally , an approach and a frame model for severe accident management were presented, which may improve nuclear safety in current and future plants.%日本福岛核事故造成了堆芯熔毁的严重事故,应急处置过程暴露出严重事故管理的种种不足,引起对核电厂严重事故管理的关注.简述了国际原子能机构和日本关于核电厂严重事故管理的规范要求,分析了福岛第一核电厂事故序列和严重事故管理策略,讨论了严重事故管理存在的问题及其可能的改进措施,最后提出了改进核电厂严重事故管理的框架模型和方法.

  7. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  8. Energy choices and risk beliefs: is it just global warming and fear of a nuclear power plant accident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Truelove, Heather Barnes

    2011-05-01

    A survey of 3,200 U.S. residents focused on two issues associated with the use of nuclear and coal fuels to produce electrical energy. The first was the association between risk beliefs and preferences for coal and nuclear energy. As expected, concern about nuclear power plant accidents led to decreased support for nuclear power, and those who believed that coal causes global warming preferred less coal use. Yet other risk beliefs about the coal and nuclear energy fuel cycles were stronger or equal correlates of public preferences. The second issue is the existence of what we call acknowledged risk takers, respondents who favored increased reliance on nuclear energy, although also noting that there could be a serious nuclear plant accident, and those who favored greater coal use, despite acknowledging a link to global warming. The pro-nuclear group disproportionately was affluent educated white males, and the pro-coal group was relatively poor less educated African-American and Latino females. Yet both shared four similarities: older age, trust in management, belief that the energy facilities help the local economy, and individualistic personal values. These findings show that there is no single public with regard to energy preferences and risk beliefs. Rather, there are multiple populations with different viewpoints that surely would benefit by hearing a clear and comprehensive national energy life cycle policy from the national government. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Hypoglycaemic complications with diabetes mellitus management: the predominant adverse drug reaction presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department of The University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossell-Williams, M; Williams-Johnson, J; Francis, L

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is important to the assessment of risk factors in an aim to ensure maximum benefits of drug therapy. This study was done to assess the types of ADRs presenting to the Accident and Emergency department (A&E) of the University Hospital of the West Indies. Admissions to the A&E associated with drugs were followed on a weekly basis for 19 weeks from October 2007 to February 2008 using the patient logbook. Medical records of patients with suspected ADRs were collected and evaluated by an Emergency Medicine Consultant of A & E to confirm the occurrence of ADRs and the suspected drug. Of the 8170 admissions to A&E, 48 (0.6%) were related to ADRs, with most occurring in females and the mean age (+/- standard error) was 58.9 (+/- 3.4) years. Drug induced hypoglycaemia accounted for 28 (56.3%) cases of ADRs and included mainly patients on insulin, with or without a sulphonylurea therapy. Most of these diabetic patients also had co-morbidities and were on multi-drug therapy (18). Allergic reactions accounted for 10 (21%) of the ADR outcomes. Other drugs accounting for ADRs included cardiovascular drugs (10.4%), analgesic/anti-inflammatory medications (8.3%), drugs acting on the central nervous system (8.3%) and anti-infectives (8.3%). It is concluded that drug-induced hypoglycaemia is the major ADR presenting to the A&E of the University Hospital of the West Indies; it is a preventable ADR and therefore further investigation should evaluate possible factors attributed to the occurrences.

  10. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  11. Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by marine biota: application to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic model D-DAT was developed to study the dynamics of radionuclide uptake and turnover in biota and sediments in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima accident. This dynamics is determined by the interplay between the residence time of radionuclides in seawater/sediments and the biological half-lives of elimination by the biota. The model calculates time-variable activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (90)Sr in seabed sediment, fish, crustaceans, molluscs and macroalgae from surrounding activity concentrations in seawater, with which to derive internal and external dose rates. A central element of the model is the inclusion of dynamic transfer of radionuclides to/from sediments by factorising the depletion of radionuclides adsorbed onto suspended particulates, molecular diffusion, pore water mixing and bioturbation, represented by a simple set of differential equations coupled with the biological uptake/turnover processes. In this way, the model is capable of reproducing activity concentration in sediment more realistically. The model was used to assess the radiological impact of the Fukushima accident on marine biota in the acute phase of the accident. Sediment and biota activity concentrations are within the wide range of actual monitoring data. Activity concentrations in marine biota are thus shown to be better calculated by a dynamic model than with the simpler equilibrium approach based on concentration factors, which tends to overestimate for the acute accident period. Modelled dose rates from external exposure from sediment are also significantly below equilibrium predictions. The model calculations confirm previous studies showing that radioactivity levels in marine biota have been generally below the levels necessary to cause a measurable effect on populations. The model was used in mass-balance mode to calculate total integrated releases of 103, 30 and 3 PBq for (131)I, (137)Cs and (90)Sr, reasonably in line with previous

  12. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  13. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan tropical environments.

  14. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Gopinath, Rejitha; Radhamani, Suraj; Husain, Hj Azman; Muruganandham, Vignesh; Promwichit, Proom

    2010-02-07

    A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

  15. Ethnomedical survey of plants used by the Orang Asli in Kampung Bawong, Perak, West Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain Hj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A qualitative ethnomedical survey was carried out among a local Orang Asli tribe to gather information on the use of medicinal plants in the region of Kampung Bawong, Perak of West Malaysia in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants used in curing different diseases and illnesses. Methods Sixteen informants ranging in age from 35 to 65 years were interviewed. A total of 62 species of plants used by Orang Asli are described in this study based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. These plants belonged to 36 families and are used to treat a wide range of discomforts and diseases. Results The results of this study showed that majority of the Orang Asli, of Kampung Bawong are still dependent on local plants as their primary source of medication. As the first ethnomedical study in this area, publishing this work is expected to open up more studies to identify and assess the pharmacological and toxicological action of the plants from this region. Conclusions Preservation and recording of ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses of traditional medicinal plants is an indispensable obligation for sustaining the medicinal and cultural resource of mankind. Extensive research on such traditional plants is of prime importance to scientifically validate their ethnomedical claims.

  16. Extensive turnover of plant nitrogen in peats from the West Siberian Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philben, M. J.; Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen cycling in peatlands is of great interest because N is scarce in peatlands and may limit both primary production and microbial decomposition. The amino acid hydroxyproline (Hyp) was used to determine the proportion of peat N derived from plants in two peat cores collected from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia. Hyp is an effective tracer of plant N because plants are its only significant source in peats. In addition, its reactivity is similar to that of bulk plant N, so its yield in peat can be used to quantitatively estimate plant N. The C:N ratio of the peat was very high (>70) throughout both cores. As N is assumed to be conserved while C is removed with decomposition, high C:N ratios are often interpreted as indicating relatively unaltered peat. However, Hyp yields indicate extensive turnover of plant N. Peat N was mostly plant-derived in the upper 50 cm of both cores, but declined to 30-60% in the catotelm. These results suggest that N from plant litter is rapidly utilized by microbes and incorporated into new forms. Thus despite high C:N ratios, these peats have undergone substantial alteration and decomposition. This demonstrates the organic N pool in peatlands is intensely recycled and is more dynamic than can be inferred by considering the C:N ratio alone.

  17. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  18. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  19. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  20. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies.

  1. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  2. Diagnostic system for identification of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, T.V. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: santutv@barc.gov.in; Srivastava, A.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the work carried out towards developing a diagnostic system for the identification of accident scenarios in 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which assists in identifying a transient quickly and suggests the operator to initiate the corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor. An operator support system, known as symptom-based diagnostic system (SBDS), has been developed using ANN that diagnoses the transients based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the reactor. As a pilot study, the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with and without the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in reactor headers has been considered. Several break scenarios of large break LOCA have been analyzed. The time-dependent transient data have been generated using the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic code assuming an equilibrium core, which conforms to a realistic estimation. The diagnostic results obtained from the ANN study are satisfactory. These results have been incorporated in the SBDS software for operator assistance. A few important outputs of the SBDS have been discussed in this paper.

  3. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014.

  4. New Solutions For Increasing Environmental Protection During Severe Accidents At Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyukhin, Sergei A.; Mikheev, Nikolai B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkovskii, Leo N.; Reshetov, Leo A.; Zvetkova, Marianna Ya. [All-Russian Research Institute of Atomic Machine-Building, Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Yagodkin, Ivan V.; Osipov, Viktor P.; Skvortsov, Sergei S. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Berkovich, Viktor M.; Taranov, Gennadii S.; Grigor' ev, Mikhail M. [Institute ' Atomenergoproekt' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, Vladimir M.; Noskov, Andrei A.; Mitrofanov, Mikhail I. [ROSENERGOATOM Concern, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports new solutions for increasing environmental protection during severe accidents at NPPs. For NPPs with two protective shells and pressure release system such as WWER-1000 we suggest a new comprehensive, passive-mode environmental protection system of decontamination of the radioactive air-steam mixture from the containment and the inter-containment area, which includes the 'wet' stage (scrubbers, etc.), the 'dry' stage (sorption module), and also an ejector, which in a passive mode is capable of solving the multi-purpose task of decontamination of the air-steam mixture. For Russian WWER-440/230 NPPs we suggest three protection levels: 1) a jet-vortex condenser; 2) the spray system; 3) a sorption module. For modern designs of new generation NPPs, which do not provide for pressure release systems, we proposed a new passive filtering system together with the passive heat-removal system, which can be used during severe accidents in case all power supply units become unavailable. (authors)

  5. Long term simulation of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the regional ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute (Japan); Uematsu, M. [University of Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, Y. [CERES, Inc. (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A regional-scale simulation of {sup 137}Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of {sup 137}Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model for more than two years. Direct releases of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs were estimated for 1 year after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs were 11.1±2.2 PBq, 3.5±0.7 PBq, and 3.6±0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of {sup 137}Cs. Simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated {sup 137}Cs activities attributable to the inflow of {sup 137}Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the

  6. Biodiversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairiah, A.; Nisyawati, Silalahi, M.

    2017-07-01

    The research was carried out in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to document the diversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic base on local knowledge. Data were collected using ethnobotanical approach through open-ended, semi-structured interview and exploration method. The sample consisted of 3 key informants and 94 respondents with provisions age ≥ 30 years old. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. Total 158 medicinal plants species which belongs to 124 genera and 54 families were reported to be used in against 52 diseases. Among the diseases, gastrointestinal disorders had the highest number of medicinal plants to be used (37 species), skin diseases (36 species), postpartum cures (29 species), urinary tract disorders (26 species) and rheumatism (19 species). Fabaceae (Leguminosae) was the dominant families that used to treat the illness (12 species) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae (10 species) and Asteraceae (9 species).

  7. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shibabrata Pattanayak; Tapan Kumar Mandal; Susanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses wit...

  8. 14C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for 14C. The 14C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg−1 C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg−1 C...... discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess 14C specific activities were ... and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric 14C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no 14C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited 14C release from the damaged reactors during the accident...

  9. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  10. A GIS-based prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S

    2003-01-01

    GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).

  11. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  12. Accident analyses in nuclear power plants following external initiating events and in the shutdown state. Final report; Unfallanalysen in Kernkraftwerken nach anlagenexternen ausloesenden Ereignissen und im Nichtleistungsbetrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Horst; Kowalik, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Hage, Michael

    2016-06-15

    The work which is documented here provides the methodological basis for improvement of the state of knowledge for accident sequences after plant external initiating events and for accident sequences which begin in the shutdown state. The analyses have been done for a PWR and for a BWR reference plant. The work has been supported by the German federal ministry BMUB under the label 3612R01361. Top objectives of the work are: - Identify relevant event sequences in order to define characteristic initial and boundary conditions - Perform accident analysis of selected sequences - Evaluate the relevance of accident sequences in a qualitative way The accident analysis is performed with the code MELCOR 1.8.6. The applied input data set has been significantly improved compared to previous analyses. The event tree method which is established in PSA level 2 has been applied for creating a structure for a unified summarization and evaluation of the results from the accident analyses. The computer code EVNTRE has been applied for this purpose. In contrast to a PSA level 2, the branching probabilities of the event tree have not been determined with the usual accuracy, but they are given in an approximate way only. For the PWR, the analyses show a considerable protective effect of the containment also in the case of beyond design events. For the BWR, there is a rather high probability for containment failure under core melt impact, but nevertheless the release of radionuclides into the environment is very limited because of plant internal retention mechanisms. This report concludes with remarks about existing knowledge gaps and with regard to core melt sequences, and about possible improvements of the plant safety.

  13. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  14. An advanced method for determination of loss of coolant accident in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, R. [Department of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, M., E-mail: m-shahriari@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A. [Department of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > The considerations of vibration signals are introduced as a new method for determination of accidents directly by detecting of vibration signals without including signals from other components and this is the superiority of the proposed method. > FFT provides an alternate way of representing data. Instead of representing vibration signal amplitude as a function of time, the signal is represented by the amount of information which is contained at different frequencies. > The most of frequencies of structure and fluid coupled are presented in the FFT of structural response and through it the dominant frequency of excitation is obtained. > The Power Spectral Density, a measurement of energy at various frequencies is worked out. MATLAB software is used to convert signals from the time to frequency domain and to obtain PSD of signals. - Abstract: A major objective in reactor design is to provide the capability to withstand a wide range of postulated events without exceeding specified safety limits. Assessment of the consequence of hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in primary circuit is an essential element to address fulfilment of acceptance criteria. In addition, finding the position of rupture, one could manage accident in a right direction. In this work, the transient vibration signal from a pipe rupture is used to determine the position of LOCA. A finite element formulation (Galerkin Method) is implemented to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The coupled equations of fluid motion and pipe displacement are solved. The obtained results are in good agreement with published data. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) provides an alternate way of representing data. Instead of representing vibration signal amplitude as a function of time, the signal is represented by the amount of information, which is contained at different frequencies. The most of frequencies of structure and fluid coupled are presented in the FFT of structural

  15. Analysis of human error in occupational accidents in the power plant industries using combining innovative FTA and meta-heuristic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational accidents are of the main issues in industries. It is necessary to identify the main root causes of accidents for their control. Several models have been proposed for determining the accidents root causes. FTA is one of the most widely used models which could graphically establish the root causes of accidents. The non-linear function is one of the main challenges in FTA compliance and in order to obtain the exact number, the meta-heuristic algorithms can be used. Material and Method: The present research was done in power plant industries in construction phase. In this study, a pattern for the analysis of human error in work-related accidents was provided by combination of neural network algorithms and FTA analytical model. Finally, using this pattern, the potential rate of all causes was determined. Result: The results showed that training, age, and non-compliance with safety principals in the workplace were the most important factors influencing human error in the occupational accident. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that human errors can be greatly reduced by training, right choice of workers with regard to the type of occupations, and provision of appropriate safety conditions in the work place.

  16. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  17. Radionuclide Release after LBLOCA with Loss of Class IV Power Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A large break in a pipe train of a primary heat transport system discharges coolant, which has high energy and large mass, into the containment building. Reactor shutdown and emergency core cooling water will limit the fuel cladding failure, but cannot prevent it entirely. The containment building is the last barrier of radionuclide release to the environment. Containment isolation and pressure suppression by dousing and local air cooler reduce the amount of radionuclide release to the environment. The objective of containment behavior analysis for large break loss of coolant with loss of class IV power accident is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in this event, with all safety system available, that is, the containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment, are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  18. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix VI. Calculation of reactor accident consequences. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the radioactive releases from the containment following accidents; radioactive inventory of the reactor core; atmospheric dispersion; reactor sites and meteorological data; radioactive decay and deposition from plumes; finite distance of plume travel; dosimetric models; health effects; demographic data; mitigation of radiation exposure; economic model; and calculated results with consequence model.

  19. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanmay Datta; Amal Kumar Patra; Santanu Ghosh Dastidar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status.Methods:were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons Results: A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.Conclusions:In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

  20. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir; Belabid, Lakhdar; Righi, Kada; Bekkar, Ahmed Amine; Elouissi, Mouffok; Khaldi, Abdelkader; Hamimed, Abderrahmane

    2015-12-04

    Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. The present study was carried out in Mascara (North West of Algeria). Ethnobotanical data were recorded from 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara. Data collected was analysed using quantitative indices such as the use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). Traditional healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments grouped into 14 ailments categories. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports). Our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we report for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. FIC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. The present study revealed the important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. Recorded species with high UV should be subjects of further pharmacological studies to validate their popular use and to isolate the bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Croft, S.; Loon, van E.E.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  2. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.R.; Croft, S.; van Loon, E.E.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps

  3. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.; Croft, S.; Loon, van E.E.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps a

  4. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.R.; Croft, S.; van Loon, E.E.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Raes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African human populations rely heavily on wild-harvested medicinal plants for their health. The trade in herbal medicine provides an income for many West African people, but little is known about the effects of commercial extraction on wild plant populations. Detailed distribution maps a

  5. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato

    2016-08-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.

  6. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  7. Large break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ban, Chang Hwan; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rongzhong; Yu, Hongxing [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-12-01

    Large break LOCA analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has been performed using realistic evaluation model which has been being developed by KAERI. RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI code, which is a modified version of RELAP5/MOD3, is coupled with CONTEMPT4/MOD5 and is used as a best estimate code to predict the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. PCT uncertainty which stems from code uncertainty, plant application uncertainty, scaling uncertainty and PCT bias are discussed. Among them, plant application uncertainty is described in detail. The licensing PCT is calculated by adding all the uncertainties to the best-estimate PCT. The result indicates the Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has at least 37 deg C safety margin for large break LOCA. (Author) 10 refs., 47 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. The SAM software system for modeling severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors on full-scale and analytic training simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchaya, D. Yu.; Fuks, R. L.

    2014-04-01

    The architecture of the SAM software package intended for modeling beyond-design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors evolving into a severe stage with core melting and failure of the reactor pressure vessel is presented. By using the SAM software package it is possible to perform comprehensive modeling of the entire emergency process from the failure initiating event to the stage of severe accident involving meltdown of nuclear fuel, failure of the reactor pressure vessel, and escape of corium onto the concrete basement or into the corium catcher with retention of molten products in it.

  9. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  10. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  11. Lessons Learned for Space Safety from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Manami; Miki, Masami; Mitsui, Masami; Kawada, Ysuhiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2013-09-01

    On March 11 2011, Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake hit Japan and caused the devastating damage. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was also severely damaged.The Japanese NPSs are designed based on the detailed safety requirements and have multiple-folds of hazard controls to the catastrophic hazards as in space system. However, according to the initial information from the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government, the larger-than-expected tsunami and subsequent events lost the all hazard controls to the release of radioactive materials.At the 5th IAASS, Lessons Learned from this disaster was reported [1] mainly based on the "Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety" [2] published by Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters in June 2011, three months after the earthquake.Up to 2012 summer, the major investigation boards, including the Japanese Diet, the Japanese Cabinet and TEPCO, published their final reports, in which detailed causes of this accident and several recommendations are assessed from each perspective.In this paper, the authors examine to introduce the lessons learned to be applied to the space safety as findings from these reports.

  12. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yousuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, and traces of these materials were detected in Tsukuba. Because radioactive materials can adhere to vegetables, the authors made a qualitative evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba, estimated internal exposure dose based on quantitative measurement results, and investigated several decontamination methods. Qualitative analysis of vegetable contamination was done by autoradiography. Quantitative analysis was done using a high-purity germanium detector. To assess decontamination, two methods were tested: one with running water and the other with boiling water. In addition, boiled soup stock was measured. In the qualitative evaluation by autoradiography, radioactive materials were not uniformly distributed but adhered to vegetables in clumps and hot spots. In the quantitative evaluation to measure contamination of outer and inner leaves of sanchu lettuce, it was observed that the concentration of I was 8,031.35 ± 764.79 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 115.28 ± 20.63 Bq kg in the inner leaves. In addition, the concentration of Cs was 1,371.93 ± 366.45 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 9.68 ± 15.03 Bq kg in the inner leaves. This suggests that one can greatly reduce internal exposure dose by removing the outer leaves if one has to eat vegetables just after a nuclear accident. In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min.

  13. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohtome, Tadahiro; Wada, Toshihiro; Mizuno, Takuji; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Igarashi, Satoshi; Nishimune, Atsushi; Aono, Tatsuo; Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3-500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher (137)Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of (137)Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg(-1)-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of (137)Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Corradini, M. [University of Wisconsin; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Geffraye, G. [CEA, France; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Hassan, Y. [Texas A& M University; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Schultz, R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Wei, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  15. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms collected in Kawauchi Village after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Nakashima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known from the experience after the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant that radiocesium tends to concentrate in wild mushrooms. In this study, we collected wild mushrooms from the Kawauchi Village of Fukushima Prefecture, located within 30 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, and evaluated their radiocesium concentrations to estimate the risk of internal radiation exposure in local residents. We found that radioactive cesium exceeding 100 Bq/kg was detected in 125 of 154 mushrooms (81.2%. We calculated committed effective doses based on 6,278 g per year (age > 20 years, 17.2 g/day, the average intake of Japanese citizens, ranging from doses of 0.11–1.60 mSv, respectively. Although committed effective doses are limited even if residents eat contaminated foods several times, we believe that comprehensive risk-communication based on the results of the radiocesium measurements of food, water, and soil is necessary for the recovery of Fukushima after this nuclear disaster.

  16. Nutrient Status in Composts and Changes in Radioactive Cesium Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikkumburage Jasintha Jayasanka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident, the forests in the Fukushima area were highly contaminated with radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies for remediation of the contaminated forests. We assessed changes in radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs contamination and nutrient status in composts derived from wood chip, bamboo leaf and bamboo powder using rice bran and wheat meal as sub-materials. Changes in soil properties and Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis growth were also investigated due the application of composts and initial materials at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kg·m−2 input levels. Mixing of sub-materials significantly reduced the concentration of radioactive Cs and improved compost quality. The effectiveness of three composts on soil quality improvement varied depending on their types and rates of applications. Amendments of bamboo leaf composts at 10 kg·m−2 resulted in the significantly highest soil inorganic N, available P and exchangeable K contents. Amendments of final composts also enhanced Komatsuna growth. Furthermore, radioactive Cs contaminations of the Komatsuna plants grown in these composts were below 0.1 Bq·kg−1. This study may help to remediate the forests contaminated with radiocesium in the Fukushima area while improving the soil organic matter content to enhance soil sustainability.

  17. Safety analysis methodology for Chinshan nuclear power plant spent fuel pool under Fukushima-like accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Research Atomic Energy Council; Li, Wan-Yun; Wang, Jong-Rong; Tseng, Yung-Shin; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Shih, Chunkuan; Chen, Shao-Wen [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2017-03-15

    Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP), a BWR/4 plant, is the first NPP in Taiwan. After Fukushima NPP disaster occurred, there is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan. Therefore, in order to estimate the safety of Chinshan NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, CFD, and FRAPTRAN codes, INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C.) performed the safety analysis of Chinshan NPP SFP. There were two main steps in this research. The first step was the establishment of Chinshan NPP SFP models. And the transient analysis under the SFP cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like accident) was performed. In addition, the sensitive study of the time point for water spray was also performed. The next step was the fuel rod performance analysis by using FRAPTRAN and TRACE's results. Finally, the animation model of Chinshan NPP SFP was presented by using the animation function of SNAP with MELCOR analysis results.

  18. The accident in Fukushima. Preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011; Der Unfall in Fukushima. Zwischenbericht zu den Ablaeufen in den Kernkraftwerken nach dem Erdbeben vom 11. Maerz 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghoff, Stefan; Brueck, Benjamin; Kilian-Huelsmeyer, Yvonne; Maqua, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Quester, Claudia; Stahl, Thorsten; Thuma, Gernot; Wetzel, Norbert; Wild, Volker

    2011-08-15

    The preliminary report on the accident progress in the nuclear power plants as a consequence of the earth quake on 11th March 2011 describes the chronologic sequence of the accident in the different units of the power plant. The measures for mitigation of the accident impact at the site of Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Daini included the efforts to reach and maintain stable plant conditions. The issue radiological situation includes an estimation of the air-borne radionuclide release, the contamination of the environment and the sea water, measures for protection of the public. The lessons learned following the NISA and IAEA fact finding missions and the open questions are summarized.

  19. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data.

  20. Safety assessment of fuel cycle facilities following the lessons learned from the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokr, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt Second Research Reactor, Abouzabal (Egypt); Carr, V.M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    The feedback from the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant is crucial for defining and implementing measures for preventing accidents involving large releases of radioactive material at nuclear installations, including nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Following the lessons learned from this accident, assessment of the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is essential to evaluate the robustness of the facilities' protection systems and components against the impact of extreme external events. A methodology to perform this safety assessment is presented, with discussions on possible preventive measures to be applied and mitigatory actions to be taken for further improvement of the robustness of nuclear fuel cycle facilities when subjected to extreme external events. Considerations in the assessment of multi-facility sites and use of a graded approach, commensurate with the facility's potential hazard, in application of the safety assessment methodology are also discussed.

  1. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  2. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses with dose are documented and with the help of available literatures, the previously reported uses of these medicinal plants are analyzed in that perspective.

  3. Plant-made vaccines against West Nile virus are potent, safe, and economically feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    The threat of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics with increasingly severe neuroinvasive infections demands the development and licensing of effective vaccines. To date, vaccine candidates based on inactivated, live-attenuated, or chimeric virus, and viral DNA and WNV protein subunits have been developed. Some have been approved for veterinary use or are under clinical investigation, yet no vaccine has been licensed for human use. Reaching the milestone of a commercialized human vaccine, however, may largely depend on the economics of vaccine production. Analysis suggests that currently only novel low-cost production technologies would allow vaccination to outcompete the cost of surveillance and clinical treatment. Here, we review progress using plants to address the economic challenges of WNV vaccine production. The advantages of plants as hosts for vaccine production in cost, speed and scalability, especially those of viral vector-based transient expression systems, are discussed. The progress in developing WNV subunit vaccines in plants is reviewed within the context of their expression, characterization, downstream processing, and immunogenicity in animal models. The development of vaccines based on enveloped and non-enveloped virus-like particles is also discussed. These advancements suggest that plants may provide a production platform that offers potent, safe and affordable human vaccines against WNV.

  4. The red mud accident in ajka (hungary): plant toxicity and trace metal bioavailability in red mud contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Vassilieva, Elvira; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, André; Smolders, Erik

    2011-02-15

    The red mud accident of October 4, 2010, in Ajka (Hungary) contaminated a vast area with caustic, saline red mud (pH 12) that contains several toxic trace metals above soil limits. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Red mud radioactivity (e.g., (238)U) is about 10-fold above soil background and previous assessments revealed that radiation risk is limited to indoor radon. The plant toxicity and trace metal availability was tested with mixtures of this red mud and a local noncontaminated soil up to a 16% dry weight fraction. Increasing red mud applications increased soil pH to maximally 8.3 and soil solution EC to 12 dS m(-1). Shoot yield of barley seedlings was affected by 25% at 5% red mud in soil and above. Red mud increased shoot Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni concentrations; however, none of these exceed toxic limits reported elsewhere. Moreover, NaOH amended reference treatments showed similar yield reductions and similar changes in shoot composition. Foliar diagnostics suggest that Na (>1% in affected plants) is the prime cause of growth effects in red mud and in corresponding NaOH amended soils. Shoot Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by increasing applications or were unaffected. Leaching amended soils (3 pore volumes) did not completely remove the Na injury, likely because soil structure was deteriorated. The foliar composition and the NaOH reference experiment allow concluding that the Na salinity, not the trace metal contamination, is the main concern for this red mud in soil.

  5. A model for the release, dispersion and environmental impact of a postulated reactor accident from a submerged commercial nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, Timothy Creston

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are inherently suitable for submerged applications and could provide power to the shore power grid or support future underwater applications. The technology exists today and the construction of a submerged commercial nuclear power plant may become desirable. A submerged reactor is safer to humans because the infinite supply of water for heat removal, particulate retention in the water column, sedimentation to the ocean floor and inherent shielding of the aquatic environment would significantly mitigate the effects of a reactor accident. A better understanding of reactor operation in this new environment is required to quantify the radioecological impact and to determine the suitability of this concept. The impact of release to the environment from a severe reactor accident is a new aspect of the field of marine radioecology. Current efforts have been centered on radioecological impacts of nuclear waste disposal, nuclear weapons testing fallout and shore nuclear plant discharges. This dissertation examines the environmental impact of a severe reactor accident in a submerged commercial nuclear power plant, modeling a postulated site on the Atlantic continental shelf adjacent to the United States. This effort models the effects of geography, decay, particle transport/dispersion, bioaccumulation and elimination with associated dose commitment. The use of a source term equivalent to the release from Chernobyl allows comparison between the impacts of that accident and the postulated submerged commercial reactor plant accident. All input parameters are evaluated using sensitivity analysis. The effect of the release on marine biota is determined. Study of the pathways to humans from gaseous radionuclides, consumption of contaminated marine biota and direct exposure as contaminated water reaches the shoreline is conducted. The model developed by this effort predicts a significant mitigation of the radioecological impact of the reactor accident release

  6. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  7. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  8. Artificial radionuclides in surface air in Finland following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Mattila, Aleksi; Kettunen, Markku; Kontro, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of radionuclides released during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in ambient air and in deposition made in Finland during March-May 2011. The first observed fission product was (131)I, which arrived in Finland 8-9 days after the accident. Detections of (137)Cs and (134)Cs were made 2-3 days after the first (131)I observations. The highest concentrations of fission products in Finland were observed during March 31st and April 1st. The highest observed concentrations of the following isotopes were: (131)I (10.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3)), (134)Cs (0.397 ± 0.020 mBq/m(3)), (137)Cs (0.405 ± 0.017 mBq/m(3)), (136)Cs (28 ± 2 μBq/m(3)), (129)Te (129 ± 9 μBq/m(3)), (129m)Te (234 ± 20 μBq/m(3)), (132)Te (51 ± 3 μBq/m(3)) and (132)I (54 ± 3 μBq/m(3)). Generally, higher concentrations of fission product were observed in Southern Finland than in Northern Finland. The variations in the (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentration data suggest that three separate plumes passed over Finland with decreasing concentrations. The first plume, with highest cesium concentrations, passed over Finland during March 31st - April 2nd, the second plume during April 4th - 6th and the third and smallest one during April 10th - April 11th. Both aerosol and gaseous iodine fractions were sampled simultaneously and thus an accurate view of the behaviour of aerosol and gaseous fractions was obtained. Large variations between different fractions were observed with the gaseous fraction representing 65-98% of the total (131)I. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio was determined to be 0.99 ± 0.10, which indicates a fuel burnup of approximately 30 MWd/t. The (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(132)Te ratios were used to estimate the time lapse after the accident. The differences between true time lapse and the ones deduced from the isotope ratios were from the correct time lapse to 0-3 days for (136)Cs/(137)Cs and 5 days for (129m)Te/(132)Te, respectively. Radionuclides from

  9. Measurement of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratios in plant samples that were affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Risa; Inoue, Aki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8588 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    In nature, {sup 14}C is produced by cosmic ray reactions in the upper atmosphere, and its production is influenced by the flux of cosmic rays. This nuclide is also released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic sources such as nuclear weapons testing and a nuclear accident. The produced {sup 14}C immediately becomes {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and it is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis. Therefore, plants are reflected by atmospheric {sup 14}C levels at that time. Although there are many papers reporting the release of several nuclides by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident occurred in March, 2011, it is not clear whether appreciable amounts of {sup 14}C were released into the environment due to the accident. In this study, we focus on {sup 14}C levels in plant samples collected from several locations in Fukushima Prefecture (Okuma, Namie, Iitate, and Fukushima-city) and examine the possible influence on the {sup 14}C revels in plants. Since cedars and pines are evergreen, the leaves should have been contaminated at the time of the accident. We analyzed old leaves, which were grown before the accident, and new leaves, which were grown after the accident. Both old and new leaves were collected in the same branch. In order to compare delta {sup 14}C values in leaves collected from Fukushima Prefecture with background values, we have used plant samples collected from remote areas such as Chiba and Niigata Prefectures. The samples were dried, pulverized in a blender and homogenized. Then samples were placed between copper oxide wires in a quarts tube, burned and oxidized. The produced CO{sub 2} mixed gases were purified in a vacuum line. To prepare a graphite target for AMS, the purified CO{sub 2} was reduced. {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio in the graphite was measured by AMS at the University of Tokyo or Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Analytical results showed that delta {sup 14}C values in plant samples collected from the highly contaminated areas such as

  10. Optimization of the Severe Accident Management Strategy for Domestic Plants and Validation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. B.; Park, R. J.; Kim, H. D.; Koo, K. M.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. T.; Ha, K. S.; Kang, K. H.; Hong, S. H.; Kim, H. Y

    2005-04-15

    Main components and structures in nuclear power plants generally use materials having superior resistance to corrosion.Since the damages related to corrosion have become a menace to the safety of NPPs as well as economical loss and the steam generator tubing forming a boundary between the primary and secondary sides of NPPs is one of the main components that are most damaged by corrosion, it is strongly required to verify the mechanisms of the steam generator tubing degradations, to develop remedial techniques for the degradations, to manage the damages, and to develop techniques for the extension of the plant's life. In this study, the PWSCC characteristics of the archived steam generator tube materials in the domestic NPPs were evaluated and the databases of the obtained results were established. Also, the PWSCC characteristics of the welding material, Alloy 182, for Alloy 600, were evaluated. To verify the damage mechanisms of the circumferential SCC occurring in the expansion transition region of the tubes in the Korean standard NPPS, the evaluation technique for the residual stresses in the expanded region was acquired. A procedure of the inhibition technique for the SCC occurring in the secondary side of steam generators and a model for estimating the safety of damaged tubes by the structural leakage were developed, by which the fundamental technologies for the safe operations of NPPs, the management of the damages, and the expansion of the plant life were acquired. The material improvement technique for the integrity enhancement of tubes was developed. Along with the development of the Ni-coating technique the evaluation of the properties such as mechanical and SCC properties of the coated film was performed.

  11. Application of ant colony optimization approach to severe accident management measures of Maanshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.-M.; Wang, S.-J. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    The first three guidelines in the Maanshan SAMG were respectively evaluated for the effects in the SBO incident. The MAAP5 code was used to simulate the sequence of events and physical phenomena in the plant. The results show that the priority optimization should be carried out at two separated scenarios, i.e. the power recovered prior or after hot-leg creep rupture. The performance indices in the ant colony optimization could be the vessel life and the hydrogen generation from core for ant colony optimization. (author)

  12. Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

    Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

  13. Thermodynamic evaluation of the solidification phase of molten core-concrete under estimated Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Toru; Yano, Kimihiko; Ogino, Hideki; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2017-04-01

    The solidification phases of molten core-concrete under the estimated molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) conditions in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 were predicted using the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool, FactSage 6.2, and the NUCLEA database in order to contribute toward the 1F decommissioning work and to understand the accident progression via the analytical results for the 1F MCCI products. We showed that most of the U and Zr in the molten core-concrete forms (U,Zr)O2 and (Zr,U)SiO4, and the formation of other phases with these elements is limited. However, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 requires a relatively long time because it involves a change in the crystal structure from fcc-(U,Zr)O2 to tet-(U,Zr)O2, followed by the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 by reaction with SiO2. Therefore, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 is limited under quenching conditions. Other common phases are the oxide phases, CaAl2Si2O8, SiO2, and CaSiO3, and the metallic phases of the Fe-Si and Fe-Ni alloys. The solidification phenomenon of the crust under quenching conditions and that of the molten pool under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the 1F MCCI progression are discussed.

  14. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  15. Primary sand-dune plant community and soil properties during the west-coast India monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-station interrupted belt transect was established that followed a previously observed plant zonation pattern across an aggrading primary coastal dune system in the dry tropical region of west-coast India. The dominant weather pattern is monsoon from June to November, followed by hot and dry winter months when rainfall is scarce. Physical and chemical soil characteristics in each of the stations were analysed on five separate occasions, the first before the onset of monsoon, three during and the last post-monsoon. The plant community pattern was confirmed by quadrat survey. A pH gradient decreased with distance from the shoreline. Nutrient concentrations were deficient, increasing only in small amounts until the furthest station inland. At that location, there was a distinct and abrupt pedological transition zone from psammite to humic soils. There was a significant increase over previous stations in mean organic matter, ammonium nitrate and soil-water retention, although the increase in real terms was small. ANOVA showed significant variation in electrical conductivity, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations over time. There was no relationship between soil chemistry characteristics and plant community structure over the transect. Ipomoea pes-caprae and Spinifex littoreus were restricted to the foredunes, the leguminous forb Alysicarpus vaginalis and Perotis indica to the two stations furthest from the strand. Ischaemum indicum, a C4 perennial grass species adopting an ephemeral strategy was, in contrast, ubiquitous to all stations.

  16. Evaluation of the Relationship between Job Stress and Unsafe Acts with Occupational Accidents in a Vehicle Manufacturing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohammadfam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays the vehicle manufacturing industries in Iran are critical sites as far as occupational accidents are concerned. At the same time, occupational stress and unsafe acts have also been recognized as effective factors in increasing the risk of mental and physical health problems and occupational accidents. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between job stress and unsafe acts with occupational accidents.Materials & Methods: Data were collected using of “safety behaviors sampling technique”, standardized job stress questionnaire and analytical accident indices were calculated. The selection method of all samples was on a random basis. The information was then analyzed using Excel, SPSS and appropriate statistical tests.Results: The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between job stress and unsafe acts, the level of stress and unsafe acts with the number of occurred accidents (p-value<0.05. The study of the relationship between job stress, unsafe acts and occupational accidents via regression logistic test showed that increasing one percent in unsafe acts have more effect on accidents than increasing one grade in job stress. So, the rate or probability accidents can be predicted in organization by changes in the two mentioned variables.Conclusion: Reducing or eliminating identified effective stress factors and decreasing unsafe acts require the investment and implementation of an occupational stress management program.

  17. World Meteorological Organization's model simulations of the radionuclide dispersion and deposition from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Roland; Arnold, Dèlia; Chino, Masamichi; Galmarini, Stefano; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Leadbetter, Susan; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Rolph, Glenn; Saito, Kazuo; Servranckx, René; Shimbori, Toshiki; Solazzo, Efisio; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Five different atmospheric transport and dispersion model's (ATDM) deposition and air concentration results for atmospheric releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident were evaluated over Japan using regional (137)Cs deposition measurements and (137)Cs and (131)I air concentration time series at one location about 110 km from the plant. Some of the ATDMs used the same and others different meteorological data consistent with their normal operating practices. There were four global meteorological analyses data sets available and two regional high-resolution analyses. Not all of the ATDMs were able to use all of the meteorological data combinations. The ATDMs were configured identically as much as possible with respect to the release duration, release height, concentration grid size, and averaging time. However, each ATDM retained its unique treatment of the vertical velocity field and the wet and dry deposition, one of the largest uncertainties in these calculations. There were 18 ATDM-meteorology combinations available for evaluation. The deposition results showed that even when using the same meteorological analysis, each ATDM can produce quite different deposition patterns. The better calculations in terms of both deposition and air concentration were associated with the smoother ATDM deposition patterns. The best model with respect to the deposition was not always the best model with respect to air concentrations. The use of high-resolution mesoscale analyses improved ATDM performance; however, high-resolution precipitation analyses did not improve ATDM predictions. Although some ATDMs could be identified as better performers for either deposition or air concentration calculations, overall, the ensemble mean of a subset of better performing members provided more consistent results for both types of calculations.

  18. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media.

  19. 高压加氢裂化装置事故模拟分析%Simulation Analysis on Accidents in High Pressure Hydrogenation Cracking Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小红

    2012-01-01

    Taking the high pressure hydrogenation cracking plant as example,the plant was divided into 7 areas with potential hazard according to functions of each unit,and analysis was made on conditions of occurring fire or explosion accident in each area.Simulation was made for the accidents with SAFETI software,and corresponding safety precaution measures were raised based on data of accidents'affecting region.%以高压加氢裂化装置为例,根据各单元的功能,将装置划分为7个危险区域,对各区域发生火灾或爆炸事故的条件进行了分析。利用SAFETI软件对事故进行模拟,并根据事故影响范围数据提出了相应的安全措施。

  20. Atmospheric radioxenon isotope monitoring in Beijing after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chongyang; Zhou, Guoqing; Feng, Shujuan; Jin, Yuren; Zhao, Xinhua; Cheng, Ziwei; Huang, Xiongliang; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Xu

    2013-02-01

    A custom-made, on-site radioxenon sampling, separation and monitoring system was used to monitor atmospheric radioxenon concentrations in Beijing, released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake of 11 March 2011. The results show that (133)Xe concentrations ranged from 393 to 26 mBq/m(3) from 12 to 27 April 2011, and those of (131 m)Xe were 84 and 40 mBq/m(3) on 13 and 15 April 2011, respectively. The highest dose rate caused by (133)Xe was 2 × 10(-5)mSv/yr, and the average (133)Xe/(131 m)Xe ratio was 3.8 ± 0.4.

  1. Invasive plant species in the West Indies: geographical, ecological, and floristic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Tremblay, Raymond L; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Díaz-Soltero, Hilda

    2017-07-01

    The level of invasion (number or proportion of invasive species) in a given area depends on features of the invaded community, propagule pressure, and climate. In this study, we assess the invasive flora of nine islands in the West Indies to identify invasion patterns and evaluate whether invasive species diversity is related to geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors. We compiled a database of invasive plant species including information on their taxonomy, origin, pathways of introduction, habitats, and life history. This database was used to evaluate the similarity of invasive floras between islands and to identify invasion patterns at regional (West Indies) and local (island) scales. We found a total of 516 alien plant species that are invasive on at least one of the nine islands studied, with between 24 to 306 invasive species per island. The invasive flora on these islands includes a wide range of taxonomic groups, life forms, and habitats. We detected low similarity in invasive species diversity between islands, with most invasive species (>60%) occurring on a single island and 6% occurring on at least five islands. To assess the importance of different models in predicting patterns of invasive species diversity among islands, we used generalized linear models. Our analyses revealed that invasive species diversity was well predicted by a combination of island area and economic development (gross domestic product per capita and kilometers of paved roadways). Our results provide strong evidence for the roles of geographical, ecological, and socioeconomic factors in determining the distribution and spread of invasive species on these islands. Anthropogenic disturbance and economic development seem to be the major drivers facilitating the spread and predominance of invasive species over native species.

  2. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in coniferous forest soil after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramage, Mengistu T; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Nam, Sooyoun

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the description of the vertical distribution of radiocaesium ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) in a representative coniferous forest soil, investigated 10 months after the Fukushima radioactive fallout. During soil sampling, the forest floor components (understory plants, litter (Ol-) and fermented layers (Of)) were collected and treated separately. The results indicate that radiocesium is concentrated in the forest floor, and high radiocesium transfer factor observed in the undergrowth plants (3.3). This made the forest floor an active exchanging interphase for radiocesium. The raw organic layer (Ol + Of) holds 52% (5.3 kBq m(-2)) of the Fukushima-derived and 25% (0.7 kBq m(-2)) of the pre-Fukushima (137)Cs at the time of the soil sampling. Including the pre-Fukushima (137)Cs, 99% of the total soil inventory was in the upper 10 cm, in which the organic matter (OM) content was greater than 10%, suggesting the subsequent distribution most likely depends on the OM turnover. However, the small fraction of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs at a depth of 16 cm is most likely due to the infiltration of radiocesium-circumscribed rainwater during the fallout before that selective adsorption prevails and reduces the migration of soluble (137)Cs. The values of the depth distribution parameters revealed that the distribution of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was somewhat rapid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  4. IMMEDIATE MENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT ON MOTHERS EXPERIENCING MISCARRIAGE, ABORTION, AND STILLBIRTH: THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; FUJIMORI, KEIYA; Abe, Masafumi; FOR THE PREGNANCY AND BIRTH SURVEY GROUP OF THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY,

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers’ health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake...

  5. Immediate mental consequences of the great east Japan earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power Plant accident on mothers experiencing miscarriage, abortion, and stillbirth: the Fukushima health management survey

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIDA-KOMIYA, HIROMI; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; FUJIMORI, KEIYA; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers' health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake...

  6. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  7. Temporal changes in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in groundwater and stream water in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Nishino, Masataka; Konuma, Ryohei; Abe, Yutaka; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar; Sakaguchi, Aya; Kondo, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Yoshiki; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater and stream water in the headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ∼35 km north west of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), was monitored from June 2011 to July 2013, after the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Groundwater and stream water were sampled at intervals of approximately 2 months at each site. Intensive sampling was also conducted during rainstorm events. Compared with previous data from the Chernobyl NPP accident, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water was low. In the Iboishi-yama catchment, a trend was observed for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water to decline, which could be divided into two phases by October 2011 (a fast flush of activity as a result of rapid washoff and a slow decline as a result of soil fixation and redistribution processes). The highest (137)Cs concentration recorded at Iboishi-yama was 1.2 Bq/L on August 6, 2011, which then declined to 0.021-0.049 Bq/L during 2013 (in stream water under normal water-flow conditions). During the rainfall events, the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in stream water increased temporarily. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs in groundwater at a depth of 30 m at Iboishi-yama displayed a decreasing trend from 2011 to 2013, with a range from 0.039 Bq/L to 0.0025 Bq/L. The effective half-lives of stream water in the initial fast flush and secondary phases were 0.10-0.21 and 0.69-1.5 y, respectively in the three catchments. The effective half-life of groundwater was 0.46-0.58 y at Koutaishi-yama and 0.50-3.3 y at Iboishi-yama. The trend for the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs to decline in groundwater and stream water was similar throughout 2012-2013, and the concentrations recorded in deeper groundwater were closer to those in stream water. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in stream water was similar to that of the loss of canopy (137)Cs by throughfall, as

  8. Radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J Patrick; Lepage, Hugo; Onda, Yuichi; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) resulting in a loss of cooling and a series of explosions releasing the largest quantity of radioactive material into the atmosphere since the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although 80% of the radionuclides from this accidental release were transported over the Pacific Ocean, 20% were deposited over Japanese coastal catchments that are subject to frequent typhoons. Among the radioisotopes released during the FDNPP accident, radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) is considered the most serious current and future health risk for the local population. The goal of this review is to synthesize research relevant to the transfer of FDNPP derived radiocesium from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean. After radiocesium fallout deposition on vegetation and soils, the contamination may remain stored in forest canopies, in vegetative litter on the ground, or in the soil. Once radiocesium contacts soil, it is quickly and almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. The kinetic energy of raindrops instigates the displacement of soil particles, and their bound radiocesium, which may be mobilized and transported with overland flow. Soil erosion is one of the main processes transferring particle-bound radiocesium from hillslopes through rivers and streams, and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Accordingly this review will summarize results regarding the fundamental processes and dynamics that govern radiocesium transfer from hillslopes to the Pacific Ocean published in the literature within the first four years after the FDNPP accident. The majority of radiocesium is reported to be transported in the particulate fraction, attached to fine particles. The contribution of the dissolved fraction to radiocesium migration is only relevant in base flows and is hypothesized to decline over time. Owing to the hydro-meteorological context of the

  9. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlaif Rasha B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank, six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI, were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26

  10. Radiocesium Transfer in Forest Insect Communities after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Seiji; Takamura, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5–2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi. Radiocesium activity concentrations in any given species reflected the degree of contamination of that species’ primary food sources since radiocesium activity concentrations were found to be the lowest in leaves and grass and the highest in litter, bark, and fungi. This study confirmed that litter and other highly contaminated forest components such as fungi, decaying wood, bryophytes, and lichens serve as sources of 137Cs transfer into the forest insect community. PMID:28125745

  11. Research with radiation and radioisotopes to better understand plant physiology and agricultural consequences of radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2017-01-01

    Research carried out by me and my group over the last almost four decades are summarized here. The main emphasis of my work was and continues to be on plant physiology using radiation and radioisotopes. Plants live on water and inorganic elements. In the case of water, we developed neutron imaging methods and produced (15)O-labeled water (half-life 2 min) and applied them to understand water circulation pattern in the plant. In the case of elements, we developed neutron activation analysis methods to analyze a large number of plant tissues to follow element specific distribution. Then, we developed real-time imaging system using conventional radioisotopes for the macroscopic and microscopic observation of element movement. After the accident in Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we, the academic staff of Graduate School, have been studying agricultural effects of radioactive fallout; the main results are summarized in two books published by Springer.

  12. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, Michael (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  13. RODOS-based simulation of potential accident scenarios for emergency response management in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, H.; Gering, F.; Arnold, K.; Gerich, B.; Heinrich, G.; Welte, U.

    2016-09-15

    In the wake of the Fukushima disaster in March 2011, the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) started to investigate the potential radiological consequences of a ''Fukushima-like'' accident in a German nuclear power plant and conducted appropriate simulations in 2012. Between the end of 2012 and the end of 2013, the first study was followed by a much more detailed and comprehensive investigation comprising more than 5000 case studies for three nuclear power plant (NPP) sites in Germany. Based on these results the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) released a new recommendation in March 2014 including an expansion of the current emergency planning zones for nuclear power plants in Germany. The key results of this study with respect to the maximum dimensions of the affected areas where dose criteria may be exceeded are described below. The following results are based on the largest nuclear release scenario ''FKA'' (INES scale 7): - Threshold levels for deterministic effects and high doses (effective doses higher than 1000 mSv) can be reached or exceeded within a distance of about 3 km on average. - The emergency reference level for the intervention ''Evacuation'' can be reached or exceeded within a distance of up to 9 to 18 km (adults) and/or up to 14 to 24 km (infants) on average (the indicated interval describes the minimum and maximum levels of the median value at all three NPP sites). - The emergency reference level for the intervention ''Sheltering'' can be reached or exceeded within a distance of up to 62 to 80 km (adults) and/or up to 91 to 114 km (infants) on average. - The emergency reference level for the intervention ''Stable iodine prophylaxis'' can be exceeded within a distance of up to 24 to 34 km (adults) and/or up to 148 to 161 km (infants and pregnant women) on average.

  14. Radiocesium Contamination of Quercus Serrata From Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident During 2011 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan); Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Itou, Hirohisa; Murakami, Kaori; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate time dependence of contamination by radioactive cesium in the ecosystems at Yamakiya, Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture from 2011 to 2013. The depth contamination profile of soil and the three dimensional contamination profile of cedar tree were evaluated in the cedar forest at Yamakiya, the evacuation area, 30 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.The soil contamination proceeded in the depth direction within 4 7 months after the foul out, the depth concentration profiles was described linearly in logarithmic scale. The radiocesium in soil approached the depth of cedar roots within two years after the foul out. The contamination of outside of cedar tree, leaves twigs and bark in this area was in the range from 10,000 to 200,000 Bq/kgDW in August 2011. The inside contamination of cedar tree was in the rage from 500 to 10,000 Bq/kgDW, and the inside concentration of radiocesium depended on the direction and the height. The first stage of inside contamination of cedar tree was caused by the foliar and bark absorptions in 2011. The radiocesium existed particularly in heartwood and the phloem or the water vessel (sap wood) in cedar. The radiocesium concentration in heartwood depended on the height, however that in the phloem depended slightly on the height. The inside concentration of radiocesium in heartwood and sap wood closely related to the water content or distribution in wood. In this study, the relationship between transportation of water and radiocesium was discussed. (authors)

  15. Dose estimation for nuclear power plant 4 accident in Taiwan at Fukushima nuclear meltdown emission level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei-Ling; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Kuo, Pei-Hsuan

    2016-05-01

    An advanced Gaussian trajectory dispersion model is used to evaluate the evacuation zone due to a nuclear meltdown at the Nuclear Power Plant 4 (NPP4) in Taiwan, with the same emission level as that occurred at Fukushima nuclear meltdown (FNM) in 2011. Our study demonstrates that a FNM emission level would pollute 9% of the island's land area with annual effective dose ≥50 mSv using the meteorological data on 11 March 2011 in Taiwan. This high dose area is also called permanent evacuation zone (denoted as PEZ). The PEZ as well as the emergency-planning zone (EPZ) are found to be sensitive to meteorological conditions on the event. In a sunny day under the dominated NE wind conditions, the EPZ can be as far as 100 km with the first 7-day dose ≥20 mSv. Three hundred sixty-five daily events using the meteorological data from 11 March 2011 to 9 March 2012 are evaluated. It is found that the mean land area of Taiwan in becoming the PEZ is 11%. Especially, the probabilities of the northern counties/cities (Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County and Ilan County) to be PEZs are high, ranging from 15% in Ilan County to 51% in Keelung City. Note that the total population of the above cities/counties is as high as 10 million people. Moreover, the western valleys of the Central Mountain Range are also found to be probable being PEZs, where all of the reservoirs in western Taiwan are located. For example, the probability can be as high as 3% in the far southern-most tip of Taiwan Island in Pingtung County. This shows that the entire populations in western Taiwan can be at risk due to the shortage of clean water sources under an event at FNM emission level, especially during the NE monsoon period.

  16. Vertical distributions of plutonium isotopes in marine sediment cores off the Fukushima coast after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Bu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident led to the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the atmosphere as well as direct discharges into the sea. In contrast to the intensive studies on the distribution of the released high volatility fission products, such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, similar studies of the actinides, especially the Pu isotopes, are limited. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination of Pu from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, we determined the activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu in sediment core samples collected in the western North Pacific off Fukushima from July 2011 to July 2012. We also measured surface sediment samples collected from seven Japanese estuaries before the FNDPP accident to establish the comprehensive background baseline data. The observed results of both the Pu activities and the Pu atom ratios for the sediments in the western North Pacific were comparable to the baseline data, suggesting that the FDNPP accident did not cause detectable Pu contamination to the studied regions prior to the sampling time. The Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific 30 km off the Fukushima coast originated from global fallout and Pacific Proving Ground close-in fallout.

  17. Plant-hummingbird interactions in the West Indies: floral specialisation gradients associated with environment and hummingbird size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Martín González, Ana M; Olesen, Jens M; Ollerton, Jeff; Timmermann, Allan; Andersen, Laila H; Tossas, Adrianne G

    2009-04-01

    Floral phenotype and pollination system of a plant may be influenced by the abiotic environment and the local pollinator assemblage. This was investigated in seven plant-hummingbird assemblages on the West Indian islands of Grenada, Dominica and Puerto Rico. We report all hummingbird and insect pollinators of 49 hummingbird-pollinated plant species, as well as six quantitative and semi-quantitative floral characters that determine visitor restriction, attraction and reward. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, we show that hummingbird-pollinated plants in the West Indies separate in floral phenotypic space into two gradients-one associated with the abiotic environment and another with hummingbird size. Plants pollinated by large, long-billed hummingbirds had flowers with long corolla tube, large amounts of nectar and showy orange-red colouration. These attracted few or no insect species, whereas plants pollinated by small, short-billed hummingbirds were frequently pollinated by insects, particularly lepidopterans. The separation of plants related to environmental factors showed that species in the wet and cold highlands produced large amounts of dilute nectar, possessed no or a weak odour, and were associated with few insects, particularly few hymenopterans, compared to plants in the dry and warm lowlands. The most specialised hummingbird-pollinated plants are found in the West Indian highlands where they are pollinated by mainly large, long-billed hummingbirds. At the other extreme, highly generalised plants growing in the dry and warm lowlands are pollinated by small, short-billed hummingbirds and numerous insect species. This illustrates that, even within the hummingbird-pollinated flora, pollination syndrome and the degree of specialisation may vary tremendously depending on pollinator morphology and environment.

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  19. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents; Notfallschutz und Risk Governance. Zur nuklearen Sicherheit bei Kernkraftwerksunfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  1. (14)C levels in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant prior to the 2011 accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T; Cresswell, Alan J; Dunbar, Elaine; Freeman, Stewart P H T; Hastie, Helen; Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsson, Piotr; Naysmith, Philip; Sanderson, David C W; Tripney, Brian G; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) from Okuma, ∼1 km southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, was cored and each annual ring was analysed for (14)C. The (14)C specific activity values varied from 330.4 Bq kg(-1) C in the tree ring formed in 1971 to 231.2 Bq kg(-1) C in the 2014 ring. During the periods 1971-1976 and 2011-2014, the (14)C specific activities are indistinguishable from the ambient background values. However, compared with the ambient atmospheric levels, the (14)C specific activities between 1977 and 2010 are significantly elevated, clearly indicating (14)C discharges from the reactors during their normal operations. In addition, the specific activities are positively correlated with the annual electricity generation values. The excess (14)C specific activities were wind direction is east-southeast/southeast with a frequency of ∼30%, in comparison to ∼20% frequency for the direction of the site under study (north-northeast/northeast). This would tend to indicate a similar magnitude of additional effective dose and consequently no significant radiological impact of atmospheric (14)C discharges from the FDNPP during the entire period of normal operations. Additionally, no (14)C pulse in activity can be observed in the year 2011 ring. This might be caused by a limited (14)C release from the damaged reactors during the accident or that the prevailing wind during the short period of release (11th-25th March 2011) was not in the direction of Okuma.

  2. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable (137)Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total (137)Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total (137)Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding (137)Cs and (134)Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters.

  3. A study on the overall economic risks of a hypothetical severe accident in nuclear power plant using the delphi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Ki; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Potential economic impact of a hypothetical severe accident at a nuclear power plant(Uljin units 3/4) was estimated by applying the delphi method, which is based on the expert judgements and opinions, in the process of quantifying uncertain factor. For the purpose of this study, it is assumed that the radioactive plume directs the inland direction. Since the economic risk can be divided into direct costs and indirect effects and more uncertainties are involved in the latter, the direct costs were estimated first and the indirect effects were then estimated by applying a weighting factor to the direct cost. The delphi method however subjects to risk of distortion or discrimination of variables because of the human behavior pattern. A mathematical approach based on the Bayesian inferences was employed for data processing to improve the delphi results. For this task, a model for data processing was developed. One-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to get a distribution of values of the weighting factor. The mean and median values of the weighting factor for the indirect effects appeared to be 2.59 and 2.08, respectively. These values are higher than the value suggested by OECD/NEA, 1.25. Some factors such as small territory and public attitude sensitive to radiation could affect the judgement of panel. Then the parameters of the model for estimating the direct costs were classified as U- and V-types, and two-dimensional Monte Carlo analysis was applied to quantify the overall economic risk. The resulting median of the overall economic risk was about 3.9% of the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of Korea in 2006. When the cost of electricity loss, the highest direct cost, was not taken into account, the overall economic risk was reduced to 2.2% of GDP. This assessment can be used as a reference for justifying the radiological emergency planning and preparedness.

  4. Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kameesy, S U; Salama, E

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive contamination in air dust particles of Cairo atmosphere from the Fukushima accident was detected by the gamma-ray spectroscopy technique. Analysis of the spectra obtained by using an High-Purity Germanium detector showed that there were some traces of (131)I and (134, 137)Cs. Estimate and study of concentration of those radionuclides were done over a period of about 5 months after the accident. Comparison with corresponding results in different countries all over the world has been performed.

  5. A study on the operator's errors of commission (EOC) in accident scenarios of nuclear power plants: methodology development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kang, Da Il

    2003-04-01

    As the concern on the operator's inappropriate interventions, the so-called Errors Of Commission (EOCs), that can exacerbate the plant safety has been raised, much of interest in the identification and analysis of EOC events from the risk assessment perspective has been increased. Also, one of the items in need of improvement for the conventional PSA and HRA that consider only the system-demanding human actions is the inclusion of the operator's EOC events into the PSA model. In this study, we propose a methodology for identifying and analysing human errors of commission that might be occurring from the failures in situation assessment and decision making during accident progressions given an initiating event. In order to achieve this goal, the following research items have been performed: Firstly, we analysed the error causes or situations contributed to the occurrence of EOCs in several incidents/accidents of nuclear power plants. Secondly, limitations of the advanced HRAs in treating EOCs were reviewed, and a requirement for a new methodology for analysing EOCs was established. Thirdly, based on these accomplishments a methodology for identifying and analysing EOC events inducible from the failures in situation assessment and decision making was proposed and applied to all the accident sequences of YGN 3 and 4 NPP which resulted in the identification of about 10 EOC situations.

  6. INITIAL AND PRESENT SITUATION OF FOOD CONTAMINATION IN JAPAN AFTER THE ACCIDENT AT THE FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2011 affected not only the terrestrial environment of Fukushima prefecture and the surrounding area, but also the marine area facing the NPP. Our present study is focused on the concentrations of radionuclides in agricultural products of Fukushima and sea-foods collected off Fukushima after the accident. The regulation value for radiocesium in vegetables, meat and fish was revised from 500 Bq/kg-wet to 100 Bq/kg-wet on 1 April 2012. The overall activity of radiocesium in these products was found to be within the limit of tolerance in respect to Japanese and also international regulations, but there is still radiocesium found at activities greater than this level in edible wild plants, wild mushrooms and game such as boar meat. Although the activities of radionuclides exceeding the regulatory limits were not detected in marine products collected off Fukushima after April 2015, the commercial marine fishery has not received approval in the affected areas except for certain species. We learned from the Fukushima accident that long-term kinetic studies of radionuclides in terrestrial and marine environments is extremely important for prevention of internal contamination, since contamination with radionuclides occurs via the food chain in the environment.

  7. Simulation of ¹³⁷Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V; Pozzoli, L; Unal, A; Kindap, T; Karaca, M

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to (137)Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of (137)Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of (137)Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the 'Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident' and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on (137)Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2-3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m(-2) and 100 kBq m(-2). Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest contaminated after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced (137)Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured (137)Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine (137)Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total (137)Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m(-2)) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i.e., contaminated) area, which was however not statistically significant. Four months after decontamination, (137)Cs in the decontaminated area had increased to a level similar to those in the untreated area, and the air radiation dose in the decontaminated area was about 2.1 μSv·h(-1), significantly higher than that in the untreated area (1.9 μSv·h(-1)). This may have been attributed to a torrential rain event. Although no statistically significant reduction was observed, most spiders had a lower (137)Cs contamination than that before the decontamination. This implied that the decontamination may have reduced (137)Cs transfer from soil via litter to N. clavata through the detrital food chains, but may not have reduced the amount of (137)Cs transfer through grazing food chains because the concentration of (137)Cs in living tree leaves was not reduced by the decontamination. In autumn, about 2 kBq·m(-2) of (137)Cs was supplied from foliage to the ground by litterfall. The results suggested that removal of the litter and superficial soil layers in a contaminated forest may be ineffective. The present study suggests that the local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest had no effect on the reduction of (137)Cs contamination in the treated area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time management (RTM) by cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) for risk analysis of Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Convergence Engineering; The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-03-15

    The earthquake and tsunami induced accident of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Fukushima disaster is investigated by the real-time management (RTM) method. This non-linear logic of the safety management is applied to enhance the methodological confidence in the NPP reliability. The case study of the earthquake is modeled for the fast reaction characteristics of the RTM. The system dynamics (SD) modeling simulations and cloud computing are applied for the RTM method where the real time simulation has the fast and effective communication for the accident remediation and prevention. Current tablet computing system can improve the safety standard of the NPP. Finally, the procedure of the cloud computing system dynamics (CCSD) modeling is constructed.

  10. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: a modeling study for radiocaesium ((134)Cs &(137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-03-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan resulted in the release of a large number of fission products that were transported worldwide. We study the effects of two of the most dangerous radionuclides emitted, (137)Cs (half-life: 30.2years) and (134)Cs (half-life: 2.06years), which were transported across the world constituting the global fallout (together with iodine isotopes and noble gasses) after nuclear releases. The main purpose is to provide preliminary cancer risk estimates after the Fukushima NPP accident, in terms of excess lifetime incident and death risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, cancer risks are presented for the local population in the form of high-resolution risk maps for 3 population classes and for both sexes. The atmospheric transport model LMDZORINCA was used to simulate the global dispersion of radiocaesium after the accident. Air and ground activity concentrations have been incorporated with monitoring data as input to the LNT-model (Linear Non-Threshold) frequently used in risk assessments of all solid cancers. Cancer risks were estimated to be small for the global population in regions outside Japan. Women are more sensitive to radiation than men, although the largest risks were recorded for infants; the risk is not depended on the sex at the age-at-exposure. Radiation risks from Fukushima were more enhanced near the plant, while the evacuation measures were crucial for its reduction. According to our estimations, 730-1700 excess cancer incidents are expected of which around 65% may be fatal, which are very close to what has been already published (see references therein). Finally, we applied the same calculations using the DDREF (Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor), which is recommended by the ICRP, UNSCEAR and EPA as an alternative reduction factor instead of using a threshold value (which is still unknown). Excess lifetime cancer

  11. Dynamic and Spatio-temporal variability of leachable 137Cs by throughfall and stemflow in Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In the context of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FDNPPA), this study focuses on the mobility of leachable Caesium by throughfall and stemflow mechanisms in forests canopies, for the period going from June 2011 (four months after the accident), and until April 2013. In this period, 137Cs and 134Cs activity has been periodically measured, in an area located at 40 km from the power plant, in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow for broad-leaf and cedar forests. Specifically, our study deals with the seasonal effect, the dynamic and the spatio-temporal variability on leachable Cs in these forests. Except for rainfall intensity, no weather impact (wind velocity and snow fall episodes) was observed for the Cs loss. Concerning the seasonal effect, two periods for which Cs significantly increased could be identify: autumn and spring. During the period of investigation, compared to stemflow, the main flux of Cs was induced by throughfall mechanisms, whereas for rainfall, no Cs was detected. By using a double exponential model, the Cs loss by throughfall and stemflow was estimated from the initial deposition to 2 years after the accident. Since the accident, the total Cs loss by leaching was estimated to 35-70%, 31-62% and 49-99% of the total deposition for respectively mature cedar, young cedar and broad-leaf forests. In term of qualitative spatial variability no variation was observed in throughfall collectors with time. However, a high quantitative variability can be observed, due to the difference of leaf density above each throughfall collectors.

  12. Trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Ka-Ming, E-mail: bhkmwai@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yu, Peter K.N. [Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of {sup 137}Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0–500 m) {sup 137}Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m{sup −3} near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (∼ 1 mBq m{sup −3}) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km{sup 2} in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. - Highlights: • A Lagrangian model was used to predict the dispersion of {sup 137}Cs from plant accident. • Observed and modeled {sup 137}Cs concentrations were comparable for the Fukushima accident. • The maximum surface concentrations could reach 10 Bq m{sup −3} for the hypothetical case. • The hypothetical radiative plumes could impact E/SE Asia and N. America.

  13. A human reliability analysis of the Three Mile power plant accident considering the THERP and ATHEANA methodologies; Uma analise da confiabilidade humana do acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island II considerando as metodologias Therp e Atheana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2004-03-15

    The main purpose of this work is the study of human reliability using the THERP (Technique for Human Error Prediction) and ATHEANA methods (A Technique for Human Error Analysis), and some tables and also, from case studies presented on the THERP Handbook to develop a qualitative and quantitative study of nuclear power plant accident. This accident occurred in the TMI (Three Mile Island Unit 2) power plant, PWR type plant, on March 28th, 1979. The accident analysis has revealed a series of incorrect actions, which resulted in the Unit 2 shut down and permanent loss of the reactor. This study also aims at enhancing the understanding of the THERP method and ATHEANA, and of its practical applications. In addition, it is possible to understand the influence of plant operational status on human failures and of these on equipment of a system, in this case, a nuclear power plant. (author)

  14. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  15. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  16. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  17. Childhood and Adolescent Thyroid Cancer in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: 5 Years On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S

    2016-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, releasing a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Questions were raised regarding the health effects of radiation exposure, which led to increased anxiety among the Fukushima residents about the possible development of thyroid cancer. Thus, thyroid ultrasound examinations began for those who were from the areas where the radiation doses were highest, and will continue for the long term. In total, 300 476 subjects aged 18 years or younger at the time of the disaster were screened from 9 October 2011 to 31 March 2014. The participation rate was 81.7% of the total population of this age and in the affected area. Among them, the proportions of those who fell into the categories A1 (no nodules or cysts present), A2 (nodule ≤ 5 mm or cyst ≤ 20 mm diameter), B (nodule > 5 mm or cyst > 20 mm diameter) and C (immediate need for further investigation) were 51.5, 47.8, 0.8 and 0%, respectively; 2294 subjects in categories B and C were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination; 113 were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The full-scale survey (second round survey) began in April 2014, and was completed by 30 June 2015, and comprised 169 455 subjects (participation rate; 44.7%). The proportions of those who fell into the categories A1, A2, B and C were 41.6, 57.6, 0.8 and 0% (no case), respectively; 1223 subjects in category B were recommended to undergo a confirmatory examination, 25 of these were subsequently diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy by fine needle aspiration cytology. The thyroid cancers identified in this survey so far are unlikely to be due to radiation exposure, and are more likely to be the result of screening using highly sophisticated ultrasound techniques. However, it would be advisable to continue long

  18. Design Study of Nuclear Power Plant Severe Accidents Monitoring and Control System%核电厂严重事故监测和控制系统的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜德君; 何庆镭

    2015-01-01

    HAF102-2004 "Nuclear power plant safety requirements for quality assurance" requires: besides of design reference, nuclear power plant design must consider the specific case beyond design reference, which includes the behavior of selected severe accidents. After the Fukushima accidents, each country pays more attention to sever accidents, the prevention and mitigation of severe accidents becomes one important point for the nuclear plant design. In the third generation nuclear power plant, the severe accidents monitoring and control system should be implemented to realize the function of prevention and mitigation for severe accidents.%HAF102-2004《核动力厂设计安全规定》中要求:除了设计基准外,设计中还必须考虑核动力厂在特定的超设计基准事故包括选定的严重事故中的行为。2011年福岛事故后,各国对严重事故更加关注,严重事故的预防和缓解成为核电厂设计中的一个重点。在三代核电厂设计中,增加了专门的严重事故监测和控制系统用来实现严重事故的预防和缓解功能。

  19. Contribution of entomophilous pollination to fruit production of West Indian cherry plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Eduardo Martins deOliveira; Daniel Nicodemo; Favízia Freitas deOliveira

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to determine the dependence degree of the West Indian cherry Olivier cultivar, concerning the entomophilous pollination, as well as discovering its potential pollinators, by studying...

  20. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h.

  1. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yanliang, E-mail: hytyl@163.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Ishikawa, Tetsuo [Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima (Japan); Janik, Miroslaw [Regulatory Science Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tokonami, Shinji [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Hosoda, Masahiro [Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Science, Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan); Sorimachi, Atsuyuki [Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima (Japan); Kearfott, Kimberlee [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. - Highlights: • Actual ASF of the dwells is very important to estimate the inhalation dose. • A simple model is developed to describe ASF. • The key parameter of ASF is obtained from the measurement of NIRS. • The ASF of any dwellings can be obtained by our model and relatively parameters.

  2. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration.

  3. The Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a triple disaster affecting the mental health of the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun

    2013-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature.

  4. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  5. Simulation of {sup 137}Cs transport and deposition after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and radiological doses over the Anatolian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, V.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T., E-mail: kindap@itu.edu.tr; Karaca, M.

    2014-11-15

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident occurred on April 26 of 1986, it is still an episode of interest, due to the large amount of radionuclides dispersed in the atmosphere. Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is one of the main radionuclides emitted during the Chernobyl accident, with a half-life of 30 years, which can be accumulated in humans and animals, and for this reason the impacts on population are still monitored today. One of the main parameters in order to estimate the exposure of population to {sup 137}Cs is the concentration in the air, during the days after the accident, and the deposition at surface. The transport and deposition of {sup 137}Cs over Europe occurred after the CNPP accident has been simulated using the WRF-HYSPLIT modeling system. Four different vertical and temporal emission rate profiles have been simulated, as well as two different dry deposition velocities. The model simulations could reproduce fairly well the observations of {sup 137}Cs concentrations and deposition, which were used to generate the ‘Atlas of Caesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident’ and published in 1998. An additional focus was given on {sup 137}Cs deposition and air concentrations over Turkey, which was one of the main affected countries, but not included in the results of the Atlas. We estimated a total deposition of 2–3.5 PBq over Turkey, with 2 main regions affected, East Turkey and Central Black Sea coast until Central Anatolia, with values between 10 kBq m{sup −2} and 100 kBq m{sup −2}. Mean radiological effective doses from simulated air concentrations and deposition has been estimated for Turkey reaching 0.15 mSv/year in the North Eastern part of Turkey, even if the contribution from ingestion of contaminated food and water is not considered, the estimated levels are largely below the 1 mSv limit indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. - Highlights: • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

  6. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  7. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs, thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1 and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2. Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively; after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320 in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482. On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003, though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  8. Determination of plutonium isotopes in marine sediments off the Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Bu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident led to the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the atmosphere as well as direct discharges into the sea. In contrast to the intensive studies on the distribution of the released high volatility fission products, such as 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, similar studies of the actinides, especially the Pu isotopes, are limited. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination of Pu from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, we determined the activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu / 239Pu and 241Pu / 239Pu in sediment core samples collected in the western North Pacific off Fukushima from July 2011 to July 2012. We also measured surface sediment samples collected from seven Japanese estuaries before the FNDPP accident to establish the comprehensive background baseline data. The observed results of both the Pu activities and the Pu atom ratios for the sediments in the western North Pacific were comparable to the baseline data, suggesting that the FDNPP accident did not cause detectable Pu contamination to the studied regions prior to the sampling time. The Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific 30 km off Fukushima coast originated from global fallout and Pacific Proving Ground close-in fallout.

  9. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  10. [Effect of infrared laser irradiation on the arterial blood pressure in liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkushko, O O

    2003-01-01

    Liquidators of Tchernobyl accident with discirculatory post-irradiation encephalopathy were treated with infra-red lazer irradiation together with a half doze of pharmacological agents usually used. Infra-red lazer irradiation has been shown to result in a significant reduce in the arterial pressure level, so it can be effective in correcting the disturbances in haemodynamics.

  11. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

  12. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  14. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  15. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  16. Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactivity from Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Global Assessment and Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Christoudias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km. We present an overview of global risks and also a case study of nuclear power plants that are currently under construction, planned and proposed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, a region prone to earthquakes. We implemented continuous emissions from each location, making the simplifying assumption that all potential accidents release the same amount of radioactivity. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

  17. Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Charette

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP. During a June 2011 cruise, the highest Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio current, and in an eddy ∼ 130 km from the NPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2–3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d to derive an average water mass age (Tr in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days. From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9–4.6 × 1013 Bq d−1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz of 0.7 m2 d−1 (0.1 cm2 s−1; from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d−1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ∼ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and

  18. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Wrobel, J. [Directorate of Safety, Health, and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  19. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsumune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open

  20. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  1. [Relations between uricemia and some sensomotor functions in liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentiĭchuk, B I

    2003-01-01

    Correlations between the level of uricemia and some parametres of the psycho-physiological testing were studied in liquidators of the Tchernobyl accident. Those correlations were of two types--determining and in determining. On the base of the data obtained four groups were chosen: 1/with normo- and hyperuricemia and low mental capacity; 2/with an expressed hypouricemia and over normal mental capacity; 3/with normouricemia and normal mental capacity; 4/with hypouricemia and normal mental capacity.

  2. Vertical distribution of radiocesium in soils of the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Yoschenko, V. I.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Presented are results of the study of radiocesium vertical distribution in the soils of the irrigation pond catchments in the near field 0.25 to 8 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, on sections of the Niida River floodplain, and in a forest ecosystem typical of the territory contaminated after the accident. It is shown that the vertical migration of radiocesium in undisturbed forest and grassland soils in the zone affected by the Fukushima accident is faster than it was in the soils of the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP for a similar time interval after the accident. The effective dispersion coefficients in the Fukushima soils are several times higher than those for the Chernobyl soils. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone. In the forest soils the radiocesium dispersion is faster as compared to grassland soils, both in the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones. The study and analysis of the vertical distribution of the Fukushima origin radiocesium in the Niida gawa floodplain soils has made it possible to identify areas of contaminated sediment accumulation on the floodplain. The average accumulation rate for sediments at the study locations on the Niida gawa floodplain varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. Taking into account the sediments accumulation leading to an increase in the radiocesium inventory in alluvial soils is key for predicting redistribution of radioactive contamination after the Fukushima accident on the river catchments, as well as for decision-making on contaminated territories remediation and clean-up. Clean-up of alluvial soils does not seem to be worthwhile because of the following accumulation of contaminated sediments originating from more contaminated areas, including the exclusion zone.

  3. Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation) and International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)]. E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Sanzharova, N.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spirin, Ye.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Spiridonov, S.I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Gontarenko, I.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Kievskoe shosse, Kaluga region, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteras (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10{sup 5}) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well.

  4. Analysis of high burnup fuel behavior under control rod ejection accident in Korea standard nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bok; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kim, Jong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Test results of high burnup fuel behavior under RIA(reactivity insertion accident) indicated that fuel might fail at the fuel enthalpy lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria was derived by the conservative assumptions and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms, and applied to the analysis of control rod ejection accident in the 1,000 MWe Korea standard PWR. Except that three dimensional core analysis was performed instead of conventional zero dimensional analysis, all the other conservative assumptions were kept. Analysis results showed that less than on percent of the fuel rods in the core has failed which was much less than the conventional fuel failure fraction, 9.8 %, even though a newly derived fuel failure criteria -Fuel failure occurs at the power level lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria. - was applied, since transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient core three dimensionally. Therefore, it can be said that results of the radiological consequence analysis for the control rod ejection accident in the FSAR where fuel failure fraction was assumed 9.8 % is still bounding. 18 tabs., 48 figs., 39 refs. (Author).

  5. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  6. A review of medicinal plant research at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, 1948-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Ahmad, M H

    2006-09-01

    This review summarizes research carried out on Jamaican medicinal plants at the Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, Jamaica, between 1948 and 2001. The plants identified as being medicinal are listed along with their folk use and a summary of the scientific research done at UWI leading to the identification of natural products (NPs) and determination of their bioactivity. Natural product research on Jamaican medicinal plants began with the inception of UWI in 1948, leading to many postgraduate degrees being awarded (22 MPhil and 31 PhD). At least 334 plant species growing in Jamaica have been identified as having medicinal qualities, 193 of these have been tested for their bioactivity. Crude extracts from 80 of these plants have reasonable bioactivity and natural products (NP) have been identified from 44 plants. At least 29 of these NPs were found to be bioactive. Only 31 of the plants tested at UWI are endemic to Jamaica. Of these 23% were bioactive, as compared to 11% of the non-endemics. Based on these results, patents have been obtained and drugs have been developed. This review represents the first attempt to gather this information together in one place.

  7. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  8. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  9. What do we know more than 2012 on the accident progression in Fukushima? What is the actual state of the plant?; Was wissen wir heute mehr als 2012 ueber den Unfallablauf in Fukushima? Wie ist der heutige Zustand der Anlage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The contribution includes the official statistics on the accident following the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 on the Japanese island Honshu and the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi. The plant was automatically shutdown as consequence of the earthquake. New calculations allow the reconstruction of the accident progress and the meltdown. Estimations of the released radioactivity, esp. the radionuclides I-131 and Cs-137 into the atmosphere and the ocean are summarized. The construction of water cleaning facilities for the contaminated waste water in the leaking tanks, water-tight barriers and the planning for the enclosure for the destroyed reactor buildings are described.

  10. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Yasuto; Suzuki, Yuriko; Shiga, Tetsuya; Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Otsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6) in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7%) evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models. Results The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1–10). The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%). We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs). Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002). Conclusion The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by

  11. Severe Psychological Distress of Evacuees in Evacuation Zone Caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kunii

    Full Text Available Following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has continued to affect the mental health status of residents in the evacuation zone. To examine the mental health status of evacuee after the nuclear accident, we conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey as part of the ongoing Fukushima Health Management Survey.We measured mental health status using the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K6 in a total of 73,569 (response rate: 40.7% evacuees aged 15 and over who lived in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. We then dichotomized responders using a 12/13 cutoff on the K6, and compared the proportion of K6 scores ≥13 and ≤12 in each risk factor including demographic information, socioeconomic variables, and disaster-related variables. We also performed bivariate analyses between mental health status and possible risk factors using the chi-square test. Furthermore, we performed multivariate regression analysis using modified Poisson regression models.The median K6 score was 5 (interquartile range: 1-10. The number of psychological distress was 8,717 (14.6%. We found that significant differences in the prevalence of psychological distress by almost all survey items, including disaster-related risk factors, most of which were also associated with increased Prevalence ratios (PRs. Additionally, we found that psychological distress in each evacuation zone was significantly positively associated with the radiation levels in their environment (r = 0.768, p = 0.002.The earthquake, tsunami and subsequent nuclear accident likely caused severe psychological distress among residents in the evacuation zone in Fukushima Prefecture. The close association between psychological distress and the radiation levels shows that the nuclear accident seriously influenced the mental health of the residents, which might be exacerbated by increased risk perception. To

  12. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident.

  13. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  14. Impact of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in the western North Pacific Ocean about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Murata, Akihiko; Kawano, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    We measured vertical distributions of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) at stations along the 149°E meridian in the western North Pacific during winter 2012, about ten months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident. The Fukushima-derived (134)Cs activity concentration and water-column inventory were largest in the transition region between 35 and 40°N approximately due to the directed discharge of the contaminated water from the FNPP1. The bomb-derived (137)Cs activity concentration just before the FNPP1 accident was derived from the excess (137)Cs activity concentration relative to the (134)Cs activity concentration. The water-column inventory of the bomb-derived (137)Cs was largest in the subtropical region south of 35°N, which implies that the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs will also be transported from the transition region to the subtropical region in the coming decades. Mean values of the water-column inventories decay-corrected for the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and the bomb-derived (137)Cs were estimated to be 1020 ± 80 and 820 ± 120 Bq m(-2), respectively, suggesting that in winter 2012 the impact of the FNPP1 accident in the western North Pacific Ocean was nearly the same as that of nuclear weapons testing. Relationship between the water-column inventory and the activity concentration in surface water for the radiocesium is essential information for future evaluation of the total amount of Fukushima-derived radiocesium released into the North Pacific Ocean.

  15. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  16. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  17. (90)Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-05

    Here we determined the (90)Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. (90)Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)(-1) and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of (90)Sr (Bq (g Sr)(-1)) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high (90)Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that (90)Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth (90)Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental (90)Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of (90)Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to (90)Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental (90)Sr pollution.

  18. Lateral variation of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in surface seawater in and around the Japan Sea after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Fujimoto, K; Takada, T; Isoda, Y

    2012-07-01

    A total of 82 surface seawater samples was collected in the Japan Sea and the southwestern Okhotsk Sea before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Analysis of (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations using low-background γ-spectrometry revealed that the (137)Cs concentration of the samples collected in June 2011 was 1.5-2.8mBq/L, which is approximately 1-2 times higher than the pre-accident (137)Cs level, while the (134)Cs concentration was less than detectable to 1mBq/L. In addition to (134)Cs being clearly detected (∼1mBq/L), (137)Cs concentration in water samples from the northeastern Japan Sea (2-2.8mBq/L) was also higher than that from the coast in the southwestern Japan Sea (∼1.5mBq/L). These higher concentrations in the northeastern Japan Sea could be ascribed to the atmospheric transport of nuclides from the FDNPP as aerosols and subsequent transport and dilution after delivery to the sea surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature.

  20. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)-1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)-1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution.

  1. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  2. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here.

  3. Cytogenetic biodosimetry for Fukushima travelers after the nuclear power plant accident: no evidence of enhanced yield of dicentrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Han, Eun-Ae; Lee, Seung-Sook; Ha, Wi-Ho; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Lee, Hyo Rak; Cho, Min Su

    2012-11-01

    Individuals who traveled to contaminated areas after the Fukushima nuclear accident have concerns about the health effects. However, medical follow-up for any adverse health effects will be difficult without personal dose measurements. Cytogenetic biodosimetry is a reasonable method of assessing absorbed doses retrospectively. We analyzed dicentric chromosomes for 265 Fukushima travelers, mostly journalists and rescue workers, who had been dispatched to northeastern Japan during the nuclear emergency. As a control group, 37 healthy volunteers who had not visited Japan since the accident were enrolled. Yields of dicentrics and absorbed doses calculated from a dose-response calibration curve for travelers and the control group were compared. The cut-off level for dicentric chromosomes in the controls was 3.5 per 1000 cells. Of the 265 travelers, 31 had elevated numbers of dicentrics (High-Dics group) while 234 were below the cut-off (Normal-Dics group). All but one of the individuals in the High-Dics group also reported a significantly higher number of medical exposures to radiation within the past three years compared with the Normal-Dics or control groups. The 225 travelers with no history of medical exposure showed no difference of dicentrics yield compared to the control group. Our data indicate that Fukushima travel alone did not enhance the yield of dicentrics.

  4. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsumune

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than

  5. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  6. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of

  7. Radiocesium contaminations of 20 wood species and the corresponding gamma-ray dose rates around the canopies at 5 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) deposition from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was measured in 20 woody plants (12 evergreen and 8 deciduous species) grown in Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW from the NPP). Leaves (needles) and twigs were sampled from each of three foliar positions (top, middle, and bottom) in the plant canopy in early August 2011. At the time, soils around the plants were also sampled, and gamma radiation dose rates were measured at each sampling position. The average radiocesium activity in the observed leaves of the evergreen species was 7.7 times that in the leaves of the deciduous species. Among the observed evergreen coniferous species, the activity in pre-fallout-expanded leaves was 2.4 times that in the post-fallout-expanded leaves. Notably, a distinct variation in the activity among the evergreen coniferous species could be observed for the post-fallout-expanded leaves but not for the pre-fallout-expanded leaves. Although these differences depend on whether the leaves had expanded at the time of the fallout, it is probable that a considerable amount of radiocesium was translocated to newly developed leaves at a species-specific rate. In addition, it was demonstrated that dose rates around woody plants were not consistent with the prevailing prediction that general dose rates correspondingly decrease with monitoring height from the ground. Thus, the dose rates in the top foliar layer of the deciduous species decreased more than predicted, whereas those in the top foliar layer of the coniferous species did not decrease. This may be due to differences in the balance between the attenuation resulting from a shielding effect of the plant bodies and the higher radiocesium accumulation in the leaves.

  8. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... to be of ancient origin, with the water being estimated at 10,000 to 18,000 years old (Chowdhury et... of the larger West Texas Bolsons and is made up of connected sub-basins underlying Wild Horse...). (The term bolson is of Spanish origin and refers to a flat-floored desert valley that drains to a playa...

  9. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  10. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Larsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak. Reference sites (REF were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP and harbors (HAR with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  11. Public health response to the combined Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and nuclear power plant accident: perspective from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Saito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At 14:46 on 11 March 2011, eastern Japan was struck by the largest earthquake in Japan's recorded history. With the epicentre off the Sanriku coast, the magnitude 9.0 quake triggered a tsunami, which together with the effects of the quake ignited a serious accident at a nuclear power plant. The damage was grave and widespread with the death toll as of 9 November 2011 at 15 835 and the number of missing and unaccounted for at 3664.1 Immediately after the earthquake, the Japanese Government, local governments in the stricken areas, hospitals, external organizations and volunteers launched coordinated relief and recovery activities. The role of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW in a disaster includes securing medical and nursing care, providing public health services and ensuring the safety of food and water supplies.

  12. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  13. Size-dependent distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments and its relevance to the migration of radiocesium in river systems after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Sakaguchi, Aya; Fan, Qiaohui; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the particle size distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Riverbed sediments were collected in the Abukuma River system in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures. The collected sediments were separated into 11 fractions, ranging from granular size (>2000 μm) to clay size (<2 μm) fractions. Cesium-137 concentrations were higher in the smaller particle size fractions, possibly reflecting specific surface areas and the mineralogy, in particular the clay mineral content. A gap in (137)Cs concentration was observed between the silt size and sand size fractions of riverbed sediments at downstream sites, whereas riverbed sediments at an upstream site did not show such a concentration gap. It is likely that selective transport of small particles in suspended state from upstream areas resulted in an accumulation of radiocesium in downstream areas.

  14. Remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash: a mini review since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Cai, Tianming

    2016-02-01

    The radiation contamination after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident attracts considerable concern all over the world. Many countries, areas, and oceans are greatly affected by the emergency situation other than Japan. An effective remediation strategy is in a highly urgent demand. Though plenty of works have been carried out, progressive achievements have not yet been well summarized. Here, we review the recent advances on the remediation of radiocesium-contaminated liquid waste, soil, and ash. The overview of the radiation contamination is firstly given. Afterwards, the current remediation strategies are critically reviewed in terms of the environmental medium. Special attentions are paid on the adsorption/ion exchange and electrically switched ion exchange methods. Finally, the present review outlines the possible works to do for the large-scale application of the novel remediation strategies.

  15. Can we remove iodine-131 from tap water in Japan by boiling? - Experimental testing in response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, K; Uchida, S

    2011-08-01

    Iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 BqL(-1) were reported by several local governments in Japan following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Some individuals in the emergency-response community recommended the boiling of tap water to remove iodine-131. However, the tap water boiling tests in this study showed no iodine-131 loss from the tap water with either short-term boiling (1-10 min) or prolonged boiling (up to 30 min) resulting in up to 3-fold volume reductions. In this situation, boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process.

  16. Natural variation of ambient dose rate in the air of Izu-Oshima Island after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maedera, Fumihiko; Inoue, Kazumasa; Sugino, Masato; Sano, Ryosuke; Furue, Mai; Shimizu, Hideo; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Le Van, Tan; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The ambient dose rate in air and radioactivity concentration in soil samples collected on Izu-Oshima Island were observed in 2012, 2013 and 2014, i.e. 1, 2 and 3 years after the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A car-borne survey for the ambient dose rate in air was carried out for the entire island. Soil samples were collected for the radioactivity concentration measurements from 22 points. The ambient dose rates in air were 36 nGy h(-1) in 2012, 34 nGy h(-1) in 2013 and 29 nGy h(-1) in 2014. The corresponding radioactivity concentrations in those years for (134)Cs were 53, 39 and 29 Bq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs, 87, 73 and 75 Bq kg(-1). All the values have decreased every year.

  17. Internal exposure to [gamma]-rays emitted from [sup 137]Cs with a human counter caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeoka, Seiji; Kitagawa, Kazue; Suga, Shinji; Maeda, Naoko; Kumamoto, Kasumi; Endo, Satoru; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Hoshi, Masaharu

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate internal exposure dose caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, [sup 137]Cs [gamma] rays for children living in Chernobyl areas were measured with a human counter. No correlation between residential areas and internal exposure dose was found. The internal exposures for one year from only [sup 137]Cs are estimated to be 89.5 [mu]Sv y[sup -1] in maximum. The fatality probability for the [sup 137]Cs internal exposure was calculated at 5x10[sup -6] y[sup -1] based on a coefficient of the recommendation of ICRP, 1990. This probability was much smaller than that for the natural radiation exposure, 1.2x10[sup -4] y[sup -1]. (author).

  18. Ecosystem-based approach for the numerical modelling of {sup 137}Cs transfer to the western North Pacific plankton populations after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident - New approach for the modelling of radiocesium in pelagic food chain in the Northwestern Pacific after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belharet, Mokrane [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, SESURE/ LERCM, 83507 La Seyne-sur-mer (France); Laboratoire d' Aerologie, 14 av Eduard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Estournel, Claude [Laboratoire d' Aerologie, 14 av Eduard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Charmasson, Sabine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, SESURE/ LERCM, 83507 La Seyne-sur-mer (France)

    2014-07-01

    Huge quantities of radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) were released to the coastal northwestern Pacific ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, that occurred on 11 March 2011. The resultant radiocesium contamination was quickly transferred to marine biota resulting in elevated cesium levels measured in various organisms sampled over this area. This study aims to understand the mechanism of radiocesium behavior in the marine food chain under this non steady state situation (accident) and to estimate contamination levels in these organisms, by using a new modelling approach based on the coupling of three different models: a model of cesium dispersion in the ocean, an ecosystem model and a radioecological model. The model was run for 2 years (2011 and 2012) and was first applied to study marine plankton and planktonivorous fishes contamination. Results of spatio-temporal radiocesium activities in these different organisms, and calculated parameters like concentration ratios, biological half-lives, percentages of contamination coming from each compartment (food and water), and trophic transfer factors were compared to the observed values acquired before and after the accident (steady and non-steady states). (authors)

  19. Estimation of the Radiological Consequences of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident using MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Min, Byung-Il; Park, Kihyun; Yang, Byung-Mo; Suh, Kyung-suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Three of them have undergone fuel melting and hydrogen explosions. A significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere from FDNPP and dispersed all over the world. In this study, we assessed the offsite consequences of Fukushima disaster in the region within a 30-km radius of FDNPP using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code Systems 2(MACCS2) code, which is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code. The reflection of the realistic regional characteristics, such as long-term meteorological data, site- and population-specific data, and radiation safety regulatory, is essential to accurately analyze the off-site consequences. The assessment that reflects regional characteristics would contribute to identify main causes of exposure doses and to find the effective countermeasures for minimizing the accidental off-site consequences.

  20. Numerical simulation of regional scale dispersion and deposition of radioactive pollutants from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomura, Takehiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The dispersion and deposition of radioactive pollutants from the Chernobyl accident was simulated according to a transfer model for air pollutants, which was made by Meteorological Research Institute. The observation data and the data of emission source used here were obtained from the document distributed by ATMES (Atmospheric Transport Model Evaluation Study). The numerical model used consisted of two parts. One is an atmospheric estimation model which allows to predict meteorological factors and the other is a part to calculate the advection diffusion based on the predicted meteorological factors. The time-course changes in {sup 137}Cs concentration in the air determined in Stockholm, Mol, Budapest and Attikis were well coincident with the calculated {sup 137}Cs levels for the respective cities. For atmospheric {sup 137}Cs concentrations at Bilthoven and Berlin, the estimation was also satisfactory, but the calculated deposition levels in both cities did not agree with the respective observation levels. (M.N.)

  1. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  2. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  3. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shigemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD, to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. RESULTS: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001. PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005 and presence of preexisting illness(es (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001. Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. CONCLUSION: Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  4. Understanding soil erosion process within herbaceous vegetative hedges using plant functional traits approach in North-West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervroëdan, Léa; Armand, Romain; Saunier, Mathieu; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Runoff and soil erosion induce major environmental and economic damages. Concentrated runoff control by aboveground plant biomass in upstream areas constitutes a key feature to reduce runoff and soil erosion in Western Europe (WE). Indeed, aboveground plant biomass can reduce runoff and soil erosion respectively by increasing hydraulic roughness and trapping sediments. However, studies of plant effect on runoff reduction are usually based on the taxonomical characterisation of species and do not refer to effect of aboveground plant functional traits. Plant functional traits approach allows to understand ecosystem processes and quantify services. Traits effect could vary depending on hydrological processes (i.e., discharge) and their aggregation could have a synergetic effect on hydraulic roughness and erosion reduction. In this study, objectives are to i) examine effects of aboveground plant functional traits of herbaceous hedges on hydraulic roughness; ii) test the effects of their aggregation on hydraulic roughness. Seven aboveground functional traits were measured on 14 indigenous plant species from North-West Europe with a high morphological variability (stem and leaf densities; stem diameter, stiffness and dry matter content; leaf area and specific leaf area (SLA)). Those species are perennial herbaceous caespitose or comprising dry biomass in winter. Effects of plant functional traits and their abundance within the community on hydraulic roughness were examined using a runoff simulator at four discharges. Furthermore, the effect of plant functional diversity was analysed using four monospecific (mono-trait) conditions compared to multispecific (multi-traits) conditions. Results showed traits and their abundance influence hydraulic roughness. Indeed, leaf density and leaf area (traits), as well as plant community weighted stem, leaf and shoot areas, stem diameter and SLA are significantly correlated to hydraulic roughness. Moreover, leaf density and leaf area

  5. 硝酸装置铂网中毒事故原因分析及解决措施%Cause Analysis of Poisoning Accident of Platinum Net in Nitric Acid Plant and Its Solution Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利新

    2014-01-01

    In allusion to that a relatively serious poisoning accident of platinum net existed in the nitric acid section of ammonium nitrate plant in Hei-longjiang Chemical Engineering Group Corporation, the reason of accident was analyzed and the appropriate solution measure was briefly described.%针对黑化集团硝铵厂硝酸工段一次较为严重的铂网中毒事故,分析了事故原因,简述了相应的解决措施。

  6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN SAKHALIN REGION TO THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Darizhapov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Sakhalin Region in organizing prevention of conditions that endanger the public radiation safety related to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The authors present results of the measurements of the radiation situation in the Sakhalin region and propose ways to improve organizational and sanitary-hygienic measures aimed on ensuring public protectiony in events of radiation accidents.

  7. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bah Sekou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%, different types of pain (14.0% and dermatitis (7.4%. The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1% and powdered plant material (28.4%. The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7% and stem bark (18.6%. The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhaug, Tom Erik; Glaeserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-12-27

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.

  10. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Capacity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Halophytic Plants from the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalmuratova, Irina; Kim, Hyun; Nam, Yoon-Jong; Oh, Yoosun; Jeong, Min-Ji; Choi, Hye-Rim; You, Young-Hyun; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-12-01

    Five halophytic plant species, Suaeda maritima, Limonium tetragonum, Suaeda australis, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda glauca Bunge, which are native to the Muan salt marsh of South Korea, were examined for fungal endophytes by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region containing ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2. In total, 160 endophytic fungal strains were isolated and identified from the roots of the 5 plant species. Taxonomically, all 160 strains belonged to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. The most dominant genus was Fusarium, followed by the genera Penicillium and Alternaria. Subsequently, using 5 statistical methods, the diversity indices of the endophytes were determined at genus level. Among these halophytic plants, P. australis was found to host the greatest diversity of endophytic fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-C rice seedlings for plant growth-promoting effects. The fungal strain Su-3-4-3 isolated from S. glauca Bunge provide the maximum plant length (20.1 cm) in comparison with wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi (19.6 cm). Consequently, chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Su-3-4-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1 (0.465 ng/mL), GA3 (1.808 ng/mL) along with other physiologically inactive GA9 (0.054 ng/mL) and GA24 (0.044 ng/mL). The fungal isolate Su-3-4-3 was identified as Talaromyces pinophilus.

  11. Estimation of uranium isotopes in soil affected by Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and its mobility based on distribution coefficient and soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S.K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Mishra, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Sorimachi, A.; Hosoda, M.; Tokonami, S. [Hirosaki University (Japan); Kritsananuwat, R. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [Fukushima Medical University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    An extraordinary earthquake of magnitude 9.0 followed by Tsunami on 11 March 2011 caused serious nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) about 250 km north to Tokyo, capital of Japan. This resulted in radioactive contamination due to deposition of long-lived radionuclides. Contaminated soil can cause an enhanced radiation exposure even after many years. Depending upon environmental conditions radionuclides can be mobilized to aquatic systems. Therefore, the fate and transfer of these radionuclides in the soil water system is very important for radiation protection and dose assessment. In the present study, emphasis has been given on isotope ratio measurement of uranium that may give some idea about its contamination during accident. Soil and water samples were collected from contaminated areas around FDNPP. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is used for total uranium concentration and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been used for uranium isotopes measurement. Extraction chromatography has been used for the separation of uranium. We have observed, isotope ratio {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U is of natural origin, however in a few soil samples {sup 236}U has been detected. For the migration behavior, its distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) has been determined using laboratory batch method. Depleted uranium is used as tracer for uranium K{sub d} estimation. Chemical characterization of soil with respect to different parameters has been carried out. The effect of these soil parameters on distribution coefficient of uranium has been studied in order to explain the radionuclide mobility in this particular area. The distribution coefficient values for uranium are found to vary from 30-35679 L/Kg. A large variation in the distribution coefficient values shows the retention or mobility of uranium is highly dependent on soil characteristics in the particular area. This variation is explained with respect to pH, Fe, Mn

  12. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Misumi, K.; Tateda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  13. Availability of Japanese Government's supplemental texts on radiation reflecting the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for elementary and secondary education from dental students' understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Midori; Honda, Eiichi; Dashpuntsag, Oyunbat; Maeda, Naoki; Hosoki, Hidehiko; Sakama, Minoru; Tada, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Japanese government created two supplemental texts about radiation reflecting the accident for elementary, middle school, and high school students. These texts were made to explain radiation and consequently to obtain public consent for the continuation of the nuclear program. The present study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of the content of the texts and to collect the basic data on the level of understanding necessary to improve radiation education. Lectures on radiology including nuclear energy and the Fukushima accident were given to 44 fourth-year dental students in 2013. The questionnaire was administered in 2014 when these students were in their sixth-year. The survey was also administered to 40 first-year students and 41 fourth-year students who hadn't any radiology lectures. Students rated their level of understanding of 50 phrases used in the texts on a four-point scale (understanding = 3, a little knowledge = 2, having heard = 1, no knowledge = 0). Questions on taking an advanced physics course in high school and means of learning about radiation in daily life were also asked. The level of understanding of phrases in the supplemental text for middle and high school students was significantly higher among sixth-year students (mean = 1.43) than among first-year (mean = 1.12) or fourth-year (mean = 0.93) students (p < 0.05). Overall, the level of understanding was low, with scores indicating that most students knew only a little. First-year students learning about radiation from television but four-year and six-year students learning about radiation from newspaper scored significantly higher (p < 0.05). It was concluded that radiation education should be improved by using visual material and preparing educators to teach the material for improving the public's understanding of radiation use-especially nuclear power generation because the phrases used in the supplementary texts are very

  14. Increases in perinatal mortality in prefectures contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan: A spatially stratified longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen Heinrich; Mori, Kuniyoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    Descriptive observational studies showed upward jumps in secular European perinatal mortality trends after Chernobyl. The question arises whether the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident entailed similar phenomena in Japan. For 47 prefectures representing 15.2 million births from 2001 to 2014, the Japanese government provides monthly statistics on 69,171 cases of perinatal death of the fetus or the newborn after 22 weeks of pregnancy to 7 days after birth. Employing change-point methodology for detecting alterations in longitudinal data, we analyzed time trends in perinatal mortality in the Japanese prefectures stratified by exposure to estimate and test potential increases in perinatal death proportions after Fukushima possibly associated with the earthquake, the tsunami, or the estimated radiation exposure. Areas with moderate to high levels of radiation were compared with less exposed and unaffected areas, as were highly contaminated areas hit versus untroubled by the earthquake and the tsunami. Ten months after the earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident, perinatal mortality in 6 severely contaminated prefectures jumped up from January 2012 onward: jump odds ratio 1.156; 95% confidence interval (1.061, 1.259), P-value 0.0009. There were slight increases in areas with moderate levels of contamination and no increases in the rest of Japan. In severely contaminated areas, the increases of perinatal mortality 10 months after Fukushima were essentially independent of the numbers of dead and missing due to the earthquake and the tsunami. Perinatal mortality in areas contaminated with radioactive substances started to increase 10 months after the nuclear accident relative to the prevailing and stable secular downward trend. These results are consistent with findings in Europe after Chernobyl. Since observational studies as the one presented here may suggest but cannot prove causality because of unknown and uncontrolled factors or confounders

  15. Vertical distribution and temporal dynamics of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar

    2017-11-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved (137)Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved (137)Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse. In this study, soil water was sampled, and the dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were measured at five locations with different land-use types (mature/young cedar forest, broadleaf forest, meadow land, and pasture land) in Yamakiya District, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from July 2011 to October 2012. Soil water samples were collected by suction lysimeters installed at three different depths at each site. Dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were analyzed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water were high, with a maximum value of 2.5 Bq/L in July 2011, and declined to less than 0.32 Bq/L by 2012. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water was fitted to a two-component exponential model. The rate of decline in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water (k1) showed a good correlation with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) of topsoil (0-5 cm) at the same site. Accounting for the difference of (137)Cs deposition density, we found that normalized dissolved (137)Cs concentrations of soil water in forest (mature/young cedar forest and broadleaf forest) were higher than those in grassland (meadow land and pasture land). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a fission product transport module predicting the behavior of radiological materials during sever accidents in a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Seok; Rhee, Bo Wook; Kim, Dong Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a fission product transport module for predicting the behavior of radioactive materials in the primary cooling system of a nuclear power plant as a separate module, which will be connected to a severe accident analysis code, Core Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software (COMPASS). This fission product transport (COMPASS-FP) module consists of a fission product release model, an aerosol generation model, and an aerosol transport model. In the fission product release model there are three submodels based on empirical correlations, and they are used to simulate the fission product gases release from the reactor core. In the aerosol generation model, the mass conservation law and Raoult's law are applied to the mixture of vapors and droplets of the fission products in a specified control volume to find the generation of the aerosol droplet. In the aerosol transport model, empirical correlations available from the open literature are used to simulate the aerosol removal processes owing to the gravitational settling, inertia impaction, diffusiophoresis, and thermophoresis. The COMPASS-FP module was validated against Aerosol Behavior Code Validation and Evaluation (ABCOVE-5) test performed by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for comparing the prediction and test data. The comparison results assuming a non-spherical aerosol shape for the suspended aerosol mass concentration showed a good agreement with an error range of about ±6%. It was found that the COMPASS-FP module produced the reasonable results of the fission product gases release, the aerosol generation, and the gravitational settling in the aerosol removal processes for ABCOVE-5. However, more validation for other aerosol removal models needs to be performed.

  17. Analysis of Plasma Protein Concentrations and Enzyme Activities in Cattle within the Ex-Evacuation Zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Urushihara

    Full Text Available The effect of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP accident on humans and the environment is a global concern. We performed biochemical analyses of plasma from 49 Japanese Black cattle that were euthanized in the ex-evacuation zone set within a 20-km radius of FNPP. Among radionuclides attributable to the FNPP accident, germanium gamma-ray spectrometry detected photopeaks only from 134Cs and 137Cs (radiocesium commonly in the organs and in soil examined. Radioactivity concentration of radiocesium was the highest in skeletal muscles. Assuming that the animal body was composed of only skeletal muscles, the median of internal dose rate from radiocesium was 12.5 μGy/day (ranging from 1.6 to 33.9 μGy/day. The median of external dose rate calculating from the place the cattle were caught was 18.8 μGy/day (6.0-133.4 μGy/day. The median of internal and external (total dose rate of the individual cattle was 26.9 μGy/day (9.1-155.1 μGy/day. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity were positively and glutathione peroxidase activity was negatively correlated with internal dose rate. Plasma alanine transaminase activity and percent activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-2, LDH-3 and LDH-4 were positively and LDH-1 was negatively correlated with both internal and total dose rate. These suggest that chronic exposure to low-dose rate of ionizing radiation induces slight stress resulting in modified plasma protein and enzyme levels.

  18. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  19. Associations between Mycobacterium ulcerans and aquatic plant communities of West Africa: implications for Buruli ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Mollie; Williamson, Heather; Benbow, M Eric; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; Quaye, Charles; Boakye, Daniel; Small, Pamela; Merritt, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have associated Buruli ulcer (BU) disease with disturbed aquatic habitats; however, the natural reservoir, distribution, and transmission of the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, remain unknown. To better understand the role of aquatic plants in the ecology of this disease, a large-scale survey was conducted in waterbodies of variable flow throughout three regions of Ghana, Africa. Our objectives were to characterize plant communities and identify potential relationships with M. ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing mycobacteria (MPM). Waterbodies with M. ulcerans had significantly different aquatic plant communities, with submerged terrestrial plants identified as indicators of M. ulcerans presence. Mycobacterium ulcerans and MPM were detected on 14 plant taxa in emergent zones from both lotic and lentic waterbodies in endemic regions; however, M. ulcerans was not detected in the non-endemic Volta region. These findings support the hypothesis that plants provide substrate for M. ulcerans colonization and could act as potential indicators for disease risk. These findings also suggest that M. ulcerans is a widespread environmental bacteria species, but that it is absent or reduced in regions of low disease incidence. A better understanding is needed regarding the mechanistic associations among aquatic plants and M. ulcerans for identifying the mode of transmission of BU disease.

  20. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  1. Plant phenological data and tree-rings as palaeoclimate indicators in south-west Finland since AD 1750.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Timonen, Mauri

    2006-09-01

    Plant phenological data and tree-rings were tested for their palaeoclimatic value in south-west Finland since AD 1750. The information from fragmentary, partly overlapping, partly non-systematically biased plant phenological records of 14 different phenomena (a total of 3,144 observations) was combined into one continuous time series of phenological indices. All site- and phenomenon-specific series were standardized to present an average of zero and standard deviation of one. The mean phenomenon-specific series were then averaged as arithmetic means for annually resolved time series representing the variability in the particular plant phenomenon. Consequently, each phenomenon-specific mean series was based on spatially normalized site-specific index series. These series were compared to each other, living-tree and subfossil tree-rings, and to early and modern meteorological time series. Phenological indices showed strong positive correlation with February to June temperatures. On the other hand, the correlations between phenological indices and precipitation data were around zero. Analysis using time-dependent running correlations showed non-stationary relationship between the tree-rings and phenological indices and observed spring temperatures. The skill of phenological data for reconstructing the spring temperatures was statistically proved.

  2. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium.

  3. Trends of Training Courses Conducted in the Human Resources Development Center of the National Institute for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuko; Iida, Haruzo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2017-07-01

    Environmental contamination with radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in 2011 raised a serious health concern among residents in Japan, and the demand for radiation experts who can handle the radiation-associated problems has increased. The Human Resources Development Center (HRDC) of the National Institute of for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology in Japan has offered a variety of training programs covering a wide range of technologies associated with radiation since 1959. In this study, the time-course change in the number and age of the applicants for training programs regularly scheduled at HRDC were analyzed to characterize the demand after the NPP accident. The results suggested that the demand for the training of industrial radiation experts elevated sharply after the NPP accident followed by a prompt decrease, and that young people were likely stimulated to learn the basics of radiation. The demand for the training of medical radiation experts was kept high regardless of the NPP accident. The demand for the training of radiation emergency experts fluctuated apparently with three components: a terminating demand after the criticality accident that occurred in 1999, an urgent demand for handling of the NPP accident, and a sustained demand from local governments that undertook reinforcement of their nuclear disaster prevention program. The demand for the training of school students appeared to be increasing after the NPP accident. It could be foreseen that the demand for training programs targeting young people and medical radiation experts would be elevated in future.

  4. Seismic analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Service Reprocessing Plant at West Valley, New York: documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Davito, A.M.

    1977-04-26

    This material was generated as part of a seismic case review of the NFS Reprocessing Plant. This study is documented in UCRL-52266. The material is divided into two parts: mathematical model information, and ultimate load calculations and comparisons. (DLC)

  5. Intermountain West Military Training Lands Planting Guide: Selecting Seed Mixtures for Actively Used Military Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    heavy use. We also include a third category of generally light use where low-growing vegetation is re- quired, such as roadsides, small-arms ranges, and...materials not commonly used in land restoration, relocation of TE or other at-risk plants, and phytoremediation or phytostabilization of...temperature and drought than north-facing slopes. Another important goal is to select plants that are not susceptible to up- take of metals and

  6. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  7. Assessment of temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after a nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A Ra; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Chan; Seol, Jeung Gun [Radiation Safety Team, Korea Electric Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were 4.3-96 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 134}Cs, 1.4-300 kBq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging 0.11-2.4 mSv y{sup -1} at Kawauchi area and 0.69-1.1 mSv y{sup -1} at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses

  8. Radiocesium discharge from paddy fields with different initial scrapings for decontamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuich; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya

    2014-11-01

    To explore the behavior of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011, and the distribution of radiocesium in paddy fields, we monitored radiocesium (Cs) and suspended sediment (SS) discharge from paddy fields. We proposed a rating scale for measuring the effectiveness of surface soil removal. Our experimental plots in paddy fields were located ∼40 km from the FDNPP. Two plots were established: one in a paddy field where surface soil was not removed (the "normally cultivated paddy field") and the second in a paddy field where the top 5-10 cm of soil was removed before cultivation (the "surface-removed paddy field"). The amounts of Cs and SS discharge from the paddy fields were continuously measured from June to August 2011. The Cs soil inventory measured 3 months after the FDNPP accident was approximately 200 kBq m(-2). However, after removing the surface soil, the concentration of Cs-137 decreased to 5 kBq m(-2). SS discharged from the normally cultivated and surface-removed paddy fields after puddling (mixing of soil and water before planting rice) was 11.0 kg and 3.1 kg, respectively, and Cs-137 discharge was 630,000 Bq (1240 Bq m(-2)) and 24,800 Bq (47.8 Bq m(-2)), respectively. The total amount of SS discharge after irrigation (natural rainfall-runoff) was 5.5 kg for the normally cultivated field and 70 kg for the surface-removed field, and the total amounts of Cs-137 discharge were 51,900 Bq (102 Bq m(-2)) and 165,000 Bq (317 Bq m(-2)), respectively. During the irrigation period, discharge from the surface-removed plot showed a twofold greater inflow than that from the normally cultivated plot. Thus, Cs inflow may originate from the upper canal. The topsoil removal process eliminated at least approximately 95% of the Cs-137, but upstream water contaminated with Cs-137 flowed into the paddy field. Therefore, to accurately determine the Cs discharge, it is important to examine Cs inflow from the

  9. Analysis of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in an A BWR reactor; Analisis del accidente de la planta nucleoelectrica de Fukushima Daiichi en un reactor tipo ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escorcia O, D. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Salazar S, E., E-mail: daniel.escorcia.ortiz@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, 62250 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The present work aims to recreate the accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan on March 11, 2011, making use of an academic simulator of forced circulation of the A BWR reactor provided by the IAEA to know the scope of this simulator. The simulator was developed and distributed by the IAEA for academic purposes and contains the characteristics and general elements of this reactor to be able to simulate transients and failures of different types, allowing also to observe the general behavior of the reactor, as well as several phenomena and present systems in the same. Is an educational tool of great value, but it does not have a scope that allows the training of plant operators. To recreate the conditions of the Fukushima accident in the simulator, we first have to know what events led to this accident, as well as the actions taken by operators and managers to reduce the consequences of this accident; and the sequence of events that occurred during the course of the accident. Differences in the nuclear power plant behavior are observed and interpreted throughout the simulation, since the Fukushima plant technology and the simulator technology are not the same, although they have several elements in common. The Fukushima plant had an event that by far exceeded the design basis, which triggered in an accident that occurred in the first place by a total loss of power supply, followed by the loss of cooling systems, causing a level too high in temperature, melting the core and damaging the containment accordingly, allowing the escape of hydrogen and radioactive material. As a result of the simulation, was determined that the scope of the IAEA academic simulator reaches the entrance of the emergency equipment, so is able to simulate almost all the events occurred at the time of the earthquake and the arrival of the tsunami in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi. However, due to its characteristics, is not able to simulate later

  10. Identifying effective medicinal plants for cold in Lorestan province, West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfan, Bahram; Kazemeini, Hamidreza; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Cold is a kind of mild and self-limiting viral illness that is considered as a prevalent disease with global occurrence and is caused by more than 200 types of viruses. Ethnobotanical studies and the use traditional experiences have increased the probability of detecting effective medicinal substances for cold by 40%. This study aimed to identify effective medicinal plants for cold in Lorestan province. Traditional medical information of this work was obtained from information from indigenous people in 8 cities of Lorestan province. A previously prepared questionnaire was given to trained health liaisons to record the people's beliefs about the plants. The results showed that 23 medicinal plants were used in Lorestan province for treating cold and its symptoms (cough, sore throat, sneezing, runny nose, etc). Plants studied in this article contained bioactive substances that are recommended as the most popular traditional treatments. More research studies should be done on the efficacy and the potential harms of medicinal plants used by people, and in the case of their positive pharmacological impacts, they can be used to produce natural and effective drugs for cold.

  11. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  12. Indigenous West African plants as novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes: application in the reduction of the viscosity of cereal porridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Ethnobotanical and biochemical surveys revealed that some local plants from West Africa are novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes such as amylases and glucanases. The study shows that these enzymes could be used for various biotechnological applications. In a crude extract of Curculigo p

  13. Indigenous West African plants as novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes: application in the reduction of the viscosity of cereal porridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Ethnobotanical and biochemical surveys revealed that some local plants from West Africa are novel sources of polysaccharide degrading enzymes such as amylases and glucanases. The study shows that these enzymes could be used for various biotechnological applications. In a crude extract of Curculigo

  14. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results; Analisis de eventos internos para la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde. Cuantificacion de secuencias de accidente y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the {sup I}nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  15. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  16. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  17. New discovery of fossil cycad-like plants from the Middle Jurassic of West Liaoning, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongdong; ZHANG Wu; ZHENG Shaolin; SAIKI Keni'chi; LI Nan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Cycadales are one of the most ancient lineages ofseed plants, with a fossil record that extends over 250 mil-lion years. Cycads are believed to have originated fromthe Late Palaeozoic, and reached its maximum diversityand distribution during the Mesozoic; however, their evo-lutionary history has remained relatively poorly under-stood[1―4].

  18. An introduction to serious nuclear accident chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Russell St. John Foreman

    2015-01-01

    A review of the chemistry occurring inside a nuclear power plant during a serious reactor accident is presented. This includes some aspects of the behavior of nuclear fuel, its cladding, cesium and iodine. This review concentrates on the chemistry of an accident in a water-cooled reactor loaded with uranium dioxide or mixed metal oxide fuel.

  19. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  20. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  1. Radioactive contamination of arthropods from different trophic levels in hilly and mountainous areas after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Hatakeyama, Kaho; Takahashi, Sentaro; Adati, Tarô

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima. The median radiocesium concentration ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) detected in the rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, and the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, dropped continuously to 0.080 and 0.078 Bq/g fresh weight, respectively, in 2014. In contrast, no significant reduction in radioactive contamination was observed in the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, in which the level remained at 0.204 Bq/g in 2014. A significant positive correlation between radiocesium concentration and the air radiation dose rate was observed in the rice grasshopper, the Emma field cricket and the Jorô spider. The highest correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.946) was measured in the grasshopper.

  2. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent winds during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by coupling with a meso-scale meteorological simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H.; Takemi, T.; Nagai, H.

    2015-06-01

    A significant amount of radioactive material was accidentally discharged into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant from 12 March 2011, which produced high contaminated areas over a wide region in Japan. In conducting regional-scale atmospheric dispersion simulations, the computer-based nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI-II developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency was used. Because this system is driven by a meso-scale meteorological (MM) model, it is difficult to reproduce small-scale wind fluctuations due to the effects of local terrain variability and buildings within a nuclear facility that are not explicitly represented in MM models. In this study, we propose a computational approach to couple an LES-based CFD model with a MM model for detailed simulations of turbulent winds with buoyancy effects under real meteorological conditions using turbulent inflow technique. Compared to the simple measurement data, especially, the 10 min averaged wind directions of the LES differ by more than 30 degrees during some period of time. However, distribution patterns of wind speeds, directions, and potential temperature are similar to the MM data. This implies that our coupling technique has potential performance to provide detailed data on contaminated area in the nuclear accidents.

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Simulation of the atmospheric transport and deposition on a local/meso-and regional scale after hypothetical accidents at the Kola nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaning, Lennart; Baklanov, Alexander [Defence Research Establishment, FOA, Division of NBC Defence, Umea (Sweden)

    1997-08-25

    An accident at the Kola nuclear power plant could cause a large release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. To illustrate possible effects on the environment, potential atmospheric transport and deposition are calculated for two different scales - the local/meso- and the regional, using two different models. A 3-dimensional meso-scale model, developed at the Kola Science Centre, and suitable for distances out to a few hundred kilometres, has been used for the local/meso-scale, and a model system based on the MATHEW/ADPIC code, for the regional scale. Some consequences for the population have been estimated by using the MACCS model. Calculated aerial radionuclide activity concentrations, ground contamination and consequences for the population of the Euro-Arctic Barents region are discussed for two scenarios. The results for the local scale show a considerable influence on the radionuclide ground contamination pattern from the presence of precipitation. The significance of wet deposition is confirmed by the results for the regional scale which also emphasise the importance of having access to high quality weather predictions in emergency response organisations. The importance of the specific Arctic nutrition pathways, not included in this study, is discussed. It is important to make further studies in order to investigate the significance of these pathways.

  5. On the performance of an artificial bee colony optimization algorithm applied to the accident diagnosis in a PWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Iona Maghali S. de; Schirru, Roberto; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C., E-mail: maghali@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The swarm-based algorithm described in this paper is a new search algorithm capable of locating good solutions efficiently and within a reasonable running time. The work presents a population-based search algorithm that mimics the food foraging behavior of honey bee swarms and can be regarded as belonging to the category of intelligent optimization tools. In its basic version, the algorithm performs a kind of random search combined with neighborhood search and can be used for solving multi-dimensional numeric problems. Following a description of the algorithm, this paper presents a new event classification system based exclusively on the ability of the algorithm to find the best centroid positions that correctly identifies an accident in a PWR nuclear power plant, thus maximizing the number of correct classification of transients. The simulation results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparable to other population-based algorithms when applied to the same problem, with the advantage of employing fewer control parameters. (author)

  6. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2-3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%-0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting.

  7. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  8. Atmospheric transport patterns and possible consequences for the European North after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A; Mahura, A; Jaffe, D; Thaning, L; Bergman, R; Andres, R

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine possible impacts and consequences of a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear plant in north-west Russia on different geographical regions: Scandinavia, central Europe, European FSU and Taymyr. The period studied is 1991-1996. An isentropic trajectory model has been used to calculate forward trajectories that originated over the nuclear accident region. Atmospheric transport patterns were identified using the isentropic trajectories and a cluster analysis technique. From the trajectory model results, a number of cases were chosen for examination in detail using more complete transport models. For this purpose, the models MATHEW/ADPIC, DERMA and a newly developed FOA Random Displacement Model have been used to simulate the radionuclide transport and contamination in the case of a nuclear accident and their results have been compared with those of the trajectory modelling. Estimation of the long-term consequences for populations after an accident has been performed for several specific dates by empirical models and correlation between fallout and doses to humans on the basis of the Chernobyl accident exposures in Scandinavia.

  9. Atmospheric transport patterns and possible consequences for the European North after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklanov, A. E-mail: alb@dmi.min.dk; Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Thaning, L.; Bergman, R.; Andres, R

    2002-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine possible impacts and consequences of a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear plant in north-west Russia on different geographical regions: Scandinavia, central Europe, European FSU and Taymyr. The period studied is 1991-1996. An isentropic trajectory model has been used to calculate forward trajectories that originated over the nuclear accident region. Atmospheric transport patterns were identified using the isentropic trajectories and a cluster analysis technique. From the trajectory model results, a number of cases were chosen for examination in detail using more complete transport models. For this purpose, the models MATHEW/ADPIC, DERMA and a newly developed FOA Random Displacement Model have been used to simulate the radionuclide transport and contamination in the case of a nuclear accident and their results have been compared with those of the trajectory modelling. Estimation of the long-term consequences for populations after an accident has been performed for several specific dates by empirical models and correlation between fallout and doses to humans on the basis of the Chernobyl accident exposures in Scandinavia.

  10. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, K; Jaenson, T G

    1999-01-15

    By standardized interviews of people in 23 rural villages, in the Oio region of Guinea Bissau, we collected data on which plant species and plant derived products or methods people use to reduce mosquito biting activity. The following plants were used to reduce numbers of mosquitoes indoors at night: fresh or smouldering Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae), smoke of the bark of Daniellia oliveri Rolfe (Caesalpiniaceae), smoke of the infructescence of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), smoke of the seed capsules of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. (Mimosaceae), smoke of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) and Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), fresh Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae), and fresh Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Caesalpiniaceae). In two field experiments we estimated the 'repellent activity' of certain of these plants and compared their efficacies with those of two commercially available mosquito repellents, i.e. 'positive' controls. In the first experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (85.4% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (73.2%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (74.7%); and smoke of the leaves of Eucalyptus (72.2%). In the second experiment we tested: smouldering H. suaveolens (83.6% repellency); fresh H. suaveolens (66.5%); burning of the bark of D. oliveri (77.9%); smoke of the leaves of A. indica (76.0%); smoke of the infructescence of E. guineensis (69.0%); fresh O. canum (63.6%); and fresh S. occidentalis; (29.4%). All the products tested, except S. occidentalis were significantly more effective than the negative control.

  11. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  12. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  13. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  14. Mental Health Status of Children After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Hirobumi; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Itagaki, Syuntaro; Kunii, Yasuto; Shiga, Tetsuya; Miura, Itaru; Suzuki, Yuriko; Yasumura, Seiji; Iwasa, Hajime; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    The disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, might have affected the mental health status of children. To assess the mental health status, we measured the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 15 274 children (aged 4-15 years). The proportions of those who scored above the cutoff (≥16) of SDQ, reflecting the clinical range of the mental health status, were 25.0% (aged 4-6 years), 22.0% (aged 7-12 years, and 16.3% (aged 13-15 years), which were higher than that in the usual state (9.5%). We also explored the possibility that the distribution on the Fukushima prefectural map of the proportions of those who scored above the cutoff (≥16) of SDQ might correspond with the environmental radiation levels, but there was no significant correlation.

  15. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Tatsuo [JAEA; Sugita, Takeshi [JAEA; Okada, Colin E. [NSTec; Reed, Michael S. [NSTec; Blumenthal, Daniel J. [NNSA

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  16. Microbiological hazard analysis of ready-to-eat meats processed at a food plant in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey-Marie Syne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Methods: Samples of air, surfaces (swabs, raw materials, and in-process and finished food products were collected during two separate visits for each product type and subjected to qualitative or quantitative analysis for bacterial zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen detected in pre-cooked products (mean counts = 0.66, 1.98, and 1.95 log10CFU/g for franks, bologna, and bacon, respectively. This pathogen was also found in unacceptable levels in 4 (16.7% of 24 post-cooked samples. Fifty percent (10 of 20 of pre-cooked mixtures of bacon and bologna were contaminated with Listeria spp., including four with L. monocytogenes. Pre-cooked mixtures of franks and bologna also contained E. coli (35 and 0.72 log10 CFU/g, respectively while 5 (12.5% of 40 pre-cooked mixtures of chicken franks had Salmonella spp. Aerobic bacteria exceeded acceptable international standards in 46 (82.1% of 56 pre-cooked and 6 (16.7% of 36 post-cooked samples. Both pre-and post-cooking air and surfaces had relatively high levels of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, including equipment and gloves of employees. A drastic decrease in aerobic counts and Staphylococcus aureus levels following heat treatment and subsequent increase in counts of these bacteria are suggestive of post-cooking contamination. Conclusion: A relatively high level of risk exists for microbial contamination of RTE meats at the food plant investigated and there is a need for enhancing the quality assurance programs to ensure the safety of consumers of products manufactured at this plant.

  17. Soil carbon and plant diversity distribution at the farm level in the savannah region of Northern Togo (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-T. Sebastià

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In western Africa, soil organic matter is a source of fertility for food provision and a tool for climate mitigation. In the Savannah region, strong soil degradation linked to an increase in population threatens organic matter conservation and agricultural yield. Soil degradation is also expected to impact biodiversity and, with it, increase the vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services, including the storage of soil organic carbon. Studies of land use, plant species composition and soil fertility were conducted for a conservation project at a demonstration farm in Northern Togo (West Africa, host to various management regimes. Results showed a low organic matter content of the surface soil horizons, often around 0.5%. The highest values were found in a sacred forest within the farm (2.2%. Among crops, rice had the highest soil organic matter, around 1%. In a survey of grasslands, pastures showed the highest organic matter content, with vegetation composition differing from grazed fallows and abandoned grasslands. Plant species richness showed a positive relationship with soil organic matter (R2adj=41.2%, but only by the end of the wet season, when species richness was also highest. Sampling date had a strong effect on vegetation composition. Results showed a strong influence of human activity on soil formation and distribution, and also on plant diversity. The soil characteristics found under the permanent forest suggest a high potential of the soils of the region for improvement of both agricultural yields and as a potential carbon sink relevant to global change policies.

  18. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  19. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  20. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of

  1. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  2. Ecosystem model-based approach for modeling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations: application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    OpenAIRE

    M. Belharet; Estournel, C.; Charmasson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Huge amounts of radionuclides, especially 137Cs, were released into the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) accident that occurred on 11 March 2011, resulting in contamination of the marine biota. In this study we developed a radioecological model to estimate 137Cs concentrations in phytoplankton and zooplankton populations representing the lower levels of the pelagic trophic chain. We coupled this model to a lower trophic level ecosyst...

  3. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

  4. How a nuclear power plant accident influences acceptance of nuclear power: results of a longitudinal study before and after the Fukushima disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Major nuclear accidents, such as the recent accident in Fukushima, Japan, have been shown to decrease the public's acceptance of nuclear power. However, little is known about how a serious accident affects people's acceptance of nuclear power and the determinants of acceptance. We conducted a longitudinal study (N= 790) in Switzerland: one survey was done five months before and one directly after the accident in Fukushima. We assessed acceptance, perceived risks, perceived benefits, and trust related to nuclear power stations. In our model, we assumed that both benefit and risk perceptions determine acceptance of nuclear power. We further hypothesized that trust influences benefit and risk perceptions and that trust before a disaster relates to trust after a disaster. Results showed that the acceptance and perceptions of nuclear power as well as its trust were more negative after the accident. In our model, perceived benefits and risks determined the acceptance of nuclear power stations both before and after Fukushima. Trust had strong effects on perceived benefits and risks, at both times. People's trust before Fukushima strongly influenced their trust after the accident. In addition, perceived benefits before Fukushima correlated with perceived benefits after the accident. Thus, the nuclear accident did not seem to have changed the relations between the determinants of acceptance. Even after a severe accident, the public may still consider the benefits as relevant, and trust remains important for determining their risk and benefit perceptions. A discussion of the benefits of nuclear power seems most likely to affect the public's acceptance of nuclear power, even after a nuclear accident.

  5. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  6. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  7. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  8. Accident Page

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Explosion in Nanjing Dingshan On February 4th, 2007 an isobutylene tank containing 14 tons of isobutylene exploded and caught fire at Nanjing Dingshan Fine Chemical Plant (Nanjing Dingshan) located in Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu province. The explosion had effect on the nearby Nanjing Hongyan Plastic Plant and resulted in one death and six injuries.

  9. Accident Page

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Explosion in Guangzhou Petrochemical On January 16th, 2007 a sewage recovery tank got exploded continually for two times and caught big fire at the No.2 Refinery Department in the Refinery Plant of Guangzhou Petrochemical Plant located in Huangpu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong province.

  10. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  11. Review of Severe Accident Phenomena in LWR and Related Severe Accident Analysis Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, importance of severe accident provision is highlighted in view of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Then, extensive review of the past researches on severe accident phenomena in LWR is presented within this study. Various complexes, physicochemical and radiological phenomena take place during various stages of the severe accidents of Light Water Reactor (LWR plants. The review deals with progression of the severe accidents phenomena by dividing into core degradation phenomena in reactor vessel and post core melt phenomena in the containment. The development of various computer codes to analyze these severe accidents phenomena is also summarized in the review. Lastly, the need of international activity is stressed to assemble various severe accidents related knowledge systematically from research organs and compile them on the open knowledge base via the internet to be available worldwide.

  12. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  13. Fluvial discharges of radiocaesium from watersheds contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of radiocaesium, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, was released to the atmosphere and Pacific Ocean from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) that was damaged by the tsunami caused by the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. Radiocaesium deposited on the ground is now the most important consideration in assessing the risk to people in the vicinity of the FDNPP and remediating the contaminated area. Transfer of radiocaesium from the ground through rivers is an important factor in the downstream contamination of irrigation waters, paddy fields, lakes, and the sea. We estimated the transport of radiocaesium through two small rivers, the Hiso River and Wariki River, that traverse mountainous areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Areal depositions of radiocaesium in their watersheds (catchments) were high (1-3 MBq m(-2)). Water samples were collected from the rivers twice during each of two baseflow and two flood stages in 2011 and analysed for radiocaesium in particulate and dissolved forms. The radiocaesium concentrations depended strongly on the rates of water discharge. Maximum activities of radiocaesium in the samples from the Hiso River and Wariki River when there was precipitation or flooding (July and September) were 25 ± 0.31 and 35 ± 0.25 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate radiocaesium during periods of flooding contributed over 90% of the total radiocaesium activity in the samples. The discharge of radiocaesium from the catchments during 2011 was estimated to be 0.5% and 0.3% of the total amount of radiocaesium deposited on the catchments of the Hiso River and Wariki River, respectively. It is considered that the most of the radiocaesium deposited in the catchment remains on the soil surface.

  14. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  15. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  16. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  17. A Pleistocene palaeovegetation record from plant wax biomarkers from the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kevin T; Polissar, Pratigya J; Kahle, Emma; Feibel, Craig; Harmand, Sonia; Roche, Hélène; deMenocal, Peter B

    2016-07-05

    Reconstructing vegetation at hominin fossil sites provides us critical information about hominin palaeoenvironments and the potential role of climate in their evolution. Here we reconstruct vegetation from carbon isotopes of plant wax biomarkers in sediments of the Nachukui Formation in the Turkana Basin. Plant wax biomarkers were extracted from samples from a wide range of lithologies that include fluvial-lacustrine sediments and palaeosols, and therefore provide a record of vegetation from diverse depositional environments. Carbon isotope ratios from biomarkers indicate a highly dynamic vegetation structure (ca 5-100% C4 vegetation) from 2.3 to 1.7 Ma, with an overall shift towards more C4 vegetation on the landscape after about 2.1 Ma. The biomarker isotope data indicate ca 25-30% more C4 vegetation on the landscape than carbon isotope data of pedogenic carbonates from the same sequence. Our data show that the environments of early Paranthropus and Homo in this part of the Turkana Basin were primarily mixed C3-C4 to C4-dominated ecosystems. The proportion of C4-based foods in the diet of Paranthropus increases through time, broadly paralleling the increase in C4 vegetation on the landscape, whereas the diet of Homo remains unchanged. Biomarker isotope data associated with the Kokiselei archaeological site complex, which includes the site where the oldest Acheulean stone tools to date were recovered, indicate 61-97% C4 vegetation on the landscape.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.

  18. Applicability of simplified human reliability analysis methods for severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, R.; St Germain, S. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Banaseanu, G.; Chatri, H.; Akl, Y. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Most contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods were created to analyse design-basis accidents at nuclear power plants. As part of a comprehensive expansion of risk assessments at many plants internationally, HRAs will begin considering severe accident scenarios. Severe accidents, while extremely rare, constitute high consequence events that significantly challenge successful operations and recovery. Challenges during severe accidents include degraded and hazardous operating conditions at the plant, the shift in control from the main control room to the technical support center, the unavailability of plant instrumentation, and the need to use different types of operating procedures. Such shifts in operations may also test key assumptions in existing HRA methods. This paper discusses key differences between design basis and severe accidents, reviews efforts to date to create customized HRA methods suitable for severe accidents, and recommends practices for adapting existing HRA methods that are already being used for HRAs at the plants. (author)

  19. Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Wålinder, Robert; Vingård, Eva; Tondel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 (137Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of 137Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual 137Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986–1990), from which 5-year cumulative 137Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of 137Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence. Results The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0–45.4 kBq/m2), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41–118.8 kBq/m2), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81–564.71 kBq/m2). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure. Conclusions We found a small overall exposure–response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to 137Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence. PMID:27998898

  20. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kameník

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 1.5 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m−3 were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m−3 were elevated above the 18-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 18-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m−3 (Station Aloha, 17 values. In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m−3 and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 1.5 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  1. Modeling of leachable {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffredo, Nicolas, E-mail: wataiso@free.fr [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Kawamori, Ayumi [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable {sup 137}Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters. - Highlights: • A double exponential model was used to model leachable cesium loss from canopies. • The model could not reproduce variation observed. • Rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling the variation. • A rainfall parameter was used to develop an improved double exponential model. • The

  2. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kameník

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m–3 were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m–3 were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m–3 (Station Aloha, 18 values. In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m–3, and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  3. Inverse modeling of the (137)Cs source term of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident constrained by a deposition map monitored by aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumimoto, Keiya; Morino, Yu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Haruo; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The amount of (137)Cs released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 11 March 2011 was inversely estimated by integrating an atmospheric dispersion model, an a priori source term, and map of deposition recorded by aircraft. An a posteriori source term refined finer (hourly) variations comparing with the a priori term, and estimated (137)Cs released 11 March to 2 April to be 8.12 PBq. Although time series of the a posteriori source term was generally similar to those of the a priori source term, notable modifications were found in the periods when the a posteriori source term was well-constrained by the observations. Spatial pattern of (137)Cs deposition with the a posteriori source term showed better agreement with the (137)Cs deposition monitored by aircraft. The a posteriori source term increased (137)Cs deposition in the Naka-dori region (the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) by 32.9%, and considerably improved the underestimated a priori (137)Cs deposition. Observed values of deposition measured at 16 stations and surface atmospheric concentrations collected on a filter tape of suspended particulate matter were used for validation of the a posteriori results. A great improvement was found in surface atmospheric concentration on 15 March; the a posteriori source term reduced root mean square error, normalized mean error, and normalized mean bias by 13.4, 22.3, and 92.0% for the hourly values, respectively. However, limited improvements were observed in some periods and areas due to the difficulty in simulating accurate wind fields and the lack of the observational constraints.

  4. Radioactive cesium accumulation in seaweeds by the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident-two years' monitoring at Iwaki and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akira; Mimura, Mari; Mimura, Tetsuro; Tahara, Tomoya; Aida, Daiki; Sato, Kenji; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Accumulations of radionuclides in marine macroalgae (seaweeds) resulting from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident in March 2011 have been monitored for two years using high-purity germanium detectors. Algal specimens were collected seasonally by snorkeling at Nagasaki, Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture (Pref.), Japan, ca. 50 km perimeter from the F1NPP. Additional collections were done at Soma, Hironocho, Hisanohama and Shioyazaki in Fukushima Pref. as well as at Chiba Pref. and Hyogo Pref. as controls. In May 2011, specimens of most macroalgal species showed ¹³⁷Cs levels greater than 3,000 Bq kg⁻¹ at Shioyazaki and Nagasaki. The highest ¹³⁷Cs level recorded 7371.20 ± 173.95 Bq kg⁻¹ in Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar on 2 May 2011, whereas seawater collected at the same time at Shioyazaki and Nagasaki measured 8.41 ± 3.21 and 9.74 ± 3.43 Bq L⁻¹, respectively. The concentration factor of marine macroalgae was estimated to be ca. 8-50, depending on taxa and considering a weight ratio of wet/dry samples of ca. 10. ¹³⁷Cs level declined remarkably during the following 5-6 months. In contrast, the ¹³⁷Cs level remained rather stable during the following 12-16 months, and maintained the range of 10-110 Bq kg⁻¹. Contamination was still detectable in many samples in March 2013, 24 months after the most significant pollution.

  5. Effective half-lives of ¹³⁷Cs from persimmon tree tissue parts in Japan after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the radiocesium decreasing rates from persimmon trees during a period of about 3 y following the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we conducted measurements of tree tissue parts collected in 2011-2013. The sampling was carried out in Chiba, 220 km south of FDNPP; radioactive fallouts discharged from FDNPP had mainly been observed in March-April 2011 on the sampling site. We measured (137)Cs concentrations in the tree tissue parts, i.e., fruits (flesh, skin and seeds), leaves and newly emerged branches, and then the effective half-lives (T(eff)) of (137)Cs were calculated. Leaf samples were classified into two types by sampling months according to the growing stages, that is, immature (April-May) and mature (June-November) leaves. All these parts showed exponential declines in (137)Cs concentration with good adjusted contribution ratios of higher than ca. 0.7. The calculated T(eff) values from all tissue parts were similar with the average of 229 d (range: 216-243 d). From these results, we concluded that each tree tissue was representative for the calculation of Teff. For comparison to these observation results, open source food monitoring data from 2011 to 2013 including (137)Cs data for persimmon fruits collected in Fukushima Prefecture were used to calculate T(eff) for persimmon trees. Values of Teff were obtained for persimmon fruits grown in each local government area in Fukushima Prefecture and they ranged from 303 to 475 d.

  6. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, J.; Dulaiova, H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Pike, S. M.; Št'astná, K.

    2013-09-01

    Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m-3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m-3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m-3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m-3, and 137Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  7. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  8. Carbon stock and plants biodiversity of pekarangan in Cisadane watershed West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah Filqisthi, Tatag; Leonardus Kaswanto, Regan

    2017-01-01

    The presence of vegetation in Pekarangan can be proposed to mitigate global climate change impacts by CO2 sequestration and at the same time to promote the availability of food for the community. The aims of this research is to calculate carbon stock and biodiversity in pekarangan, and to compare carbon stock and biodiversity on three levels of Cisadane Watershed. Four groups of Pekarangan defined on a purposive random sampling. Allometric models were developed to estimate aboveground biomass of vegetation, and an inventory was conducted in 48 pekarangan. Shannon Weiner Index (H’) and Margalef Index (Dm) are used to evaluate biodiversity, averaged 2,84 and 5,10 (G1); 2,55 and 4,27 (G2); 2,56 and 4,52 (G3); 2,68 and 4,84 (G4), while carbon stock averaged 33,20 Mg Carbon/ha (G1); 29,97 Mg/ha (G2); 59,18 Mg/ha (G3); and 40,98 Mg/ha (G4). There is no relationship between biodiversity with carbon stock on pekarangan (R2 = 0,02), or tree’s biodiversity with carbon stock (R2 = 0,23). High resolution satellite imagery can be used to extrapolate carbon stock and plants biodiversity of Pekarangan at watershed level.

  9. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cheon, Moon Heon; Cho, Nam jin; No, Hui Cheon; Chang, Hyeon Seop; Moon, Sang Kee; Park, Seok Jeong; Chung, Jee Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy.

  10. Aid system in the attention direction for accidents diagnosis at nuclear power plants based on artificial intelligence; Sistema de auxilio para o direcionamento da atencao no diagnostico de acidentes em usinas nucleares baseado em inteligencia artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rafael Gomes da

    2009-07-01

    Transient identification in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is often a very hard task and may involve a great amount of human cognition. The early identification of unexpected departures from steady state behavior is an essential step for the operation, control and accident management in NPPs. The bases for the transient identification relay on the evidence that different system faults and anomalies lead to different pattern evolution in the involved process variables. During an abnormal event, the operator must monitor a great amount of information from the instruments that represents a specific type of event Several systems based on specialist systems, neural-networks, and fuzzy logic have been developed for transient identification. In the work, we investigate the possibility of using a Neuro Fuzzy modeling tool for efficient transient identification, aiming to helping the operator crew to take decisions relative to the procedure to be followed in situations of accidents/transients at NPPs. The proposed system uses artificial neural networks (ANN) as first level transient diagnostic After the ANN has done the preliminary transient type identification, a fuzzy-logic system analyzes the results emitting reliability degree of it. A preliminary evaluation of the developed system was made at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The obtained results show that the system can help the operators to take decisions during transients/accidents in the plant (author)

  11. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The

  12. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  13. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  14. Medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. Guidelines for: Medical consultants for emergency response commander; physicians in emergency care centres; physicians in outpatient and inpatient care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkel, Simone (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on medical procedures in the event of nuclear power plant accidents. This contribution consists of the following sections: protective measures, tasks of radiation protection physicians, emergency care centres. It has been pointed out that differentiation of the hospitals is acquired which accept radiation accident patients. However, only a small number of hospitals will be able to professionally treat patients with suspected gastrointestinal or pronounced (muco)cutaneous type of hospitals with haemotological-oncological departments. Thus they should be able to treat patients who have been exposed to radiation doses between 1 and 6 Gy without any difficulties. Even larger is the number of hospitals which can accept patients who were exposed to a radiation dose of less than 1 Gy, but suffer from other complicating diseases (injuries, general diseases).

  15. SUBSTANTIAL AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MENTAL STATUS OF THE PERSONS WHO HAVE RECEIVED SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION DURING LIGUIDATION OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the peculiarities of ideas about the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster at the persons who have suffered from radiation during liquidation of the accident’s consequences. View of the accident was considered as a key element of a person’s mind, in particular the adaptive. There were 30 persons, who took part in the research – participants of Chernobyl disaster’s liquidation, veterans of division of an extra risk. The subjective assessment of mental health at persons who survived in Chernobyl disaster was defined; personal properties of victims were revealed; interrelations between personal properties and subjective assessment of mental health were established. It is possible to assume that in process of moving away from the moment of the accident the content of view of Chernobyl disaster shows concentration of the person on experience of mental health and the personal potential.

  16. Transport behavior of radioactive caesium from forests contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident through river water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Ohyama, T.; Niizato, T.; Sato, H.; Yui, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has carried out 'the project on the Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima (F-TRACE project)' since the end of 2012. Radioactive caesium (Cs) has been distributed by the fallout by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F-NPP) accident, and forests in mountain areas have large amount of inventory of radioactive Cs and cover relatively large part of contaminated area of Fukushima. In this project, the transport behavior of radioactive Cs from the forests to biosphere and sea is evaluated by computer simulation based on the results of field observation and laboratory experiments. The results are used to predict evolution of effective dose of the residents in the affected area due to the transport, specify the dominant pathway of Cs, and propose effective methodology to constrain the transport along the pathway. This study reports the specific transport behavior of Cs observed in the basins of five rivers by means of the field investigation and laboratory experiments during the first year of the project. Radioactive Cs located at the crown was considered to be transported to the soil surface by litter fall, stem flow and canopy drip in the Japanese cedar tree forests. Even after two years since the accident, more than 90% of radioactive Cs was still been remained within 5 cm depth from the top of the soil, indicating that the distribution coefficient of radioactive Cs onto the specific minerals such as clay was significantly high. In the river, relatively higher dose rate was observed at the flood channel where fine-grained soil particles were trapped by growing vegetation, while low dose rate was observed beside the river channel where coarse sand or gravel accumulated. The results suggested that fine-grained soil particles containing minerals adsorbing large amount of radioactive Cs were transported in high water level and trapped by the vegetation. In the dam

  17. Veterinary aspects on the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and the effects of the accident on the Swedish animal husbandry; Veterinaermedicinska aspekter paa kaernkraftsolyckan i Tjernobyl och dess effekter paa svensk animalieproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnermark, K.E.

    1994-12-31

    After the Chernobyl accident, compensation has been paid to swedish farmers where it has not been possible to put animals to pasture at normal time, for rehabilitation feed and replacement of contaminated feed, loss of grass crop due to extraordinary measures, use of supplementary potassium fertilizers, slaughter of contaminated animals etc. Compensation has been paid to reindeer owners for condemned reindeer meat, transport of animals to pastures less contaminated by cesium, premature slaughter etc. Two working committees at the National Board of Agriculture have prepared advice, recommendations, rules for compensation etc for the agricultural and horticultural sectors as well as for reindeer owners. The county agricultural boards in the counties affected have devoted a great deal of effort to the preparation of information campaigns, advice and recommendations and the handling of compensations to the businesses concerned. Compensation payments between April 86 and March 87 was approx 138 MSEK for the agricultural and horticultural sectors, and 92 MSEK for reindeer owners. Extensive sampling and analysis procedures have also been carried out. The Chernobyl accident caused an extra workload for the National Board of Agriculture of 45 man-years during the period April 86 and March 87. 7 refs. 7 figs.

  18. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  19. Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Goncharova, Yu; Gromov, A; Kaduka, M; Romanovich, I

    2013-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg(-1) and 210 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2) and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m(-2

  20. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Efficacy of insurance and third party inspection system. Capability margins of insurance, in view of bitter experience at JCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Taiichiro [Songaihokenryoritsusanteikai (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Among persons relating to safety engineering, most of them point out merit and demerit of safety theory in Japan since a long term before. Under national policy aiming at growth and expansion due to a policy under leading of government after war, running for about 50 years remained some strains containing a number of contradictions and absurdities in various fields. Here was described mainly on how to be done safety accident protection and inspection on a base of happenings incidentally seen at a chance of the criticality accident. Therefore, here were also established some viewpoints such as transferable risk, limit from insurance feature, genealogy of insurance, under-writing, and risk management, to mention effectiveness of the third party inspection with closed relationship with accident insurance. (G.K.)

  1. Determinants of participation in a longitudinal two-stage study of the health consequences of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakhozha Victoria

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300 classmate controls were initially assessed in 1997 when the children were 11 years old, and followed up in 2005–6 when they were 19 years old. A population control group (304 mothers and 327 children was added in 2005–6. Each assessment point involved home interviews with the children and mothers (stage 1, followed by medical examinations of the children at a clinic (stage 2. Background characteristics, health status, and Chornobyl risk perceptions were examined. Results The participation rates in the follow-up home interviews were 87.8% for the children (88.6% for evacuees; 87.0% for classmates and 83.7% for their mothers (86.4% for evacuees and 81.0% for classmates. Children's and mothers' participation was predicted by one another's study participation and attendance at the medical examination at time 1. Mother's participation was also predicted by initial concerns about her child's health, greater psychological distress, and Chornobyl risk perceptions. In 1997, 91.2% of the children had a medical examination (91.7% of evacuees and 90.7% of classmates; in 2005–6, 85.2% were examined (83.0% of evacuees, 87.7% of classmates, 85.0% of population controls. At both times, poor health perceptions were associated with receiving a medical examination. In 2005–6, clinic attendance was also associated with the young adults' risk perceptions, depression or generalized anxiety disorder, lower standard of living, and female gender. Conclusion Despite our low attrition rates, we identified several determinants of selective

  2. Karyopathological traits of thyrocytes and exposure to radioiodines in Belarusian children and adolescents following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Nikonovich, Sergey [Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, Gomel (Belarus); Kravtsov, Viacheslav; Aleksanin, Sergey [EMERCOM of Russia, Nikiforov Russian Centre of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Rockville, MD (United States); Nakamura, Nori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The Belarus-American (BelAm) thyroid study cohort consists of persons who were 0-18 years of age at the time of exposure to radioactive iodine fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and who have undergone serial thyroid screenings with referral for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) using standardized criteria. We investigated thyrocyte nuclear abnormalities in cytological samples from FNABs in 75 BelAm subjects with single and multiple thyroid nodules and 47 nodular goiter patients from Leningrad, Russia, unexposed to Chernobyl fallout. Nuclear abnormalities examined included internuclear chromosome bridges and derivative nuclei with broken bridges (i.e., ''tailed'' nuclei), which are formed from dicentric and ring chromosomes and thus may be cellular markers of radiation exposure. Among subjects with single-nodular goiter, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 86.8% of the exposed BelAm cohort compared with 27.0% of unexposed controls. The average frequency of thyrocytes with bridges and with tailed nuclei was also significantly higher in the BelAm subjects than in controls. Among subjects with multinodular goiters, thyrocytes with bridges were present in 75.7% of exposed BelAm patients compared with 16.7% of unexposed controls; thyrocytes with tailed nuclei were observed in all of the BelAm subjects but in only 40% of controls, and the mean frequencies of bridges and tailed nuclei were significantly higher in the exposed group. Unusually, long bridges were detected in 29% of BelAm patients with single-nodular goiters and 35% of those with multinodular goiters, while no such abnormalities were observed among patients from the Leningrad region. In the exposed subjects from BelAm, we also found positive correlations between their estimated dose of Iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and the frequency of tailed nuclei (p = 0.008) and bridges (p = 0.09). Further study is needed to confirm that these phenomena represent

  3. Measurements of gamma (γ)-emitting radionuclides with a high-purity germanium detector: the methods and reliability of our environmental assessments on the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tetsuro; Mimura, Mari; Komiyama, Chiyo; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The severe accident of Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant due to the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake in 11 March 2011 caused wide contamination and pollution by radionuclides in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. In the current JPR symposium, a group of plant scientists attempted to examine the impact of the radioactive contamination on wild and cultivated plants. Measurements of gamma (γ) radiation from radionuclides in "Fukushima samples", which we called and collected from natural and agricultural areas in Fukushima prefecture were mostly done with a high-purity Ge detector in the Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University. In this technical note, we describe the methods of sample preparation and measurements of radioactivity of the samples and discuss the reliability of our data in regards to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency test (IAEA proficiency test).

  4. Lifestyle-related diseases following the evacuation after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: a retrospective study of Kawauchi Village with long-term follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Daniel K; Ohsawa, Megumi; Igari, Keiko; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Kawauchi Village lies 20 km west of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. On 16 March 2011, evacuation was ordered due to the threat of radiological exposure, and was lifted in April 2012. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predisaster and postdisaster health status of the Kawauchi Villagers, measured by routine yearly physical examinations. Methods We analysed the annual health examination data of residents of Kawauchi Village from 2008 to 2013, as available from the Japanese National Health Insurance system. Data from 2011 were not available due to the disaster. Since the health data included the same participants repeatedly from year to year, the sample was non-independent and generalised estimated equation modelling was used. A predisaster time period (2008–2010) was categorised for comparison with postdisaster 2012 and 2013. The outcome examined was the prevalence of metabolic disease, and was adjusted for confounding factors. Results Data for 20.6%–25.9% of the total residents were available in this period. In 2013, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (from 17.0% to 25.2%, p<0.001), diabetes (from 11.3% to 17.0%, p<0.001), dyslipidaemia (from 43.2% to 56.7%, p<0.0001), hyperuricaemia (from 5.2% to 8.4%, p=0.006) and chronic kidney disease (from 16.1% to 26.7%, p<0.001) was found to be elevated significantly compared to predisaster years, while that of obesity or hypertension did not change. Conclusions The present follow-up study for Kawauchi Village revealed an increase in lifestyle-related disease following the March 2011 disaster and subsequent evacuation, and this trend still continues 2 years later. PMID:27401362

  5. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  6. Design analysis of the molten core confinement within the reactor vessel in the case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with a reactor of the VVER type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonaryov, Yu. A.; Budaev, M. A.; Volchek, A. M.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Zagryazkin, V. N.; Kiselyov, N. P.; Kobzar', V. L.; Konobeev, A. V.; Tsurikov, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reports the results of the preliminary design estimate of the behavior of the core melt in vessels of reactors of the VVER-600 and VVER-1300 types (a standard optimized and informative nuclear power unit based on VVER technology—VVER TOI) in the case of beyond-design-basis severe accidents. The basic processes determining the state of the core melt in the reactor vessel are analyzed. The concept of molten core confinement within the vessel based on the idea of outside cooling is discussed. Basic assumptions and models, as well as the results of calculation of the interaction between molten materials of the core and the wall of the reactor vessel performed by means of the SOCRAT severe accident code, are presented and discussed. On the basis of the data obtained, the requirements on the operation of the safety systems are determined, upon the fulfillment of which there will appear potential prerequisites for implementing the concept of the confinement of the core melt within the reactor in cases of severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors.

  7. Risk analysis of the liquid ammonia leakage accident in the DeNOx system of themal power plant%火电厂脱硝工程液氨泄漏事故风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程民生

    2013-01-01

    结合火电厂脱硝工艺特点与液氨的毒理特性,分析了选择性催化还原烟气脱硝系统液氨的储存与使用可能潜在的生产安全事故风险;计算了设定液氨泄漏场景下的事故后果,用于液氨泄漏事故的预测、预警及应急救援.并结合电厂安全管理特点及存在的问题,从工艺系统监控、液氨储运、应急处置等方面,提出了必要的防范与应急措施建议.%According to the toxicological properties of liquid ammonia and the characteristics of the DeNOx process, the potential accident risk of liquid ammonia storage and use in the SCR flue gas DeNOx system are analyzed. The accident consequences of the set ammonia leakage scenario are calculated for the prediction, early warning and e-mergency rescue of the liquid ammonia leakage accident. Combined with the characteristics of power plant safety management and the existing problems, the necessary suggestion on prevention and emergency measures are put forward from the process system monitoring, liquid ammonia storage, emergency disposal and other aspects.

  8. 福岛核事故后核电厂安全改进行动分析%Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Improvement Action After Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 李文宏; 杨红义

    2014-01-01

    介绍了福岛核事故后世界上主要核电国家相继开展的核电厂安全检查、再评价行动,并得出相应的检查和测试结论。法国、美国和中国等国家分别提出了福岛核事故后改进核电厂安全的建议、要求和行动,并制定了具体工程措施:在极端外部事件的设防,严重事故预防和缓解,水、电、通风实体改进,限制严重事故下的放射性释放和应急准备等主要方面开展的安全改进行动,将会提高核电厂的安全水平并提升缓解严重事故的能力。反思福岛核事故,总结福岛核事故对核电安全技术改进的促进作用,对未来核电安全技术的发展进行了展望。%The paper introduces nuclear power plant (NPP) safety inspections ,actions of re-evaluation and the main conclusions of the main countries with nuclear power in the world after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident .Countries ,such as France ,the United States and China ,carried out the NPP safety inspection and re-evaluation action ,and acquired conclusions . These countries respectively put forward the suggestions , demands and actions about improving NPP safety , and also formulated the specific engineering measures .The safety improvement actions ,such as fortification in extreme external events , severe accident prevention and mitigation , water , electricity and ventilation physical improvements ,limiting the radioactive release of severe accident , emergency preparedness ,and so on ,will increase the safety level and enhance ability to alleviate the severe accident of NPP .The profound consideration about the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident , summarizing the promotion role of nuclear power safety technology improvement after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident , and the development of nuclear power safety technology in the future were discussed .

  9. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Ecosystem model-based approach for modelling the dynamics of 137Cs transfer to marine plankton populations: application to the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belharet, M.; Estournel, C.; Charmasson, S.

    2015-06-01

    Huge amounts of radionuclides, especially 137Cs, were released into the western North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP) accident that occurred on 11 March 2011, resulting in contamination of the marine biota. In this study we developed a radioecological model to estimate 137Cs concentrations in phytoplankton and zooplankton populations representing the lower levels of the pelagic trophic chain. We coupled this model to a lower trophic level ecosystem model and an ocean circulation model to take into account the site-specific environmental conditions in the area. The different radioecological parameters of the model were estimated by calibration, and a sensitivity analysis to parameter uncertainties was carried out, showing a high sensitivity of the model results, especially to the 137Cs concentration in seawater, to the rates of uptake from water and to the radionuclide assimilation efficiency for zooplankton. The results of the 137Cs concentrations in planktonic populations simulated in this study were then validated through comparison with the some data available in the region after the accident. The model results have shown that the maximum concentrations in plankton after the accident were about two to four orders of magnitude higher than those observed before the accident depending on the distance from FNPP. Finally, the maximum 137Cs absorbed dose rate for phyto- and zooplankton populations was estimated to be about 10-2 μGy h-1, and was, therefore, lower than the 10 μGy h-1 benchmark value defined in the ERICA assessment approach from which a measurable effect on the marine biota can be observed.

  11. The determinist nature of the annalist of accidents at nuclear power plants; El caracter determinista del analisis de accidentes en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, F.; Mendizabal, R.

    2005-07-01

    This article develops the concept of determinist approximation or method to the analysis of accidents at nuclear facilities and explains how the aim was fulfilled with respect to the protection of workers at these facilities and the public in general. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Appendix XI. Analysis of comments on the draft WASH-1400 report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions.

  13. Practical approaches in accident analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    An accident analysis technique based on successive application of structural response, explosion dynamics, gas cloud formation, and plant operation failure mode models is proposed. The method takes into account the nonideal explosion characteristic of a deflagration in the unconfined cloud. The resulting pressure wave differs significantly from a shock wave and the response of structures like lamp posts and walls can differ correspondingly. This gives a more realistic insight into explosion courses than a simple TNT-equivalent approach.

  14. Development of system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, H. S.; Jeon, M. H.; Cho, N. J. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in nuclear power plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct Individual Plant Examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident-resistance. Severe accident can be mitigated by the proper accident management strategies. Some operator action for mitigation can lead to more disastrous result and thus uncertain severe accident phenomena must be well recognized. There must be further research for development of severe accident management strategies utilizing existing plant resources as well as new design concepts.

  15. Starch Product of Wild Plants Species Jalawure (Tacca leontopetaloides L.) Kuntze as The Source of Food Security in The South Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah; Sambas, E. N.; Ridwan; Ariani, D.

    2017-04-01

    Majority of people of South coast of West Java, from Sukabumi, Cianjur, Garut are fishermen. Natural conditions are very dry and the area of land for agriculture, particularly rice cultivation is minimal. So that the condition of the society is more directed to high enough levels of food insecurity. Because coastal areas tend to have a longer dry season from rainfall. Results of research conducted in the years 2013 - 2016 in the area of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cidaun (Cianjur), Coastal area of Jayanti, Ranca Buaya, Mekar Mukti, and along the coast until Pameungpeuk, Leuweung Sancang, is known that jalawure plant which grows wild at South-coast region of West Java is precisely the alternative solution to address food insecurity. The results of the starch flour is a source of carbohydrate that is high enough to be used as a substitute for rice and wheat. Another potential source of jalawure nutrition is also recommended for diabetics consumption.

  16. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tool