Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.
Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark A.; Fotopoulos, Vasileios
Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.
Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.
Full Text Available The physiological relationship between abiotic stress in plants and polyamines was reported more than 40 years ago. Ever since there has been a debate as to whether increased polyamines protect plants against abiotic stress (e.g. due to their ability to deal with oxidative radicals or cause damage to them (perhaps due to hydrogen peroxide produced by their catabolism. The observation that cellular polyamines are typically elevated in plants under both short-term as well as long-term abiotic stress conditions is consistent with the possibility of their dual effects, i.e. being a protector as well as a perpetrator of stress damage to the cells. The observed increase in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress when their cellular contents are elevated by either exogenous treatment with polyamines or through genetic engineering with genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes is indicative of a protective role for them. However, through their catabolic production of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein, both strong oxidizers, they can potentially be the cause of cellular harm during stress. In fact, somewhat enigmatic but strong positive relationship between abiotic stress and foliar polyamines has been proposed as a potential biochemical marker of persistent environmental stress in forest trees in which phenotypic symptoms of stress are not yet visible. Such markers may help forewarn forest managers to undertake amelioration strategies before the appearance of visual symptoms of stress and damage at which stage it is often too late for implementing strategies for stress remediation and reversal of damage. This review provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the published literature on interactions between abiotic stress and polyamines in plants, and examines the experimental strategies used to understand the functional significance of this relationship with the aim of improving plant productivity, especially under conditions of abiotic stress.
Lata, R; Chowdhury, S; Gond, S K; White, J F
Endophytes are micro-organisms including bacteria and fungi that survive within healthy plant tissues and promote plant growth under stress. This review focuses on the potential of endophytic microbes that induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. How endophytes promote plant growth under stressful conditions, like drought and heat, high salinity and poor nutrient availability will be discussed. The molecular mechanisms for increasing stress tolerance in plants by endophytes include induction of plant stress genes as well as biomolecules like reactive oxygen species scavengers. This review may help in the development of biotechnological applications of endophytic microbes in plant growth promotion and crop improvement under abiotic stress conditions. Increasing human populations demand more crop yield for food security while crop production is adversely affected by abiotic stresses like drought, salinity and high temperature. Development of stress tolerance in plants is a strategy to cope with the negative effects of adverse environmental conditions. Endophytes are well recognized for plant growth promotion and production of natural compounds. The property of endophytes to induce stress tolerance in plants can be applied to increase crop yields. With this review, we intend to promote application of endophytes in biotechnology and genetic engineering for the development of stress-tolerant plants. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address ...
AlShareef, Sahar A.
Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.
Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu
Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044
Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.
Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas Georg
Plant hormones (phytohormones) are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in very low concentrations. In the present chapter, the current knowledge on the regulation of biotic and biotic stress responses by plant hormones is summarized with special focus on the novel insights...... into the complex hormonal crosstalk of classical growth stimulating plant hormones within the naturally occurring biotic and abiotic multistress environment of higher plants. The MAPK- and phytohormone-cascades which comprise a multitude of single molecules on different signalling levels, as well as interactions...
Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.
Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar
Plants are continually challenged to recognize and respond to adverse changes in their environment to avoid detrimental effects on growth and development. Understanding the mechanisms that crop plants employ to resist and tolerate abiotic stress is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in crop plant abiotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the past few years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This is attributed to advances in various technology platforms associated with MS-based techniques as well as the accessibility of proteomics units to a wider plant research community. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for major crop plants and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to encourage broadening the strategies used to increase coverage of the proteome. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mosolov, V V; Valueva, T A
Data on the role of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors in plant adaptation to various unfavorable environmental abiotic factors--water deficiency, salinization of soil, extreme temperatures, etc.--and also probable functions of proteinases inhibitors in natural plant senescense are considered.
Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses
Bláha, L.; Hnilička, F.; Kadlec, P.; Smrčková-Jankovská, P.; Macháčková, Ivana; Sychrová, E.; Kohout, Ladislav
Roč. 3, č. 3 (2008), s. 389-390 ISSN 1125-4718. [Congress of the European Society for Agronomy /10./. 15.09.2008-19.09.2008, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : brassinosteroids * abiotic stress * emergency Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Sep 17, 2008 ... the universal stress hormone, is supplied in the culture ... various abiotic stress like water deficit, high salinity and low temperature or exogenous ... period in a plant growth chamber (NIPPON, LHP-100-RDS, Tokyo,. Japan).
Full Text Available In the field, plants constantly face a plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses that can impart detrimental effects on plants. In response to multiple stresses, plants can rapidly reprogram their transcriptome through a tightly regulated and highly dynamic regulatory network where WRKY transcription factors can act as activators or repressors. WRKY transcription factors have diverse biological functions in plants, but most notably are key players in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In tomato there are 83 WRKY genes identified. Here we review recent progress on functions of these tomato WRKY genes and their homologs in other plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, with a special focus on their involvement in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In particular, we highlight WRKY genes that play a role in plant responses to a combination of abiotic and biotic stresses.
Hirt, Heribert; De Zelicourt, Axel; Saad, Maged
It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under
Shabir H. Wani
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, heat, cold, flooding, and ultraviolet radiation causes crop losses worldwide. In recent times, preventing these crop losses and producing more food and feed to meet the demands of ever-increasing human populations have gained unprecedented importance. However, the proportion of agricultural lands facing multiple abiotic stresses is expected only to rise under a changing global climate fueled by anthropogenic activities. Identifying the mechanisms developed and deployed by plants to counteract abiotic stresses and maintain their growth and survival under harsh conditions thus holds great significance. Recent investigations have shown that phytohormones, including the classical auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and gibberellins, and newer members including brassinosteroids, jasmonates, and strigolactones may prove to be important metabolic engineering targets for producing abiotic stress-tolerant crop plants. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the roles that phytohormones play in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance, besides their engineering for conferring abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. We also describe recent successes in identifying the roles of phytohormones under stressful conditions. We conclude by describing the recent progress and future prospects including limitations and challenges of phytohormone engineering for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.
Khan, Sardar-Ali; Li, Meng-Zhan; Wang, Suo-Min; Yin, Hong-Ju
Owing to diverse abiotic stresses and global climate deterioration, the agricultural production worldwide is suffering serious losses. Breeding stress-resilient crops with higher quality and yield against multiple environmental stresses via application of transgenic technologies is currently the most promising approach. Deciphering molecular principles and mining stress-associate genes that govern plant responses against abiotic stresses is one of the prerequisites to develop stress-resistant crop varieties. As molecular switches in controlling stress-responsive genes expression, transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in regulating various abiotic stress responses. Hence, functional analysis of TFs and their interaction partners during abiotic stresses is crucial to perceive their role in diverse signaling cascades that many researchers have continued to undertake. Here, we review current developments in understanding TFs, with particular emphasis on their functions in orchestrating plant abiotic stress responses. Further, we discuss novel molecular mechanisms of their action under abiotic stress conditions. This will provide valuable information for understanding regulatory mechanisms to engineer stress-tolerant crops.
As water and salt stresses occur frequently and can affect many habitats, plants have developed several strategies to cope with these challenges: either adaptation mechanisms, which allow them to survive the adverse conditions, or specific growth habits to avoid stress conditions. Stress-tolerant
It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under environmental stress conditions.
Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A
Ling, Yu; Alshareef, Sahar; Butt, Haroon; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Li, Lixin; Galal, Aya A.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Momin, Afaque Ahmad Imtiyaz; Tashkandi, Manal; Richardson, Dale N.; Fujii, Hiroaki; Arold, Stefan T.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Duque, Paula; Mahfouz, Magdy M.
Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs enhances transcriptome plasticity and proteome diversity in response to diverse growth and stress cues. Recent work has shown that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various inhibitors of AS. Here, we show that the macrolide pladienolide B (PB) inhibits constitutive splicing and AS in plants. Also, our RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that PB mimics abiotic stress signals including salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). PB activates the abiotic stress- and ABA-responsive reporters RD29A
Petrov, Veselin; Hille, Jacob; Mueller-Rober, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko S.
During the course of their ontogenesis plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms
Full Text Available Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions.
Singh, Lamabam Peter
Fungal symbionts have been found to be associated with every plant studied in the natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely or partially in the internal tissues of their host plant. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is an increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered. PMID:21512319
Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated
Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki
Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of
Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Hum; Hong, Jeong Soo; Oh, Tae Rin; Kim, Woo Taek; Yang, Seong Wook
Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flood, and salinity. To survive under such unfavorable conditions, plants have evolutionarily developed their own resistant-mechanisms. For several decades, many studies have clarified specific stress response pathways of plants through various molecular and genetic studies. In particular, it was recently discovered that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), a regulatory mechanism for protein turn over, is greatly involved in the stress responsive pathways. In the UPS, many E3 ligases play key roles in recognizing and tethering poly-ubiquitins on target proteins for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of RING ligases that have been defined in related to abiotic stress responses in plants. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(8): 393-400].
Kenneth W. Berendzen
Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.
Virdi, Amardeep S.; Singh, Supreet; Singh, Prabhjeet
Intracellular changes in calcium ions (Ca2+) in response to different biotic and abiotic stimuli are detected by various sensor proteins in the plant cell. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most extensively studied Ca2+-sensing proteins and has been shown to be involved in transduction of Ca2+ signals. After interacting with Ca2+, CaM undergoes conformational change and influences the activities of a diverse range of CaM-binding proteins. A number of CaM-binding proteins have also been implicated in stress responses in plants, highlighting the central role played by CaM in adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. Stress adaptation in plants is a highly complex and multigenic response. Identification and characterization of CaM-modulated proteins in relation to different abiotic stresses could, therefore, prove to be essential for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Various studies have revealed involvement of CaM in regulation of metal ions uptake, generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of transcription factors such as CAMTA3, GTL1, and WRKY39. Activities of several kinases and phosphatases have also been shown to be modulated by CaM, thus providing further versatility to stress-associated signal transduction pathways. The results obtained from contemporary studies are consistent with the proposed role of CaM as an integrator of different stress signaling pathways, which allows plants to maintain homeostasis between different cellular processes. In this review, we have attempted to present the current state of understanding of the role of CaM in modulating different stress-regulated proteins and its implications in augmenting abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:26528296
Cabello, Julieta V; Lodeyro, Anabella F; Zurbriggen, Matias D
Adverse environmental conditions pose serious limitations to agricultural production. Classical biotechnological approaches towards increasing abiotic stress tolerance focus on boosting plant endogenous defence mechanisms. However, overexpression of regulatory elements or effectors is usually accompanied by growth handicap and yield penalties due to crosstalk between developmental and stress-response networks. Herein we offer an overview on novel strategies with the potential to overcome these limitations based on the engineering of regulatory systems involved in the fine-tuning of the plant response to environmental hardships, including post-translational modifications, small RNAs, epigenetic control of gene expression and hormonal networks. The development and application of plant synthetic biology tools and approaches will add new functionalities and perspectives to genetic engineering programs for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429
Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.
We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)
Full Text Available During the course of their ontogenesis, plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD. This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help to develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.
Alshareef, Sahar; Ling, Yu; Butt, Haroon; Mariappan, Kiruthiga G.; Benhamed, Moussa; Mahfouz, Magdy M.
Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small
Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant ...
Full Text Available Today’s crop breeding combined with improved agricultural management has brought substantial increases in food production. But irrigation, fertilizers pest management requires a high energy input that creates a drain on the already scare fossil fuels. It is thus clear that different strategy has to be adopted to increase crop productivity further to meet the needs of rapidly increasing world population. Crop breeders are endeavoring to meet this challenge by developing crops with higher yield, better resistance to pest, disease and weedicides, tolerance to various stress conditions.
Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N
Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone. Amongst all –omics technologies, metabolomics is the most transversal and can be applied to different organisms with little or no modifications. It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. These studies have highlighted the essential involvement of primary metabolites: sugars, amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates as direct markers of photosynthetic dysfunction as well as effectors of osmotic readjustment. On the contrary, secondary metabolites are more specific of genera and species and respond to particular stress conditions as antioxidants, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS scavengers, coenzymes, UV and excess radiation screen and also as regulatory molecules. In addition, the induction of secondary metabolites by several abiotic stress conditions could also be an effective mechanism of cross-protection against biotic threats, providing a link between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Moreover, the presence/absence and relative accumulation of certain metabolites along with gene expression data provides accurate markers (mQTL or MWAS for tolerant crop selection in breeding programs.
Full Text Available Phytohormones regulate numerous important biological processes in plant development and biotic/abiotic stress response cascades. More than 50 and 100 years have passed since the initial discoveries of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GA, respectively. Over the past several decades, numerous elegant studies have demonstrated that ABA and GA antagonistically regulate many plant developmental processes, including seed maturation, seed dormancy and germination, root initiation, hypocotyl and stem elongation, and floral transition. Furthermore, as a well-established stress hormone, ABA plays a key role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, flooding, salinity and low temperature. Interestingly, recent evidence revealed that GA are also involved in plant response to adverse environmental conditions. Consequently, the complex crosstalk networks between ABA and GA, mediated by diverse key regulators, have been extensively investigated and documented. In this updated mini-review, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of the antagonistically regulatory roles of ABA and GA in different stages of plant development and in various plant–environment interactions, focusing on the crosstalk between ABA and GA at the levels of phytohormone metabolism and signal transduction.
Foyer, Christine H; Rasool, Brwa; Davey, Jack W; Hancock, Robert D
Plants co-evolved with an enormous variety of microbial pathogens and insect herbivores under daily and seasonal variations in abiotic environmental conditions. Hence, plant cells display a high capacity to respond to diverse stresses through a flexible and finely balanced response network that involves components such as reduction-oxidation (redox) signalling pathways, stress hormones and growth regulators, as well as calcium and protein kinase cascades. Biotic and abiotic stress responses use common signals, pathways and triggers leading to cross-tolerance phenomena, whereby exposure to one type of stress can activate plant responses that facilitate tolerance to several different types of stress. While the acclimation mechanisms and adaptive responses that facilitate responses to single biotic and abiotic stresses have been extensively characterized, relatively little information is available on the dynamic aspects of combined biotic/abiotic stress response. In this review, we consider how the abiotic environment influences plant responses to attack by phloem-feeding aphids. Unravelling the signalling cascades that underpin cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses will allow the identification of new targets for increasing environmental resilience in crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Alshareef, Sahar; Ling, Yu; Butt, Haroon; Mariappan, Kiruthiga; Benhamed, Moussa; Mahfouz, Magdy
Abstract Background Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and stresses. Small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Results Here, we show that herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing. Moreover, GEX1A activates genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. GEX1A treatment -activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, GEX1A and pladienolide B (PB) elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. Conclusions Our study establishes GEX1A as a potent splicing inhibitor in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.
Full Text Available Arsenic (As, naturally occurring metalloid and a potential hazardous material, is found in low concentrations in the environment and emerges from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The presence of As in ground water, which is used for irrigation, is a matter of great concern since it affects crop productivity and contaminates food chain. In plants, As alters various metabolic pathways in cells including the interaction of substrates/enzymes with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins and the replacement of phosphate in ATP for energy. In addition, As stimulates the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS, resulting in oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs quench reactive molecules with the addition of glutathione (GSH and protect the cell from oxidative damage. GSTs are a multigene family of isozymes, known to catalyze the conjugation of GSH to miscellany of electrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. GSTs have been reported to be associated with plant developmental processes and are responsive to multitude of stressors. In past, several studies suggested involvement of plant GST gene family in As response due to the requirement of sulfur and GSH in the detoxification of this toxic metalloid. This review provides updated information about the role of GSTs in abiotic and biotic stresses with an emphasis on As uptake, metabolism, and detoxification in plants. Further, the genetic manipulations that helped in enhancing the understanding of the function of GSTs in abiotic stress response and heavy metal detoxification has been reviewed.
Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny
HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic
Chen Zhixiang; Xiao Yong; Shi Junwei; Lai Zhibing; Chen Han; Xu Xinping
Abstract Background WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY60 transcription factors interact both physically and functionally in plant defense responses. However, their role in plant abiotic stress response has not been directly analyzed. Results We report that the three WRKYs are involved in plant responses to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress. Through analysis of single, double, and triple muta...
Durgesh K. Tripathi
Full Text Available Iron (Fe is a micronutrient that plays an important role in agriculture worldwide because plants require a small amount of iron for its growth and development. All major functions in a plant's life from chlorophyll biosynthesis to energy transfer are performed by Fe (Brumbarova et al., 2008; Gill and Tuteja, 2011. Iron also acts as a major constituent of many plant proteins and enzymes. The acquisition of Fe in plants occurs through two strategies, i.e., strategy I and strategy II (Marschner and Römheld, 1994. Under various stress conditions, Nramp and the YSL gene families help in translocation of Fe, which further acts as a mineral regulatory element and defends plants against stresses. Iron plays an irreplaceable role in alleviating stress imposed by salinity, drought, and heavy metal stress. This is because it activates plant enzymatic antioxidants like catalase (CAT, peroxidase, and an isoform of superoxide dismutase (SOD that act as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS (Hellin et al., 1995. In addition to this, their deficiency as well as their excess amount can disturb the homeostasis of a plant's cell and result in declining of photosynthetic rate, respiration, and increased accumulation of Na+ and Ca− ions which culminate in an excessive formation of ROS. The short-range order hydrated Fe oxides and organic functional groups show affinities for metal ions. Iron plaque biofilm matrices could sequester a large amount of metals at the soil–root interface. Hence, it has attracted the attention of plant physiologists and agricultural scientists who are discovering more exciting and hidden applications of Fe and its potential in the development of bio-factories. This review looks into the recent progress made in putting forward the role of Fe in plant growth, development, and acclimation under major abiotic stresses, i.e., salinity, drought, and heavy metals.
Janicka, Małgorzata; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna
Plasma membrane (PM) H + -ATPase, which generates the proton gradient across the outer membrane of plant cells, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of many physiological processes fundamental for growth and development of plants. It is involved in the uptake of nutrients from external solutions, their loading into phloem and long-distance transport, stomata aperture and gas exchange, pH homeostasis in cytosol, cell wall loosening, and cell expansion. The crucial role of the enzyme in resistance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors has also been well documented. Such great diversity of physiological functions linked to the activity of one enzyme requires a suitable and complex regulation of H + -ATPase. This regulation comprises the transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Herein, we describe the techniques that can be useful for the analysis of the plasma membrane proton pump modifications at genetic and protein levels under environmental factors.
Full Text Available Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant´s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations.Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant´s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signalling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation.
Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey
Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm(4+) > Spd(3+) > Put(2+). On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K(+)-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H(+) pumps and Ca(2+) pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca(2+) influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment.
Andreo Jimenez, B.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Lopez-Raez, J.A.
Background Plants are exposed to ever changing and often unfavourable environmental conditions, which cause both abiotic and biotic stresses. They have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to flexibly adapt themselves to these stress conditions. To achieve such adaptation, they need to control and
Simontacchi, Marcela; Galatro, Andrea; Ramos-Artuso, Facundo; Santa-María, Guillermo E.
Nitric oxide in plants may originate endogenously or come from surrounding atmosphere and soil. Interestingly, this gaseous free radical is far from having a constant level and varies greatly among tissues depending on a given plant’s ontogeny and environmental fluctuations. Proper plant growth, vegetative development, and reproduction require the integration of plant hormonal activity with the antioxidant network, as well as the maintenance of concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within a narrow range. Plants are frequently faced with abiotic stress conditions such as low nutrient availability, salinity, drought, high ultraviolet (UV) radiation and extreme temperatures, which can influence developmental processes and lead to growth restriction making adaptive responses the plant’s priority. The ability of plants to respond and survive under environmental-stress conditions involves sensing and signaling events where nitric oxide becomes a critical component mediating hormonal actions, interacting with reactive oxygen species, and modulating gene expression and protein activity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the role of nitric oxide in adaptive plant responses to some specific abiotic stress conditions, particularly low mineral nutrient supply, drought, salinity and high UV-B radiation. PMID:26617619
Full Text Available The specific genetic changes through which plants adapt to the multitude of environmental stresses are possible because of the molecular regulations in the system. These intricate regulatory mechanisms once unveiled will surely raise interesting questions. Polyamines and hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be important signalling molecules during biotic and abiotic stresses. Hydrogen peroxide plays a versatile role from orchestrating physiological processes to stress response. It helps to achieve acclimatization and tolerance to stress by coordinating intra-cellular and systemic signalling systems. Polyamines, on the other hand, are low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines, which have been implicated in various stress responses. It is quite interesting to note that both hydrogen peroxide and polyamines have a fine line of inter-relation between them since the catabolic pathways of the latter releases hydrogen peroxide. In this review we have tried to illustrate the roles and their multifaceted functions of these two important signalling molecules based on current literature. This review also highlights the fact that over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and polyamines can be detrimental for plant cells leading to toxicity and pre-mature cell death.
Gupta, Kamala; Sengupta, Atreyee; Chakraborty, Mayukh; Gupta, Bhaskar
The specific genetic changes through which plants adapt to the multitude of environmental stresses are possible because of the molecular regulations in the system. These intricate regulatory mechanisms once unveiled will surely raise interesting questions. Polyamines and hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be important signaling molecules during biotic and abiotic stresses. Hydrogen peroxide plays a versatile role from orchestrating physiological processes to stress response. It helps to achieve acclimatization and tolerance to stress by coordinating intra-cellular and systemic signaling systems. Polyamines, on the other hand, are low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines, which have been implicated in various stress responses. It is quite interesting to note that both hydrogen peroxide and polyamines have a fine line of inter-relation between them since the catabolic pathways of the latter releases hydrogen peroxide. In this review we have tried to illustrate the roles and their multifaceted functions of these two important signaling molecules based on current literature. This review also highlights the fact that over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and polyamines can be detrimental for plant cells leading to toxicity and pre-mature cell death.
Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios
Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gong, Xiaoqing; Liu, Ji-Hong
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a sensitive, rapid, and accurate technique to detect and characterize various metabolites from plants. The metabolites are extracted with different solvents and eluted with appropriate mobile phases in a designed HPLC program. Polyamines are known to accumulate under abiotic stress conditions in various plant species and thought to provide protection against oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Here, we describe a common method to detect the free polyamines in plant tissues both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep
One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.
Lee, Jungeun; Noh, Eun Kyeung; Choi, Hyung-Seok; Shin, Seung Chul; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok
Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica Desv.) is the only natural grass species in the maritime Antarctic. It has been studied as an extremophile that has successfully adapted to marginal land with the harshest environment for terrestrial plants. However, limited genetic research has focused on this species due to the lack of genomic resources. Here, we present the first de novo assembly of its transcriptome by massive parallel sequencing and its expression profile using D. antarctica grown under various stress conditions. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 60,765 unigenes (28,177 contigs and 32,588 singletons). A total of 29,173 unique protein-coding genes were identified based on sequence similarities to known proteins. The combined results from all three stress conditions indicated differential expression of 3,110 genes. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that several well-known stress-responsive genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant protein, dehydrin 1, and ice recrystallization inhibition protein were induced dramatically and that genes encoding U-box-domain-containing protein, electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone, and F-box-containing protein were induced by abiotic stressors in a manner conserved with other plant species. We identified more than 2,000 simple sequence repeats that can be developed as functional molecular markers. This dataset is the most comprehensive transcriptome resource currently available for D. antarctica and is therefore expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of grasses and extremophiles.
Nguyen, Nguyen Hoai; Kim, Jun Hyeok; Kwon, Jaeyoung; Jeong, Chan Young; Lee, Wonje; Lee, Dongho; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung
Flavonoids are an important group of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant growth and contribute to human health. Many studies have focused on the biosynthesis pathway, biochemical characters, and biological functions of flavonoids. In this report, we showed that overexpression of FLS1 (FLS1-OX) not only altered seed coat color (resulting in a light brown color), but also affected flavonoid accumulation. Whereas fls1-3 mutants accumulated higher anthocyanin levels, FLS1-OX seedlings had lower levels than those of the wild-type. Besides, shoot tissues of FLS1-OX plants exhibited lower flavonol levels than those of the wild-type. However, growth performance and abiotic stress tolerance of FLS1-OX, fls1-3, and wild-type plants were not significantly different. Taken together, FLS1 can be manipulated (i.e., silenced or overexpressed) to redirect the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway toward anthocyanin production without negative effects on plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Universal Stress Protein (USP is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologues of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive universal stress protein. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control (wild type and vector control plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1 exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content under stress treatments than control (WT and VC plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2- radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis (PCA exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant.
B W Poovaiah
Full Text Available Transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration have been well recognized to act as cell signals coupling various environmental stimuli to appropriate physiological responses with accuracy and specificity in plants. Calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs are major Ca2+ sensors, playing critical roles in interpreting encrypted Ca2+ signals. Ca2+-loaded CaM/CMLs interact and regulate a broad spectrum of target proteins such as channels/pumps/antiporters for various ions, transcription factors, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, metabolic enzymes and proteins with unknown biochemical functions. Many of the target proteins of CaM/CMLs directly or indirectly regulate plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic information about stimulus-induced Ca2+ signal and overview of Ca2+ signal perception and transduction are briefly discussed in the beginning of this review. How CaM/CMLs are involved in regulating plant responses to abiotic stresses are emphasized in this review. Exciting progress has been made in the past several years, such as the elucidation of Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of AtSR1/CAMTA3 and plant responses to chilling and freezing stresses, Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of CAT3, MAPK8 and MKP1 in homeostasis control of ROS signals, discovery of CaM7 as a DNA-binding transcription factor regulating plant response to light signals. However, many key questions in Ca2+/CaM-mediated signaling warrant further investigation. Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of most of the known target proteins is presumed based on their interaction. The downstream targets of CMLs are mostly unknown, and how specificity of Ca2+ signaling could be realized through the actions of CaM/CMLs and their target proteins is largely unknown. Future breakthroughs in Ca2+/CaM-mediated signaling will not only improve our understanding of how plants respond to environmental stresses, but also provide the knowledge base to improve stress-tolerance of crops.
Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath
The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338
Full Text Available Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze is affected by abiotic stress during its growth and development. DNA-binding with one finger (Dof transcription factors (TFs play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In this study, a total of 29 putative Dof TFs were identified based on transcriptome of tea plant, and the conserved domains and common motifs of these CsDof TFs were predicted and analyzed. The 29 CsDof proteins were divided into 7 groups (A, B1, B2, C1, C2.1, C2.2, and D2, and the interaction networks of Dof proteins in C. sinensis were established according to the data in Arabidopsis. Gene expression was analyzed in “Yingshuang” and “Huangjinya” under four experimental stresses by qRT-PCR. CsDof genes were expressed differentially and related to different abiotic stress conditions. In total, our results might suggest that there is a potential relationship between CsDof factors and tea plant stress resistance.
Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a
Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco
Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...
Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal
Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Small, non-coding RNAs are a distinct class of regulatory RNAs in plants and animals that control a variety of biological processes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved through a series of pathways. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs control the expression of cognate target genes by binding to reverse complementary sequences, resulting in cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNAs. siRNAs have a similar structure, function, and biogenesis as miRNAs but are derived from long double-stranded RNAs and can often direct DNA methylation at target sequences. Besides their roles in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small RNAs. Thus, understanding how small RNAs regulate gene expression will enable researchers to explore the role of small RNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of plant small RNAs in the adaptive response to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Rihan, HZ; Al-Issawi, M; Al-Shamari, M; Elmahrouk, M; Fuller, MP
© 2015 ISHS. An effective protocol for cauliflower micropropagation was optimised and developed which enabled the production of tens of thousands of cauliflower microshoots from one cauliflower curd. The large number of microshoots that can be produced per culture unit facilitates the use of this protocol to analyse both the physiological and molecular components of abiotic stress tolerance. The protocol was used for cauliflower cold tolerance analysis and it was demonstrated that low tempera...
In the last century, conventional selection and breeding program proved to be highly effective in improving crops against abiotic stresses. Therefore, breeding for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants should be given high research priority as abiotic stresses are the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and ...
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L. has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L. was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions.
Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.
Han, Ye; Han, Shoukun; Ban, Qiuyan; He, Yiheng; Jin, Mijing; Rao, Jingping
DkXTH1 promoted cell elongation and more strength to maintain structural integrity by involving in cell wall assembly, thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress with broader phenotype in transgenic plants. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to play a key role in cell wall modifications by cleaving and re-joining xyloglucan, and participates in the diverse physiological processes. DkXTH1 was found to peak in immature expanding persimmon fruit, and its higher expression level exhibited along with firmer fruit during storage. In the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants were generated with DkXTH1 constitutively expressed. Overexpression of DkXTH1 enhanced tolerance to salt, ABA and drought stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with respect to root and leaf growth, and survival. Transgenic tomatoes collected at the mature green stage, presented delayed fruit softening coupled with postponed color change, a later and lower ethylene peak, and higher firmness in comparison with the wild-type tomatoes during storage. Furthermore, broader leaves and tomato fruit with larger diameter were gained in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato, respectively. Most importantly, transgenic plants exhibited more large and irregular cells with higher density of cell wall and intercellular spaces, resulting from the overactivity of XET enzymes involving in cell wall assembly. We suggest that DkXTH1 expression resulted in cells with more strength and thickness to maintain structural integrity, and thus enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress and delayed fruit softening in transgenic plants.
Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis.
Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K.; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R. G.; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh
Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis-acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance. PMID:28265276
Li Na eZhang
Full Text Available NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol (PEG and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.
Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying
NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol and exogenous abscisic acid. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt, and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.
Greg C. Vanlerberghe
Full Text Available Alternative oxidase (AOX is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.
Li, Jianrui; Dong, Yang; Li, Cong; Pan, Yanlin; Yu, Jingjuan
Drought and other types of abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth and crop yields. The abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins play important roles in the protection of plants against abiotic stress. However, the regulatory pathway of the gene encoding this protein remains to be elucidated. In this study, the foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) ASR gene, SiASR4 , was cloned and characterized. SiASR4 localized to the cell nucleus, cytoplasm and cytomembrane, and the protein contained 102 amino acids, including an ABA/WDS (abscisic acid/water-deficit stress) domain, with a molecular mass of 11.5 kDa. The abundance of SiASR4 transcripts increased after treatment with ABA, NaCl, and PEG in foxtail millet seedlings. It has been reported that the S. italica ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) binds to a DNA sequence with a CCGAC core and that there are five dehydration-responsive element (DRE) motifs within the SiASR4 promoter. Our analyses demonstrated that the SiARDP protein could bind to the SiASR4 promoter in vitro and in vivo . The expression of SiASR4 increased in SiARDP -overexpressing plants. SiASR4 -transgenic Arabidopsis and SiASR4 -overexpressing foxtail millet exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress. Furthermore, the transcription of stress-responsive and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger-associated genes was activated in SiASR4 transgenic plants. Together, these findings show that SiASR4 functions in the adaption to drought and salt stress and is regulated by SiARDP via an ABA-dependent pathway.
Full Text Available The impact of abiotic stress on plant growth and development has been and still is a major research topic. An important pathway that has been linked to abiotic stress tolerance is the trehalose biosynthetic pathway. Recent findings showed that trehalose metabolism is also important for normal plant growth and development. The intermediate compound – Trehalose-6-Phosphate (T6P – is now confirmed to act as a sensor for available sucrose, hereby directly influencing the type of response to the changing environmental conditions. This is possible because T6P and/or trehalose or their biosynthetic enzymes are part of complex interaction networks with other crucial hormone and sugar-induced signalling pathways, which may function at different developmental stages. Because of its effect on plant growth and development, modification of trehalose biosynthesis, either at the level of T6P synthesis, T6P hydrolysis or trehalose hydrolysis, has been utilized to try to improve crop yield and biomass. It was shown that alteration of the amounts of either T6P and/or trehalose did result in increased stress tolerance, but also resulted in many unexpected phenotypic alterations. A main challenge is to characterize the part of the signalling pathway resulting in improved stress tolerance, without affecting the pathways resulting in the unwanted phenotypes. One such specific pathway where modification of trehalose metabolism improved stress tolerance, without any side effects, was recently obtained by overexpression of trehalase, which results in a more sensitive reaction of the stomatal guard cells and closing of the stomata under drought stress conditions. We have used the data that have been obtained from different studies to generate the optimal plant that can be constructed based on modifications of trehalose metabolism.
Abiotic stress is the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In addition to protein coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in plant stress responses. Though miRNAs are key in regulating many aspects of plant developmental plasticity under abiotic stresses, very few information are available ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. Results In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1 from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY and RAV (TaRAV protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. Conclusions These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
Wang, Liuqiang; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yucheng
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1) from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY) and RAV (TaRAV) protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt
Plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress require the judicious balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are a group of oxidoreductases that participate in the control of ROS and are traditionally defined as redox regulators. New studies suggest the member...
Filazzola, Alessandro; Liczner, Amanda Rae; Westphal, Michael; Lortie, Christopher J
Environmental extremes resulting from a changing climate can have profound implications for plant interactions in desert communities. Positive interactions can buffer plant communities from abiotic stress and consumer pressure caused by climatic extremes, but limited research has explored this empirically. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of shrub facilitation on an annual plant community can change with precipitation extremes in deserts. During years of extreme drought and above-average rainfall in a desert, we measured plant interactions and biomass while manipulating a soil moisture gradient and reducing consumer pressure. Shrubs facilitated the annual plant community at all levels of soil moisture through reductions in microclimatic stress in both years and herbivore protection in the wet year only. Shrub facilitation and the high rainfall year contributed to the dominance of a competitive annual species in the plant community. Precipitation patterns in deserts determine the magnitude and type of facilitation mechanisms. Moreover, shrub facilitation mediates the interspecific competition within the associated annual community between years with different rainfall amounts. Examining multiple drivers during extreme climate events is a challenging area of research, but it is a necessary consideration given forecasts predicting that these events will increase in frequency and magnitude. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R
Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons
Campbell, M. T.; Walia, H.; Grondin, A.; Knecht, A.
The development of abiotic stress tolerant crops (i.e. drought, salinity, or heat stress) requires the discovery of DNA sequence variants associated with stress tolerance-related traits. However, many traits underlying adaptation to abiotic stress involve a suite of physiological pathways that may be induced at different times throughout the duration of stress. Conventional single-point phenotyping approaches fail to fully capture these temporal responses, and thus downstream genetic analysis may only identify a subset of the genetic variants that are important for adaptation to sub-optimal environments. Although genomic resources for crops have advanced tremendously, the collection of phenotypic data for morphological and physiological traits is laborious and remains a significant bottleneck in bridging the phenotype-genotype gap. In recent years, the availability of automated, image-based phenotyping platforms has provided researchers with an opportunity to collect morphological and physiological traits non-destructively in a highly controlled environment. Moreover, these platforms allow abiotic stress responses to be recorded throughout the duration of the experiment, and have facilitated the use of function-valued traits for genetic analyses in major crops. We will present our approaches for addressing abiotic stress tolerance in cereals. This talk will focus on novel open-source software to process and extract biological meaningful data from images generated from these phenomics platforms. In addition, we will discuss the statistical approaches to model longitudinal phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of dynamic responses to these abiotic stresses throughout development.
Bokhari, Ameerah M
Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh
Dinh, Sy Nguyen; Kang, Hunseung
The Coffea arabica BURP domain-containing gene plays an important role in the response of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to abiotic stresses via regulating the level of diverse proteins. Although the functions of plant-specific BURP domain-containing proteins (BDP) have been determined for a few plants, their roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of most plant species, including coffee plant (Coffea arabica), are largely unknown. In this study, the function of a C. arabica BDP, designated CaBDP1, was investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The expression of CaBDP1 was highly modulated in coffee plants subjected to drought, cold, salt, or ABA. Confocal analysis of CaBDP1-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CaBDP1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. The ectopic expression of CaBDP1 in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed germination of the transgenic plants under abiotic stress and in the presence of ABA. Cotyledon greening and seedling growth of the transgenic plants were inhibited in the presence of ABA due to the upregulation of ABA signaling-related genes like ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. Proteome analysis revealed that the levels of several proteins are modulated in CaBDP1-expressing transgenic plants. The results of this study underscore the importance of BURP domain proteins in plant responses to diverse abiotic stresses.
Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E
Jasmonic acid (JA) is a naturally occurring growth regulator found in higher plants. Several physiological roles have been described for this compound (or a related compound, methyl jasmonate) during plant development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To accurately determine JA levels in plant tissue, we have synthesized JA containing 13C for use as an internal standard with an isotopic composition of : 0.98:0.02 compared with : 0.15:0.85 for natural material. GC analysis (flame ionization detection and MS) indicate that the internal standard is composed of 92% 2-(+/-)-[13C]JA and 8% 2-(+/-)-7-iso-[13C]JA. In soybean plants, JA levels were highest in young leaves, flowers, and fruit (highest in the pericarp). In soybean seeds and seedlings, JA levels were highest in the youngest organs including the hypocotyl hook, plumule, and 12-h axis. In soybean leaves that had been dehydrated to cause a 15% decrease in fresh weight, JA levels increased approximately 5-fold within 2 h and declined to approximately control levels by 4 h. In contrast, a lag time of 1-2 h occurred before abscisic acid accumulation reached a maximum. These results will be discussed in the context of multiple pathways for JA biosynthesis and the role of JA in plant development and responses to environmental signals.
Laloum, Tom; Martín, Guiomar; Duque, Paula
Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, is an important modulator of gene expression that can increase proteome diversity and regulate mRNA levels. In plants, this post-transcriptional mechanism is markedly induced in response to environmental stress, and recent studies have identified alternative splicing events that allow rapid adjustment of the abundance and function of key stress-response components. In agreement, plant mutants defective in splicing factors are severely impaired in their response to abiotic stress. Notably, mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing regulates stress responses largely by targeting the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. We review here current understanding of post-transcriptional control of plant stress tolerance via alternative splicing and discuss research challenges for the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Global food security faces the challenges of rapid population growth and shortage of water resources. Drought, heat waves and soil salinity are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climatic changes in many regions of the world, and resulting in yield reduction of many crops. It is hypothesized...... that quinoa has the potential to grow under a range of abiotic stresses, tolerating levels regarded as stresses in other crop species. Therefore cultivation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) could be an alternative option in such regions. Even though quinoa is more tolerant to abiotic stress than most...... other crops, its productivity declines under severe drought, high salt conditions and harsh climate conditions. Different management approaches including water-saving irrigation methods (such as deficit irrigation, DI and alternate root-zone drying irrigation, ARD), inoculating crop seeds with plant...
Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.
Emissions of volatile isoprenoids from tropical forests play central roles in atmospheric processes by fueling atmospheric chemistry resulting in modified aerosol and cloud lifecycles and their associated feedbacks with the terrestrial biosphere. However, the identities of tropical isoprenoids, their biological and environmental controls, and functions within plants and ecosystems remain highly uncertain. As part of the DOE ARM program's GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign, extensive field and laboratory observations of volatile isoprenoids are being conducted in the central Amazon. Here we report the results of our completed and ongoing activities at the ZF2 forest reserve in the central Amazon. Among the results of the research are the suprisingly high abundance of light-dependent volatile isoprenoid emissions across abundant tree genera in the Amazon in both primary and secondary forests, the discovery of highly reactive monoterpene emissions from Amazon trees, and evidence for the importance of volatile isoprenoids in protecting photosynthesis during oxidative stress under elevated temperatures including energy consumption and direct antioxidant functions and a tight connection betwen volatile isoprenoid emissions, photorespiration, and CO2 recycling within leaves. The results highlight the need to model allocation of carbon to isoprenoids during elevated temperature stress in the tropics.
Zé licourt, Axel de; Colcombet, Jean; Hirt, Heribert
To respond to abiotic stresses, plants have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to rapidly perceive and respond to environmental changes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) was shown to be a pivotal regulator of abiotic stress responses
Fernanda Dos Santos Farnese
Full Text Available The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, particularly nitric oxide (NO, involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport, promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc, and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary.
Farnese, Fernanda S; Menezes-Silva, Paulo E; Gusman, Grasielle S; Oliveira, Juraci A
The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), particularly nitric oxide (NO), involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport), promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc.), and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones, and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary.
Josefa Hernández-Ruiz; Marino B. Arnao
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was discovered in plants in 1995, while salicylic acid was the name given to the active ingredient of willow in 1838. From a physiological point of view, these two molecules present in plants have never been compared, even though they have a great number of similarities, as we shall see in this work. Both molecules have biosynthesis pathways that share a common precursor and both play a relevant role in the physiology of plants, especially in aspects r...
Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stress factors can adversely affect the agricultural productivity leading to physiological and biochemical damage to crops. Therefore, the most effective way is to increase the resistance to stresses. Silicon plays a ro le in reducing the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses (drought, salt stress, disease and insect stress etc. on plants. Silicon is accumulated in the cell walls and intercellular spaces and thus it has beneficial effects on disease infestations in especially small grains. The application of silicon may reduce the effects of environmental stresses on plants while making effective use of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Also, silicon may reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals in soil. I t may protect the foliage and increase light uptake and reduce respiration. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the effects of silicon on abiotic and biotic stresses in especially field crops.
Sun, Xinbo; Sun, Chunyu; Li, Zhigang; Hu, Qian; Han, Liebao; Luo, Hong
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. Small HSPs (sHSPs) belong to the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kDa. We have cloned a new sHSP gene, AsHSP17 from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. AsHSP17 encodes a protein of 17 kDa. Its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by salt and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing AsHSP17 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to heat and salt stress accompanied by reduced leaf chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis under both normal and stressed conditions compared to wild type. Overexpression of AsHSP17 also led to hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and salinity during germination and post-germinative growth. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsHSP17 modulates expression of photosynthesis-related genes and regulates ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and ABA signalling as well as ABA-independent stress signalling. Our results suggest that AsHSP17 may function as a protein chaperone to negatively regulate plant responses to adverse environmental stresses through modulating photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The use of transgenic plants to produce novel products has great biotechnological potential as relatively inexpensive inputs (e.g. light, water, and nutrients) are required in return for potentially valuable outputs (e.g. bioactive metabolites, diagnostic proteins and vaccines). Extensive research is ongoing in this area internationally with the aim of producing plant-made vaccines (PMV) of importance for both animals and humans. Avian influenza (AI) infection is endemic among birds, and al...
Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense system against pathogens including use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AM...
Full Text Available Abstracts: The histone deacetylases play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and the subsequent control of a number of important biological processes, including those involved in the response to environmental stress. A specific group of histone deacetylase genes, HD2, is present in plants. In Arabidopsis, HD2s include HD2A, HD2B, HD2C and HD2D. Previous research showed that HD2A, HD2B and HD2C are more related in terms of expression and function, but not HD2D. In this report, we studied different aspects of AtHD2D in Arabidopsis with respect to plant response to drought and other abiotic stresses. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that HD2D is distantly related to other HD2 genes. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and stable expression in Arabidopsis of AtHD2D fused with gfp showed that AtHD2D was expressed in the nucleus. Overexpression of AtHD2D resulted in developmental changes including fewer main roots, more lateral roots, and a higher root:shoot ratio. Seed germination and plant flowering time were delayed in transgenic plants expressing AtHD2D, but these plants exhibited higher degrees of tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought, salt and cold stresses. Physiological studies indicated that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was high in wild-type plants but in plants overexpressing HD2D the MDA level increased slowly in response to stress conditions of drought, cold, and salt stress. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage in leaf cells of wild type plants increased but remained stable in transgenic plants. Our results indicate that AtHD2D is unique among HD2 genes and it plays a role in plant growth and development regulation and these changes can modulate plant stress responses.
Khraiwesh, Basel; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua
in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small
Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U
The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.
Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini
In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui
The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.
Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa
[EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.
Liu, Caixia; Ravnskov, Sabine; Lui, Fulai
Deficit irrigation (DI) improves water use efficiency (WUE), but the reduced water input often limits plant growth and nutrient uptake. The current study examined whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could alleviate abiotic stress caused by low phosphorus (P) fertilization and DI...... or improved plant growth and P/nitrogen (N) uptake when subjected to DI/PRD and P0. However, the positive responses to AMF varied with P level and irrigation regime. Functional differences were found in ability of AMF species alleviating plant stress. The largest positive plant biomass response to M1+ and M2......+ was found under FI, both at P1 and P0 (25% increase), while plant biomass response to M1+ and M2+ under DI/PRD (14% increase) was significantly smaller. The large growth response to AMF inoculation, particularly under FI, may relate to greater photosynthetic capacity and leaf area, probably caused...
Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.
Iniga Seraphina George
Full Text Available Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research.
Lenoir, Ingrid; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa
The majority of plants live in close collaboration with a diversity of soil organisms among which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an essential role. Mycorrhizal symbioses contribute to plant growth and plant protection against various environmental stresses. Whereas the resistance mechanisms induced in mycorrhizal plants after exposure to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and pollution, are well documented, the knowledge about the stress tolerance mechanisms implemented by the AMF themselves is limited. This review provides an overview of the impacts of various abiotic stresses (pollution, salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, CO2, calcareous, acidity) on biodiversity, abundance and development of AMF and examines the morphological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms implemented by AMF to survive in the presence of these stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sunitha, Mellacheruvu; Srinath, Tamirisa; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara
Transgenic rice expressing pigeonpea Cc CDR conferred high-level tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The multiple stress tolerance observed in CcCDR -transgenic lines is attributed to the modulation of ABA-dependent and-independent signalling-pathway genes. Stable transgenic plants expressing Cajanus cajan cold and drought regulatory protein encoding gene (CcCDR), under the control of CaMV35S and rd29A promoters, have been generated in indica rice. Different transgenic lines of CcCDR, when subjected to drought, salt, and cold stresses, exhibited higher seed germination, seedling survival rates, shoot length, root length, and enhanced plant biomass when compared with the untransformed control plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants disclosed higher leaf chlorophyll content, proline, reducing sugars, SOD, and catalase activities, besides lower levels of MDA. Localization studies revealed that the CcCDR-GFP fusion protein was mainly present in the nucleus of transformed cells of rice. The CcCDR transgenics were found hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and showed reduced seed germination rates as compared to that of control plants. When the transgenic plants were exposed to drought and salt stresses at vegetative and reproductive stages, they revealed larger panicles and higher number of filled grains compared to the untransformed control plants. Under similar stress conditions, the expression levels of P5CS, bZIP, DREB, OsLEA3, and CIPK genes, involved in ABA-dependent and-independent signal transduction pathways, were found higher in the transgenic plants than the control plants. The overall results amply demonstrate that the transgenic rice expressing CcCDR bestows high-level tolerance to drought, salt, and cold stress conditions. Accordingly, the CcCDR might be deployed as a promising candidate gene for improving the multiple stress tolerance of diverse crop plants.
Regina S Redman
Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.
Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J
Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.
Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.
Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.
Yao Youli; Kovalchuk, Igor
In earlier studies, we showed that abiotic stresses, such as ionizing radiation, heavy metals, temperature and water, trigger an increase in homologous recombination frequency (HRF). We also demonstrated that many of these stresses led to inheritance of high-frequency homologous recombination, HRF. Although an increase in recombination frequency is an important indicator of genome rearrangements, it only represents a minor portion of possible stress-induced mutations. Here, we analyzed the influence of heat, cold, drought, flood and UVC abiotic stresses on two major types of mutations in the genome, point mutations and small deletions/insertions. We used two transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana, one allowing an analysis of reversions in a stop codon-containing inactivated β-glucuronidase transgene and another one allowing an analysis of repeat stability in a microsatellite-interrupted β-glucuronidase transgene. The transgenic Arabidopsis line carrying the β-glucuronidase-based homologous recombination substrate was used as a positive control. We showed that the majority of stresses increased the frequency of point mutations, homologous recombination and microsatellite instability in somatic cells, with the frequency of homologous recombination being affected the most. The analysis of transgenerational changes showed an increase in HRF to be the most prominent effect observed in progeny. Significant changes in recombination frequency were observed upon exposure to all types of stress except drought, whereas changes in microsatellite instability were observed upon exposure to UVC, heat and cold. The frequency of point mutations in the progeny of stress-exposed plants was the least affected; an increase in mutation frequency was observed only in the progeny of plants exposed to UVC. We thus conclude that transgenerational changes in genome stability in response to stress primarily involve an increase in recombination frequency.
Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; He, Xueying; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei
A full length cDNA encoding a myo-inositol transporter-like protein, named as MfINT-like, was cloned from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (herein falcata), a species with greater cold tolerance than alfalfa (M. sativa subsp. sativa). MfINT-like is located on plasma membranes. MfINT-like transcript was induced 2-4 h after exogenous myo-inositol treatment, 24-96 h with cold, and 96 h by salinity. Given that myo-inositol accumulates higher in falcata after 24 h of cold treatment, myo-inositol is proposed to be involved in cold-induced expression of MfINT-like. Higher levels of myo-inositol was observed in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfINT-like than the wild-type but not in the roots of plants grown on myo-inositol containing medium, suggesting that transgenic plants had higher myo-inositol transport activity than the wild-type. Transgenic plants survived better to freezing temperature, and had lower ion leakage and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) after chilling treatment. In addition, greater plant fresh weight was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild-type when plants were grown under drought or salinity stress. The results suggest that MfINT-like mediated transport of myo-inositol is associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine
This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on pumpkin calluses carotenoid. Plant elicitors used to create abiotic stress in this study were Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for drought stress, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid for hormones stress and Murashige and Skoog Salt for ...
Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele
The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Protein complexes involved in epigenetic regulation of transcription have evolved as molecular strategies to face environmental stress in plants. SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 Acetyltransferase is a transcriptional co-activator complex that regulates numerous cellular processes through the coordination of multiple post-translational histone modifications, including acetylation, deubiquitination, and chromatin recognition. The diverse functions of the SAGA complex involve distinct modules that are highly conserved between yeast, flies, and mammals. In this review, the composition of the SAGA complex in plants is described and its role in gene expression regulation under stress conditions summarized. Some of these proteins are likely involved in the regulation of the inducible expression of genes under light, cold, drought, salt, and iron stress, although the functions of several of its components remain unknown.
Full Text Available Contemporaneous presence of both oxidized and reduced forms of electron carriers is mandatory in efficient flux by plant electron transport cascades. This requirement is considered as redox poising that involves the movement of electron from multiple sites in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains to molecular oxygen. This flux triggers the formation of superoxide, consequently give rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS under adverse environmental conditions like drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal stress etc. that plants owing during their life span. Plant cells synthesize ascorbate, an additional hydrophilic redox buffer, which protect the plants against oxidative challenge. Large pools of antioxidants also preside over the redox homeostasis. Besides, tocopherol is a liposoluble redox buffer, which efficiently scavenges the ROS like singlet oxygen. In addition, proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and glutaredoxin, electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators phosphorylated (NADP and non-phosphorylated (NAD+ coenzyme forms interact with ROS, metabolize and maintain redox homeostasis.
Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.
Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to
Roatti, Benedetta; Perazzolli, Michele; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria
Enhancement of plant defense through the application of resistance inducers seems a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling crop diseases but the efficacy can be affected by abiotic factors in the field. Plants respond to abiotic stresses with hormonal signals that may interfere with the mechanisms of induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. In this study, we exposed grapevines to heat, drought, or both to investigate the effects of abiotic stresses on grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) to downy mildew. Whereas the efficacy of T39-induced resistance was not affected by exposure to heat or drought, it was significantly reduced by combined abiotic stresses. Decrease of leaf water potential and upregulation of heat-stress markers confirmed that plants reacted to abiotic stresses. Basal expression of defense-related genes and their upregulation during T39-induced resistance were attenuated by abiotic stresses, in agreement with the reduced efficacy of T39. The evidence reported here suggests that exposure of crops to abiotic stress should be carefully considered to optimize the use of resistance inducers, especially in view of future global climate changes. Expression analysis of ISR marker genes could be helpful to identify when plants are responding to abiotic stresses, in order to optimize treatments with resistance inducers in field.
Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh
Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...
Links Matthew G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in
Ana B. Castro-Sanz
Full Text Available Plants have developed versatile strategies to deal with the great variety of challenging conditions they are exposed to. Among them, the regulation of translation is a common target to finely modulate gene expression both under biotic and abiotic stress situations. Upon environmental challenges, translation is regulated to reduce the consumption of energy and to selectively synthesize proteins involved in the proper establishment of the tolerance response. In the case of viral infections, the situation is more complex, as viruses have evolved unconventional mechanisms to regulate translation in order to ensure the production of the viral encoded proteins using the plant machinery. Although the final purpose is different, in some cases, both plants and viruses share common mechanisms to modulate translation. In others, the mechanisms leading to the control of translation are viral- or stress-specific. In this paper, we review the different mechanisms involved in the regulation of translation initiation under virus infection and under environmental stress in plants. In addition, we describe the main features within the viral RNAs and the cellular mRNAs that promote their selective translation in plants undergoing biotic and abiotic stress situations.
Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.
Miranda, Ana F; Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Mouradov, Aidyn
The aquatic plant Azolla became increasingly popular as bioenergy feedstock because of its high growth rate, production of biomass with high levels of biofuel-producing molecules and ability to grow on marginal lands. In this study, we analysed the contribution of all organs of Azolla to the total yield of lipids at vegetative and reproductive stages and in response to stress. Triacylglycerol-containing lipid droplets were detected in all (vegetative and reproductive) organs with the highest level in the male microsporocarps and microspores. As a result, significantly higher total yields of lipids were detected in Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata at the reproductive stage. Starving changed the yield and composition of the fatty acid as a result of re-direction of carbon flow from fatty acid to anthocyanin pathways. The composition of lipids, in regard the length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, in Azolla meets most of the important requirements for biodiesel standards. The ability of Azolla to grow on wastewaters, along with their high productivity rate, makes it an attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiujuan; Yang, Guanyu; Shi, Rui; Han, Xiaomin; Qi, Liwang; Wang, Ruigang; Xiong, Liming; Li, Guojing
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed germination, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salt stresses. Receptor-like kinases are well known signaling components that mediate plant responses
Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research
Wang, Yishi; Stutts, Lauren; Stapleton, Ann
Plant growth regulators have documented roles in plant responses to single stresses. In combined-stress environments, plants display novel genetic architecture for growth traits and the response to growth regulators is unclear. We investigated the role of plant growth regulators in combined-stress responses in Zea mays. Twelve maize inbreds were exposed to all combinations of the following stressors: drought, nitrogen, and density stress. Chemical treatments were utilized to alter balances of...
Vollenweider, P.; Guenthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.
Visible symptoms in the foliage of trees are recorded to monitor the effects of abiotic and biotic stress. Difficulties are reported in diagnosing the origin of stress. The present paper discusses several diagnostic criteria which are usable in different species for a better determination of the stress factor type. A new diagnosis scheme to differentiate between classes of abiotic and biotic stress factors is supplied. Abiotic stress generates gradients of symptoms. The symptom specificity is determined by the degree of interaction between the stress factor and plant defense system. Symptoms caused by abiotic stress and natural autumnal senescence can be morphologically different or undistinguishable according to the stress and plant species. With biotic stress, the class of parasitic is generally recognizable on the basis of the visible symptoms. Structurally and physiologically based explanations of the symptom morphology are still missing for many stress factors. - The morphology and distribution of visible stress symptoms in tree foliage provides diagnostic tools to identify plant defense responses and differentiate stress from natural senescence symptoms
Vemanna S Ramu
Full Text Available In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.
Alptekin, Burcu; Langridge, Peter; Budak, Hikmet
The continued growth in world population necessitates increases in both the quantity and quality of agricultural production. Triticeae members, particularly wheat and barley, make an important contribution to world food reserves by providing rich sources of carbohydrate and protein. These crops are grown over diverse production environments that are characterized by a range of environmental or abiotic stresses. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, or nutrient deficiencies and tox...
Hyun, T.K.; Albacete, A.; van der Graaff, E.; Eom, S. H.; Großkinsky, D.K.; Böhm, H.; Janschek, U.; Rim, Y.; Ali, W.; Kim, S.Y.; Roitsch, Thomas
Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 651-663 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biotic stress * Plant growth * AtPLAT1 gene * Tobacco Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.054, year: 2015
Wahl, Martin; Jormalainen, Veijo; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Coyer, James A.; Molis, Markus; Schubert, Hendrik; Dethier, Megan; Karez, Rolf; Kruse, Inken; Lenz, Mark; Pearson, Gareth; Rohde, Sven; Wikstrom, Sofia A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Lesser, M
Stress regimes defined as the synchronous or sequential action of abiotic and biotic stresses determine the performance and distribution of species. The natural patterns of stress to which species are more or less well adapted have recently started to shift and alter under the influence of global
Jul 16, 2014 ... Key words: Cereal crops, abiotic stresses, food insecurity, molecular breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), salinity, water stress. ... production of genetically modified (GM) crops, exo- genous use of osmo protectants etc. ... stressful environments is important to fulfill food demand of the ever-increasing world ...
Genomic sequencing, molecular biology, and transformation technologies are providing valuable tools to better understand the complexity of how plants develop, function, and respond to biotic and abiotic stress. These approaches should complement but not replace a solid understanding of whole plant ...
Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.
Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania
The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Although as an organ the root plays a pivotal role in nutrient and water uptake as well anchorage, individual cell types function distinctly. Cortex is regarded as the least differentiated cell type in the root, but little is known about its role in plant growth and physiology. In recent studies, we found that cortex proliferation can be induced by oxidative stress. Since all types of abiotic stress lead to oxidative stress, this finding suggests a role for cortex in coping with abiotic stress. This hypothesis was tested in this study using the spy mutant, which has an extra layer of cortex in the root. Interestingly, the spy mutant was shown to be hypersensitive to salt and oxidizing reagent applied to the leaves, but it was as tolerant as the wild type to these compounds in the soil. This result lends support to the notion that cortex has a protective role against abiotic stress arising from the soil.
Kang, Le; Ji, Chang Yoon; Kim, Sun Ha; Ke, Qingbo; Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Deng, Xiping; Kwak, Sang-Soo
β-carotene, a carotenoid that plays a key photo-protective role in plants is converted into zeaxanthin by β-carotene hydroxylase (CHY-β). Previous work showed that down-regulation of IbCHY-β by RNA interference (RNAi) results in higher levels of β-carotene and total carotenoids, as well as salt stress tolerance, in cultured transgenic sweetpotato cells. In this study, we introduced the RNAi-IbCHY-β construct into a white-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar (cv. Yulmi) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among the 13 resultant transgenic sweetpotato plants (referred to as RC plants), three lines were selected for further characterization on the basis of IbCHY-β transcript levels. The RC plants had orange flesh, total carotenoid and β-carotene contents in storage roots were 2-fold and 16-fold higher, respectively, than those of non-transgenic (NT) plants. Unlike storage roots, total carotenoid and β-carotene levels in the leaves of RC plants were slightly increased compared to NT plants. The leaves of RC plants also exhibited tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress, which was associated with higher 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. In addition, RC plants maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and higher photosystem II efficiency than NT plants after 250 mM NaCl stress. Yield of storage roots did not differ significantly between RC and NT plants. These observations suggest that RC plants might be useful as a nutritious and environmental stress-tolerant crop on marginal lands around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.
Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep
WRKY proteins are emerging players in plant signaling and have been thoroughly reported to play important roles in plants under biotic stress like pathogen attack. However, recent advances in this field do reveal the enormous significance of these proteins in eliciting responses induced by abiotic stresses. WRKY proteins act as major transcription factors, either as positive or negative regulators. Specific WRKY factors which help in the expression of a cluster of stress-responsive genes are being targeted and genetically modified to induce improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The knowledge regarding the signaling cascade leading to the activation of the WRKY proteins, their interaction with other proteins of the signaling pathway, and the downstream genes activated by them are altogether vital for justified targeting of the WRKY genes. WRKY proteins have also been considered to generate tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses with possible roles in mediating a cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this review, we have reckoned the diverse signaling pattern and biological functions of WRKY proteins throughout the plant kingdom along with the growing prospects in this field of research.
Full Text Available Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum, rice (Oryza sativa, maize (Zea mays, and barley (Hordeum vulgare. These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance. During the green revolution (1940–1960, cereal breeding was very successful in developing high-yield crops varieties; however, these cultivars were maximized for highest yield under optimal conditions, and did not present suitable traits for tolerance under unfavorable conditions. The improvement of crop abiotic stress tolerance requires a deep knowledge of the phenomena underlying tolerance, to devise novel approaches and decipher the key components of agricultural production systems. Approaches to improve food production combining both enhanced water use efficiency (WUE and acceptable yields are critical to create a sustainable agriculture in the future. This paper analyzes the latest results on abiotic stress tolerance in Poaceae. In particular, the focus will be directed toward various aspects of water deprivation and salinity response efficiency in Poaceae. Aspects related to cell wall metabolism will be covered, given the importance of the plant cell wall in sensing environmental constraints and in mediating a response; the role of silicon (Si, an important element for monocots' normal growth and development, will also be discussed, since it activates a broad-spectrum response to different exogenous stresses. Perspectives valorizing studies on landraces conclude the survey, as they help identify key traits for breeding purposes.
Laura Marie Ladwig
Within grasslands, precipitation, fire, nitrogen (N) addition, and extreme temperatures influence community composition and ecosystem function. The differential influences of these abiotic factors on Chihuahuan Desert grassland communities was examined within the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, located in central New Mexico, U.S.A. Although fire is a natural...
Full Text Available The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses of plants depends on intricate coordination of multiple signal transduction pathways that act coordinately or, in some cases, antagonistically. Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs can regulate protein activity and localization as well as protein–protein interactions in numerous cellular processes, thus leading to elaborate regulation of plant responses to various external stimuli. Understanding responses of crop plants under field conditions is crucial to design novel stress-tolerant cultivars that maintain robust homeostasis even under extreme conditions. In this review, proteomic studies of PTMs in crops are summarized. Although the research on the roles of crop PTMs in regulating stress response mechanisms is still in its early stage, several novel insights have been retrieved so far. This review covers techniques for detection of PTMs in plants, representative PTMs in plants under abiotic stress, and how PTMs control functions of representative proteins. In addition, because PTMs under abiotic stresses are well described in soybeans under submergence, recent findings in PTMs of soybean proteins under flooding stress are introduced. This review provides information on advances in PTM study in relation to plant adaptations to abiotic stresses, underlining the importance of PTM study to ensure adequate agricultural production in the future.
Yannarelli, G.G.; Azpilicueta, C.E.; Gallego, S.M.; Benavides, M.P.; Tomaro, M.L.
Full text: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Although ROS act as mediators of oxidative damage, a signalling role for O 2 - and H 2 O 2 has been proposed. In the present work, the effect of cadmium (300 and 500 μM CdCl 2 ) or UVB radiation (30 KJ/m 2 ) on expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sod3) and catalase (cat1 and cat3) was evaluated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf discs. Samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 h of Cd treatments or white light recuperation after UVB treatment. RNA extractions and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed. Treatment of 300 μM Cd induced 6.4, 2.9 and 6 fold the expression of sod3, cat1 and cat3 over the controls, respectively, after 8 h of treatment, but 500 μM Cd showed lesser induction levels. Immediately after UVB irradiation, the mRNA of the three enzymes decreased. After 8 h of white light recovery, cat1 and cat3 were induced (1.9 and 3.5 fold, respectively) and the maximum sod3 expression was observed at 12 h (7 fold), respect to control. In conclusion, the balance between superoxide dismutase and peroxidases activities in cells is crucial for determining the steady-state level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 . In our assay conditions, sod3, cat1 and cat3 were induced in response to abiotic stress at a late phase (8-12 h). The main induction of cat3 suggests that core-catalases of peroxisomes might play a key regulatory role in controlling H 2 O 2 level. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF on gibberellins (GAs deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24 and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20 contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic
Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Afridi, Muhammad Zahir; Luo, Honghai; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Ajab, Mir; Fahad, Shah
This review outlines nitrogen (N) responses in crop production and potential management decisions to ameliorate abiotic stresses for better crop production. N is a primary constituent of the nucleotides and proteins that are essential for life. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment. Therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is important for the development of sustainable agriculture. NUE has a key role in crop yield and can be enhanced by controlling loss of fertilizers by application of humic acid and natural polymers (hydrogels), having high water-holding capacity which can improve plant performance under field conditions. Abiotic stresses such as waterlogging, drought, heat, and salinity are the major limitations for successful crop production. Therefore, integrated management approaches such as addition of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), the film antitranspirant (di-1-p-menthene and pinolene) nutrients, hydrogels, and phytohormones may provide novel approaches to improve plant tolerance against abiotic stress-induced damage. Moreover, for plant breeders and molecular biologists, it is a challenge to develop cotton cultivars that can tolerate plant abiotic stresses while having high potential NUE for the future.
Clavijo McCormick, Andrea
The attraction of natural enemies towards herbivore-induced plant volatiles is a well-documented phenomenon. However, the majority of published studies are carried under optimal water and nutrient regimes and with just one herbivore. But what happens when additional levels of ecological complexity are added? Does the presence of a second herbivore, microorganisms, and abiotic stress interfere with plant-natural enemy communication? or is communication stable enough to withstand disruption by additional biotic and abiotic factors?Investigating the effects of these additional levels of ecological complexity is key to understanding the stability of tritrophic interactions in natural ecosystems and may aid to forecast the impact of environmental disturbances on these, especially in climate change scenarios, which are often associated with modifications in plant and arthropod species distribution and increased levels of abiotic stress.This review explores the literature on natural enemy attraction to herbivore-induced volatiles when, besides herbivory, plants are challenged by additional biotic and abiotic factors.The aim of this review was to establish the impact of different biotic and abiotic factors on plant-natural enemy communication and to highlight critical aspects to guide future research efforts.
Koevoets, Iko T; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J Theo M; Testerink, Christa
To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as
Hazarika, Pranjal; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat
Recent findings have implicated the role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was carried out with the goal of generating transgenic tomato plants with human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc) gene, a key gene involved in biosynthesis of polyamines, viz. spermidine and spermine and evaluating the transgenic plants for tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Several putative transgenic tomato plants with normal phenotype were obtained, and the transgene integration and expression was validated by PCR, Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants exhibited high levels of polyamines as compared to the untransformed control plants. They also showed increased resistance against two important fungal pathogens of tomato, the wilt causing Fusarium oxysporum and the early blight causing Alternaria solani and tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold and high temperature. These results suggest that engineering polyamine accumulation can confer tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.
Shen, Po-Chih; Hour, Ai-Ling; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy
Abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors that affect plant growth, development, yield and final quality. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of plants' adaptations to stresses using few datasets might overlook the different aspects of stress tolerance in plants, which might be simultaneously and consequently operated in the system. Fortunately, the accumulated microarray expression data offer an opportunity to infer abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns through meta-analysis. In this study, we propose to combine microarray gene expression data under control, cold, drought, heat, and salt conditions and determined modules (gene sets) of genes highly associated with each other according to the observed expression data. By analyzing the expression variations of the Eigen genes from different conditions, we had identified two, three, and five gene modules as cold-, heat-, and salt-specific modules, respectively. Most of the cold- or heat-specific modules were differentially expressed to a particular degree in shoot samples, while most of the salt-specific modules were differentially expressed to a particular degree in root samples. A gene ontology (GO) analysis on the stress-specific modules suggested that the gene modules exclusively enriched stress-related GO terms and that different genes under the same GO terms may be alternatively disturbed in different conditions. The gene regulatory events for two genes, DREB1A and DEAR1, in the cold-specific gene module had also been validated, as evidenced through the literature search. Our protocols study the specificity of the gene modules that were specifically activated under a particular type of abiotic stress. The biplot can also assist to visualize the stress-specific gene modules. In conclusion, our approach has the potential to further elucidate mechanisms in plants and beneficial for future experiments design under different abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The grape WRKY gene, WRKY3 was previously reported to respond to salt and drought stress, as well as methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments in Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera cv. ‘Kyoho.’ In the current study, WRKY3 from the ‘Kyoho’ grape cultivar was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic A. thaliana plants showed improved salt and drought stress tolerance during the germination, seedling and the mature plant stages. Various physiological traits related to abiotic stress responses were evaluated to gain further insight into the role of VlWRKY3, and it was found that abiotic stress caused less damage to the transgenic seedlings than to the wild-type (WT plants. VlWRKY3 over-expression also resulted in altered expression levels of abiotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, the 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic A. thaliana lines showed improved resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with the WT plants. Collectively, these results indicate that VlWRKY3 plays important roles in responses to both abiotic and biotic stress, and modification of its expression may represent a strategy to enhance stress tolerance in crops.
Zélicourt, Axel de
To respond to abiotic stresses, plants have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to rapidly perceive and respond to environmental changes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) was shown to be a pivotal regulator of abiotic stress responses in plants, triggering major changes in plant physiology. The ABA core signaling pathway largely relies on the activation of SnRK2 kinases to mediate several rapid responses, including gene regulation, stomatal closure, and plant growth modulation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have also been implicated in ABA signaling, but an entire ABA-activated MAPK module was uncovered only recently. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of MAPK modules in the context of different plant ABA signaling pathways. Abiotic stresses impact average yield in agriculture by more than 50% globally.Since ABA is a key regulator of abiotic stress responses, an understanding of its functioning at the molecular level is essential for plant breeding. Although the ABA core signaling pathway has been unraveled, several downstream events are still unclear.MAPKs are involved in most plant developmental stages and in response to stresses. Several members of the MAPK family were shown to be directly or indirectly activated by the ABA core signaling pathway.Recent evidence shows that the complete MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14 module is under the control of ABA, whose members are under the transcriptional and post-translational control of the ABA core signaling pathway. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous stress factors, which limits their growth rates in the natural environment. Arabidopsis thaliana, with its broad genetic diversity and wide climatic range, has been shown to successfully adapt to stressful conditions to ensure the completion of its life cycle. As a result, A. thaliana has become a robust and renowned plant model system for studying natural variation and conducting gene discovery studies. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in restructured populations combining natural and recombinant lines is a particularly effective way to identify the genetic basis of complex traits. As most abiotic stresses affect photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are a potential phenotyping technique for monitoring plant performance under stress conditions. This review focuses on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to study genetic variation underlying the stress tolerance responses to abiotic stress in A. thaliana.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid
Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao
Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by
Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion
The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population.
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+ efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
Bhuria, Monika; Goel, Parul; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Anil K
Universal stress proteins (USPs) are known to be expressed in response to various abiotic stresses in a wide variety of organisms, such as bacteria, archaebacteria, protists, algae, fungi, plants, and animals. However, in plants, biological function of most of the USPs still remains obscure. In the present study, Arabidopsis USP gene ( AtUSP ) showed induction in response to abscisic acid (ABA) and various abiotic stresses viz . heat, dehydration, salt, osmotic, and cold stresses. Additionally, in silico analysis of AtUSP promoter identified several cis -elements responsive to phytohormones and abiotic stresses such as ABRE, ERE, DRE, and HSE, etc. To functionally validate the AtUSP promoter, the 1115 bp region of promoter was characterized under phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Deletion analysis of promoter was carried out by cloning the full length promoter (D0) and its three 5' deletion derivatives, D1 (964 bp), D2 (660 bp), and D3 (503 bp) upstream of the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, which were then stably transformed in Arabidopsis plants. The AtUSP promoter (D0) showed minimal activity under non-stress conditions which was enhanced in response to phytohormone treatments (ABA and ACC) and abiotic stresses such as dehydration, heat, cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. The seedlings harboring D1 and D2 deletion fragments showed constitutive GUS expression even under control condition with increased activity almost under all the treatments. However, D3 seedlings exhibited complete loss of activity under control condition with induction under ACC treatment, dehydration, heat, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses. Thus, present study clearly showed that AtUSP promoter is highly inducible by phytohormones and multiple abiotic stresses and it can be exploited as stress inducible promoter to generate multi-stress tolerant crops with minimal effects on their other important traits.
Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named “jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10” (JIOsPR10 to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered. Further experiments exhibited that the transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to rice blast fungus, and enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance as compared to the wild type. A comparative proteomic profiling of wild type and transgenic plants showed that overexpression of JIOsPR10 led to the differential modulation of several proteins mainly related with oxidative stresses, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant defense. Taken together, our findings suggest that JIOsPR10 plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance probably by activation of stress related proteins.
Feng, Zhi-Juan; Xu, Sheng-Chun; Liu, Na; Zhang, Gu-Wen; Hu, Qi-Zan; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Gong, Ya-Ming
Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a highly diverse family of water channel proteins that play crucial biological functions in plant growth and development and stress physiology. In Arabidopsis, 35 AQPs are classified into four subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs). However, knowledge about the roles of different subfamily AQPs remains limited. Here, we explored the chromosomal location, gene structure and expression patterns of all AQPs in different tissues or under different abiotic stresses based on available microarray data. Tissue expression analysis showed that different AQPs had various expression patterns in tissues (root, leaf, flower and seed). Expression profiles under stress conditions revealed that most AQPs were responsive to osmotic, salt and drought stresses. Phenotypic and physiological identification showed that Tip2;2 loss-of-function mutant exhibited less sensitive to abiotic stresses (mannitol, NaCl and PEG) compared with wild-type, as evident by analysis of germination rate, root growth, survival rate, ion leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents. Mutant of TIP2;2 modulated the transcript levels of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, DREB1A, DREB2A and P5CS1, under abiotic stress conditions. This study provides a basis for further functional identification of stress-related candidate AQPs in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shi, Haitao; Liu, Wen; Yao, Yue; Wei, Yunxie; Chan, Zhulong
Although the transcriptional regulation and upstream transcription factors of AtADH1 in response to abiotic stress are widely revealed, the in vivo roles of AtADH1 remain unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of AtADH1 was largely induced after salt, drought, cold and pathogen infection. Further studies found that AtADH1 overexpressing plants were more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) in comparison to wide type (WT), while AtADH1 knockout mutants showed no significant difference compared with WT in ABA sensitivity. Consistently, AtADH1 overexpressing plants showed improved stress resistance to salt, drought, cold and pathogen infection than WT, but the AtADH1 knockout mutants had no significant difference in abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Moreover, overexpression of AtADH1 expression increased the transcript levels of multiple stress-related genes, accumulation of soluble sugars and callose depositions. All these results indicate that AtADH1 confers enhanced resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Balaji, Jayashree; Crouch, Jonathan H; Petite, Prasad V N S; Hoisington, David A
A minimal requirement to initiate a comparative genomics study on plant responses to abiotic stresses is a dataset of orthologous sequences. The availability of a large amount of sequence information, including those derived from stress cDNA libraries allow for the identification of stress related genes and orthologs associated with the stress response. Orthologous sequences serve as tools to explore genes and their relationships across species. For this purpose, ESTs from stress cDNA libraries across 16 crop species including 6 important cereal crops and 10 dicots were systematically collated and subjected to bioinformatics analysis such as clustering, grouping of tentative orthologous sets, identification of protein motifs/patterns in the predicted protein sequence, and annotation with stress conditions, tissue/library source and putative function. All data are available to the scientific community at http://intranet.icrisat.org/gt1/tog/homepage.htm. We believe that the availability of annotated plant abiotic stress ortholog sets will be a valuable resource for researchers studying the biology of environmental stresses in plant systems, molecular evolution and genomics.
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait
Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.
Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different
Seo, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Jeong, S. H. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The direct use of mutation is a valuable approach to generate genetic variation in crop species by altering agronomically useful major traits. The proton beam, as a mutagen, was applied to improve resistance traits of Zoysia grass under various abiotic stresses. Proton beam was irradiated to mature dry seeds of Zenith (Zoysia grass), which is well-adapted to Korean climate, using a proton- accelerator with seven different doses (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 Gy). Individual seedling of M1 plant was transplanted from the seed bed and allowed to reach appropriate plant mass. Clones that showed superior growth were chosen and transplanted to pots for further clone propagation and field evaluation. Growth characteristics of turfgrass, such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, number of tiller were evaluated ninety days after sowing. Although large variation within each dose, noticeable differences were found among different irradiated doses. Most of the mutant clones derived from the irradiation treatment showed more vigorous growth than the control plants. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) methods were conducted to analyze genomic variations associated with proton beam irradiation. In order to establish selection criteria for selection of salt-stress resistance plants, an in vitro method that is able to select salt-stress resistant mutants in liquid media without ambient disturbances. Total 647 predominance clones that were considered as abiotic stress resistant mutants were transplanted to the field for further evaluation.
Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa
To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659
Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.
Dong, Shaowei; Adams, Keith L
Polyploidy has occurred throughout plant evolution and can result in considerable changes to gene expression when it takes place and over evolutionary time. Little is known about the effects of abiotic stress conditions on duplicate gene expression patterns in polyploid plants. We examined the expression patterns of 60 duplicated genes in leaves, roots and cotyledons of allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum in response to five abiotic stress treatments (heat, cold, drought, high salt and water submersion) using single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, and 20 genes in a synthetic allotetraploid. Over 70% of the genes showed stress-induced changes in the relative expression levels of the duplicates under one or more stress treatments with frequent variability among treatments. Twelve pairs showed opposite changes in expression levels in response to different abiotic stress treatments. Stress-induced expression changes occurred in the synthetic allopolyploid, but there was little correspondence in patterns between the natural and synthetic polyploids. Our results indicate that abiotic stress conditions can have considerable effects on duplicate gene expression in a polyploid, with the effects varying by gene, stress and organ type. Differential expression in response to environmental stresses may be a factor in the preservation of some duplicated genes in polyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.
S. M. Nuruzzaman Manik
Full Text Available Abiotic stress halts the physiological and developmental process of plant. During stress condition, CBL-CIPK complex is identified as a primary element of calcium sensor to perceive environmental signals. Recent studies established that this complex regulates downstream targets like ion channels and transporters in adverse stages conditions. Crosstalks between the CBL-CIPK complex and different abiotic stresses can extend our research area, which can improve and increase the production of genetically modified crops in response to abiotic stresses. How this complex links with environmental signals and creates adjustable circumstances under unfavorable conditions is now one of the burning issues. Diverse studies are already underway to delineate this signalling mechanism underlying different interactions. Therefore, up to date experimental results should be concisely published, thus paving the way for further research. The present review will concisely recapitulate the recent and ongoing research progress of positive ions (Mg2+, Na+, and K+, negative ions (NO3-, PO4-, and hormonal signalling, which are evolving from accumulating results of analyses of CBL and CIPK loss- or gain-of-function experiments in different species along with some progress and perspectives of our works. In a word, this review will give one step forward direction for more functional studies in this area.
CHEN Xi-feng; Gu Zhi-min; LIU Feng; MA Bo-jun; ZHANG Hong-sheng
Plant calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins have been proposed as important Ca2+ sensors and specifically interact with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) in plant-specific calcium signaling.Here,we identified and isolated 15 CIPK genes in a japonica rice variety Nipponbare based on the predicted sequences of rice CIPK gene family.Gene structure analysis showed that these 15 genes were divided into intron-less and intron-rich groups,and OsCIPK3 and OsCIPK24 exhibited alternative splicing in their mature process.The phylogenetic analyses indicated that rice CIPKs shared an ancestor with Arabidopsis and poplar CIPKs.Analyses of gene expression showed that these OsCIPK genes were differentially induced by biotic stresses such as bacterial blight and abiotic stresses (heavy metal such as Hg2+,high salinity,cold and ABA).Interestingly,five OsCIPK genes,OsCIPK1,2,10,11 and 12,were transcriptionally up-regulated after bacterial blight infection whereas four OsCIPK genes,OsCIPK2,10,11 and 14,were induced by all treatments,indicating that some of OsCIPK genes are involved in multiple stress response pathways in plants.Our finding suggests that CIPKs play a key role in both biotic and abiotic stress responses.
Mansfield John W
Full Text Available Abstract We describe an efficient method for the rapid quantitative determination of the abundance of three acidic plant hormones from a single crude extract directly by LC/MS/MS. The method exploits the sensitivity of MS and uses multiple reaction monitoring and isotopically labelled samples to quantify the phytohormones abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis leaf tissue.
Full Text Available Termostability and optimal pH of weak-associated with plant cell wall and soluble peroxidases was shown to change in relation to natural conditions and season of year. Also the activity of peroxidase was variable during vegetation period. Dehydrine expression was followed by spike of peroxidase activity (and, a priori, an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.
Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung
Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses.
Full Text Available Survival biomass production and crop yield are heavily constrained by a wide range of environmental stresses. Several phytohormones among which abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA are known to mediate plant responses to these stresses. By contrast, the role of the plant hormone auxin in stress responses remains so far poorly studied. Auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, and Auxin Response Factors play a key role in the transcriptional activation or repression of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. As a mean to gain more insight on auxin involvement in a set of biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato, the present study uncovers the expression pattern of SlARF genes in tomato plants subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses. In silico mining of the RNAseq data available through the public TomExpress web platform, identified several SlARFs as responsive to various pathogen infections induced by bacteria and viruses. Accordingly, sequence analysis revealed that 5' regulatory regions of these SlARFs are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Moreover, quantitative qPCR expression analysis revealed that many SlARFs were differentially expressed in tomato leaves and roots under salt, drought and flooding stress conditions. Further pointing to the putative role of SlARFs in stress responses, quantitative qPCR expression studies identified some miRNA precursors as potentially involved in the regulation of their SlARF target genes in roots exposed to salt and drought stresses. These data suggest an active regulation of SlARFs at the post-transcriptional level under stress conditions. Based on the substantial change in the transcript accumulation of several SlARF genes, the data presented in this work strongly support the involvement of auxin in stress responses thus enabling to identify a set of candidate SlARFs as potential mediators of biotic and abiotic
Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto
Full Text Available Some genetically modified (GM plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.
Zhai, Yiqian; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Fu, Silu; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying
Although bHLH transcription factors play important roles regulating plant development and abiotic stress response and tolerance, few functional studies have been performed in wheat. In this study, we isolated and characterized a bHLH gene, TabHLH39, from wheat. The TabHLH39 gene is located on wheat chromosome 5DL, and the protein localized to the nucleus and activated transcription. TabHLH39 showed variable expression in roots, stems, leaves, glumes, pistils and stamens and was induced by polyethylene glycol, salt and cold treatments. Further analysis revealed that TabHLH39 overexpression in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance to drought, salt and freezing stress during the seedling stage, which was also demonstrated by enhanced abiotic stress-response gene expression and changes to several physiological indices. Therefore, TabHLH39 has potential in transgenic breeding applications to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato (Solanum lycopersium Mill., commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI (100%, 80% and 60% ETc, using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m. The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca+2 and K+ were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na+ and Cl−, especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solids (TSS. This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.
Hyun, Tae Kyung; van der Graaff, Eric; Albacete, Alfonso
. Abiotic stress treatments induced PLAT1 expression and caused expansion of its expression domain. The ABF/ABRE transcription factors, which are positive mediators of abscisic acid signalling, activate PLAT1 promoter activity in transactivation assays and directly bind to the ABRE elements located...... in this promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This suggests that PLAT1 represents a novel downstream target of the abscisic acid signalling pathway. Thus, we showed that PLAT1 critically functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance, but also is involved in regulating plant growth...
Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto
Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and
Sangam L. Dwivedi
Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection
Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.
Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Sandalio, Luisa M; Romero-Puertas, María C
Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H(2)O(2) level under abiotic stress.
Jose Antonio O'Brien
Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants have to be able to adapt to a continuously changing environment. Plants that perceive some of these changes as stress signals activate signaling pathways to modulate their development and to enable them to survive. The complex responses to environmental cues are to a large extent mediated by plant hormones that together orchestrate the final plant response. The phytohormone cytokinin is involved in many plant developmental processes. Recently, it has been established that cytokinin plays an important role in stress responses, but does not act alone. Indeed, the hormonal control of plant development and stress adaptation is the outcome of a complex network of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions between various hormones. Here, we review the recent findings on the cytokinin function as part of this hormonal network. We focus on the importance of the crosstalk between cytokinin and other hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonate, salicylic acid, ethylene, and auxin in the modulation of plant development and stress adaptation. Finally, the impact of the current research in the biotechnological industry will be discussed.
Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong
As a gaseous molecule, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to be involved in plant responses to multiple abiotic stress. In this study, salt (150 and 300 mM NaCl), osmotic (15% and 30% PEG6000) and cold (4 °C) stress treatments induced accumulation of endogenous H2S level, indicating that H2S might play a role in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and cold stresses. Exogenous application of H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS) conferred improved salt, osmotic and freezing stress tolerances in bermudagrass, which were evidenced by decreased electrolyte leakage and increased survival rate under stress conditions. Additionally, NaHS treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress, via modulating metabolisms of several antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and GR (glutathione reductase)] and non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool and redox state. Moreover, exogenous NaHS treatment led to accumulation of osmolytes (proline, sucrose and soluble total sugars) in stressed bermudagrass plants. Taken together, all these data indicated the protective roles of H2S in bermudagrass responses to salt, osmotic and freezing stresses, via activation of the antioxidant response and osmolyte accumulation. These findings might be applicable to grass and crop engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun
Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.
The plant-soil feedback affects the forming of a plant community. Plants affect their own species as well as other species. The plant-soil feedback can be both positive and negative. Plants affect soil, change its properties, and the soil affects the plants reciprocally. Soil components can be divided into biotic and abiotic ones. The abiotic component is represented by physical and chemical properties of the soil. The main properties are the soil structure, the soil moisture, the soil temper...
Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity of available transcriptome sequence, we produced 41,430 L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs from plants growing under water-, temperature-, and osmotic-stress conditions as well as a combination of heat and osmotic stresses that is often found in irrigated fields. Clustering and assembling of the ESTs resulted in a total of 11,836 contigs and singletons that were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, over 1200 sequences with no match to available Rosaceae ESTs were found, including six that were assigned the “response to stress” GO category. Analysis of EST frequency provided an estimate of steady state transcript levels, with 91 sequences exhibiting at least a 20-fold difference between treatments. This EST collection represents a useful resource to advance our understanding of the abiotic stress-response mechanisms in strawberry. The sequence information may be translated to valuable tree crops in the Rosaceae family, where whole-plant treatments are not as simple or practical.
Naz, S.; Kausar, H.; Saleem, F.; Zafarullah, A.
The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)
Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.
Full Text Available Combined abiotic stress (CAbS affects the field grown plants simultaneously. The multigenic and quantitative nature of uncontrollable abiotic stresses complicates the process of understanding the stress response by plants. Considering this, we analyzed the CAbS response of C3 model plant, Oryza sativa by meta-analysis. The datasets of commonly expressed genes by drought, salinity, submergence, metal, natural expression, biotic, and abiotic stresses were data mined through publically accessible transcriptomic abiotic stress (AbS responsive datasets. Of which 1,175, 12,821, and 42,877 genes were commonly expressed in meta differential, individual differential, and unchanged expressions respectively. Highly regulated 100 differentially expressed AbS genes were derived through integrative meta-analysis of expression data (INMEX. Of this 30 genes were identified from AbS gene families through expression atlas that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. All AbS genes were physically mapped against O. sativa genome. Comparative mapping of these genes demonstrated the orthologous relationship with related C4 panicoid genome. In silico expression analysis of these genes showed differential expression patterns in different developmental tissues. Protein–protein interaction of these genes, represented the complexity of AbS. Computational expression profiling of candidate genes in response to multiple stresses suggested the putative involvement of OS05G0350900, OS02G0612700, OS05G0104200, OS03G0596200, OS12G0225900, OS07G0152000, OS08G0119500, OS06G0594700, and Os01g0393100 in CAbS. These potential candidate genes need to be studied further to decipher their functional roles in AbS dynamics.
Maria Elisa Sabatini
Full Text Available Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1 is involved in DNA repair pathways as it mends the topoisomerase I—DNA covalent complexes. In plants, a small Tdp1 gene family, composed by Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes, was identified, but the roles of these genes in abiotic stress responses are not fully understood. To investigate their specific stress response patterns, the present study made use of bioinformatic and molecular tools to look into the Tdp1β gene function, so far described only in the plant kingdom, and compare it with Tdp1α gene coding for the canonical, highly conserved α isoform. The expression profiles of Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes were examined under abiotic stress conditions (cold, heat, high osmolarity, salt, and UV-B in two model species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. The two isoforms of topoisomerase I (TOP1α and TOP1β were also taken into consideration in view of their known roles in DNA metabolism and cell proliferation. Data relative to gene expression in Arabidopsis were retrieved from the AtGenExpress microarray dataset, while quantitative Real-Time PCR was carried out to evaluate the stress response in M. truncatula cell cultures. These analyses revealed that Tdp1β gene expression was enhanced during the first hour of treatment, whereas Tdp1α enhanced expression succeeded at subsequent timepoints. In agreement with the gene-specific responses to abiotic stress conditions, the promoter regions of Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes are well equipped with stress-related cis-elements. An in-depth bioinformatic characterization of the HIRAN motif, a distinctive feature of the Tdp1β protein, showed its wide distribution in chromatin remodeling and DNA repair proteins. The reported data suggests that Tdp1β functions in the early response to abiotic stresses.
Gutha, Rajasekar; Yarrappagaari, Suresh; Thopireddy, Lavanya; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu; Saddala, Rajeswara Reddy
In order to understand the mechanisms underlying stress responses, meta-analysis of transcriptome is made to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their biological, molecular and cellular mechanisms in response to stressors. The present study is aimed at identifying the effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, and it is found that several stress responsive genes are common for both abiotic and biotic stress factors in zebrafish. The meta-analysis of micro-array studies revealed that almost 4.7% i.e., 108 common DEGs are differentially regulated between abiotic and biotic stresses. This shows that there is a global coordination and fine-tuning of gene regulation in response to these two types of challenges. We also performed dimension reduction methods, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis which are able to segregate abiotic and biotic stresses into separate entities. The supervised machine learning model, recursive-support vector machine, could classify abiotic and biotic stresses with 100% accuracy using a subset of DEGs. Beside these methods, the random forests decision tree model classified five out of 8 stress conditions with high accuracy. Finally, Functional enrichment analysis revealed the different gene ontology terms, transcription factors and miRNAs factors in the regulation of stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harfouche, Antoine; Meilan, Richard; Altman, Arie
Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and cold, are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect tree growth and, thus, forest productivity, and play a major role in determining the geographic distribution of tree species. Tree responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex biological processes that are best analyzed at a systems level using genetic, genomic, metabolomic and phenomic approaches. This will expedite the dissection of stress-sensing and signaling networks to further support efficient genetic improvement programs. Enormous genetic diversity for stress tolerance exists within some forest-tree species, and due to advances in sequencing technologies the molecular genetic basis for this diversity has been rapidly unfolding in recent years. In addition, the use of emerging phenotyping technologies extends the suite of traits that can be measured and will provide us with a better understanding of stress tolerance. The elucidation of abiotic stress-tolerance mechanisms will allow for effective pyramiding of multiple tolerances in a single tree through genetic engineering. Here we review recent progress in the dissection of the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance in forest trees, with special emphasis on Populus, Pinus, Picea, Eucalyptus and Quercus spp. We also outline practices that will enable the deployment of trees engineered for abiotic stress tolerance to land owners. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.
Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making
Full Text Available Originally from Africa, watermelon is a staple crop in South Carolina and rich source of important phytochemicals that promote human health. As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desired fruit quality, modern watermelon cultivars are susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. The present review discusses how genetic selection and breeding combined with geospatial technologies (precision agriculture may help enhance watermelon varieties for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Gene loci identified and selected in undomesticated watermelon accessions are responsible for resistance to diseases, pests and abiotic stress. Vegetable breeding programs use traditional breeding methodologies and genomic tools to introduce gene loci conferring biotic or abiotic resistance into the genome background of elite watermelon cultivars. This continuous approach of collecting, evaluating and identifying useful genetic material is valuable for enhancing genetic diversity and tolerance and combined with precision agriculture could increase food security in the Southeast.
Coleman-Derr, Devin [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)
The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here in this paper, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions
Full Text Available The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions.
Full Text Available Tetraspanin family is comprised of evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteins. The incredible ability of tetraspanins to form ‘micro domain complexes’ and their preferential targeting to membranes emphasizes their active association with signal recognition and communication with neighboring cells, thus acting as key modulators of signaling cascades. In animals, tetraspanins are associated with multitude of cellular processes. Unlike animals, the biological relevance of tetraspanins in plants has not been well investigated. In Arabidopsis tetraspanins are known to contribute in important plant development processes such as leaf morphogenesis, root and floral organ formation. In the present study we investigated the genomic organization, chromosomal distribution, phylogeny and domain structure of 15 rice tetraspanin proteins (OsTETs. OsTET proteins had similar domain structure and signature ‘GCCK/R’ motif as reported in Arabidopsis. Comprehensive expression profiling of OsTET genes suggested their possible involvement during rice development. While OsTET9 and 10 accumulated predominantly in flowers, OsTET5, 8 and 12 were preferentially expressed in root tissues. Noticeably, seven OsTETs exhibited more than 2-fold up regulation at early stages of flag leaf senescence in rice. Furthermore, several OsTETs were differentially regulated in rice seedlings exposed to abiotic stresses, exogenous treatment of hormones and nutrient deprivation. Transient subcellular localization studies of eight OsTET proteins in tobacco epidermal cells showed that these proteins localized in plasma membrane. The present study provides valuable insights into the possible roles of tetraspanins in regulating development and defining response to abiotic stresses in rice. Targeted proteomic studies would be useful in identification of their interacting partners under different conditions and ultimately their biological function in plants
Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000
Antonela Markulj Kulundžić
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the variability of photosynthetic performance index (PIABS and leaf temperature values measured in V6 development phase on 13 sunflower hybrids, grown in stressful conditions. The pot trial was made up of two treatments, one (T1 with 60% Field Water Capacity (FWC, and the other one (T2 with 80% FWC. Significant differences between T1 and T2 treatments were established for both of these parameters which prove their dependence on the water content in the soil, while the influence of hybrid was evident only in the case of PIABS. Although in T1, as opposed to T2, all sunflower hybrids reacted by increasing leaf temperature, reaction to stress conditions measured with PIABS parameter was not uniform. Some of the hybrids reacted by decreasing PIABS values, while others reacted by increasing their PIABS values. Therefore, it can be concluded that changes in parameters were independent of each other, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. Investigated parameters are suitable for determining the existence of undesirable environmental conditions that cause stress in plants and can be used in breeding of sunflower to withstand abiotic stress conditions, i.e. in selection of stress tolerant hybrids.
Sulmon, Cécile; Baaren, Joan van; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia
Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization
Karina L. Lopes
Full Text Available Many plant genes have their expression modulated by stress conditions. Here, we used Arabidopsis FtsH5 protease, which expression is regulated by light stress, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for new proteins involved in the stress response. As a result, we found FIP (FtsH5 Interacting Protein, which possesses an amino proximal cleavable transit peptide, a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring region, and a carboxyl proximal C4-type zinc-finger domain. In vivo experiments using FIP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP showed a plastid localization. This finding was corroborated by chloroplast import assays that showed FIP inserted in the thylakoid membrane. FIP expression was down-regulated in plants exposed to high light intensity, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses, whereas mutant plants expressing low levels of FIP were more tolerant to these abiotic stresses. Our data shows a new thylakoid-membrane protein involved with abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Li, Wei; Cui, Xiao; Meng, Zhaolu; Huang, Xiahe; Xie, Qi; Wu, Heng; Jin, Hailing; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi
The accumulation of a number of small RNAs in plants is affected by abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The miR168-mediated feedback regulatory loop regulates ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) homeostasis, which is crucial for gene expression modulation and plant development. Here, we reveal a transcriptional regulatory mechanism by which MIR168 controls AGO1 homeostasis during ABA treatment and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Plants overexpressing MIR168a and the AGO1 loss-of-function mutant ago1-27 display ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance, while the mir168a-2 mutant shows ABA hyposensitivity and drought hypersensitivity. Both the precursor and mature miR168 were induced under ABA and several abiotic stress treatments, but no obvious decrease for the target of miR168, AGO1, was shown under the same conditions. However, promoter activity analysis indicated that AGO1 transcription activity was increased under ABA and drought treatments, suggesting that transcriptional elevation of MIR168a is required for maintaining a stable AGO1 transcript level during the stress response. Furthermore, we showed both in vitro and in vivo that the transcription of MIR168a is directly regulated by four abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) binding factors, which bind to the ABRE cis-element within the MIR168a promoter. This ABRE motif is also found in the promoter of MIR168a homologs in diverse plant species. Our findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of miR168 and posttranscriptional control of AGO1 homeostasis may play an important and conserved role in stress response and signal transduction in plants. PMID:22247272
Li, Wei; Cui, Xiao; Meng, Zhaolu; Huang, Xiahe; Xie, Qi; Wu, Heng; Jin, Hailing; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi
The accumulation of a number of small RNAs in plants is affected by abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The miR168-mediated feedback regulatory loop regulates ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) homeostasis, which is crucial for gene expression modulation and plant development. Here, we reveal a transcriptional regulatory mechanism by which MIR168 controls AGO1 homeostasis during ABA treatment and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Plants overexpressing MIR168a and the AGO1 loss-of-function mutant ago1-27 display ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance, while the mir168a-2 mutant shows ABA hyposensitivity and drought hypersensitivity. Both the precursor and mature miR168 were induced under ABA and several abiotic stress treatments, but no obvious decrease for the target of miR168, AGO1, was shown under the same conditions. However, promoter activity analysis indicated that AGO1 transcription activity was increased under ABA and drought treatments, suggesting that transcriptional elevation of MIR168a is required for maintaining a stable AGO1 transcript level during the stress response. Furthermore, we showed both in vitro and in vivo that the transcription of MIR168a is directly regulated by four abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) binding factors, which bind to the ABRE cis-element within the MIR168a promoter. This ABRE motif is also found in the promoter of MIR168a homologs in diverse plant species. Our findings suggest that transcriptional regulation of miR168 and posttranscriptional control of AGO1 homeostasis may play an important and conserved role in stress response and signal transduction in plants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.
Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548
DiCaprio, Erin; Purgianto, Anastasia; Li, Jianrong
Human norovirus (NoV) is the major causative agent of fresh-produce-related outbreaks of gastroenteritis; however, the ecology and persistence of human NoV in produce systems are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on the internalization and dissemination of two human NoV surrogates (murine norovirus 1 [MNV-1] and Tulane virus [TV]) in romaine lettuce were determined. To induce abiotic stress, romaine lettuce was grown under drought and flood conditions that mimic extreme weather events, followed by inoculation of soil with MNV-1 or TV. Independently, lettuce plants were infected with lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) to induce biotic stress, followed by inoculation with TV. Plants were grown for 14 days, and viral titers in harvested tissues were determined by plaque assays. It was found that drought stress significantly decreased the rates of both MNV-1 and TV internalization and dissemination. In contrast, neither flood stress nor biotic stress significantly impacted viral internalization or dissemination. Additionally, the rates of TV internalization and dissemination in soil-grown lettuce were significantly higher than those for MNV-1. Collectively, these results demonstrated that (i) human NoV surrogates can be internalized via roots and disseminated to shoots and leaves of romaine lettuce grown in soil, (ii) abiotic stress (drought) but not biotic stress (LMV infection) affects the rates of viral internalization and dissemination, and (iii) the type of virus affects the efficiency of internalization and dissemination. This study also highlights the need to develop effective measures to eliminate internalized viruses in fresh produce. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Agricultural production continues to be constrained by a number of biotic and abiotic factors that can reduce crop yield quantity and quality. Potassium (K is an essential nutrient that affects most of the biochemical and physiological processes that influence plant growth and metabolism. It also contributes to the survival of plants exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses. The following review focuses on the emerging role of K in defending against a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, including diseases, pests, drought, salinity, cold and frost and waterlogging. The availability of K and its effects on plant growth, anatomy, morphology and plant metabolism are discussed. The physiological and molecular mechanisms of K function in plant stress resistance are reviewed. This article also evaluates the potential for improving plant stress resistance by modifying K fertilizer inputs and highlights the future needs for research about the role of K in agriculture.
Yu, Xiang; Takebayashi, Arika; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato
Knowledge on the responses of woody plants to abiotic stress can inform strategies to breed improved tree varieties and to manage tree species for environmental conservation and the production of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genes encoding members of the sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family, which are core components of the abiotic stress response. The P. trichocarpa genome contains twelve SnRK2 genes (PtSnRK2.1- PtSnRK2.12) that can be divided into three subclasses (I-III) based on the structures of their encoded kinase domains. We found that PtSnRK2s are differentially expressed in various organs. In MS medium-grown plants, all of the PtSnRK2 genes were significantly upregulated in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, whereas osmotic and salt stress treatments induced only some (four and seven, respectively) of the PtSnRK2 genes. By contrast, soil-grown plants showed increased expression of most PtSnRK2 genes under drought and salt treatments, but not under ABA treatment. In soil-grown plants, drought stress induced SnRK2 subclass II genes in all tested organs (leaves, stems, and roots), whereas subclass III genes tended to be upregulated in leaves only. These results suggest that the PtSnRK2 genes are involved in abiotic stress responses, are at least partially activated by ABA, and show organ-specific responses.
Hidelblandi F. de Melo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte of great importance in the recovery of saline soils and is considered as a model plant to study biosaline scenarios. This study aimed to evaluate biometric parameters, biomass production and the accumulation of ions in A. nummularia grown under abiotic stresses. Cultivation was carried out in a Fluvic Neosol for 100 days, adopting two water regimes: 37 and 70% of field capacity. Plants were irrigated with saline solutions containing two types of salts (NaCl and a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 at six levels of electrical conductivity: 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1, arranged in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial with 4 replicates, forming 96 plots. At the end of the experiment, plants were divided into leaves, stem and roots, for the determination of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM and estimated leaf area (LA, besides the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-. The type of salt did not influence plant growth or biomass production; however, it influenced the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl- in the leaves and Mg2+, K+ and Cl- in the roots. Increase in salinity reduced the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl- for all treatments.
Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.
Liu, Junwei; He, Hanzi; Vitali, Marco; Visentin, Ivan; Charnikhova, Tatsiana V.; Haider, Imran; Schubert, Andrea; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.; Bouwmeester, Harro J J; Lovisolo, Claudio; Cardinale, Francesca
Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.
Projections on the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity foresee prolonged and/or increased stress intensities and enlargement of a significant number of pathogens habitats. This significantly raises the occurrence probability of (new) abiotic and biotic stress combinations. With
Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping; Gao, Caiqiu; Wang, Yucheng
Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous lipid-binding proteins that are involved in various stress responses. In this study, we cloned 14 unique LTP genes (ThLTP 1-14) from Tamarix hispida Willd. (Tamaricaceae) to investigate their roles under various abiotic stress conditions. The expression profiles of the 14 ThLTPs in response to NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), NaHCO(3), CdCl(2) and abscisic acid (ABA) exposure in root, stem and leaf tissues were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that all 14 ThLTPs were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues under normal growth conditions. However, under normal growth conditions, ThLTP abundance varied in each organ, with expression differences of 9000-fold in leaves, 540-fold in stems and 3700-fold in roots. These results indicated that activity and/or physiological importance of these ThLTPs are quite different. Differential expression of the 14 ThLTPs was observed (> 2-fold) for NaCl, PEG, NaHCO(3) and CdCl(2) in at least one tissue indicating that they were all involved in abiotic stress responses. All ThLTP genes were highly induced (> 2-fold) under ABA treatment in roots, stems and/or leaves, and particularly in roots, suggesting that ABA-dependent signaling pathways regulated ThLTPs. We hypothesize that ThLTP expression constitutes an adaptive response to abiotic stresses in T. hispida and plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance.
Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-xian; Reiter, Russel J.; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:25225478
Shi, Haitao; Jiang, Chuan; Ye, Tiantian; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Renyi; Chan, Zhulong
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a well-known animal hormone, is also involved in plant development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, it is shown that exogenous application of melatonin conferred improved salt, drought, and cold stress resistances in bermudagrass. Moreover, exogenous melatonin treatment alleviated reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage induced by abiotic stress; this involved activation of several antioxidants. Additionally, melatonin-pre-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of 54 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, than non-treated plants under abiotic stress conditions. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling identified 3933 transcripts (2361 up-regulated and 1572 down-regulated) that were differentially expressed in melatonin-treated plants versus controls. Pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, major carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/org transformation, transport, hormone metabolism, metal handling, redox, and secondary metabolism were over-represented after melatonin pre-treatment. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of the protective roles of exogenous melatonin in the bermudagrass response to abiotic stresses, partially via activation of antioxidants and modulation of metabolic homeostasis. Notably, metabolic and transcriptomic analyses showed that the underlying mechanisms of melatonin could involve major reorientation of photorespiratory and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates seed germination, plant growth and development, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salt stresses. Receptor-like kinases are well known signaling components that mediate plant responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Here, we characterized the biological function of an ABA and stress-inducible cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK45, in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The crk45 mutant was less sensitive to ABA than the wild type during seed germination and early seedling development, whereas CRK45 overexpression plants were more sensitive to ABA compared to the wild type. Furthermore, overexpression of CRK45 led to hypersensitivity to salt and glucose inhibition of seed germination, whereas the crk45 mutant showed the opposite phenotypes. In addition, CRK45 overexpression plants had enhanced tolerance to drought. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression of representative stress-responsive genes was significantly enhanced in CRK45 overexpression plants in response to salt stress. ABA biosynthetic genes such as NCED3,. 22NCED3, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 3.NCED5,. 33NCED5, 9-Cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase 5.ABA2,. 44ABA2, Abscisic Acid Deficient 2. and AAO355AAO3, Abscisic Aldehyde Oxidase 3. were also constitutively elevated in the CRK45 overexpression plants. We concluded that CRK45 plays an important role in ABA signaling that regulates Arabidopsis seeds germination, early seedling development and abiotic stresses response, by positively regulating ABA responses in these processes. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Nie, Qiong; Gao, Guo-Li; Fan, Qing-jie; Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Tao; Peng, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yong-Qiang
Abiotic stresses usually cause H2O2 accumulation, with harmful effects, in plants. Catalase may play a key protective role in plant cells by detoxifying this excess H2O2. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) shows broad ecological adaptation due to its high tolerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought, heat and poor soil. However, involvement of the pitaya catalase gene (HuCAT) in tolerance to abiotic stresses is unknown. In the present study, a full-length HuCAT3 cDNA (1870 bp) was isolated from pitaya based on our previous microarray data and RACE method. The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence shared 73-77% and 75-80% identity with other plant catalases, respectively. HuCAT3 contains conserved catalase family domain and catalytic sites. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HuCAT3 is most similar to Eriobotrya japonica CAT, followed by Dimocarpus longan CAT and Nicotiana tabacum CAT1. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that HuCAT3 is mainly expressed in green cotyledons and mature stems, and was regulated by H2O2, drought, cold and salt stress, whereas, its expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with stress types. HuCAT activity increased as exposure to the tested stresses, and the fluctuation of HuCAT activity was consistent with HuCAT3 mRNA abundance (except for 0.5 days upon drought stress). HuCAT3 mRNA elevations and HuCAT activities changes under cold stress were also in conformity with the cold tolerances among the four genotypes. The obtained results confirmed a major role of HuCAT3 in abiotic stress response of pitaya. This may prove useful in understanding pitaya's high tolerance to abiotic stresses at molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yong, Bin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Fei, Xueting; Hong, Zixi; Ma, Qinqin; Miao, Yuzhi; Yuan, Xianghua; Jiang, Yusong; Shao, Huanhuan
As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based quantitative analyses showed that IbCAT2 was mainly expressed in young leaves and expanding tuberous roots under normal conditions. When exposed to 10% PEG6000 or 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions, IbCAT2 was upregulated rapidly in the first 11 days and then downregulated, although different tissues showed different degree of change. Overexpression of IbCAT2 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The positive response of IbCAT2 to abiotic stresses suggested that IbCAT2 might play an important role in stress responses.
Full Text Available Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A nonspecific LTP gene (SiLTP was isolated from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid. SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT. To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE and RNA interference (RNAi-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP-OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor (TF ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP-OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be up-regulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and
Wang, Jun; Luo, Peng; Mou, Chengxiang; Yang, Hao; Mo, Li; Luo, Chuan; Kattge, Jens
How the abiotic factors represented by cold environment and biotic factors represented by livestock grazing will affect the vegetation structure of alpine grassland is a core issue in understanding the cause of biodiversity change on Tibetan Plateau. Past studies on changes of floristic composition, growth forms did not adequately answer question. Given the fact that the response of plant to environment change depend on its life strategy, a synthetical method that based on plant life strategy may deepen our understanding of the mechanism. Using Grime's concept of CSR plant classification, we carried out a vegetation survey along a gradient (three levels) of graze intensity on the south-east of Tibet Plateau, in order to evaluate the role and mechanism of abiotic stress and grazing disturbance in driving plant diversity change, by analyzing the plant life strategy compositions in each of the community and by comparing the characteristic of the strategy compositions along the graze gradient. When the graze intensity was relative low, the dominant plant life strategy gathered in the stress tolerance corner, which conformed the theory of environmental filter, indicating that the ideal top plant community may be dominated by the species with stress tolerant strategy. We also found that the response of strategy dominance to graze intensity increase is positively correlated with the competitive capacity (R 2=0.671; Pstrategy (R 2=0.047; P=0.42). This reflected a general shift of plant strategy from stress tolerant to competitive (rather than ruderal as expected) and suggested that the mechanism of graze to affect plant community is different from that of other disturbance like fire, clipping, till, etc. The particular selective foraging and escaping from feces may provide more opportunities for competitive than ruderal strategy to dominant the community. This study demonstrated that CSR plant strategy be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of abiotic and biotic factors
This book was prepared to summarize the current understanding of the dynamics of plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The preface of the book sets the stage for the contents of the different chapters by outlining that plants defend themselves from various environmental stresses through a v...
Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M
Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue
WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the WRKY gene family in strawberry. In this study, we identified 62 WRKY genes (FvWRKYs) in the wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) accession Heilongjiang-3. According to the phylogenetic analysis and structural features, these identified strawberry FvWRKY genes were classified into three main groups. In addition, eight FvWRKY-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 62 FvWRKY genes in 'Heilongjiang-3' under various conditions, including biotic stress (Podosphaera aphanis), abiotic stresses (drought, salt, cold, and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). The expression levels of 33 FvWRKY genes were upregulated, while 12 FvWRKY genes were downregulated during powdery mildew infection. FvWRKY genes responded to drought and salt treatment to a greater extent than to temperature stress. Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 11 FvWRKY genes responded dramatically to various stimuli at the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interaction networks revealed that the crucial pathways controlled by WRKY proteins may be involved in the differential response to biotic stress. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for future studies of the genetic modification of WRKY genes for pathogen resistance and stress tolerance in strawberry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rihan, HZ; Al-Issawi, M; Fuller, MP
publisher: Elsevier articletitle: An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds journaltitle: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.011 content_type: article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Falik, Omer; Mordoch, Yonat; Quansah, Lydia; Fait, Aaron; Novoplansky, Ariel
Recent evidence demonstrates that plants are able not only to perceive and adaptively respond to external information but also to anticipate forthcoming hazards and stresses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that unstressed plants are able to respond to stress cues emitted from their abiotically-stressed neighbors and in turn induce stress responses in additional unstressed plants located further away from the stressed plants. Pisum sativum plants were subjected to drought while neighboring rows of five unstressed plants on both sides, with which they could exchange different cue combinations. On one side, the stressed plant and its unstressed neighbors did not share their rooting volumes (UNSHARED) and thus were limited to shoot communication. On its other side, the stressed plant shared one of its rooting volumes with its nearest unstressed neighbor and all plants shared their rooting volumes with their immediate neighbors (SHARED), allowing both root and shoot communication. Fifteen minutes following drought induction, significant stomatal closure was observed in both the stressed plants and their nearest unstressed SHARED neighbors, and within one hour, all SHARED neighbors closed their stomata. Stomatal closure was not observed in the UNSHARED neighbors. The results demonstrate that unstressed plants are able to perceive and respond to stress cues emitted by the roots of their drought-stressed neighbors and, via 'relay cuing', elicit stress responses in further unstressed plants. Further work is underway to study the underlying mechanisms of this new mode of plant communication and its possible adaptive implications for the anticipation of forthcoming abiotic stresses by plants.
Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.. Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA or ethephon (ETH. Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA, and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes.
Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka
and stressed Al-tolerant and non-tolerant triticale inbred lines. The method could also be used to analyze methylation events affecting CG and CHG contexts, which were differentially methylated under Al stress. We cannot exclude that the methylation changes revealed among lines as well as between Al-tolerant and non-tolerant groups of lines were due to some experimental errors or that the number of lines was too small for ANOVA to prove the influence of Al stress. Nevertheless, we suspect that Al tolerance in triticale could be partly regulated by epigenetic factors acting at the level of DNA methylation. This method provides a valuable tool for studies of abiotic stresses in plants.
Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Paul, Saikat; Basu, Supratim
Salinity, drought and low temperature are the common forms of abiotic stress encountered by land plants. To cope with these adverse environmental factors, plants execute several physiological and metabolic responses. Both osmotic stress (elicited by water deficit or high salt) and cold stress increase the endogenous level of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA-dependent stomatal closure to reduce water loss is associated with small signaling molecules like nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and cytosolic free calcium, and mediated by rapidly altering ion fluxes in guard cells. ABA also triggers the expression of osmotic stress-responsive (OR) genes, which usually contain single/multiple copies of cis-acting sequence called abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) in their upstream regions, mostly recognized by the basic leucine zipper-transcription factors (TFs), namely, ABA-responsive element-binding protein/ABA-binding factor. Another conserved sequence called the dehydration-responsive element (DRE)/C-repeat, responding to cold or osmotic stress, but not to ABA, occurs in some OR promoters, to which the DRE-binding protein/C-repeat-binding factor binds. In contrast, there are genes or TFs containing both DRE/CRT and ABRE, which can integrate input stimuli from salinity, drought, cold and ABA signaling pathways, thereby enabling cross-tolerance to multiple stresses. A strong candidate that mediates such cross-talk is calcium, which serves as a common second messenger for abiotic stress conditions and ABA. The present review highlights the involvement of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling components and their interaction or convergence in activating the stress genes. We restrict our discussion to salinity, drought and cold stress.
Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.
Mutava, Raymond N; Prince, Silvas Jebakumar K; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Song, Li; Valliyodan, Babu; Chen, Wei; Nguyen, Henry T
Many sources of drought and flooding tolerance have been identified in soybean, however underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to illuminate different plant responses to these abiotic stresses and understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance. Towards this goal we used four contrasting soybean (Glycine max) genotypes (PI 567690--drought tolerant, Pana--drought susceptible, PI 408105A--flooding tolerant, S99-2281--flooding susceptible) grown under greenhouse conditions and compared genotypic responses to drought and flooding at the physiological, biochemical, and cellular level. We also quantified these variations and tried to infer their role in drought and flooding tolerance in soybean. Our results revealed that different mechanisms contribute to reduction in net photosynthesis under drought and flooding stress. Under drought stress, ABA and stomatal conductance are responsible for reduced photosynthetic rate; while under flooding stress, accumulation of starch granules played a major role. Drought tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A had higher plastoglobule numbers than the susceptible Pana and S99-2281. Drought stress increased the number and size of plastoglobules in most of the genotypes pointing to a possible role in stress tolerance. Interestingly, there were seven fibrillin proteins localized within the plastoglobules that were up-regulated in the drought and flooding tolerant genotypes PI 567690 and PI 408105A, respectively, but down-regulated in the drought susceptible genotype Pana. These results suggest a potential role of Fibrillin proteins, FBN1a, 1b and 7a in soybean response to drought and flooding stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Originally from Africa, watermelon is a staple crop in South Carolina and rich source of important phytochemicals that promote human health. As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desired fruit quality, modern watermelon cultivars are susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. T...
Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.
Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo
Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.
Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.
Mar 23, 2016 ... to 36% reduced microbial contamination in aseptic culture establishment ... collected from farmer's field of Assam, India. .... Average weight loss (%) ± SE. 0 .... Asian J. Plant Sci. 6:496-501. Holdgate DP, Zandvoort EA (1997).
Full Text Available En trigo, es posible estimar el área de las hojas (AF utilizando el producto del largo, el ancho de la lámina (LxA y un coeficiente de proporcionalidad (b m. Sin embargo, no hay información sobre la posibilidad de usar el mismo valor del coeficiente para estimar el área en plantas que sufren estrés hídrico, lumínico o nutricional. Para estudiar este punto se realizaron dos experimentos en los cuales se aplicó sequía, sombreo y deficiencias de N y P a plantas de trigo. El coeficiente b m se calculó a partir de la regresión lineal entre AF y LxA y fue similar entre las plantas control y aquellas que sufrieron sequía o deficiencias de N o P, pero fue distinto en plantas sombreadas. El mayor valor de b m en las plantas sombreadas se debió a una mayor proporción del sector medio de la lámina, definido por su forma rectangular. La validación de la posibilidad de usar el b m del control para estimar AF en plantas estresadas se realizó por regresión lineal entre el AF medida y calculada. Se concluye que puede usarse el mismo coeficiente b m para estimar el AF en plantas no estresadas y en plantas que sufren sequía o deficiencias de N o P. El uso del mismo valor del coeficiente b m en plantas sombreadas llevó a una subestimación del AF, la que fue más pronunciada a medida que aumentó el sombreo.In wheat, leaf area (LA can be estimated as the product between length, maximum blade width (LxW and a proportionality coefficient b m. However, it is unknown whether this coefficient is the same in stressed and non stressed plants. In order to study this, two experiments in which drought, shading and N and P deficiencies were applied to wheat plants were performed. The b m coefficient was calculated by linear regression between LA and LxW. The coefficient was similar in control plants as compared to those suffering wilting or N or P-deficiency, but different in shaded plants. The greater b m in shaded plants was due to an increased
Full Text Available Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activase (RCA is a nuclear gene that encodes a chloroplast protein that plays an important role in photosynthesis. Some reports have indicated that it may play a role in acclimation to different abiotic stresses. In this paper, we analyzed the stress-responsive elements in the 2.0 kb 5'-upstream regions of the RCA gene promoter and the primary, secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. We identified some cis-elements of multiple stress-related components in the RCA promoter. Amino acid and evolution analyses showed that the RCA protein had conserved regions between different species; however, the size and type varied. The secondary structures, binding sites and tertiary structures of the RCA proteins were also different. This might reflect the differences in the transcription and translation levels of the two RCA isoforms during adaptation to different abiotic stresses. Although both the transcription and translation levels of RCA isoforms in the rice leaves increased under various stresses, the large isoform was increased more significantly in the chloroplast stroma and thylakoid. It can be concluded that RCA, especially RCAL, is also a multiple responder to abiotic stresses in rice, which provides new insights into RCA functions.
Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.
Mar 30, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of. Musa sp. ... In vitro propagation of banana preferably use sword sucker as explant source where microbial contamination poses a great problem in ... micropropagation. Endo-bacterial contamination is one of the major problems ...
Full Text Available Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola, each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12 and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12 and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14 and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3 were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides
Xu, Li; Lin, Zhongyuan; Tao, Qing; Liang, Mingxiang; Zhao, Gengmao; Yin, Xiangzhen; Fu, Ruixin
Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola), each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12) and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12) and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3) were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides insight into
Full Text Available VQ motif-containing proteins play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. Recent studies have shown that some VQ proteins physically interact with WRKY transcription factors to activate downstream genes. In the present study, we identified and characterized genes encoding VQ motif-containing proteins using the most recent version of the maize genome sequence. In total, 61VQ genes were identified. In a cluster analysis, these genes clustered into nine groups together with their homologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Most of the VQ genes (57 out of 61 numbers identified in maize were found to be single-copy genes. Analyses of RNA-seq data obtained using seedlings under long-term drought treatment showed that the expression levels of most ZmVQ genes (41 out of 61 members changed during the drought stress response. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that most of the ZmVQ genes were responsive to NaCl treatment. Also, approximately half of the ZmVQ genes were co-expressed with ZmWRKY genes. The identification of these VQ genes in the maize genome and knowledge of their expression profiles under drought and osmotic stresses will provide a solid foundation for exploring their specific functions in the abiotic stress responses of maize.
Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Cha Young; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo
Previously, the swpa4 peroxidase gene has been shown to be inducible by a variety of abiotic stresses and pathogenic infections in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). To elucidate its regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level under various stress conditions, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (2374 bp) of swpa4 (referred to as SWPA4). We performed a transient expression assay in tobacco protoplasts with deletions from the 5'-end of SWPA4 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The -1408 and -374 bp deletions relative to the transcription start site (+1) showed 8 and 4.5 times higher GUS expression than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, respectively. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GUS under the control of -2374, -1408 or -374 bp region of SWPA4 promoter were generated and studied in various tissues under abiotic stresses and pathogen infection. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that nuclear proteins from sweet potato cultured cells specifically interacted with 60-bp fragment (-178/-118) in -374 bp promoter region. In silico analysis indicated that four kinds of cis-acting regulatory sequences, reactive oxygen species-related element activator protein 1 (AP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha element, ethylene-responsive element (ERE) and heat-shock element, are present in the -60 bp region (-178/-118), suggesting that the -60 bp region might be associated with stress inducibility of the SWPA4 promoter.
Ardini, Francisco; Soggia, Francesco; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Magi, Emanuele; Grotti, Marco
To provide a new insight into the response of plants to abiotic stresses, the ionomic profiles of Nicotiana langsdorffii specimens have been determined before and after exposure to toxic metals (chromium) or drought conditions. The plants were genetically transformed with the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or the gene for Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC, because these modifications are known to produce an imbalance in phytohormone equilibria and a significant change in the defence response of the plant. Elemental profiles were obtained by developing and applying analytical procedures based on inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). In particular, the removal of isobaric interferences affecting the determination of Cr and V by ICP-MS was accomplished by use of a dynamic reaction cell, after optimization of the relevant conditions. The combined use of ICP atomic emission and mass spectrometry enabled the determination of 29 major and trace elements (Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, S, Sb, Sn, Sr, Te, V, W, Y, and Zn) in different parts of the plants (roots, stems, and leaves), with high accuracy and precision. Multivariate data processing and study of element distribution patterns provided new information about the ionomic response of the target organism to chemical treatment or water stress. Genetic modification mainly affected the distribution of Bi, Cr, Mo, Na, and S, indicating that these elements were involved in biochemical processes controlled by the GR or rolC genes. Chemical stress strongly affected accumulation of several elements (Ba, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sn, Te, V, and Zn) in different ways; for Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Na, and P the effect was quite similar to that observed in other studies after treatment with other transition elements, for example Cu and Cd. The effect of water deficit was less evident, mainly consisting in a decrease of Ba, Cr, Na, and Sr
Liu, Xiufang; Song, Yunzhi; Xing, Fangyu; Wang, Ning; Wen, Fujiang; Zhu, Changxiang
WRKY transcription factors are involved in various processes, ranging from plant growth to abiotic and biotic stress responses. Group I WRKY members have been rarely reported compared with group II or III members, particularly in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a group I WRKY gene, namely, GhWRKY25, was cloned from cotton and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhWRKY25 can be induced or deduced by the treatments of abiotic stresses and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Overexpression of GhWRKY25 in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced plant tolerance to drought stress but enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Moreover, more MDA and ROS accumulated in transgenic plants after drought treatment with lower activities of SOD, POD, and CAT. Our study further demonstrated that GhWRKY25 overexpression in plants enhanced sensitivity to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea by reducing the expression of SA or ET signaling related genes and inducing the expression of genes involved in the JA signaling pathway. These results indicated that GhWRKY25 plays negative or positive roles in response to abiotic stresses, and the reduced pathogen resistance may be related to the crosstalk of the SA and JA/ET signaling pathways.
Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng
Tamarix spp. are woody halophyte, which are very tolerant to abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought, but little is known about their specific stress response systems. Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) play important roles in the ability of plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully known. In the current study, we functionally characterized a bZIP gene (ThbZIP1) from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stresses. We addressed the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in three levels, i.e. its upstream regulators, the cis-acting elements recognized by ThbZIP1, and its downstream target genes. Two MYCs were found to bind to E-box, in the promoter of ThbZIP1 to activate its expression. Expression of ThbZIP1 is induced by ABA, salt, drought, methyl viologen and cold. ThbZIP1 can specifically bind to ACGT elements, with the highest binding affinity to the C-box, followed by the G-box and lastly the A-box. Compared with wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis, transgenic plants expressing ThbZIP1 had an increased tolerance to drought and salt, but had an increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and root growth; meanwhile, ROS level, cell death and water loss rate in transgenic plants were significantly reduced. Microarray analyses showed that many ROS scavenging genes were up-regulated by ThbZIP1 under salt stress conditions. Based on these data, we suggest that ThbZIP1 confers abiotic stress tolerance through activating stress tolerance genes to modulate ROS scavenging ability and other physiological changes involved in stress tolerance, and plays an important role in the ABA-mediated stress response of T. hispida.
Darin J. Law; Deborah M. Finch
Plant water use in drylands can be complex due to variation in hydrologic, abiotic and biotic factors, particularly near ephemeral or intermittent streams. Plant use of groundwater may be important but is usually uncertain. Disturbances like fire contribute to complex spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Improved understanding of how such hydrologic, abiotic, and biotic...
Gordon, Sean; Reguera, Maria; Sade, Nir; Cartwright, Amy; Tobias, Christian; Thilmony, Roger; Blumwald, Eduardo; Vogel, John
We are using the perennial model grass Brachypodium sylvaticum to identify combinations of transgenes that enhance tolerance to multiple, simultaneous abiotic stresses. The most successful transgene combinations will ultimately be used to create improved switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars. To further develop B. sylvaticum as a perennial model grass, and facilitate our planned transcriptional profiling, we are sequencing and annotating the genome. We have generated ~40x genome coverage using PacBio sequencing of the largest possible size selected libraries (18, 22, 25 kb). Our initial assembly using only long-read sequence contained 320 Mb of sequence with an N50 contig length of 315 kb and an N95 contig length of 40 kb. This assembly consists of 2,430 contigs, the largest of which was 1.6 Mb. The estimated genome size based on c-values is 340 Mb indicating that about 20 Mb of presumably repetitive DNA remains yet unassembled. Significantly, this assembly is far superior to an assembly created from paired-end short-read sequence, ~100x genome coverage. The short-read-only assembly contained only 226 Mb of sequence in 19k contigs. To aid the assembly of the scaffolds into chromosome-scale assemblies we produced an F2 mapping population and have genotyped 480 individuals using a genotype by sequence approach. One of the reasons for using B. sylvaticum as a model system is to determine if the transgenes adversely affect perenniality and winter hardiness. Toward this goal, we examined the freezing tolerance of wild type B. sylvaticum lines to determine the optimal conditions for testing the freezing tolerance of the transgenics. A survey of seven accessions noted significant natural variation in freezing tolerance. Seedling or adult Ain-1 plants, the line used for transformation, survived an 8 hour challenge down to -6 oC and 50% survived a challenge down to -9 oC. Thus, we will be able to easily determine if the transgenes compromise freezing tolerance. In the
Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is an abundant low molecular weight plant thiol. It fulfils multiple functions in plant biology, many of which remain poorly characterised. A phenomics approach was therefore used to investigate the effects of glutathione homeostasis on growth and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rosette leaf area was compared in mutants that are either defective in GSH synthesis (cad2, pad2 and rax1 or the export of γ-glutamyl cysteine and GSH from the chloroplast (clt and in wild type plants under standard growth conditions and following exposure to a range of abiotic stress treatments, including oxidative stress, water stress and high salt. In the absence of stress, the GSH synthesis mutants had a significantly lower leaf area than the wild type. Conversely, the clt mutant has a greater leaf area and a significantly reduced lateral root density than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that cellular glutathione homeostasis exerts an influence on root architecture and on rosette area. An impaired capacity to synthesise GSH or a specific depletion of the cytosolic GSH pool did not adversely affect leaf area in plants exposed to short term abiotic stress. However, the negative effects of long term exposure to oxidative stress and high salt on leaf area were less marked in the GSH synthesis mutants than the wild type. These findings demonstrate the importance of cellular glutathione homeostasis in the regulation of plant growth under optimal and stress conditions.
Schnaubelt, Daniel; Schulz, Philipp; Hannah, Matthew A; Yocgo, Rosita E; Foyer, Christine H
Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant low molecular weight plant thiol. It fulfills multiple functions in plant biology, many of which remain poorly characterized. A phenomics approach was therefore used to investigate the effects of glutathione homeostasis on growth and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rosette leaf area was compared in mutants that are either defective in GSH synthesis (cad2, pad2, and rax1) or the export of γ-glutamylcysteine and GSH from the chloroplast (clt) and in wild-type plants under standard growth conditions and following exposure to a range of abiotic stress treatments, including oxidative stress, water stress, and high salt. In the absence of stress, the GSH synthesis mutants had a significantly lower leaf area than the wild type. Conversely, the clt mutant has a greater leaf area and a significantly reduced lateral root density than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that cellular glutathione homeostasis exerts an influence on root architecture and on rosette area. An impaired capacity to synthesize GSH or a specific depletion of the cytosolic GSH pool did not adversely affect leaf area in plants exposed to short-term abiotic stress. However, the negative effects of long-term exposure to oxidative stress and high salt on leaf area were less marked in the GSH synthesis mutants than the wild type. These findings demonstrate the importance of cellular glutathione homeostasis in the regulation of plant growth under optimal and stress conditions.
Chen, Ru-gang; Jing, Hua; Guo, Wei-li; Wang, Shu-Bin; Ma, Fang; Pan, Bao-Gui; Gong, Zhen-Hui
We cloned a dehydrins gene CaDHN1 from pepper and the expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated by cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Dehydrins (DHNs) are a subfamily of group 2 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins that are thought to play an important role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a DHN EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) was obtained from 6 to 8 true leaves seedlings of pepper cv P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) by our laboratory. However, the DHN gene in pepper was not well characterized. According to this EST sequence, we isolated a DHN gene, designated as CaDHN1, and investigated the response and expression of this gene under various stresses. Our results indicated that CaDHN1 has the DHN-specific and conserved K- and S- domain and encodes 219 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaDHN1 belonged to the SKn subgroup. Tissue expression profile analysis revealed that CaDH N1 was expressed predominantly in fruits and flowers. The expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated in response to cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, but no significant change by abscisic acid (ABA) and heavy metals treatment. Loss of function of CaDHN1 using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique led to decreased tolerance to cold-, salt- and osmotic-induced stresses. Overall, these results suggest that CaDHN1 plays an important role in regulating the abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.
Full Text Available Drought, salinity, and cold are the major factors limiting wheat quality and productivity; it is thus highly desirable to characterize the abiotic-stress-inducible promoters suitable for the genetic improvement of plant resistance. The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 family genes show distinct regulatory properties in response to abiotic stresses. The present study characterized the approximately 3000-bp upstream sequence (the 313 bp upstream of the ATG was the transcription start site of the Triticum aestivum TaSnRK2.8 promoter under abscisic acid (ABA and abiotic stresses. Four different-length 5′ deletion fragments of TaSnRK2.8 promoter were fused with the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis. Tissue expression analysis showed that the TaSnRK2.8 promoter region from position -1481 to -821 contained the stalk-specific elements, and the region from position -2631 to -1481 contained the leaf- and root-specific elements. In the ABA-treated seedlings, the deletion analysis showed that the TaSnRK2.8 promoter region from position -821 to -2631 contained ABA response elements. The abiotic stress responses of the TaSnRK2.8 promoter derivatives demonstrated that they harbored abiotic-stress response elements: the region from position -821 to -408 harbored the osmotic-stress response elements, whereas the region from position -2631 to -1481 contained the positive regulatory motifs and the region from position -1481 to -821 contained the leaf- and stalk-specific enhancers. Further deletion analysis of the promoter region from position -821 to -408 indicated that a 125-bp region from position -693 to -568 was required to induce an osmotic-stress response. These results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TaSnRK2.8 in response to abiotic stresses, and the TaSnRK2.8 promoter seems to be a candidate for regulating the expression of abiotic stress response genes in transgenic plants.
Li, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Fang, Huimin; Xu, Shuhui; Yin, Shuangyi; Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Dezhou; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Yufei; Xu, Chenwu; Yang, Zefeng
Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize ( Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of WRKYs participation in protein–protein interactions is still fragmentary, and such protein–protein interactions are fundamental in understanding biological networks and the functions of proteins. In this study, we report that a WRKY protein from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, can form both homodimers and heterodimers with ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3. In addition, ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 can both bind to W-box motif with binding affinities similar to that of ThWRKY4. Further, the expression patterns of ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 are similar to that of ThWRKY4 when plants are exposed to abscisic acid (ABA. Subcellular localization shows that these three ThWRKY proteins are nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ThWRKY4 is a dimeric protein that can form functional homodimers or heterodimers that are involved in abiotic stress responses.
Wang, Liuqiang; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yucheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Gao, Caiqiu
WRKY proteins are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in diverse developmental processes and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of WRKYs participation in protein-protein interactions is still fragmentary, and such protein-protein interactions are fundamental in understanding biological networks and the functions of proteins. In this study, we report that a WRKY protein from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, can form both homodimers and heterodimers with ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3. In addition, ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 can both bind to W-box motif with binding affinities similar to that of ThWRKY4. Further, the expression patterns of ThWRKY2 and ThWRKY3 are similar to that of ThWRKY4 when plants are exposed to abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization shows that these three ThWRKY proteins are nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ThWRKY4 is a dimeric protein that can form functional homodimers or heterodimers that are involved in abiotic stress responses.
Zheng, Lei; Liu, Guifeng; Meng, Xiangnan; Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanbang; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng
WRKY transcription factors are involved in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism and responses to stress. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated a working model for the function of a WRKY gene (ThWRKY4) from Tamarix hispida in the stress response. ThWRKY4 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt and drought in the early period of stress (stress for 3, 6, or 9 h), which can be regulated by ABF (ABRE binding factors) and Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and also can be crossregulated by other WRKYs and autoregulated as well. Overexpression of ThWRKY4 conferred tolerance to salt, oxidative and ABA treatment in transgenic plants. ThWRKY4 can improve the tolerance to salt and ABA treatment by improving activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, decreasing levels of O2 (-) and H2O2, reducing electrolyte leakage, keeping the loss of chlorophyll, and protecting cells from death. Microarray analyses showed that overexpression of ThWRKY4 in Arabidopsis leads to 165 and 100 genes significantly up- and downregulated, respectively. Promoter scanning analysis revealed that ThWRKY4 regulates the gene expression via binding to W-box motifs present in their promoter regions. This study shows that ThWRKY4 functions as a transcription factor to positively modulate abiotic stress tolerances, and is involved in modulating reactive oxygen species.
Muthusamy, Senthilkumar K; Dalal, Monika; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bansal, Kailash C
Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat. 163 TaHSP20 (including 109 sHSP and 54 ACD) genes were identified and classified according to the sub-cellular localization and phylogenetic relationship with sequenced grass genomes (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, Brachypodium distachyon and Setaria italica). Spatio-temporal, biotic and abiotic stress-specific expression patterns in normalized RNA seq and wheat array datasets revealed constitutive as well as inductive responses of HSP20 in different tissues and developmental stages of wheat. Promoter analysis of TaHSP20 genes showed the presence of tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic, light-responsive, circadian and cell cycle-responsive cis-regulatory elements. 14 TaHSP20 family genes were under the regulation of 8 TamiRNA genes. The expression levels of twelve HSP20 genes were studied under abiotic stress conditions in the drought- and heat-tolerant wheat genotype C306. Of the 13 TaHSP20 genes, TaHSP16.9H-CI showed high constitutive expression with upregulation only under salt stress. Both heat and salt stresses upregulated the expression of TaHSP17.4-CI, TaHSP17.7A-CI, TaHSP19.1-CIII, TaACD20.0B-CII and TaACD20.6C-CIV, while TaHSP23.7-MTI was specifically induced only under heat stress. Our results showed that the identified TaHSP20 genes play an important role under
Ravinder K Goyal
Full Text Available Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs are ubiquitous small proteins used by living cells to defend against a wide spectrum of pathogens. Their amphipathic property helps their interaction with negatively charged cellular membrane of the pathogen causing cell lysis and death. AMPs also modulate signaling pathway(s and cellular processes in animal models; however, little is known of cellular processes other than the pathogen-lysis phenomenon modulated by AMPs in plants. An engineered heterologous AMP, msrA3, expressed in potato was previously shown to cause resistance of the transgenic plants against selected fungal and bacterial pathogens. These lines together with the wild type were studied for growth habits, and for inducible defense responses during challenge with biotic (necrotroph Fusarium solani and abiotic stressors (dark-induced senescence, wounding and temperature stress. msrA3-expression not only conferred protection against F. solani but also delayed development of floral buds and prolonged vegetative phase. Analysis of select gene transcript profiles showed that the transgenic potato plants were suppressed in the hypersensitive (HR and reactive oxygen species (ROS responses to both biotic and abiotic stressors. Also, the transgenic leaves accumulated lesser amounts of the defense hormone jasmonic acid upon wounding with only a slight change in salicylic acid as compared to the wild type. Thus, normal host defense responses to the pathogen and abiotic stressors were mitigated by msrA3 expression suggesting MSRA3 regulates a common step(s of these response pathways. The stemming of the pathogen growth and mitigating stress response pathways likely contributes to resource reallocation for higher tuber yield.
Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling
The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.
Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Verma, Dheeraj; Jin, Shuangxia; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Daniell, Henry
Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress) or paraquat (abiotic stress), GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide), which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These results suggest a
Full Text Available Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress or paraquat (abiotic stress, GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide, which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These
Li, Shanze; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong; Xie, Tian; Yan, Jiaguo; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Shuyan
Plant morphology plays important role in studying biogeography in many ecosystems. Suadea salsa, as a native plant community of northern China and an important habitat for diversity of waterbirds and macrobenthos, has often been overlooked. Nowadays, S. salsa community is facing great loss due to coastal reclamation activities and natural disturbances. To maintain and restore S. salsa community, it's important to address the plant morphology across marsh zones, as well as its relationships with local soil abiotic conditions. In our studied intertidal salt marsh, we found that less flood disturbance frequency, softer soil conditions, rich soil organic matter, total carbon and total nitrogen, lower water depth and water content, less species competition will benefit S. salsa plant in the morphology of high coverage, above-ground biomass, shoot height and leaf length. Lower soil porewater salinity will benefit the below-ground biomass of S. salsa. Thus, we recommend managers help alleviate soil abiotic stresses in the intertidal salt marshes, making the soil conditions more suitable for S. salsa growth and succession.
Thoen, Manus P M; Davila Olivas, Nelson H.; Kloth, Karen J.; Coolen, Silvia; Huang, Ping Ping; Aarts, Mark G M; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna A.; Bakker, Jaap; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Cheng, Xi; Fradin, Emilie F.; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Julkowska, Magdalena M.; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Ligterink, Wilco; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Smant, Geert; Testerink, Christa; Usadel, Björn; van Loon, Joop J A; van Pelt, Johan A.; van Schaik, Casper C.; van Wees, Saskia C M; Visser, Richard G F; Voorrips, Roeland; Vosman, Ben; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Warmerdam, Sonja; Wiegers, Gerrie L.; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Kruijer, Willem; van Eeuwijk, Fred A.; Dicke, Marcel
Plants are exposed to combinations of various biotic and abiotic stresses, but stress responses are usually investigated for single stresses only. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture underlying plant responses to 11 single stresses and several of their combinations by phenotyping 350
Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.
Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study
Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng
Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Huang, Qin; Wang, Meiping; Xia, Zongliang
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated. The ZmSULTR family includes eight putative members in the maize genome and is clustered into four groups in the phylogenetic tree. These genes displayed differential expression patterns in various organs of maize. For example, expression of ZmSULTR1;1 and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in roots, and transcript levels of ZmSULTR3;1 and ZmSULTR3;3 were high in shoots. Expression of ZmSULTR1;2, ZmSULTR2;1, ZmSULTR3;3, and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in flowers. Also, these eight genes showed differential responses to sulfate deprivation in roots and shoots of maize seedlings. Transcript levels of ZmSULTR1;1, ZmSULTR1;2, and ZmSULTR3;4 were significantly increased in roots during 12-day-sulfate starvation stress, while ZmSULTR3;3 and ZmSULTR3;5 only showed an early response pattern in shoots. In addition, dynamic transcriptional changes determined via qPCR revealed differential expression profiles of these eight ZmSULTR genes in response to environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat stresses. Notably, all the genes, except for ZmSULTR3;3, were induced by drought and heat stresses. However, a few genes were induced by salt stress. Physiological determination showed that two important thiol-containing compounds, cysteine and glutathione, increased significantly under these abiotic stresses. The results suggest that members of the SULTR family might function in adaptations to sulfur deficiency stress and adverse growing environments. This study will lay a
Rungrat, Tepsuda; Awlia, Mariam; Brown, Tim; Cheng, Riyan; Sirault, Xavier; Fajkus, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Furbank, Bob; Badger, Murray; Tester, Mark A.; Pogson, Barry J; Borevitz, Justin O; Wilson, Pip
Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous
Allan T. Showler
Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.
Liliane B. de A. Gerhardt
Full Text Available The expression of AtchitIV gene was analysed in Arabidopsis plants submitted to abiotic stresses. Transcript accumulation was detected in leaves in response to UV light exposure, exogenous salicylic acid administration and wounding. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying AtchitIV promoter::gus fusion also showed differential expression of the reporter gene in response to these treatments. The AtchitIV expression was also analysed during Arabidopsis embryo development. GUS assay demonstrated AtchitIV promoter activation in zygotic embryos from torpedo stage up to full maturation. Promoter deletion analysis indicated that all the 5' cis-acting elements responsible for the specific tissue expression are located in a region of 1083 bp, adjacent to the start of transcription. A negative regulatory region located between portions -1083 and -600 was also observed.
Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Hao; Yang, Yongchao; Wang, Yongqi; Mo, Yanling; Zhang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian
Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.
Full Text Available Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III and five subgroups (IIa-IIe in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.
Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David
Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Karanja, Bernard Kinuthia; Fan, Lianxue; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Tang, Mingjia; Wang, Ronghua; Zhang, Fei; Muleke, Everlyne M'mbone; Liu, Liwang
The radish WRKY gene family was genome-widely identified and played critical roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses. The WRKY is among the largest transcription factors (TFs) associated with multiple biological activities for plant survival, including control response mechanisms against abiotic stresses such as heat, salinity, and heavy metals. Radish is an important root vegetable crop and therefore characterization and expression pattern investigation of WRKY transcription factors in radish is imperative. In the present study, 126 putative WRKY genes were retrieved from radish genome database. Protein sequence and annotation scrutiny confirmed that RsWRKY proteins possessed highly conserved domains and zinc finger motif. Based on phylogenetic analysis results, RsWRKYs candidate genes were divided into three groups (Group I, II and III) with the number 31, 74, and 20, respectively. Additionally, gene structure analysis revealed that intron-exon patterns of the WRKY genes are highly conserved in radish. Linkage map analysis indicated that RsWRKY genes were distributed with varying densities over nine linkage groups. Further, RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 36 RsWRKY genes under one or more abiotic stress treatments, implicating that they might be stress-responsive genes. In total, 126 WRKY TFs were identified from the R. sativus genome wherein, 35 of them showed abiotic stress-induced expression patterns. These results provide a genome-wide characterization of RsWRKY TFs and baseline for further functional dissection and molecular evolution investigation, specifically for improving abiotic stress resistances with an ultimate goal of increasing yield and quality of radish.
Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., an environmental friendly and economic fiber crop, has a certain tolerance to abiotic stresses. Identification of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization of stress responsive genes expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is important for exploring the molecular mechanisms of plants response to abiotic stresses. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were cloned, and their expression stabilities were assessed in 132 abiotic stress and hormonal stimuli samples of kenaf using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms. Results revealed that HcPP2A (Protein phosphatase 2A and HcACT7 (Actin 7 were the optimum reference genes across all samples; HcUBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme like protein was the worst reference gene for transcript normalization. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profile of HcWRKY28 gene at different stress durations. This work will benefit future studies on discovery of stress-tolerance genes and stress-signaling pathways in this important fiber crop.
Ahmad, R.; Hussain, J.
Abiotic stresses are the most important contributors towards low productivity of major food crops. Various attempts have been made to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants by classical breeding and genetic transformation. Genetic transformation with glycinebetaine (GB) synthesizing enzymes' gene(s) in naturally non accumulating plants has resulted in enhanced tolerance against variety of abiotic stresses. Present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of GB synthesizing transgenic potato plants against salt and cold stresses. Transgenic potato plants were challenged against salt and cold stresses at whole plant level. Transgenic lines were characterized to determine the transgene copy number. Different parameters like integrity, chlorophyll contents, tuber yield and vegetative biomass were studied to monitor the stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. The results were compared with Non-transgenic (NT) plants and statistically analyzed to evaluate significant differences. Multi-copy insertion of expression cassette was found in both transgenic lines. Upon salt stress, transgenic plants maintained better growth as compared to NT plants. The tuber yield of transgenic plants was significantly greater than NT plants in salt stress. Transgenic plants showed improved membrane integrity against cold stress by depicting appreciably reduced ion leakage as compared to NT plants. Moreover, transgenic plants showed significantly less chlorophyll bleaching than NT plants upon cold stress. In addition, NT plants accumulated significantly less biomass, and yielded fewer tubers as compared to transgenic plants after cold stress treatment. The study will be a committed step for field evaluation of transgenic plants with the aim of commercialization. (author)
Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.
Li, Meng-Yao; Song, Xiong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng
Parsley, one of the most important vegetables in the Apiaceae family, is widely used in the food, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Recent studies on parsley mainly focus on its chemical composition, and further research involving the analysis of the plant's gene functions and expressions is required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and is widely used to study gene expression. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, four software, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes of parsley ( GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4 α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1 α, and TUB ) under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA). Results showed that EF-1 α and TUB were the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, whereas EF-1 α, GAPDH , and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1 α and TUB were the most stable reference genes among all tested samples, and UBC was the least stable one. Expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study can guide the selection of suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley.
Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.
Li, Donghua; Liu, Pan; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhou, Rong; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's most important oil crops. However, it is susceptible to abiotic stresses in general, and to waterlogging and drought stresses in particular. The molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in sesame have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY domain transcription factors play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to stresses. However, little is known about the number, location, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes in sesame. We performed a comprehensive study of the WRKY gene family in sesame and identified 71 SiWRKYs. In total, 65 of these genes were mapped to 15 linkage groups within the sesame genome. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using a related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to investigate the evolution of the sesame WRKY genes. Tissue expression profiles of the WRKY genes demonstrated that six SiWRKY genes were highly expressed in all organs, suggesting that these genes may be important for plant growth and organ development in sesame. Analysis of the SiWRKY gene expression patterns revealed that 33 and 26 SiWRKYs respond strongly to waterlogging and drought stresses, respectively. Changes in the expression of 12 SiWRKY genes were observed at different times after the waterlogging and drought treatments had begun, demonstrating that sesame gene expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, we analyzed the WRKY family of transcription factors encoded by the sesame genome. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the SiWRKY genes, revealing their putative roles in a variety of tissues. Responses to abiotic stresses in different sesame cultivars were also investigated. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the structures and functions of sesame WRKY genes and suggest that manipulating these WRKYs could enhance resistance to waterlogging and drought.
Chen, Defu; Li, Yanlan; Fang, Tao; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen
Tocopherols and tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants that are abundant in plant seeds. Although their roles have been extensively studied, our understanding of their functions in rice seeds is still limited. In this study, on the basis of available RNAi rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC), we developed transgenic plants that silenced homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT). All the RNAi plants showed significantly reduced germination percentages and a higher proportion of abnormal seedlings than the control plants, with HGGT transgenics showing the most severe phenotype. The accelerated aging phenotype corresponded well with the amount of H2O2 accumulated in the embryo, glucose level, and ion leakage, but not with the amount of O(2-) accumulated in the embryo and lipid hydroperoxides levels in these genotypes. Under abiotic stress conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed lower germination percentage and seedling growth than HGGT transgenics, while HGGT transgenics showed almost the same status as the wild type. Therefore, we proposed that tocopherols in the germ may protect the embryo from reactive oxygen species under both accelerated aging and stress conditions, whereas tocotrienols in the pericarp may exclusively help in reducing the metabolic activity of the seed during accelerated aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bambach-Ortiz, N. E.; Paw U, K. T.
Plants have evolved to efficiently utilize light to synthesize energy-rich carbon compounds, and at the same time, dissipate absorbed but excessive photon that would otherwise transfer excitation energy to potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nevertheless, even the most rapidly growing plants with the highest rates of photosynthesis only utilize about half of the light their leaves absorb during the hours of peak irradiance in sun-exposed habitats. Usually, that daily peak of irradiance coincides with high temperature and a high vapor pressure deficit, which are conditions related to plant stomata closure. Consequently, specially in water stressed environments, plants need to have mechanisms to dissipate most of absorbed photons. Plants avoid photo-oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of ROS under excess light using different mechanisms in order to either lower the amount of ROS formation or detoxify already formed ROS. Photoinhibition is defined as a reduction in photosynthetic activity due largely to a sustained reduction in the photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII), which can be assessed by monitoring Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF). Alternatively, monitoring abiotic stress effects upon photosynthetic activity and photoinhibition may be possible using high frequency spectral reflectance sensors. We aim to find the potential relationships between high frequency PRI and ChlF as indicators of photoinhibition and permanent photodamage at a seasonal scale. Preliminary results show that PRI responses are sensitive to photoinhibition, but provide a poor representation of permanent photodamage observed at a seasonal scale.
Members of the SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein gene family are key players in the regulation of alternative splicing, an important means of generating proteome diversity and regulating gene expression. In plants, marked changes in alternative splicing are induced by a wide variety of abiotic stresses, suggesting a role for this highly versatile gene regulation mechanism in the response to environmental cues. In support of this notion, the expression of plant SR proteins is stress-regulated at multiple levels, with environmental signals controlling their own alternative splicing patterns, phosphorylation status and subcellular distribution. Most importantly, functional links between these RNA-binding proteins and plant stress tolerance are beginning to emerge, including a role in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Future identification of the physiological mRNA targets of plant SR proteins holds much promise for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying their role in the response to abiotic stress.
Shrestha, Barsha; Guragain, Bhuwan; Sridhar, Vaniyambadi V
During abiotic stress many genes that are important for growth and adaptation to stress are expressed at elevated levels. However, the mechanisms that keep the stress responsive genes from expressing under non stress conditions remain elusive. Recent genetic characterization of the co-repressor LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH) and transcriptional adaptor proteins SEUSS-LIKE1 (SLK1) and SLK2 have been proposed to function redundantly in diverse developmental processes; however their function in the abiotic stress response is unknown. Moreover, the molecular functions of LUH, SLK1 and SLK2 remain obscure. Here, we show the molecular function of LUH, SLK1 and SLK2 and the role of this complex in the abiotic stress response. The luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants shows enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress conditions. SLK1 and SLK2 interact physically with the LUFS domain in LUH forming SLK1-LUH and SLK2-LUH co-repressor complexes to inhibit the transcription. LUH has repressor activity, whereas SLK1 and SLK2 function as adaptors to recruit LUH, which in turn recruits histone deacetylase to the target sequences to repress transcription. The stress response genes RD20, MYB2 and NAC019 are expressed at elevated levels in the luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants. Furthermore, these stress response genes are associated with decreased nucleosome density and increased acetylation levels at H3K9 and H3K14 in the luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants. Our results indicate that SLK1, SLK2 and LUH form a co-repressor complex. LUH represses by means of an epigenetic process involving histone modification to facilitate the condensation of chromatin thus preventing transcription at the target genes.
Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance.
Full Text Available 176 ERF genes from Populus were identified by bioinformatics analysis, 13 of these in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra were investigate by real-time RT-PCR, the results demonstrated that 13 ERF genes were highly responsive to salt stress, drought stress and ABA treatment, and all were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, whereas their expression levels were markedly different in the various tissues. In roots, PthERF99, 110, 119, and 168 were primarily downregulated under drought and ABA treatment but were specifically upregulated under high salt condition. Interestingly, in poplar stems, all ERF genes showed the similar trends in expression in response to NaCl stress, drought stress, and ABA treatment, indicating that they may not play either specific or unique roles in stems in abiotic stress responses. In poplar leaves, PthERF168 was highly induced by ABA treatment, but was suppressed by high salinity and drought stresses, implying that PthERF168 participated in the ABA signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated that ERF genes could play essential but distinct roles in various plant tissues in response to different environment cues and hormonal treatment.
Full Text Available Cross-species translation of genomic information may play a pivotal role in applying biological knowledge gained from relatively simple model system to other less studied, but related, genomes. The information of abiotic stress (ABS-responsive genes in Arabidopsis was identified and translated into the legume model system, Medicago truncatula. Various data resources, such as TAIR/AtGI DB, expression profiles and literatures, were used to build a genome-wide list of ABS genes. tBlastX/BlastP similarity search tools and manual inspection of alignments were used to identify orthologous genes between the two genomes. A total of 1,377 genes were finally collected and classified into 18 functional criteria of gene ontology (GO. The data analysis according to the expression cues showed that there was substantial level of interaction among three major types (i.e., drought, salinity and cold stress of abiotic stresses. In an attempt to translate the ABS genes between these two species, genomic locations for each gene were mapped using an in-house-developed comparative analysis platform. The comparative analysis revealed that fragmental colinearity, represented by only 37 synteny blocks, existed between Arabidopsis and M. truncatula. Based on the combination of E-value and alignment remarks, estimated translation rate was 60.2% for this cross-family translation. As a prelude of the functional comparative genomic approaches, in-silico gene network/interactome analyses were conducted to predict key components in the ABS responses, and one of the sub-networks was integrated with corresponding comparative map. The results demonstrated that core members of the sub-network were well aligned with previously reported ABS regulatory networks. Taken together, the results indicate that network-based integrative approaches of comparative and functional genomics are important to interpret and translate genomic information for complex traits such as abiotic stresses.
Anhydrobiosis is an intriguing phenomenon of natural ability of some organisms to resist water loss. The larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki, the sleeping chironomid is the largest and most complex anhydrobionts known to date. The larvae showed ability to survive variety of abiotic stresses, including outer space environment. Recently cell line (Pv11) derived from the embryonic mass of the chironomid was established. Initially sensitive to desiccation cells, are capable to "induced" anhydrobiosis, when the resistance to desiccation can be developed by pre-treatment of the cells with trehalose followed by quick desiccation. We have further conducted complex analysis of the whole genome transcription response of Pv11 cells to different abiotic stresses, including oxidative stress and irradiation. Comparative analysis showed that the gene set, responsible for formation of desiccation resistance (ARID regions in the genome) is also activated in response to other types of stresses and likely to contribute to general enhancing of the resistance of the cells to harsh environment. We have further demonstrated that the cells are able to protect recombinant proteins from harmful effect of desiccation
Joo Yong Kim
Full Text Available Ubiquitination and sumoylation are essential post-translational modifications that regulate growth and development processes in plants, including control of hormone signaling mechanisms and responses to stress. This study showed that COP1 (Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 regulated the activity of Arabidopsis E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier ligase AtSIZ1 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Yeast two hybrid analysis demonstrated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 directly interacted with one another, and subcellular localization assays indicated that COP1 and AtSIZ1 co-localized in nuclear bodies. Analysis of ubiquitination showed that AtSIZ1 was polyubiquitinated by COP1. The AtSIZ1 level was higher in cop1-4 mutants than in wild-type seedlings under light or dark conditions, and overexpression of a dominant-negative (DN-COP1 mutant led to a substantial increase in AtSIZ1 accumulation. In addition, under drought, cold, and high salt conditions, SUMO-conjugate levels were elevated in DN-COP1-overexpressing plants and cop1-4 mutant plants compared to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that COP1 controls responses to abiotic stress by modulation of AtSIZ1 levels and activity.
Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua
The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to
Full Text Available Hsp90 is one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones and is an essential component of the protective stress response; however, its roles in abiotic stress responses in soybean (Glycine max remain obscure. Here, 12 GmHsp90 genes from soybean were identified and found to be expressed and to function differentially under abiotic stresses. The 12 GmHsp90 genes were isolated and named GmHsp90A1-GmHsp90A6, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90B2, GmHsp90C1.1, GmHsp90C1.2, GmHsp90C2.1 and GmHsp90C2.2 based on their characteristics and high homology to other Hsp90s according to a new nomenclature system. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that all the genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaves and could be strongly induced under heat, osmotic and salt stress but not cold stress. Overexpression of five typical genes (GmHsp90A2, GmHsp90A4, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90C1.1 and GmHsp90C2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana provided useful evidences that GmHsp90 genes can decrease damage of abiotic stresses. In addition, an abnormal accumulation of proline was detected in some transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggested overexpressing GmHsp90s may affect the synthesis and response system of proline. Our work represents a systematic determination of soybean genes encoding Hsp90s, and provides useful evidence that GmHsp90 genes function differently in response to abiotic stresses and may affect the synthesis and response system of proline.
Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Advised by Dzantor, E. Kudjo
Limestone cedar glades are a type of rock outcrop ecosystem characterized by shallow soil and extreme hydrologic conditions—seasonally ranging from xeric to saturated—that support a number of plant species of conservation concern. Although a rich botanical literature exists on cedar glades, soil biochemical processes and the ecology of soil microbial communities in limestone cedar glades have largely been ignored. This investigation documents the abiotic stress regime of this ecosystem (shallow soil, extreme hydrologic fluctuations and seasonally high soil surface temperatures) as well as soil physical and chemical characteristics, and relates both types of information to ecological structures and functions including vegetation, soil respiration, and soil microbial community metabolic profiles and diversity. Methods used in this investigation include field observations and measurements of soil physical and chemical properties and processes, laboratory analyses, and microbiological assays of soil samples.
Full Text Available Ethylene response factors (ERFs play important roles in response to plant biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a gene encoding a putative AP2/ERF domain-containing protein was isolated by screening a SSH cDNA library from rice and designated as Oryza sativa AP2/ERF-like protein (OsAP2LP gene. OsAP2LP is 1491 bp in length, interrupted by seven introns, and encodes a putative protein of 348 amino acids. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that the OsAP2LP gene was preferentially expressed in roots, panicles, mature embryos and seeds in rice. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of the OsAP2LP gene were increased under the treatments of drought and gibberellin but decreased under the treatments of low temperature, salt, abscisic acid (ABA and zeatin. Taken together, these results suggest that OsAP2LP might be involved in stress responses, and probably plays roles as a transcription regulator when plants response to cold, salt and drought stresses through ABA and gibberellin pathways.
Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung
Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.
Rodriguez, Rusty J.; Woodward, Claire; Redman, Regina S.
From the Arctic to the Antarctic, plants thrive in diverse habitats that impose different levels of adaptive pressures depending on the type and degree of biotic and abiotic stresses inherent to each habitat (Stevens, 1989). At any particular location, the abundance and distribution of individual plant species vary tremendously and is theorized to be based on the ability to tolerate a wide range of edaphic conditions and habitat-specific stresses (Pianka, 1966). The ability of individual plant species to thrive in diverse habitats is commonly referred to as phenotypic plasticity and is thought to involve adaptations based on changes in the plant genome (Givnish, 2002; Pan et al., 2006; Robe and Griffiths, 2000; Schurr et al., 2006). Habitats that impose high levels of abiotic stress are typically colonized with fewer plant species compared to habitats imposing low levels of stress. Moreover, high stress habitats have decreased levels of plant abundance compared to low stress habitats even though these habitats may occur in close proximity to one another (Perelman et al., 2007). This is particularly interesting because all plants are known to perceive, transmit signals, and respond to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, and salinity (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Bohnert et al., 1995). Although there has been extensive research performed to determine the genetic, molecular, and physiological bases of how plants respond to and tolerate stress, the nature of plant adaptation to high stress habitats remains unresolved (Leone et al., 2003; Maggio et al., 2003; Tuberosa et al., 2003). However, recent evidence indicates that a ubiquitous aspect of plant biology (fungal symbiosis) is involved in the adaptation and survival of at least some plants in high stress habitats (Rodriguez et al., 2008).
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the violaxanthin (V cycle, V is de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin (Z when strong light or light combined with other stressors lead to an overexcitation of photosystems. However, plants can also suffer stress in darkness and recent reports have shown that dehydration triggers V-de-epoxidation in the absence of light. In this study, we used the highly stress-tolerant brown alga Pelvetia canaliculata as a model organism, due to its lack of lutein and its non-photochemical quenching independent of the transthylakoidal-ΔpH, to study the triggering of the V-cycle in darkness induced by abiotic stressors. Results We have shown that besides desiccation, other factors such as immersion, anoxia and high temperature also induced V-de-epoxidation in darkness. This process was reversible once the treatments had ceased (with the exception of heat, which caused lethal damage. Irrespective of the stressor applied, the resulting de-epoxidised xanthophylls correlated with a decrease in Fv/Fm, suggesting a common function in the down-regulation of photosynthetical efficiency. The implication of the redox-state of the plastoquinone-pool and of the differential activity of V-cycle enzymes on V-de-epoxidation in darkness was also examined. Current results suggest that both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and zeaxanthin-epoxidase (ZE have a basal constitutive activity even in darkness, being ZE inhibited under stress. This inhibition leads to Z accumulation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that V-cycle activity is triggered by several abiotic stressors even when they occur in an absolute absence of light, leading to a decrease in Fv/Fm. This finding provides new insights into an understanding of the regulation mechanism of the V-cycle and of its ecophysiological roles.
Molinier, Jean; Ries, Gerhard; Zipfel, Cyril; Hohn, Barbara
Owing to their sessile nature, plants are constantly exposed to a multitude of environmental stresses to which they react with a battery of responses. The result is plant tolerance to conditions such as excessive or inadequate light, water, salt and temperature, and resistance to pathogens. Not only is plant physiology known to change under abiotic or biotic stress, but changes in the genome have also been identified. However, it was not determined whether plants from successive generations of the original, stressed plants inherited the capacity for genomic change. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana plants treated with short-wavelength radiation (ultraviolet-C) or flagellin (an elicitor of plant defences), somatic homologous recombination of a transgenic reporter is increased in the treated population and these increased levels of homologous recombination persist in the subsequent, untreated generations. The epigenetic trait of enhanced homologous recombination could be transmitted through both the maternal and the paternal crossing partner, and proved to be dominant. The increase of the hyper-recombination state in generations subsequent to the treated generation was independent of the presence of the transgenic allele (the recombination substrate under consideration) in the treated plant. We conclude that environmental factors lead to increased genomic flexibility even in successive, untreated generations, and may increase the potential for adaptation.
Amit Kumar Chaturvedi
Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.
Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath
Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.
Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua
The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P
Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Wei; Yan, Yan; Shi, Haitao; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Ding, XuPo; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiashui; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang
Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a crucial role in developmental and environmental adaptation processes of plants. However, the PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 families that function as the core components of ABA signaling are not well understood in banana. In the present study, 24 PYL, 87 PP2C, and 11 SnRK2 genes were identified from banana, which was further supported by evolutionary relationships, conserved motif and gene structure analyses. The comprehensive transcriptomic analyses showed that banana PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes are involved in tissue development, fruit development and ripening, and response to abiotic stress in two cultivated varieties. Moreover, comparative expression analyses of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes between BaXi Jiao (BX) and Fen Jiao (FJ) revealed that PYL-PP2C-SnRK2-mediated ABA signaling might positively regulate banana fruit ripening and tolerance to cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Finally, interaction networks and co-expression assays demonstrated that the core components of ABA signaling were more active in FJ than in BX in response to abiotic stress, further supporting the crucial role of the genes in tolerance to abiotic stress in banana. This study provides new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 genes, improves the understanding of PYL-PP2C-SnRK2-mediated ABA signaling in the regulation of fruit development, ripening, and response to abiotic stress, and identifies some candidate genes for genetic improvement of banana.
Foyer, C.H.; Lelandais, M.; Kunert, K.J.
The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that
Kaur, Navneet; Pandey, Ashutosh; Shivani; Kumar, Prateek; Pandey, Pankaj; Kesarwani, Atul K.; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Awasthi, Praveen; Tiwari, Siddharth
Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key regulatory enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. The present study examines the role of PSY in carotenogenesis and stress management in banana. Germplasm screening of 10 Indian cultivars showed that Nendran (3011.94 μg/100 g dry weight) and Rasthali (105.35 μg/100 g dry weight) contained the highest and lowest amounts of β-carotene, respectively in ripe fruit-pulp. Nendran ripe pulp also showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to Rasthali. Meta-analysis of three banana PSY genes (MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3) was performed to identify their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization in banana genome. The distinct expression patterns of MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3 genes were observed in various tissues, and fruit developmental stages of these two contrasting cultivars, suggesting differential regulation of the banana PSY genes. A positive correlation was observed between the expression of MaPSY1 and β-carotene accumulation in the ripe fruit-peel and pulp of Nendran. The presence of stress responsive cis-regulatory motifs in promoter region of MaPSY genes were correlated with the expression pattern during various stress (abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and dark) treatments. The positive modulation of MaPSY1 noticed under abiotic stresses suggested its role in plant physiological functions and defense response. The amino acid sequence analysis of the PSY proteins in contrasting cultivars revealed that all PSY comprises conserved domains related to enzyme activity. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of six PSY proteins and among them PSY1 of Nendran (Nen-PSY1) gave the highest activity. These data provide new insights into the regulation of PSY expression in banana by developmental and stress related signals that can be explored in the banana improvement programs. PMID:28421096
Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela
Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.
Full Text Available Plants subjected to abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and agrochemical markets. This approach can be extended to horticultural crops. This review describes previous reports regarding the effect of different postharvest abiotic stresses on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Likewise, the physiological basis for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds as an abiotic stress response is described. The information presented herein would be useful for growers and the fresh produce market which are interested in finding alternative uses for their crops, especially for those not meeting quality standards and thus are considered as waste.
He, Qiuling; Jones, Don C.; Li, Wei; Xie, Fuliang; Ma, Jun; Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong
The R2R3-MYB is one of the largest families of transcription factors, which have been implicated in multiple biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of R2R3-MYB genes in different plants. However, there is no report on genome-wide characterization of this gene family in cotton. In the present study, a total of 205 putative R2R3-MYB genes were identified in cotton D genome (Gossypium raimondii), that are much larger than that found in other cash crops with fully sequenced genomes. These GrMYBs were classified into 13 groups with the R2R3-MYB genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The amino acid motifs and phylogenetic tree were predicted and analyzed. The sequences of GrMYBs were distributed across 13 chromosomes at various densities. The results showed that the expansion of the G. Raimondii R2R3-MYB family was mainly attributable to whole genome duplication and segmental duplication. Moreover, the expression pattern of 52 selected GrMYBs and 46 GaMYBs were tested in roots and leaves under different abiotic stress conditions. The results revealed that the MYB genes in cotton were differentially expressed under salt and drought stress treatment. Our results will be useful for determining the precise role of the MYB genes during stress responses with crop improvement. PMID:27009386
Pan, Yanlin; Li, Jianrui; Jiao, Licong; Li, Cong; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan
Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A non-specific LTP gene ( SiLTP ) was isolated from a foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis . Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and abscisic acid (ABA). SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT). To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE) and RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP -OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo , respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP -OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be upregulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and drought
Wang, Lu; Waters, Mark T; Smith, Steven M
The control of seed germination in response to environmental conditions is important for plant success. We investigated the role of the karrikin receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) in the response of Arabidopsis seeds to osmotic stress, salinity and high temperature. Germination of the kai2 mutant was examined in response to NaCl, mannitol and elevated temperature. The effect of karrikin on germination of wild-type seeds, hypocotyl elongation and the expression of karrikin-responsive genes was also examined in response to such stresses. The kai2 seeds germinated less readily than wild-type seeds and germination was more sensitive to inhibition by abiotic stress. Karrikin-induced KAI2 signalling stimulated germination of wild-type seeds under favourable conditions, but, surprisingly, inhibited germination in the presence of osmolytes or at elevated temperature. By contrast, GA stimulated germination of wild-type seeds and mutants under all conditions. Karrikin induced expression of DLK2 and KUF1 genes and inhibited hypocotyl elongation independently of osmotic stress. Under mild osmotic stress, karrikin enhanced expression of DREB2A, WRKY33 and ERF5 genes, but not ABA signalling genes. Thus, the karrikin-KAI2 signalling system can protect against abiotic stress, first by providing stress tolerance, and second by inhibiting germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Saema, Syed; Rahman, Laiq Ur; Singh, Ruchi; Niranjan, Abhishek; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Misra, Pratibha
Overexpression of sterol glycosyltransferase (SGTL1) gene of Withania somnifera showing its involvement in glycosylation of withanolide that leads to enhanced growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Withania somnifera is widely used in Ayurvedic medicines for over 3000 years due to its therapeutic properties. It contains a variety of glycosylated steroids called withanosides that possess neuroregenerative, adaptogenic, anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The WsSGTL1 gene specific for 3β-hydroxy position has a catalytic specificity to glycosylate withanolide and sterols. Glycosylation not only stabilizes the products but also alters their physiological activities and governs intracellular distribution. To understand the functional significance and potential of WsSGTL1 gene, transgenics of W. somnifera were generated using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Stable integration and overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis followed by quantitative real-time PCR. The WsGTL1 transgenic plants displayed number of alterations at phenotypic and metabolic level in comparison to wild-type plants which include: (1) early and enhanced growth with leaf expansion and increase in number of stomata; (2) increased production of glycowithanolide (majorly withanoside V) and campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in glycosylated forms with reduced accumulation of withanolides (withaferin A, withanolide A and withanone); (3) tolerance towards biotic stress (100 % mortality of Spodoptera litura), improved survival capacity under abiotic stress (cold stress) and; (4) enhanced recovery capacity after cold stress, as indicated by better photosynthesis performance, chlorophyll, anthocyanin content and better quenching regulation of PSI and PSII. Our data demonstrate overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene which is responsible for increase in glycosylated withanolide and sterols, and confers better growth and
Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs are major players in stress signalling and constitute an integral part of signalling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4 model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY and S. viridis (SvWRKY, respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analysed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY, followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY. Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signalling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signalling.
Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj
Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling.
Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Khandelwal, Rohit; Jaishankar, Jananee; Shweta, Shweta; Nawaz, Kashif; Prasad, Manoj
Transcription factors (TFs) are major players in stress signaling and constitute an integral part of signaling networks. Among the major TFs, WRKY proteins play pivotal roles in regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with stress responses. In view of this, genome- and transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY TF family was performed in the C4model plants, Setaria italica (SiWRKY) and S. viridis (SvWRKY), respectively. The study identified 105 SiWRKY and 44 SvWRKY proteins that were computationally analyzed for their physicochemical properties. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis classified these proteins into three major groups, namely I, II, and III with majority of WRKY proteins belonging to group II (53 SiWRKY and 23 SvWRKY), followed by group III (39 SiWRKY and 11 SvWRKY) and group I (10 SiWRKY and 6 SvWRKY). Group II proteins were further classified into 5 subgroups (IIa to IIe) based on their phylogeny. Domain analysis showed the presence of WRKY motif and zinc finger-like structures in these proteins along with additional domains in a few proteins. All SiWRKY genes were physically mapped on the S. italica genome and their duplication analysis revealed that 10 and 8 gene pairs underwent tandem and segmental duplications, respectively. Comparative mapping of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes in related C4 panicoid genomes demonstrated the orthologous relationships between these genomes. In silico expression analysis of SiWRKY and SvWRKY genes showed their differential expression patterns in different tissues and stress conditions. Expression profiling of candidate SiWRKY genes in response to stress (dehydration and salinity) and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate) suggested the putative involvement of SiWRKY066 and SiWRKY082 in stress and hormone signaling. These genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in abiotic stress signaling. PMID:26635818
Henry D Priest
Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of many important cereal crops. Abiotic stress tolerance has a significant impact on productivity of agriculturally important food and feedstock crops. Analysis of the transcriptome of Brachypodium after chilling, high-salinity, drought, and heat stresses revealed diverse differential expression of many transcripts. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis revealed 22 distinct gene modules with specific profiles of expression under each stress. Promoter analysis implicated short DNA sequences directly upstream of module members in the regulation of 21 of 22 modules. Functional analysis of module members revealed enrichment in functional terms for 10 of 22 network modules. Analysis of condition-specific correlations between differentially expressed gene pairs revealed extensive plasticity in the expression relationships of gene pairs. Photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall expression modules were down-regulated by all abiotic stresses. Modules which were up-regulated by each abiotic stress fell into diverse and unique gene ontology GO categories. This study provides genomics resources and improves our understanding of abiotic stress responses of Brachypodium.
Menguer, Paloma Koprovski; Sperotto, Raul Antonio; Ricachenevsky, Felipe Klein
Oryza sativa, the common cultivated rice, is one of the most important crops for human consumption, but production is increasingly threatened by abiotic stresses. Although many efforts have resulted in breeding rice cultivars that are relatively tolerant to their local environments, climate changes and population increase are expected to soon call for new, fast generation of stress tolerant rice germplasm, and current within-species rice diversity might not be enough to overcome such needs. The Oryza genus contains other 23 wild species, with only Oryza glaberrima being also domesticated. Rice domestication was performed with a narrow genetic diversity, and the other Oryza species are a virtually untapped genetic resource for rice stress tolerance improvement. Here we review the origin of domesticated Oryza sativa from wild progenitors, the ecological and genomic diversity of the Oryza genus, and the stress tolerance variation observed for wild Oryza species, including the genetic basis underlying the tolerance mechanisms found. The summary provided here is important to indicate how we should move forward to unlock the full potential of these germplasms for rice improvement.
Stephan M. Haefele
Full Text Available Decision support tools for non-destructive estimation of rice crop nitrogen (N status (e.g., chlorophyll meter [SPAD] or leaf color chart [LCC] are an established technology for improved N management in irrigated systems, but their value in rainfed environments with frequent abiotic stresses remains untested. Therefore, we studied the effect of drought, salinity, phosphorus (P deficiency, and sulfur (S deficiency on leaf N estimates derived from SPAD and LCC measurements in a greenhouse experiment. Linear relations between chlorophyll concentration and leaf N concentration based on dry weight (Ndw between SPAD values adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw and between LCC scores adjusted for leaf thickness and Ndw could be confirmed for all treatments and varieties used. Leaf spectral reflectance measurements did not show a stress-dependent change in the reflectance pattern, indicating that no specific element of the photosynthetic complex was affected by the stresses and at the stress level applied. We concluded that SPAD and LCC are potentially useful tools for improved N management in moderately unfavorable rice environments. However, calibration for the most common rice varieties in the target region is recommended to increase the precision of the leaf N estimates.
Barkla, Bronwyn J
Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses. In this review, a summary is provided of the data accumulated from quantitative proteomic comparisons of crop genotypes/cultivars which present different stress tolerance responses when exposed to various abiotic stress conditions, including drought, salinity, high/low temperature, nutrient deficiency and UV-B irradiation. This field of research aims to identify molecular features that can be developed as biomarkers for crop improvement, however without accurate phenotyping, careful experimental design, statistical robustness and appropriate biomarker validation and verification it will be challenging to deliver what is promised.
Bronwyn J. Barkla
Full Text Available Modern day agriculture practice is narrowing the genetic diversity in our food supply. This may compromise the ability to obtain high yield under extreme climactic conditions, threatening food security for a rapidly growing world population. To identify genetic diversity, tolerance mechanisms of cultivars, landraces and wild relatives of major crops can be identified and ultimately exploited for yield improvement. Quantitative proteomics allows for the identification of proteins that may contribute to tolerance mechanisms by directly comparing protein abundance under stress conditions between genotypes differing in their stress responses. In this review, a summary is provided of the data accumulated from quantitative proteomic comparisons of crop genotypes/cultivars which present different stress tolerance responses when exposed to various abiotic stress conditions, including drought, salinity, high/low temperature, nutrient deficiency and UV-B irradiation. This field of research aims to identify molecular features that can be developed as biomarkers for crop improvement, however without accurate phenotyping, careful experimental design, statistical robustness and appropriate biomarker validation and verification it will be challenging to deliver what is promised.
Weldegergis, B.T.; Zhu, F.; Poelman, E.H.; Dicke, M.
One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and
Fang, Yuan; Mercer, Ryan G; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G
The prophage-encoded Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor in Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Toxin production and phage production are linked and occur after induction of the RecA-dependent SOS response. However, food-related stress and Stx-prophage induction have not been studied at the single-cell level. This study investigated the effects of abiotic environmental stress on stx expression by single-cell quantification of gene expression in STEC O104:H4 Δ stx2 :: gfp :: amp r In addition, the effect of stress on production of phage particles was determined. The lethality of stressors, including heat, HCl, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and high hydrostatic pressure, was selected to reduce cell counts by 1 to 2 log CFU/ml. The integrity of the bacterial membrane after exposure to stress was measured by propidium iodide (PI). The fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PI were quantified by flow cytometry. The mechanism of prophage induction by stress was evaluated by relative gene expression of recA and cell morphology. Acid (pH stress were additionally assessed. H 2 O 2 and mitomycin C induced expression of the prophage and activated a SOS response. In contrast, HCl and lactic acid induced the Stx-prophage but not the SOS response. The lifestyle of STEC exposes the organism to intestinal and extraintestinal environments that impose oxidative and acid stress. A more thorough understanding of the influence of food processing-related stressors on Stx-prophage expression thus facilitates control of STEC in food systems by minimizing prophage induction during food production and storage. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Kumar, Akhilesh; Verma, Jay Prakash
The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions. It offers an economically fascinating and ecologically sound ways for protecting plants against stress condition. PGPM may promote plant growth by regulating plant hormones, improve nutrition acquisition, siderophore production and enhance the antioxidant system. While acquired systemic resistance (ASR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) effectively deal with biotic stress. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhance the supply of nutrients and water during stress condition and increase tolerance to stress. This plant-microbe interaction is vital for sustainable agriculture and industrial purpose, because it depends on biological processes and replaces conventional agriculture practices. Therefore, microbes may play a key role as an ecological engineer to solve environmental stress problems. So, it is a feasible and potential technology in future to feed global population at available resources with reduced impact on environmental quality. In this review, we have attempted to explore about abiotic and biotic stress tolerant beneficial microorganisms and their modes of action to enhance the sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Xin, Mingming; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru
The yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an important crop, is adversely affected by heat stress in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying thermotolerance are largely unknown. A novel ferritin gene, TaFER, was identified from our previous heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis of a heat-tolerant wheat cultivar (TAM107). TaFER was mapped to chromosome 5B and named TaFER-5B. Expression pattern analysis revealed that TaFER-5B was induced by heat, polyethylene glycol (PEG), H 2 O 2 and Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). To confirm the function of TaFER-5B in wheat, TaFER-5B was transformed into the wheat cultivar Jimai5265 (JM5265), and the transgenic plants exhibited enhanced thermotolerance. To examine whether the function of ferritin from mono- and dico-species is conserved, TaFER-5B was transformed into Arabidopsis, and overexpression of TaFER-5B functionally complemented the heat stress-sensitive phenotype of a ferritin-lacking mutant of Arabidopsis. Moreover, TaFER-5B is essential for protecting cells against heat stress associated with protecting cells against ROS. In addition, TaFER-5B overexpression also enhanced drought, oxidative and excess iron stress tolerance associated with the ROS scavenging. Finally, TaFER-5B transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat plants exhibited improved leaf iron content. Our results suggest that TaFER-5B plays an important role in enhancing tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging.
Christov, Nikolai Kirilov; Christova, Petya Koeva; Kato, Hideki; Liu, Yuelin; Sasaki, Kentaro; Imai, Ryozo
A novel cold-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase, TaSK5, was isolated from winter wheat using a macroarray-based differential screening approach. TaSK5 showed high similarity to Arabidopsis subgroup I GSK3/shaggy-like kinases ASK-alpha, AtSK-gamma and ASK-epsilon. RNA gel blot analyses revealed TaSK5 induction by cold and NaCl treatments and to a lesser extent by drought treatment. TaSK5 functionally complemented the cold- and salt-sensitive phenotypes of a yeast GSK3/shaggy-like kinase mutant, △mck1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaSK5 cDNA showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the tolerance of the transgenic plants to freezing stress was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of abiotic stress-inducible genes were constitutively induced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaSK5 may function in a novel signal transduction pathway that appears to be unrelated to DREB1/CBF regulon and may involve crosstalk between abiotic and hormonal signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tae Kyung, H.; van der Graaff, E.; Albacete, A.; Eom, S. H.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; Böhm, B.; Janschek, U.; Rim, Y.; Walid Wahid, A.; Kim, S.; Roitsch, Thomas
Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014), e112946 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : abscisic-acid * endoplasmic-reticulum * salicylic-acid * transcription factors * gene-expression * pseudomonas-syringae * signal-transduction * plants response * cold stress * salt stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014
Mayer, Zoltán; Duc, Nguyen Hong; Sasvári, Zita; Posta, Katalin
The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions. Our results suggest that induced tolerance of mycorrhizal sunflower to high temperature may be attributed to the induction of GST, POX and PPO enzyme activities as well as to the elevated expression of GST. However, the degree of tolerance of the plant is significantly influenced by the age which is probably justified by the energy considerations.
Full Text Available It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica, an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde (MDA in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5 and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.
Chen, Li-Ting; Wu, Keqiang
Our recent study revealed the involvement of the Arabidopsis histone deacetylase HDA6 in modulating ABA and salt stress responses. In this report, we further investigated the role of HDA19 in ABA and salt stress responses. The Arabidopsis HDA19 T-DNA insertion mutant, hda19-1, displayed a phenotype that was hypersensitive to ABA and salt stress. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression of ABA responsive genes, ABI1, ABI2, KAT1, KAT2 and RD29B, was decreased in hda19-1 plants when treate...
Full Text Available Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.
Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng
Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.
Wide genetic diversity exists among the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (CC) accessions collected in the deserts of northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Because of their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, there can be a viable source of genes used for enhancing wa...
Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Fellner, Martin
Roč. 8, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 1940-3372 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 7B-1 mutant * abiotic stress * miRNAs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.509, year: 2015
Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.
Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj
C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.
Tatiana Roubtsova; Richard Bostock
Of concern for disease management and certification programs in nursery ornamentals is that roots, when colonized by Phytophthora ramorum, may serve as a potential reservoir of inoculum. An additional complication is that the above ground portion of plants with root infections may be asymptomatic. Our central hypothesis is that mild abiotic...
levels of SlHsp20 genes could be induced profusely by abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, salt, Botrytis cinerea and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, indicating their potential roles in mediating the response of tomato plants to environment stresses. In conclusion, these results provide valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship of Hsp20 gene family and functional characterization of the SlHsp20 gene family in the future.
Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian
genes could be induced profusely by abiotic and biotic stresses such as heat, drought, salt, Botrytis cinerea, and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), indicating their potential roles in mediating the response of tomato plants to environment stresses. In conclusion, these results provide valuable information for elucidating the evolutionary relationship of Hsp20 gene family and functional characterization of the SlHsp20 gene family in the future.
Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy
The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes.
Jalmi, Siddhi K.; Bhagat, Prakash K.; Verma, Deepanjali; Noryang, Stanzin; Tayyeba, Sumaira; Singh, Kirti; Sharma, Deepika; Sinha, Alok K.
Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms. This response shown by plants is the result of intricate signaling networks functioning in the cell in order to transmit the extracellular stimuli into an intracellular response. The crucial signaling components involved are calcium signaling, hormone signaling, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling that are discussed in this review. Apart from signaling components other regulators like microRNAs and transcription factors also have a major contribution in regulating heavy metal stress. This review demonstrates the key role of MAPKs in synchronously controlling the other signaling components and regulators in metal stress. Further, attempts have been made to focus on metal transporters and chelators that are regulated by MAPK signaling. PMID:29459874
Naing, Aung Htay; Park, Kyeung Il; Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Chung, Mi Young; Han, Jeung Sul; Kang, Young-Wha; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil
Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi'), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels. Transgenic lines displayed different anthocyanin colors (e.g., pale red: T 0 -P, red: T 0 -R, and strong red: T 0 -S), resulting from varying levels of biosynthetic gene transcripts. Under salt stress, the T 2 generation had higher total polyphenol content, radical (DPPH, ABTS) scavenging activities, antioxidant-related gene expression, as well as overall greater salt and drought tolerance than wild type (WT). We propose that Del overexpression elevates transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and antioxidant-related genes, leading to enhanced anthocyanin production and antioxidant activity. The resultant increase of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity improves abiotic stress tolerance.
Full Text Available Food contamination by Listeria monocytogenes remains a major concern for some food processing chains, particularly for ready-to-eat foods, including processed foods. Bacterial adhesion on both biotic and abiotic surfaces is a source of contamination by pathogens that have become more tolerant or even persistent in food processing environments, including in the presence of adverse conditions such as cold and dehydration. The most distinct challenge that bacteria confront upon entry into food processing environments is the sudden downshift in temperature, and the resulting phenotypic effects are of interest. Crystal violet staining and the BioFilm Ring Test® were applied to assess the adhesion and biofilm formation of 22 listerial strains from different serogroups and origins under cold-stressed and cold-adapted conditions. The physicochemical properties of the bacterial surface were studied using the microbial adhesion to solvent technique. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to visualize cell morphology and biofilm structure. The results showed that adhesion to stainless-steel and polystyrene was increased by cold stress, whereas cold-adapted cells remained primarily in planktonic form. Bacterial cell surfaces exhibited electron-donating properties regardless of incubation temperature and became more hydrophilic as temperature decreased from 37 to 4°C. Moreover, the adhesion of cells grown at 4°C correlated with affinity for ethyl acetate, indicating the role of cell surface properties in adhesion.
Light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.
Li, Juan; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang
Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) is the first committed gene for AsA synthesis. Our research examined AsA levels, regulation of GGP gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of Actinidia (kiwifruit). When leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, ABA or MeJA, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of GGP mRNA and AsA concentrations. In transformed tobacco plants, activity of the GGP promoter was induced by all of these treatments. However, the degree of inducibility in the two kiwifruit species differed among the GGP promoter deletions. We deduced that the G-box motif, a light-responsive element, may have an important function in regulating GGP transcripts under various light conditions in both A. deliciosa and A. eriantha. Other elements such as ABRE, the CGTCA motif, and HSE might also control the promoter activities of GGP in kiwifruit. Altogether, these data suggest that GGP expression in the two kiwifruit species is regulated by light or abiotic stress via the relative cis-elements in their promoters. Furthermore, GGP has a critical role in modulating AsA concentrations in kiwifruit species under abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available AP2/ERF-type transcription factors regulate important functions of plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental stimuli. A rice AP2/ERF transcription factor, OsEREBP1 is a downstream component of a signal transduction pathway in a specific interaction between rice (Oryza sativa and its bacterial pathogen, Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 in rice driven by maize ubiquitin promoter did not affect normal plant growth. Microarray analysis revealed that over expression of OsEREBP1 caused increased expression of lipid metabolism related genes such as lipase and chloroplastic lipoxygenase as well as several genes related to jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthesis. PR genes, transcription regulators and Aldhs (alcohol dehydrogenases implicated in abiotic stress and submergence tolerance were also upregulated in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed increase in endogenous levels of α-linolenate, several jasmonate derivatives and abscisic acid but not salicylic acid. Soluble modified GFP (SmGFP-tagged OsEREBP1 was localized to plastid nucleoids. Comparative analysis of non-transgenic and OsEREBP1 overexpressing genotypes revealed that OsEREBP1 attenuates disease caused by Xoo and confers drought and submergence tolerance in transgenic rice. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 activates the jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways thereby priming the rice plants for enhanced survival under abiotic or biotic stress conditions. OsEREBP1 is thus, a good candidate gene for engineering plants for multiple stress tolerance.
Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu
Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is essential to regulate genes and genome activities. In plants, the alteration of histone modification and DNA methylation are coordinated with changes in the expression of stress-responsive genes to adapt to environmental changes. Several chromatin regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stress-responsive gene networks under abiotic stress conditions. Specific histone modification sites and the histone modifiers that regulate key stress-responsive genes have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches, revealing the importance of chromatin regulation in plant stress responses. Recent studies have also suggested that histone modification plays an important role in plant stress memory. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation and alteration of histone modification (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation in response to the abiotic stresses, drought, high-salinity, heat, and cold in plants.
Shi, Yiting; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Pei; Tian, Siqi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua
ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase that plays an important role in shoot apical meristem development and phytohormone homeostasis. We isolated a new mutant allele of AMP1, amp1-20, from a screen for abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitive mutants and characterized the function of AMP1 in plant stress responses. amp1 mutants displayed ABA hypersensitivity, while overexpression of AMP1 caused ABA insensitivity. Moreover, endogenous ABA concentration was increased in amp1-20- and decreased in AMP1-overexpressing plants under stress conditions. Application of ABA reduced the AMP1 protein level in plants. Interestingly, amp1 mutants accumulated excess superoxide and displayed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. The hypersensitivity of amp1 to ABA and oxidative stress was partially rescued by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging agent. Furthermore, amp1 was tolerant to freezing and drought stress. The ABA hypersensitivity and freezing tolerance of amp1 was dependent on ABA signaling. Moreover, amp1 had elevated soluble sugar content and showed hypersensitivity to high concentrations of sugar. By contrast, the contents of amino acids were changed in amp1 mutant compared to the wild-type. This study suggests that AMP1 modulates ABA, oxidative and abotic stress responses, and is involved in carbon and amino acid metabolism in Arabidopsis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Han, Yang yang; Li, Ai xiu; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mei rong; Wang, Wei
Expansins are proteins that are generally accepted to be key regulators of cell wall extension and plant growth. We examined the expression pattern of TaEXPB23, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, under exogenous phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. In addition, we evaluated its function in the tolerance to salt stress and high temperature (HT) by overexpressing it in transgenic tobacco plants. In subcellular localization assays, TaEXPB23 localized to the cell wall. Expression analysis demonstrated that the transcription pattern of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaEXPB23 transcript expression was upregulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salt stress, but downregulated by exogenous gibberellins (GA₃), ethylene (ET), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). Overexpression of TaEXPB23 in tobacco (tabacum) conferred tolerance to salt stress by enhancing water retention ability (WRA) and decreasing osmotic potential (OP). However, transgenic plants overexpressing TaEXPB23 did not show any improvement in the tolerance to HT stress. These results suggested that TaEXPB23 is regulated by phytohormones and is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Alquraishi, May Majed; Gehring, Christoph A; Marondedze, Claudius
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.
Alquraishi, May Majed
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.
Full Text Available Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1 insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2 and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3. Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1 in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress.
Islam, Ejazul; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Irem, Samra
Plants are the ultimate food source for humans, either directly or indirectly. Being sessile in nature, they are exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses because of changing climate that adversely effects their growth and development. Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major abiotic stresses because of anthropogenic as well as natural factors which lead to increased toxicity and accumulation in plants. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid toxin present in the earth crust. Due to its presence in terrestrial and aquatic environments, it effects the growth of plants. Plants can tolerate arsenic using several mechanisms like phytochelation, vacuole sequestration and activation of antioxidant defense systems. Several signaling mechanisms have evolved in plants that involve the use of proteins, calcium ions, hormones, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as signaling molecules to cope with arsenic toxicity. These mechanisms facilitate plants to survive under metal stress by activating their defense systems. The pathways by which these stress signals are perceived and responded is an unexplored area of research and there are lots of gaps still to be filled. A good understanding of these signaling pathways can help in raising the plants which can perform better in arsenic contaminated soil and water. In order to increase the survival of plants in contaminated areas there is a strong need to identify suitable gene targets that can be modified according to needs of the stakeholders using various biotechnological techniques. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of plants grown under arsenic stress and will give an insight of the different sensory systems in plants. Furthermore, it provides the knowledge about several pathways that can be exploited to develop plant cultivars which are resistant to arsenic stress or can reduce its uptake to minimize the risk of arsenic toxicity through food chain thus ensuring food security. Copyright © 2015
Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.
The root system architecture (RSA) impacts the capacity of the plant for efficient water and nutrient uptake. Root phenes have been associated with productivity under stress conditions and persistence of perennial species. The objectives of this study were to identify root traits that increase produ...
Jubin N Shah
Full Text Available Molecular dissection of apomixis - an asexual reproductive mode - is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these events, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might hint as (epigenetic regulators of early development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologues of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1 and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1 that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologues of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologues were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by
Verslues, Paul E
Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Derivatization of ABA is performed with (trimethylsilyl)-diazomethane rather than the harder to prepare diazomethane. Sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient that small samples of low water potential treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings can be routinely analyzed in reverse genetic studies of putative stress regulators as well as studies of natural variation in ABA accumulation.
Satapathy, Lopamudra; Kumar, Dhananjay; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal
WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays vital roles in pathogen defense, abiotic stress, and phytohormone signalling. Little is known about the roles and function of WRKY transcription factors in response to rust diseases in wheat. In the present study, three TaWRKY genes encoding complete protein sequences were cloned. They belonged to class II and III WRKY based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Twenty-two DNA-protein binding docking complexes predicted stable interactions of WRKY domain with W-box. Quantitative real-time-PCR using wheat near-isogenic lines with or without Lr28 gene revealed differential up- or down-regulation in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments which could be responsible for their functional divergence in wheat. TaWRKY62 was found to be induced upon treatment with JA, MJ, and SA and reduced after ABA treatments. Maximum induction of six out of seven genes occurred at 48 h post inoculation due to pathogen inoculation. Hence, TaWRKY (49, 50 , 52 , 55 , 57, and 62 ) can be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well as for crop improvement programs for stress resistance. The results of the present study will enhance knowledge towards understanding the molecular basis of mode of action of WRKY transcription factor genes in wheat and their role during leaf rust pathogenesis in particular.
Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A
Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.
Maria F. Pomponio
Full Text Available Aim of the study: Identify and compare SNPs on candidate genes related to abiotic stress in Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa and interspecific hybridsArea of the study: Chaco árido, Argentina. Material and Methods: Fragments from 6 candidate genes were sequenced in 60 genotypes. DNA polymorphisms were analyzed.Main Results: The analysis revealed that the hybrids had the highest rate of polymorphism, followed by P. flexuosa and P. chilensis, the values found are comparable to other forest tree species.Research highlights: This approach will help to study genetic diversity variation on natural populations for assessing the effects of environmental changes.Keywords: SNPs; abiotic stress; interspecific variation; molecular markers.
Srivastava, Sameer; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Arafat, Yasir Ali; Gupta, Sushim K; Khan, Bashir M
Aboitic stress such as drought and salinity are class of major threats, which plants undergo through their lifetime. Lignin deposition is one of the responses to such abiotic stresses. The gene encoding Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis, which has been shown to be over-expressed under stress conditions. In the present study, developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Vernacular name: Subabul, White popinac) were treated with 1 % mannitol and 200 mM NaCl to mimic drought and salinity stress conditions, respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) based expression pattern of CCR protein was monitored coupled with Phlorogucinol/HCl activity staining of lignin in transverse sections of developing L. leucocephala seedlings under stress. Our result suggests a differential lignification pattern in developing root and stem under stress conditions. Increase in lignification was observed in mannitol treated stems and corresponding CCR protein accumulation was also higher than control and salt stress treated samples. On the contrary CCR protein was lower in NaCl treated stems and corresponding lignin deposition was also low. Developing root tissue showed a high level of CCR content and lignin deposition than stem samples under all conditions tested. Overall result suggested that lignin accumulation was not affected much in case of developing root however developing stems were significantly affected under drought and salinity stress condition.
Haddad A. El Rabey
Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the proteome of date palm under salinity and drought stress conditions to possibly identify proteins involved in stress tolerance. For this purpose, three-month-old seedlings of date palm cultivar “Sagie” were subjected to drought (27.5 g/L polyethylene glycol 6000 and salinity stress conditions (16 g/L NaCl for one month. DIGE analysis of protein extracts identified 47 differentially expressed proteins in leaves of salt- and drought-treated palm seedlings. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 12 proteins; three out of them were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress, while the other nine were significantly changed only in salt-stressed plants. The levels of ATP synthase alpha and beta subunits, an unknown protein and some of RubisCO fragments were significantly changed under both salt and drought stress conditions. Changes in abundance of superoxide dismutase, chlorophyll A-B binding protein, light-harvesting complex1 protein Lhca1, RubisCO activase, phosphoglycerate kinase, chloroplast light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, phosphoribulokinase, transketolase, RubisCO, and some of RubisCO fragments were significant only for salt stress.
Maria F. Pomponio; Susana Marcucci Poltri; Diego Lopez Lauenstein; Susana Torales
Aim of the study: Identify and compare SNPs on candidate genes related to abiotic stress in Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis flexuosa and interspecific hybridsArea of the study: Chaco árido, Argentina. Material and Methods: Fragments from 6 candidate genes were sequenced in 60 genotypes. DNA polymorphisms were analyzed.Main Results: The analysis revealed that the hybrids had the highest rate of polymorphism, followed by P. flexuosa and P. chilensis, the values found are comparable to other forest...
Lu, Xin; Dun, Hui; Lian, Conglong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yin, Weilun; Xia, Xinli
Plant miR164 family is highly conserved and miR164 members regulate conserved targets belonging to NAC transcription factors. Our previous studies have revealed that peu-miR164a-e and its target gene POPTR_0007s08420 participate in abiotic stress response in Populus euphratica according to deep sequencing and degradome sequencing. In this study, miR164 family comprises six members that generate two mature products (miR164a-e and miR164f) and target seven NAC genes in P. euphratica. Co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and 5' RACE confirmed that peu-miR164 directs PeNAC070, PeNAC012 and PeNAC028 mRNAs cleavage. Expression profiles of primary peu-miR164 a/b/c/d/e bear similarity to those of peu-miR164a-e, whereas PeNAC070 and PeNAC081 showed inverse expression patterns with peu-miR164a-e under abiotic stresses. Existence of cis-acting elements in PeNAC070 promoter (ABRE,MBs, Box-W1, GC-motif, and W-box) and in peu-MIR164b promoter (HSE) further confirmed different responses of peu-miR164 and PeNAC070 to abiotic stresses. Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining revealed that GUS activities increased when Pro PeNAC070 ::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants were exposed to NaCl, mannitol and abscisic acid (ABA), whereas GUS activity of Pro peu-MIR164b ::GUS plants decreased under ABA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PeNAC070 protein was localized to the nucleus and exhibited transactivation activity at the C-terminal. Overexpression of PeNAC070 in Arabidopsis promoted lateral root development, delayed stem elongation, and increased sensitivity of transgenic plants to drought and salt stresses. This study aids in understanding the adaptability of P. euphratica to extreme drought and salt environment by analysing tissue-specific expression patterns of miR164-regulated and specific promoter-regulated PeNAC genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Singh, Arti; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Singh, Asheesh Kumar; Sarkar, Soumik
Advances in automated and high-throughput imaging technologies have resulted in a deluge of high-resolution images and sensor data of plants. However, extracting patterns and features from this large corpus of data requires the use of machine learning (ML) tools to enable data assimilation and feature identification for stress phenotyping. Four stages of the decision cycle in plant stress phenotyping and plant breeding activities where different ML approaches can be deployed are (i) identification, (ii) classification, (iii) quantification, and (iv) prediction (ICQP). We provide here a comprehensive overview and user-friendly taxonomy of ML tools to enable the plant community to correctly and easily apply the appropriate ML tools and best-practice guidelines for various biotic and abiotic stress traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In any living species, stress adaptation is closely linked with major changes of the gene expression profile. As a substrate protein of the rapidly stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3, Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB44 likely acts at the front line of stress-induced re-programming. We recently characterized MYB44 as phosphorylation-dependent positive regulator of salt stress signaling. Molecular events downstream of MYB44 are largely unknown. Although MYB44 binds to the MBSII element in vitro, it has no discernible effect on MBSII-driven reporter gene expression in plant co-transfection assays. This may suggest limited abundance of a synergistic co-regulator. MYB44 carries a putative transcriptional repression (Ethylene responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression, EAR motif. We employed a dominant repressor strategy to gain insights into MYB44-conferred stress resistance. Overexpression of a MYB44-REP fusion markedly compromised salt and drought stress tolerance—the opposite was seen in MYB44 overexpression lines. MYB44-mediated resistance likely results from induction of tolerance-enhancing, rather than from repression of tolerance-diminishing factors. Salt stress-induced accumulation of destructive reactive oxygen species is efficiently prevented in transgenic MYB44, but accelerated in MYB44-REP lines. Furthermore, heterologous overexpression of MYB44-REP caused tissue collapse in Nicotiana. A mechanistic model of MAPK-MYB-mediated enhancement in the antioxidative capacity and stress tolerance is proposed. Genetic engineering of MYB44 variants with higher trans-activating capacity may be a means to further raise stress resistance in crops.
Begum, I.; Afzal, J.; Afzal, J.
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982 (F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting, Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West) The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses. Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity. (author)
Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing
Peskircioglu, H.; Tuyluer, I.; Sagel, Z.; Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.
Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M 2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M 4 generations. In M 6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.
Hernández, José A.; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio
(NPR1), which is one of the few known redox-regulated proteins in plants. Different synthetic chemicals are able to mimic the ability of SA to activate resistance to various stresses, both biotic and abiotic, in plants with agronomic interest. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA......Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone more commonly known by its role in human medicine than in the field of plant physiology. However, in the last two decades, SA has been described as an important signalling molecule in plants regulating growth, development and response to a wide number...... of biotic and abiotic stresses. Indeed, actually, it is well known that SA is a key signalling molecule involved in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and recent works reported a role for SA in the response to salt or drought stresses. The precise mode of the stress hormone SA action is unclear, although...
Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins which transport water across cell membranes. We show that the bread wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 maps to the long arm of chromosome 7b and that its product localizes to the endomembrane system. The gene is expressed constitutively in both the root and the leaf, and is down-regulated by salinity and drought stress. Salinity stress induced an increased level of C-methylation within the CNG trinucleotides in the TaTIP2;2 promoter region. The heterologous expression of TaTIP2;2 in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised its drought and salinity tolerance, suggesting that TaTIP2;2 may be a negative regulator of abiotic stress. The proline content of transgenic A. thaliana plants fell, consistent with the down-regulation of P5CS1, while the expression of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, CBF3 and DREB2A, which are all stress tolerance-related genes acting in an ABA-independent fashion, was also down-regulated. The supply of exogenous ABA had little effect either on TaTIP2;2 expression in wheat or on the phenotype of transgenic A. thaliana. The expression level of the ABA signalling genes ABI1, ABI2 and ABF3 remained unaltered in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. Thus TaTIP2;2 probably regulates the response to stress via an ABA-independent pathway(s.
Palmqvist, N. G. Martin; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Svedlindh, Peter; Kessler, Vadim G.
Yttrium doping-stabilized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were studied for its potential to serve as a plant fertilizer and, through enzymatic activity, support drought stress management. Levels of both hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, after drought, were reduced when γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were delivered by irrigation in a nutrient solution to Brassica napus plants grown in soil. Hydrogen peroxide was reduced from 151 to 83 μM g-1 compared to control, and the malondialdehyde formation was reduced from 36 to 26 mM g-1. Growth rate of leaves was enhanced from 33 to 50% growth compared to fully fertilized plants and SPAD-measurements of chlorophyll increased from 47 to 52 suggesting improved agronomic properties by use of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as fertilizer as compared to chelated iron.
Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.
Jing, Zhaobin; Liu, Zhande
As one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants, WRKY transcription factors play important roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, WRKY genes in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) remain poorly understood. In our study, o total of 97 AcWRKY genes have been identified in the kiwifruit genome. An overview of these AcWRKY genes is analyzed, including the phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structures, synteny and expression profiles. The 97 AcWRKY genes were divided into three groups based on the conserved WRKY domain. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the kiwifruit AcWRKY family. In addition, the synteny analysis between kiwifruit and Arabidopsis suggested that some of the AcWRKY genes were derived from common ancestors before the divergence of these two species. Conserved motifs outside the AcWRKY domain may reflect their functional conservation. Genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication were found, which may contribute to the expansion of AcWRKY genes. Furthermore, the analysis of selected AcWRKY genes showed a variety of expression patterns in five different organs as well as during biotic and abiotic stresses. The genome-wide identification and characterization of kiwifruit WRKY transcription factors provides insight into the evolutionary history and is a useful resource for further functional analyses of kiwifruit.
Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.
Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.
Bang, Woo Young; Kim, Se Won; Jeong, In Sil; Koiwa, Hisashi; Bahk, Jeong Dong
Proteins in CPL1 family are unique to plants and contain a phosphatase catalytic domain and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding motifs (DRMs) in a single peptide. Though DRMs are important for the function of Arabidopsis CPL1 in vivo, the role of CPL1 DRM has been obscure. We have isolated two transcription factors, ANAC019 (At1g52890) and AtMYB3 (At1g22640), which specifically interact with the C-terminal region (640-967) of AtCPL1 containing two DRMs. Detailed interaction analysis indicated that AtMYB3 specifically interacted with the first DRM but not with the second DRM in CPL1 C-terminal fragment. GFP-fusion analysis indicated that AtMYB3 localized in nuclei-like CPL1, and its expression is induced by abiotic stress and ABA treatment. These results suggest that AtMYB3 function in abiotic stress signaling in concert with CPL1
Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Qu, Min; Zheng, Lei; Tan, Zilong; Zhao, Huimin; Huo, Lin; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yucheng
Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its nuclear localization is induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). In addition, AtbHLH112 serves as a transcriptional activator, with the activation domain located at its N-terminus. In addition to binding to the E-box motifs of stress-responsive genes, AtbHLH112 binds to a novel motif with the sequence 'GG[GT]CC[GT][GA][TA]C' (GCG-box). Gain- and loss-of-function analyses showed that the transcript level of AtbHLH112 is positively correlated with salt and drought tolerance. AtbHLH112 mediates stress tolerance by increasing the expression of P5CS genes and reducing the expression of P5CDH and ProDH genes to increase proline levels. AtbHLH112 also increases the expression of POD and SOD genes to improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. We present a model suggesting that AtbHLH112 is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of genes via binding to their GCG- or E-boxes to mediate physiological responses, including proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging pathways, to enhance stress tolerance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Wentworth, Mark; Murchie, Erik H; Gray, Julie E; Villegas, Daniel; Pastenes, Claudio; Pinto, Manuel; Horton, Peter
The photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been determined. These varieties, Arroz and Orfeo, differ in their productivity under stress conditions, resistance to drought stress, and have distinctly different stomatal behaviour. When grown under conditions of high irradiance and high temperature, both varieties displayed evidence of photosynthetic acclimation at the chloroplast level-there was an increase in chlorophyll a/b ratio, a decreased content of Lhcb proteins, and an increased xanthophyll cycle pool size. Both varieties also showed reduced chlorophyll content on a leaf area basis and a decrease in leaf area. Both varieties showed an increase in leaf thickness but only Arroz showed the characteristic elongated palisade cells in the high light-grown plants; Orfeo instead had a larger number of smaller, rounded cells. Differences were found in stomatal development: whereas Arroz showed very little change in stomatal density, Orfeo exhibited a large increase, particularly on the upper leaf surface. It is suggested that these differences in leaf cell structure and stomatal density give rise to altered rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Whereas, Arroz had the same photosynthetic rate in plants grown at both low and high irradiance, Orfeo showed a higher photosynthetic capacity at high irradiance. It is suggested that the higher yield of Orfeo compared with Arroz under stress conditions can be explained, in part, by these cellular differences.
Full Text Available Tolerance of plants to abiotic stressors such as drought and salinity is triggered by complex multicomponent signaling pathways to restore cellular homeostasis and promote survival. Major plant transcription factor families such as bZIP, NAC, AP2/ERF and MYB orchestrate regulatory networks underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and MAPK pathways contribute to initiation of stress adaptive downstream responses and promote plant growth and development. As a convergent point of multiple abiotic cues, cellular effects of environmental stresses are not only imbalances of ionic and osmotic homeostasis but also impaired photosynthesis, cellular energy depletion, and redox imbalances. Recent evidence of regulatory systems that link sensing and signaling of environmental conditions and the intracellular redox status have shed light on interfaces of stress and energy signaling. ROS (reactive oxygen species cause severe cellular damage by peroxidation and de-esterification of membrane lipids, however, current models also define a pivotal signaling function of ROS in triggering tolerance against stress. Recent research advances suggest and support a regulatory role of ROS in the cross talks of stress triggered hormonal signaling such as the abscisic acid (ABA pathway and endogenously induced redox and metabolite signals. Here, we discuss and review the versatile molecular convergence in the abiotic stress responsive signaling networks in the context of ROS and lipid derived signals and the specific role of stomatal signaling.
Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro
Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering.
Kandianis, Catherine B.; Michenfelder, Abigail S.; Simmons, Susan J.; Grusak, Michael A.; Stapleton, Ann E.
The improvement of grain nutrient profiles for essential minerals and vitamins through breeding strategies is a target important for agricultural regions where nutrient poor crops like maize contribute a large proportion of the daily caloric intake. Kernel iron concentration in maize exhibits a broad range. However, the magnitude of genotype by environment (GxE) effects on this trait reduces the efficacy and predictability of selection programs, particularly when challenged with abiotic stress such as water and nitrogen limitations. Selection has also been limited by an inverse correlation between kernel iron concentration and the yield component of kernel size in target environments. Using 25 maize inbred lines for which extensive genome sequence data is publicly available, we evaluated the response of kernel iron density and kernel mass to water and nitrogen limitation in a managed field stress experiment using a factorial design. To further understand GxE interactions we used partition analysis to characterize response of kernel iron and weight to abiotic stressors among all genotypes, and observed two patterns: one characterized by higher kernel iron concentrations in control over stress conditions, and another with higher kernel iron concentration under drought and combined stress conditions. Breeding efforts for this nutritional trait could exploit these complementary responses through combinations of favorable allelic variation from these already well-characterized genetic stocks. PMID:24363659
Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat or salinity are a major cause of yield loss worldwide. Recent studies revealed that the acclimation of plants to a combination of different environmental stresses is unique and cannot be directly deduced from studying the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Here we report on the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to a combination of salt and heat stress using transcriptome analysis, physiological measurements and mutants deficient in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid or ethylene signaling. Arabidopsis plants were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress compared to each of the different stresses applied individually. The stress combination resulted in a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in leaves and caused the enhanced expression of 699 transcripts unique to the stress combination. Interestingly, many of the transcripts that specifically accumulated in plants in response to the salt and heat stress combination were associated with the plant hormone abscisic acid. In accordance with this finding, mutants deficient in abscisic acid metabolism and signaling were found to be more susceptible to a combination of salt and heat stress than wild type plants. Our study highlights the important role abscisic acid plays in the acclimation of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses.
Full Text Available Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.
Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong
Although the super family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins plays key roles in the physiology and development of plants, the functions of members of this interesting family mostly remain to be clarified, especially in crop plants. Thus, systematic analysis of this family in rice (Oryza sativa), a major model crop plant, will be helpful in the design of effective strategies for functional analysis. Phylogenomic analysis that integrates anatomy and stress meta-profiling data based on a large collection of rice Affymetrix array data into the phylogenic context provides useful clues into the functions for each of the ABC transporter family members in rice. Using anatomy data, we identified 17 root-preferred and 16-shoot preferred genes at the vegetative stage, and 3 pollen, 2 embryo, 2 ovary, 2 endosperm, and 1 anther-preferred gene at the reproductive stage. The stress data revealed significant up-regulation or down-regulation of 47 genes under heavy metal treatment, 16 genes under nutrient deficient conditions, and 51 genes under abiotic stress conditions. Of these, we confirmed the differential expression patterns of 14 genes in root samples exposed to drought stress using quantitative real-time PCR. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network involving nine rice ABC transporters that are differentially regulated by drought stress in root, further enhancing the prediction of biological function. Our analysis provides a molecular basis for the study of diverse biological phenomena mediated by the ABC family in rice and will contribute to the enhancement of crop yield and stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Transcript regulation in response to cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L., Nipponbare) with microarray analysis including approx. 1700 independent DNA elements derived from three cDNA libraries constructed from 15-day old rice seedlings stressed with drought, cold and high salinity. A total of 141 non-redundant genes were identified, whose expression ratios were more than three-fold compared with the control genes for at least one of stress treatments in microarray analysis. However, after RNA gel blot analysis, a total of 73 genes were identified, among them the transcripts of 36, 62, 57 and 43 genes were found increased after cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application, respectively. Sixteen of these identified genes have been reported previously to be stress inducible in rice, while 57 of which are novel that have not been reported earlier as stress responsive in rice. We observed a strong association in the expression patterns of stress responsive genes and found 15 stress inducible genes that responded to all four treatments. Based on Venn diagram analysis, 56 genes were induced by both drought and high salinity, whereas 22 genes were upregulated by both cold and high salinity stress. Similarly 43 genes were induced by both drought stress and ABA application, while only 17 genes were identified as cold and ABA inducible genes. These results indicated the existence of greater cross talk between drought, ABA and high salinity stress signaling processes than those between cold and ABA, and cold and high salinity stress signaling pathways. The cold, drought, high salinity and ABA inducible genes were classified into four gene groups from their expression profiles. Analysis of data enabled us to identify a number of promoters and possible cis-acting DNA elements of several genes induced by a variety of abiotic stresses by combining expression data with genomic sequence data of rice. Comparative analysis of
Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang
Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:26307965
Full Text Available In nature, annual plants respond to abiotic stresses by activating a specific genetic program leading to early flowering and accelerated senescence. Although, in nature, this phenomenon supports survival under unfavorable environmental conditions, it may have negative agro-economic impacts on crop productivity. Overcoming this genetic programing by cytokinins (CK has recently been shown in transgenic plants that overproduce CK. These transgenic plants displayed a significant increase in plant productivity under drought stress conditions. We investigated the role of CK in reverting the transcriptional program that is activated under abiotic stress conditions and allowing sustainable plant growth. We employed 2 complementary approaches: Ectopic overexpression of CK, and applying exogenous CK to detached Arabidopsis leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with the isopentyltransferase (IPT gene under the regulation of the senescence associated receptor kinase (SARK promoter displayed a significant drought resistance. A transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing was performed to explore the response mechanisms under elevated CK levels during salinity stress. This analysis showed that under such stress, CK triggered transcriptional reprograming that resulted in attenuated stress-dependent inhibition of vegetative growth and delayed premature plant senescence. Our data suggest that elevated CK levels led to stress tolerance by retaining the expression of genes associated with plant growth and metabolism whose expression typically decreases under stress conditions. In conclusion, we hypothesize that CK allows sustainable plant growth under unfavorable environmental conditions by activating gene expression related to growth processes and by preventing the expression of genes related to the activation of premature senescence.
Oerke, E.C.; Schoenbeck, F.
Shorttime changes of environmental conditions stressed barley and bean and affected plant growth and their predisposition for various pathogens. Moderate stress intensities as low or high temperatures, water or light deficits, increased the susceptibility to Erysiphe graminis var. hordei or Uromyces phaseoli and reduced disease level of spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus, respectively. There was only little effect on plant growth in that case. Intensive stress as a result of combinations of unfavorable environmental conditions or longtime continuance of moderate stress reduced the plant growth and turned the predisposing effect to the opposite: after the treatment, plants were more resistent to diseases caused by biotrophic fungi, whereas there was increased susceptibility to the perthotrophic fungus. High intensities of fertilization acted as an additional stress and intensified the plant reaction to environmental alterations. The variation of the predisposition is discussed in relation to stress intensity.
Saleem Akhtar, Saqib
Biochar is a charcoal-like material obtained by heating any organic waste (crop residue, vegetable/ animal waste etc.) at high temperature through process of pyrolysis. It is produced with an intention to improve soil fertility, enhance crop productivity and mitigate greenhouse gas emission....... Drought and salinity are the two most crucial abiotic stresses that limit crops production worldwide. In this PhD project, it was hypothesized that biochar could be used to effectively mitigate drought and salinity stresses in crop plants due to its putative physiochemical properties. The overall...... objectives of the present PhD project were to reveal the mechanisms by which biochar addition mitigates negative effect of drought and salinity stress on plants and to test the efficacy of biochar when applied in combination with already existing drought (like DI and PRD) and salt management (inoculation...
Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...
Kissoudis, Christos; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Madesis, Panagiotis; Labrou, Nikolaos E.; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini
The involvement of glutathione transferases (GSTs) in plant’s tolerance to abiotic stresses has been extensively studied; however, the metabolic changes occurring in the plants with altered GSTs expression have not been studied in detail. We have previously demonstrated that GmGSTU4
Kar, Rup Kumar
Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331
Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.
Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Tao; Ma, Jian; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang
The pre-mRNA processing (Prp1) gene encodes a spliceosomal protein. It was firstly identified in fission yeast and plays a regular role during spliceosome activation and cell cycle. Plant Prp1 genes have only been identified from rice, Sorghum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reported the identification and isolation of a novel Prp1 gene from barley, and further explored its expressional pattern by using real-time quantitative RTPCR, promoter prediction and analysis of microarray data. The putative barley Prp1 protein has a similar primary structure features to those of other known Prp1 protein in this family. The results of amino acid comparison indicated that Prp1 protein of barley and other plant species has a highly conserved 30 termnal region while their 50 sequences greatly varied. The results of expressional analysis revealed that the expression level of barley Prp1 gene is always stable in different vegetative tissues, except it is up-regulated at the mid- and late stages of seed development or under the condition of cold stress. This kind of expressional pattern for barley Prp1 is also supported by our results of comparison of microarray data from barley, rice and Arabidopsis. For the molecular mechanism of its expressional pattern, we conclude that the expression of Prp1 gene may be up-regulated by the increase of pre-mRNAs and not be constitutive or ubiquitous.
Miao, Min; Zhu, Yunye; Qiao, Maiju; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Wei; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng
Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato
Miao, Min [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Zhu, Yunye [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Qiao, Maiju [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Xiaofeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Wei [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xiao, Fangming [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: email@example.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)
Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.
Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.
Full Text Available Parsley is one of the most important vegetable in Apiaceae family and widely used in food industry, medicinal and cosmetic. The recent studies in parsley are mainly focus on chemical composition, further research involving the analysis of the gene functions and expressions will be required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and widely used for gene expression studies. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, three software geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1α, and TUB under various conditions including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA. The results showed that EF-1α and TUB were identified as the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, while EF-1α, GAPDH, and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1α and TUB were the most stable reference genes across all the tested samples, while UBC was the least stable one. The expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study provides a guideline for selection the suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS, a type III polyketide synthase (PKS. Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS, the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species. Results In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be
Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.
El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Khattab, Salah; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A; Abou Ali, Rania; Abdel Azeiz, Ahmed Z; Elhalwagi, Abeer; El Sherif, Fadia
Silymarin, a Silybum marianum seed extract containing a mixture of flavonolignans including silybin, is being used as an antihepatotoxic therapy for liver diseases. In this study, the enhancing effect of gamma irradiation on plant growth parameters of S. marianum under salt stress was investigated. The effect of gamma irradiation, either as a single elicitor or coupled with salinity, on chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression and silybin A + B yield was also evaluated. The silybin A + B content in S. marianum fruits was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An increase in silybin content was accompanied by up-regulation of the CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 genes, which are involved in the silybin biosynthetic pathway. The highest silybin A + B production (0.77 g/100 g plant DW) and transcript levels of the three studied genes (100.2-, 91.9-, and 24.3-fold increase, respectively) were obtained with 100GY gamma irradiation and 4000 ppm salty water. The CHS2 and CHS3 genes were partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database under the accession numbers KT252908.1 and KT252909.1, respectively. Developing new approaches to stimulate silybin biosynthetic pathways could be a useful tool to potentiate the use of plants as renewable resources of medicinal compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo
Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress cond...
Kazi, M.; Swati, Z.A.
Wheat improvement has predominantly been accomplished through conventional plant breeding methodologies. This approach shall continue to be the predominant procedure in the future. Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement and in the Triticeae family it resides in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. These gene pools can be utilize for wheat improvement by producing genetic stocks where the alien gene pools can be combined with durum and bread wheat cultivars via interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Adopting the interspecific route strategies has led to the production of several genetic stocks, which are elucidated here. The categories include the amphiploids of the A, B, and D genomes with durum cultivars (AAAABB, AABBBB, AABBDD) and new AADD tetraploids. Tertiary gene pool species (more complex to utilize) are a potent resource for gene pyramiding, which contribute towards stress durability and addresses sustainable agricultural aspects. The conventional classical protocols of introgressing alien genetic diversity into wheat are complex, and long-term in generating farmer usable products. The gene transfer procedures are further complicated when the stress trait has multigenic control associated with several alien chromosomes. Our current approach has incorporated a novel strategy for promoting alien chromosome introgression involving wheat/alien homeologous as well as non-homeologous chromosomes. The protocol comprises of hybridizing the Phph based amphiploid with the phph Chinese Spring wheat genetic stock to yield heterozygote Phph derivatives. From selfing of the heterozygotes or from their derived haploids via wheat/maize crosses the ph derivatives are identified by a PCR diagnostic. The ph seedlings form the reservoir of wheat/alien chromosome translocations which are identified by Giemsa C-banding / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Plants with translocations are step-wise advanced by backcrosses to elite wheat cultivars
Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester. The endophytic bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB-9 exhibited the highest level of in vitro melatonin secretion and also produced three intermediates of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway: 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. After B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 colonization, the plantlets exhibited increased plant growth. Additionally, we found that, in grapevine plantlets exposed to salt or drought stress, colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 increased the upregulation of melatonin synthesis, as well as that of its intermediates, but reduced the upregulation of grapevine tryptophan decaboxylase genes (VvTDCs and a serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (VvSNAT transcription, when compared to the un-inoculated control. Colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 was also able to counteract the adverse effects of salt- and drought-induced stress by reducing the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2− in roots. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the occurrence of melatonin biosynthesis in endophytic bacteria and provide evidence for a novel form of communication between beneficial endophytes and host plants via melatonin.
Sun, Zhongfeng; Song, Jiabin; Xin, Xi'an; Xie, Xianan; Zhao, Bin
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are soil-borne fungi belonging to the ancient phylum Glomeromycota and are important symbionts of the arbuscular mycorrhiza, enhancing plant nutrient acquisition and resistance to various abiotic stresses. In contrast to their significant physiological implications, the molecular basis involved is poorly understood, largely due to their obligate biotrophism and complicated genetics. Here, we identify and characterize three genes termed Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 that encode 14-3-3-like proteins in the AM fungi Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis , respectively. The transcriptional levels of Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 are strongly induced in the pre-symbiotic and symbiotic phases, including germinating spores, intraradical hyphae- and arbuscules-enriched roots. To functionally characterize the Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 genes, we took advantage of a yeast heterologous system owing to the lack of AM fungal transformation systems. Our data suggest that all three genes can restore the lethal Saccharomyces cerevisiae bmh1 bmh2 double mutant on galactose-containing media. Importantly, yeast one-hybrid analysis suggests that the transcription factor RiMsn2 is able to recognize the STRE (CCCCT/AGGGG) element present in the promoter region of Fm201 gene. More importantly, Host-Induced Gene Silencing of both Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 in Rhizophagus irregularis impairs the arbuscule formation in AM symbiosis and inhibits the expression of symbiotic PT4 and MST2 genes from plant and fungal partners, respectively. We further subjected the AM fungus- Medicago truncatula association system to drought or salinity stress. Accordingly, the expression profiles in both mycorrhizal roots and extraradical hyphae reveal that these three 14-3-3-like genes are involved in response to drought or salinity stress. Collectively, our results provide new insights into molecular functions of the AM fungal 14-3-3 proteins in abiotic stress responses and
Ghosal, Sambuddha; Blystone, David; Singh, Asheesh K; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Singh, Arti; Sarkar, Soumik
Current approaches for accurate identification, classification, and quantification of biotic and abiotic stresses in crop research and production are predominantly visual and require specialized training. However, such techniques are hindered by subjectivity resulting from inter- and intrarater cognitive variability. This translates to erroneous decisions and a significant waste of resources. Here, we demonstrate a machine learning framework's ability to identify and classify a diverse set of foliar stresses in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with remarkable accuracy. We also present an explanation mechanism, using the top-K high-resolution feature maps that isolate the visual symptoms used to make predictions. This unsupervised identification of visual symptoms provides a quantitative measure of stress severity, allowing for identification (type of foliar stress), classification (low, medium, or high stress), and quantification (stress severity) in a single framework without detailed symptom annotation by experts. We reliably identified and classified several biotic (bacterial and fungal diseases) and abiotic (chemical injury and nutrient deficiency) stresses by learning from over 25,000 images. The learned model is robust to input image perturbations, demonstrating viability for high-throughput deployment. We also noticed that the learned model appears to be agnostic to species, seemingly demonstrating an ability of transfer learning. The availability of an explainable model that can consistently, rapidly, and accurately identify and quantify foliar stresses would have significant implications in scientific research, plant breeding, and crop production. The trained model could be deployed in mobile platforms (e.g., unmanned air vehicles and automated ground scouts) for rapid, large-scale scouting or as a mobile application for real-time detection of stress by farmers and researchers. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Blystone, David; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Singh, Arti; Sarkar, Soumik
Current approaches for accurate identification, classification, and quantification of biotic and abiotic stresses in crop research and production are predominantly visual and require specialized training. However, such techniques are hindered by subjectivity resulting from inter- and intrarater cognitive variability. This translates to erroneous decisions and a significant waste of resources. Here, we demonstrate a machine learning framework’s ability to identify and classify a diverse set of foliar stresses in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with remarkable accuracy. We also present an explanation mechanism, using the top-K high-resolution feature maps that isolate the visual symptoms used to make predictions. This unsupervised identification of visual symptoms provides a quantitative measure of stress severity, allowing for identification (type of foliar stress), classification (low, medium, or high stress), and quantification (stress severity) in a single framework without detailed symptom annotation by experts. We reliably identified and classified several biotic (bacterial and fungal diseases) and abiotic (chemical injury and nutrient deficiency) stresses by learning from over 25,000 images. The learned model is robust to input image perturbations, demonstrating viability for high-throughput deployment. We also noticed that the learned model appears to be agnostic to species, seemingly demonstrating an ability of transfer learning. The availability of an explainable model that can consistently, rapidly, and accurately identify and quantify foliar stresses would have significant implications in scientific research, plant breeding, and crop production. The trained model could be deployed in mobile platforms (e.g., unmanned air vehicles and automated ground scouts) for rapid, large-scale scouting or as a mobile application for real-time detection of stress by farmers and researchers. PMID:29666265
Dung Tien Le
Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L. growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tolerant BC2F3-derived population was developed from the cross of tropical japonica cultivar Moroberekan (blast- and drought-tolerant and high-yielding indica variety Swarna (blast- and drought-susceptible through phenotypic selection for blast tolerance at the BC2F2 generation. The population was studied for segregation distortion patterns and QTLs for GY under drought were identified along with study of epistatic interactions for the trait. RESULTS: Segregation distortion, in favour of Moroberekan, was observed at 50 of the 59 loci. Majority of these marker loci co-localized with known QTLs for blast tolerance or NBS-LRR disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of segregation distortion, high variation for DTF, PH and GY was observed and several QTLs were identified under drought stress and non-stress conditions for the three traits. Epistatic interactions were also detected for GY which explained a large proportion of phenotypic variance observed in the population. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy allowed us to identify QTLs for GY along with rapid development of high-yielding purelines tolerant to blast and drought with considerably reduced efforts. Apart from this, it also allowed us to study the effects of the selection cycle for blast tolerance. The developed lines were screened at IRRI and in the target environment, and drought and blast tolerant lines with high yield were identified. With tolerance to two major stresses and high yield potential, these
Sun, Tian-Ran; Cang, Long; Wang, Quan-Ying; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Cheng, Jie-Min; Xu, Hui
Phytoremediation is an emerging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of phytoremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene in a typical low organic matter soil (3.75 g kg(-1)), and the contribution proportions of abiotic losses, microbes, plant roots, and root exudates were ascertained during the PAHs dissipation. The results indicated that contribution of abiotic losses from this soil was high both for phenanthrene (83.4%) and pyrene (57.2%). The contributions of root-exudates-enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene (15.5%) and pyrene (21.3%) were higher than those of indigenous microbial degradation. The role of root exudates on dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene was evident in this experiment. By the way, with the increasing of ring numbers in PAHs structures, the root-exudates-enhanced degradation became more and more important. BIOLOG-ECO plate analysis indicated that microbial community structure of the soil receiving root exudates had changed. The removal efficiency and substrate utilization rate in the treatment with plant roots were lower than the treatment only with root exudates, which suggested that possible competition between roots and microbes for nutrients had occurred in a low organic matter soil. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.
Hitherto, tolerant plants were mainly produced by classical breeding techniques. Success in breeding for better adapted varieties to abiotic and biotic stresses depends on the concerted efforts of various research domains including plant and cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics and breeding. However, such process ...
Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso
The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.
Cristina de Paula Santos Martins
Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.
Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Penumala, Abhishek
Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.
Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative RT-PCR analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.
Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, Jos? A.; Rothstein, Steven J.
Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous su...
Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.
Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: email@example.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: email@example.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: email@example.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: email@example.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.
-mediated transformation methods could be used to study stress responses at the whole-plant level. The abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were measured during Bgh infection to investigate the involvement of these hormones and TF in the basal resistance. HvNAC6 RNAi plants were also subjected to dehydration...
Chen, Hongfei; Zuo, Xiya; Shao, Hongxia; Fan, Sheng; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Yan, Xiangyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Mingyu
Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are able to cleave carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids and their derivatives, which are important for plant growth and development. In this study, 21 apple CCO genes were identified and divided into six groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We further characterized the apple CCO genes in terms of chromosomal distribution, structure and the presence of cis-elements in the promoter. We also predicted the cellular localization of the encoded proteins. An analysis of the synteny within the apple genome revealed that tandem, segmental, and whole-genome duplication events likely contributed to the expansion of the apple carotenoid oxygenase gene family. An additional integrated synteny analysis identified orthologous carotenoid oxygenase genes between apple and Arabidopsis thaliana, which served as references for the functional analysis of the apple CCO genes. The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves decreased, while leaf stomatal density increased under drought and saline conditions. Tissue-specific gene expression analyses revealed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Finally, hormone and abiotic stress treatments indicated that many apple CCO genes are responsive to various phytohormones as well as drought and salinity stresses. The genome-wide identification of apple CCO genes and the analyses of their expression patterns described herein may provide a solid foundation for future studies examining the regulation and functions of this gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shuantao; Liu, Shuwei; Wang, Mei; Wei, Tiandi; Meng, Chen; Wang, Meng; Xia, Guangmin
Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 (JN177) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177. The SR3 allele of sro1, a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta-sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS, mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability. PMID:24443520
Full Text Available Switchgrass has increasingly been recognized as a dedicated biofuel crop for its broad adaptation to marginal lands and high biomass. However, little is known about the basic biology and the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in switchgrass, particularly under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of salt and drought stress on switchgrass germination, growth and the expression of small regulatory RNAs. The results indicate that salt stress had a gradual but significant negative effect on switchgrass growth and development. The germination rate was significantly decreased from 82% for control to 36% under 1% NaCl treatment. However, drought stress had little effect on the germination rate but had a significant effect on the growth of switchgrass under the severest salinity stress. Both salt and drought stresses altered the expression pattern of miRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. However, each miRNA responded to drought stress in a different pattern. Salt and drought stress changed the expression level of miRNAs mainly from 0.9-fold up-regulation to 0.7-fold down-regulation. miRNAs were less sensitive to drought treatment than salinity treatment, as evidenced by the narrow fold change in expression levels. Although the range of change in expression level of miRNAs was similar under salt and drought stress, no miRNAs displayed significant change in expression level under all tested salt conditions. Two miRNAs, miR156 and miR162, showed significantly change in expression level under high drought stress. This suggests that miR156 and miR162 may attribute to the adaption of switchgrass to drought stress and are good candidates for improving switchgrass as a biofuel crop by transgenic technology.
Zhang, Weixiong; Ruan, Jianhua; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; You, Youngsook; Yu, Taotao; Quatrano, Ralph S
A fundamental problem of computational genomics is identifying the genes that respond to certain endogenous cues and environmental stimuli. This problem can be referred to as targeted gene finding. Since gene regulation is mainly determined by the binding of transcription factors and cis-regulatory DNA sequences, most existing gene annotation methods, which exploit the conservation of open reading frames, are not effective in finding target genes. A viable approach to targeted gene finding is to exploit the cis-regulatory elements that are known to be responsible for the transcription of target genes. Given such cis-elements, putative target genes whose promoters contain the elements can be identified. As a case study, we apply the above approach to predict the genes in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana which are inducible by a phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), and abiotic stress, such as drought, cold and salinity. We first construct and analyze two ABA specific cis-elements, ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and its coupling element (CE), in A.thaliana, based on their conservation in rice and other cereal plants. We then use the ABRE-CE module to identify putative ABA-responsive genes in A.thaliana. Based on RT-PCR verification and the results from literature, this method has an accuracy rate of 67.5% for the top 40 predictions. The cis-element based targeted gene finding approach is expected to be widely applicable since a large number of cis-elements in many species are available.
Lawrence R. Walker; Aaron B. Shiels; Peter J. Bellingham; Ashley D. Sparrow; Ned Fetcher; Fred H. Landau; Deborah J. Lodge
Abiotic variables are critical drivers of succession in most primary seres, but how their influence on biota changes over time is rarely examined. Landslides provide good model systems for examining abiotic influences because they are spatially and temporally heterogeneous habitats with distinct abiotic and biotic gradients and post-landslide erosion. In an 18-year...
He, Peng; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Limin; Zhang, Yuzhou; Wang, Xiaosi; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Jianing; Xiao, Guanghui
Cell elongation and expansion are significant contributors to plant growth and morphogenesis, and are often regulated by environmental cues and endogenous hormones. Auxin is one of the most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and plays key roles in plant cell expansion and elongation. Cotton fiber cells are a model system for studying cell elongation due to their large size. Cotton is also the world's most utilized crop for the production of natural fibers for textile and garment industries, and targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM increased cotton fiber initiation. Polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, plays a central role in the control of auxin distribution. However, very limited information about PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers in cotton is known. In this study, 17 PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carrier family members were identified in the Gossypium hirsutum (G. hirsutum) genome. We found that PIN1-3 and PIN2 genes originated from the At subgenome were highly expressed in roots. Additionally, evaluation of gene expression patterns indicated that PIN genes are differentially induced by various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, we found that the majority of cotton PIN genes contained auxin (AuxREs) and salicylic acid (SA) responsive elements in their promoter regions were significantly up-regulated by exogenous hormone treatment. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of the PIN gene family in G. hirsutum, including phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, and gene expression and gene duplication analyses. This study sheds light on the precise roles of PIN genes in cotton root development and in adaption to stress responses.
Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A
When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.
Full Text Available The first YTH domain-containing RNA binding protein (YTP was found in rat, where it was related to oxidative stress. Unlike characterizations in yeast and animals, functions of plant YTPs are less clear. Malus hupehensis (Pamp. Rehd. YTP1 and YTP2 (MhYTP1 and MhYTP2 are known to be active in leaf senescence and fruit ripening. However, no research has been published about their roles in stress responses. Here, we investigate the stress-related functions of MhYTP1 and MhYTP2 in Arabidopsis thalia