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Sample records for planosol soil sample

  1. Spatial variability of microbial biomass and organic matter labile pools in a haplic planosol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Campana Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the spatial variability of soil microbial biomass (SMB and labile soil organic matter pools (labile SOM, under different management systems and plant cover. The experiment was conducted in a Haplic Planosol soil on an Integrated Agroecological Production System (SIPA, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The evaluated management systems were: alley cropping, pasture, and bush garden, the late one was used as reference area. Three grids of regular spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 meters were used for sampling, consisting of 25 georeferenced points each, where soil samples were taken at 0-10 cm depth. The following labile constituents of soil organic matter were determined: free light fraction (FLF, water soluble C and N, C and N of SMB (SMB-C and SMB-N, and glomalin content. The textural fractions (sand, silt, and clay, pH in water, and chemical attributes (organic C, total N, Ca, Mg, Al, P, K, and CEC-cation exchange capacity were also determined. The areas of alley cropping and pasture showed spatial dependence to the attributes of SOM. The occurrence of high spatial dependence for the attributes associated to microbial biomass in the alley cropping system (C, FLF, SMB-N and respiration, probably was due to external factors related to management, such as: intensive rotational cropping system, diversity of crops and different inputs of organic matter to soil such as pruning material and organic compost.

  2. Study on Physical Characteristics of Planosol Ⅱ.Soil Shear-strength and Brittleness%白浆土某些物理性质的研究Ⅱ.土壤抗剪强度及脆性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 匡恩俊; 高中超; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    To explore the physical characteristics of planosol,the highland planosol in east of Heilongjiang province was taken as texted soil,anti-shear strength and brittleness of planosol were determined and analyzed.The results showed that the cohesion of albic soil layer was the biggest in planosol,followed by the deposition layer soil and topsoil.Soil adhesion of deposition layer soil was the biggest in planosol,followed by the albic soil layer and topsoil.The external friction angle of soil was increasing fro topsoil to deposition layer.The cohesion and friction angle of soil were reduced when soil moisture increased,soil adhesion opposite.Topsoil was most easily broken in planosol,deposition layer soil hard to be broken.When water content of topsoil and the deposition layer soil was lower than soil plastic limit stage,the energy consumption of crushing soil increased with soil water content increasing,and it formed the peak stage when it was up to the soil plastic limit.The energy consumption of crushing soil decreased with soil water content increasing,it formed different sized clod when the soil was destroyed,large clod ratio increased with soil water content,topsoil was easily broken into smaller blocks and soil crumbs,deposition layer soil was not easily broken.%为探究白浆土机械物理性质,以黑龙江东部岗地白浆土为供试土壤,采用现场试验法和钢材脆性仪测定了白浆土原状土壤的抗剪强度和脆性。结果表明:白浆土内聚力白浆层最大,依次为淀积层、耕层;土壤粘着力淀积层最大,依次为白浆层、耕层;土壤外摩擦角由耕层向淀积层呈逐渐增加趋势。土壤水分升高,内聚力和内外摩擦角均有降低趋势;而土壤粘着力则相反。白浆土耕层土最易被破碎,白浆层居中,淀积层难以破碎。耕层和淀积层土壤在含水量低于塑性界限值阶段,破碎土壤所消耗的能量随土壤含水量增加而增加,并在土壤塑限值附近形成峰

  3. Effects of Mechanical Soil Amelioration Method on Physical Properties of and Enzyme Activity in Planosol%不同机械改土方式对白浆土物理特性及酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆英; 张春峰; 贾会彬; 朱宝国; 王囡囡; 高雪冬; 刘婧琦

    2016-01-01

    Planosol is one of the major low yield upland soils in the northeast part of China. Its Aw horizon right beneath the topsoil is low in aeration and water permeability and in soil enzyme activity,too, making the topsoil subjected to waterlogging and drought alternately. In upland,crop roots need only a soil layer about 20 cm thick. Since the 1980s,mechanical soil amelioration,including subsoiling,has gradually turned out to be a major means for planosol. To compare the effects of different mechanical amelioration methods for Planosol,three different kinds of machines,namely conventional subsoiler(CK),stalk-subsoil mixing plough(SSMP)and subsoil interval mixing plough(SIMP)were tried for soil amelioration in a large tract of Planosol in Farm 853,a soybean farm in Heilongjiang Province,with the plot tilled with the conventional subsoiler as control. After operation by the machines separately,soil physical properties and enzyme activity was investigated. The analysis of soil physical properties includes hardness,three phases and bulk density of the soil,and that of soil enzyme activity includes activities of catalase,urease and invertase in the soils. Results show that in the plots tilled with SSMP and SIMP,soil hardness of the Aw horizon(albic horizon) was lowered to 7~9 kg cm-2 while in CK it was 10~14 kg cm-2;solid phase was lowered to 47.74%and 50.13%,respectively while it was 53.16% in CK;bulk density was 14.01% and 10.19% lower than that in CK. Compared with CK,Treatments SSMP and SIMP deceased activity of the catalase in the Aw horizon, and Treatment SSMP deceased activities of the urease and invertase in the Aw horizon,and increased activity of the urease and invertase in the B horizon(argillic horizon beneath the Aw horizon). Besides,the two treatments not only increased soybean yield by 21.34% and 4.94%,respectively,but also significantly improved soil physical properties of and soil enzyme activity in the Planosol. This research has opened a new approach to

  4. Spectral analysis for the mineralogical characterization of planosols in NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diego; Souza, Deorgia; Rocha, Washington

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to conduct a spectral characterization in two soil profiles located in the northeast of Brazil proposing relations between the pedogenetic evolution and the environmental settings generated from the characteristics of Planosols analyzed and the presence of minerals identified by spectral pattern obtained in a laboratory. The methodological procedures were divided into the characterization of the study area, theoretical framework, field work with sampling, sample preparation, measurement in the laboratory, processing of spectral data, analysis and interpretation of results and a vegetation index calculation for aid in the environmental characterization. It is possible to see that: i) both profiles have similar spectral characterized patterns; ii) the horizons A and E show higher reflectance compared with B and C; iii) Minerals 2: 1 and 1: 1, such as montmorillonite and kaolinite can be identified; iv) Planosols are fragile to erosion. In both profiles, the C horizon less weathered and B horizon iluvial show intense absorption bands at 1400nm, 1900nm and 2200nm. These absorption bands indicate the existence of mineralogy 2: 1 on the horizons of the soils analyzed. In both profiles were found small peaks absorption in 2265nm, corresponding to gibbsite. The occurrence of this type of mineral is more common in highly weathered soils or old surfaces of erosion, which is reflected in small intensities of absorption observed in this analysis since these are of little-weathered soils of the Brazilian semiarid region. Spectral analysis and morphology described in the two profiles show difficulties for the growth of vegetation, which is consistent with NDVI values found, ranging from -0.32 to 0.61with a predominance of 0.19. These factors lead to the intensification of erosion. Erosion is characterized as one of the main indicators of environmental degradation, causing loss of important elements of the soil, which creates consequently a reduction in fertility

  5. Spatial variability of sorghum forage yield and physical attributes of an Planosol = Variabilidade espacial da produtividade de sorgo e atributos físicos em um Planossolo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montanari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is increasing in the Midwest region of Brazil with the aim of expanding the production of silage to be used in animal feed, with good adaptability to climatic conditions of the arid and semi-arid brazilian. The productive capacity of sorghum is influenced by soil physical properties (RP, UG, UV e DS, with these values appropriate to the development of the root system positively affect the productivity. In order to study the spatial and linear correlations between the yield of sorghum for forage and soil physical properties, an experiment was conducted in the Miranda city, MS, in an Planosol. The data were obtained by analysis of samples of plant (MVF and soil (RP, UG, UV e DS collected at random, having been demarcated using a GPS receiver 51 points in the cultivation area with irregular spacing. The attributes studied (plant and soil, and have spatial correlation, the variability between medium and high and well-defined spatial patterns, with a range between 130.0 and 352.0 m. The RP and UG were good indicators of soil physical quality, as for the productivity of green biomass forage sorghum. =

  6. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  7. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  8. Caracterização etnopedológica de Planossolos utilizados em cerâmica artesanal no Agreste Paraibano Ethnopedological studies on solonetz and Planosols used in pottery craftwork in the Agreste region, State of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas adaptadas da etnociência clássica foram utilizadas para descrever e avaliar os conhecimentos de um grupo de artesãos camponeses do Agreste Paraibano sobre alguns solos que eles usam como recurso cerâmico. Cinco perfis de solo foram descritos por agrônomos-pesquisadores (abordagem eticista e por camponeses (abordagem emicista, em locais onde a população local extrai material para cerâmica. Amostras coletadas em ambas as abordagens foram usadas para caracterização morfológica e analítica desses solos. Os camponeses pesquisados foram capazes de distinguir, identificar e nomear diversos materiais de solo, arranjados em estratos ao longo dos perfis de solo, de modo comparável ao arranjo dos horizontes pedogenéticos. A visão, o tato e o paladar foram empregados pelos artesãos na avaliação da qualidade do solo para cerâmica. Quatro perfis descritos junto às fontes de material cerâmico foram classificados como Planossolo Nátrico e um como Planossolo Háplico. A realização de pesquisas etnopedológicas em diferentes contextos sociais e pedológicos pode contribuir para o avanço da ciência do solo, sendo também uma oportunidade para melhor compreender as formas camponesas de conhecimento e manejo de solos.Classic ethnoscientific techniques were adapted to describe and analyze the knowledge of peasant potters about soils they use for making pottery in a rural village in the Agreste region, State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Five soil profiles from pits where local people obtain pottery clay were formally described by researchers (etic approach and by peasant artisans (emic approach. Samples collected during both the emic and etic approaches were used for the morphological and analytical soil characterization. The peasant potters were able to distinguish, identify, and name soil materials arranged in layers along the soil profiles, somehow comparable to the arrangement of the pedogenetic horizons. Vision, touch and

  9. Variabilidade espacial de Planossolo e produtividade de soja em várzea sistematizada: análise geoestatística e análise de regressão Spatial variability of a Planosol and soybean yield on a land-leveled paddy soil: geoestatistical and regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Reichert

    2008-08-01

    of 2000, at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, on land-leveled paddy soil. An area of 160 x 88m was sampled at an interval of 8 x 8m, resulting in 240 sampling points. The plant properties studied were soybean yield and plant height. Several chemical and physical properties of the topsoil (0 to 0.15m and subsoil (0.15 to 0.30m were determined. Geostatistical analysis was done only for the soil layer that presented correlation with the plant properties (0-0.15m, and the space dependence of the attributes was evaluated by scaled semivariograms. Except for soybean production, particle density and flocculation degree, all soil properties presented moderate (0.64 to 0.75 to strong (>0.75 space dependence. The production of soybean was influenced by space variability of the analyzed soil properties. The spatial variability of the soil physical and chemical properties in land-leveled paddy soil affected the production of soybean. The properties were classified in two different categories, based on semivariogram model and range: (i exponential model and range smaller than 40m and (ii gaussian model and range smaller than 67m. A gaussian model with range smaller than 45m described the spatial variation of soybean yeild.

  10. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

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    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  11. Hydrophobicity of soil samples and soil size fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowen, H.A.; Dudas, M.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Roy, J.L. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Johnson, R.L. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada); McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2001-07-01

    The inability of dry soil to absorb water droplets within 10 seconds or less is defined as soil hydrophobicity. The severity, persistence and circumstances causing it vary greatly. There is a possibility that hydrophobicity in Alberta is a symptom of crude oil spills. In this study, the authors investigated the severity of soil hydrophobicity, as determined by the molarity of ethanol droplet test (MED) and dichloromethane extractable organic (DEO) concentration. The soil samples were collected from pedons within 12 hydrophobic soil sites, located northeast from Calgary to Cold Lake, Alberta. All the sites were located at an elevation ranging from 450 metres to 990 metres above sea level. The samples contained compounds from the Chernozemic, Gleysolic, Luvisolic, and Solonetzic soil orders. The results obtained indicated that the MED and DEO were positively correlated in whole soil samples. No relationships were found between MED and DEO in soil samples divided in soil fractions. More severe hydrophobicity and lower DEO concentrations were exhibited in clay- and silt-sized particles in the less than 53 micrometres, when compared to the samples in the other fraction (between 53 and 2000 micrometres). It was concluded that hydrophobicity was not restricted to a particular soil particle size class. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Sampling for validation of digital soil maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Kempen, B.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in digital soil mapping around the world means that appropriate and efficient sampling strategies are needed for validation. Data used for calibrating a digital soil mapping model typically are non-random samples. In such a case we recommend collection of additional independent data and

  13. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  14. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1997-12-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  15. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  16. Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Tzeneva, V.A.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating

  17. Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Tzeneva, Vesela A; van der Staay, Georg W M; de Vos, Willem M; Smidt, Hauke; Hackstein, Johannes H P

    2006-09-01

    The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating that it is possible to study eukaryotic microbiota in samples from soil archives that have been stored for more than 30 years at room temperature. In a pilot study, 41 sequences were retrieved that could be assigned to fungi and a variety of aerobic and anaerobic protists such as cercozoans, ciliates, xanthophytes (stramenopiles), heteroloboseans, and amoebozoans. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of samples collected between 1950 and 1975 revealed significant changes in the composition of the eukaryotic microbiota.

  18. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  19. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid

  20. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid ap

  1. Biomassa microbiana em amostras de solos secadas ao ar e reumedecidas Microbial biomass in air dried and rewetted soil samples

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    Antônio Samarão Gonçalves

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade do condicionamento de amostras como terra fina secada ao ar (TFSA por curto período, para a determinação do carbono da biomassa microbiana (BMS-C, pelo método da fumigaçãoextração, e verificar a respiração microbiana basal (RB do solo. O condicionamento como TFSA, procedendo-se à fumigação para a análise da BMS-C imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento, proporcionou valores de BMS-C para os solos Podzólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Orgânico, semelhantes aos valores dos seus controles. Os solos Glei Pouco Húmico e Vertissolo apresentaram valores de BMS-C similares aos do controle a partir de 24 horas de incubação; o solo Planossolo arenoso apresentou valores similares aos do controle com 72 horas, e a Rendizina, com 168 horas de incubação. Na maioria dos solos, a RB determinada na TFSA apresentou valores maiores do que os do tratamento-controle, quando avaliada imediatamente ou 24 horas após o reumedecimento a 60% da capacidade máxima de retenção de água, seguida de queda e manutenção em níveis semelhantes ao do controle nos períodos subseqüentes. O précondicionamento, de curta duração, como TFSA, é promissor para a determinação da BMS-C, quando níveis e períodos adequados de reumedecimento são adotados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of short term air dried soil samples in a determination of soil microbial biomass (SMB-C, by a fumigationextraction method, and soil microbial basal respiration (BR. Zero time or 24 hours rewetting incubation period before fumigation procedure gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for the Podzolic soils, Allic RedYellow Latosol and Organic soil. Low Humic Gley and Vertisol soils gave values of SMB-C similar to those of the control for periods of incubation equal or higher than 24 hours. Planosol (sandy soil and Rendzina soils gave values of SMB-C similar to the

  2. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  3. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to

  4. Sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado e a compactação de um Planossolo Tillage systems of irrigated rice and compaction of a Planosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Pedrotti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 1993 foi avaliada a compactação de um Planossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, medindo-se a densidade do solo, por meio do método do anel volumétrico, em três camadas de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis sistemas de manejo, selecionados de um experimento conduzido na Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, desde 1985. Observaram-se, de maneira geral, valores altos de densidade do solo; na primeira camada de solo (0-10 cm o sistema que apresentou o menor valor foi o cultivo de arroz em plantio direto sob a resteva do azevém e nos sistemas que envolvem maior mobilização do solo (arroz contínuo e rotação arroz-soja-milho os valores de densidade do solo foram maiores em relação aos sistemas de preparo reduzido do solo (azevém x arroz plantio direto e soja x arroz plantio direto. Ocorreu maior compactação, em relação à primeira camada, na camada intermediária (1020 cm, em todos os sistemas de cultivo, exceto no sistema de rotação arroz-soja-milho, no qual não houve diferença de densidade entre as camadas de solo.In 1993, it was evaluated the compaction of a Planosol (Albaqualf submitted to different tillage systems, measuring soil density through the volumetric ring method, in three layers. Treatments consisted of six tillage systems selected from an experiment conducted at Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, since 1985. High soil density values were obtained; in the first layer (0-10 cm, the no-tillage rice cultivation on the rye-grass straw was the system with the lowest value. The systems that involved more soil mobilization (rice continuous and rotation rice-soybeans-maize resulted in higher soil density values compared to the reduced preparing systems (rye-grass x rice in zero tillage and soybean x rice in zero tillage. Compacted structures were identified in the intermediate layer (10-20 cm in all tillage systems, except for the

  5. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... the whole soil sample or 25% of the soil volume, which was subsequently mixed with 75% untreated soil. For dichloromethane, we included a third protocol, which involved application to 80% of the soil volume with or without phenanthrene and introduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens VKI171 SJ132 genetically...

  6. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  7. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... the whole soil sample or 25% of the soil volume, which was subsequently mixed with 75% untreated soil. For dichloromethane, we included a third protocol, which involved application to 80% of the soil volume with or without phenanthrene and introduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens VKI171 SJ132 genetically...

  8. Comparison of Methods for Soil Sampling and Carbon Content Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Zgorelec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper methods for sampling and analysis of total carbon in soil were compared. Soil sampling was done by sampling scheme according to agricultural soil monitoring recommendations. Soil samples were collected as single (four individual probe patterns and composite soil samples (16 individual probe patterns from agriculture soil. In soil samples mass ratio of total soil carbon was analyzed by dry combustion method (according to Dumas; HRN ISO 10694:2004 in Analytical Laboratory of Department of General Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb (FAZ and by oxidation method with chromium sulfuric acid (modified HRN ISO 14235:2004 in Analytical laboratory of Croatian Center for Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Department of Soil and Land Conservation (ZZT. The observed data showed very strong correlation (r = 0.8943; n = 42 between two studied methods of analysis. Very strong correlation was also noted between different sampling procedures for single and composite samples in both laboratories, and coefficients of correlation were 0.9697 and 0.9950 (n = 8, respectively.

  9. Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aarohi Dharwadkar; Vidya Gupta; Aditi Pant

    2003-09-01

    Twenty soil communities from the northeastern forests (Assam) and the Western Ghats (Maharashtra) were screened for the presence of the lysine aminotransferase (lat) gene from Nocardia. Hybridization probes and primers were synthesized in accordance with the reported sequence of the Nocardia lat gene from GenBank (number: G1 49355). Seven positives were obtained from the 20 soils. Six of the seven positive were from the Western Ghats and one from the northeast Assam forests. Eighteen actinomycete isolates from the 7 positive soils showed the presence of the lat gene. Only 9 isolates actually produced an antibiotic. These results are discussed.

  10. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.; Honders, T.; Derksen, G.B.; Gadella, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The

  11. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.; Honders, T.; Derksen, G.B.; Gadella, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The developme

  12. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean con

  13. Combination of comprehensive geophysical measurements and conventional soil sampling for high resolution soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werban, U.; Nuesch, A.; Vienken, T.; Dietrich, P.; Behrens, T.

    2010-12-01

    The focus of the FP7-EU project iSOIL “Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping” is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high-resolution soil property maps. Thus we will develop, validate, and evaluate concepts and strategies for transferring measured physical parameter distributions into soil property, soil function and soil threat maps of different scales. The resulting soil property maps can be used for agriculture applications and soil degradation threats studies, e.g. erosion, compaction and soil organic matter decline. A fast and cost efficient way to detect physical parameters of soils at large areas is the application of mobile geophysical platforms. An advantage of these platforms is the flexibility since different kind of instruments can be mounted and combined. Following instruments are used on platforms within iSOIL project: EMI, GPR, gamma-spectrometry and magnetics. Since geophysical methods provide only physical parameters it is essential to combine them with conventional soil sampling methods for ground truthing. Physical parameters have to be converted into soil parameters via (site specific) transfer functions. One focus of the project was the development of measuring designs for the evaluation and combination of different geophysical methods. The application of a hierarchical approach is one way to combine different scales and parameters. The implementation of this approach will be presented and can be summarized as follows: - The first step is a survey of the total area with EMI and gamma-spectrometry. The distance between two lines is 10 - 20 meters. - By means of the geophysical data and a digital elevation model, representative soil sampling points are chosen, via a weighted conditioned latin hypercube sampling scheme (wLHS) based on conditioned latin hypercube sampling (cLHS). - All soil sampling points are probed

  14. Soil sampling sensor system on a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peter M.; Hall, Ernest L.; Zhang, Evan

    2003-10-01

    Determining if a segment of property is suitable for use as an aircraft is a vitally important task that is currently performed by humans. However, this task can also put our people in harms way from land mines, sniper and artillery attacks. The objective of this research is to build a soil survey manipulator that can be carried by a lightweight, portable, autonomous vehicle, sensors and controls to navigate in assault zone. The manipulators permit both surface and sub surface measurements. An original soil sampling tube was constructed with linear actuator as manipulator and standard penetrometer as sampling sensor. The controls provide local control of the robot as well as the soil sampling mechanism. GPS has been selected to perform robot global navigation. The robot was constructed and tested on the test field. The results verified the concepts of using soil sampling robot to survey runway is feasible.

  15. Statistical sampling methods for soils monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Development of the best sampling design to answer a research question should be an interactive venture between the land manager or researcher and statisticians, and is the result of answering various questions. A series of questions that can be asked to guide the researcher in making decisions that will arrive at an effective sampling plan are described, and a case...

  16. Measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples from Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaban Ramadan Mohamed HARB; Khaled SALAHEL DIN; Abd Elbaset ABBADY; Mohamed Abd Elleh ALI; Rolf MICHEL

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of natural radioactivity measured for the soil of Qena using gamma-ray spectrometry at ZSR, Hanover University, Germany. Soil samples of radioactive concentrations of 238U-series (234Th,214Pb, and 214Bi), 232Th-series (228Ac, 212pb, and 208Tl) and 40K were analyzed. Three objectives were set: (1) activity levels by surface soil sampling at 0~30 cm depth, (2) dose rates of gamma radiation, radium equivalent, index hazard, and effective dose, and (3) ambient dose rates.

  17. The use of total luminescence spectroscopy in the investigation of the effects of different rice management practices on humic substances of a planosol Uso da técnica de luminescência total na investigação dos efeitos de diferentes manejos do solo para arroz sobre as substâncias húmicas de um planossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nogueira Olendzki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's carbon cycle, C stocks in the soil are higher than in vegetation and atmosphere. Maintaining and conserving organic C concentrations in the soil by specific management practices can improve soil fertility and productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of agricultural management techniques and influence of water regime (flooded or drained on the structure of humic substances by excitation/emission matrix fluorescence. Six samples of a Planosol (Planossolo by the Brazilian System of Soil Classification were collected from a rice field. Humic substances (HS were extracted from flooded and drained soil under different agricultural management techniques: conventional tillage, reduced tillage and grassland. Two peaks at a long emission wavelength were observed in the EEM spectra of HA whereas those of the corresponding FA contained a unique fluorophore at an intermediate excitation/emission wavelength pair (EEWP value. The fluorescence intensity measured by total luminescence (FI TL of HA was lower than that of the corresponding FA. A comparison of all samples (i.e., the HA values compared to each other revealed only slight differences in the EEWP position, but the FI TL values were significantly different. In this soil, anoxic conditions and reduced tillage (little plowing seem to favor a higher degree of humification of the soil organic matter compared with aerated conditions and conventional tillage.No ciclo do carbono terrestre, o solo contém maiores estoques de carbono que a vegetação e a atmosfera. Manter e conservar as concentrações de carbono orgânico no solo usando práticas de manejo pode aumentar sua fertilidade e produtividade. Por meio da espectroscopia de fluorescência pelo método da matriz excitação/emissão, avaliou-se o impacto de técnicas de manejo agrícolas e a influência do regime (inundado e drenado sobre a estrutura das substâncias húmicas do referido solo. Seis amostras de um

  18. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  19. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  20. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation. PMID:26714315

  1. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  2. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  3. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  4. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soils: results from aromatic model compounds and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan G; Kotte, Karsten; Schöler, Heinz F

    2013-02-05

    Oxalic acid is the smallest dicarboxylic acid and plays an important role in soil processes (e.g., mineral weathering and metal detoxification in plants). We have first proven its abiotic formation in soils and investigated natural abiotic degradation processes based on the oxidation of soil organic matter, enhanced by Fe(3+) and H(2)O(2) as hydroxyl radical suppliers. Experiments with the model compound catechol and further hydroxylated benzenes were performed to examine a common degradation pathway and to presume a general formation mechanism of oxalic acid. Two soil samples were tested for the release of oxalic acid and the potential effects of various soil parameters on oxalic acid formation. Additionally, the soil samples were treated with different soil sterilization methods to prove the oxalic acid formation under abiotic soil conditions. Different series of model experiments were conducted to determine a range of factors including Fe(3+), H(2)O(2), reaction time, pH, and chloride concentration on oxalic acid formation. Under certain conditions, catechol is degraded up to 65.6% to oxalic acid referring to carbon. In serial experiments with two soil samples, oxalic acid was produced, and the obtained results are suggestive of an abiotic degradation process. In conclusion, Fenton-like conditions with low Fe(3+) concentrations and an excess of H(2)O(2) as well as acidic conditions were required for an optimal oxalic acid formation. The presence of chloride reduced oxalic acid formation.

  6. Sampling and analysis of alien materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphard, K.G.

    1987-02-01

    For the determination of alien materials in soil, sampling is the decisive step. After minute planning, samples can be obtained by probing, boring or abrasion. Some types of substances can be verified by advance sampling, partly already in the field. Inorganic substances present as anions or cations are eluted and determined with water, heavy metals are determined after preparing a number of solutions by spectroscopic methods. Organic alien substances are extracted with solvents and, as a rule, analysed by chromatography.

  7. GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Wood, Tyson B.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2003-08-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.

  8. GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.; Donovan, Kelly L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann

    2004-01-01

    A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.

  9. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Vimal [Deptt of Physics, M. M. University, Mullana (Ambala)-133 207 (India); Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India); Singh, Tejinder Pal, E-mail: tejinders03@gmail.com [Deptt of Physics, S.A. Jain (P.G.) College, Ambala City- 134 003 (India); Chauhan, R. P. [Deptt of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra- 136 119 (India); Mudahar, G. S. [Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  10. Extraction DNA from Activated Sludge-Comparing with Soil Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冰; 奚旦立; 陈季华

    2003-01-01

    DNA directly extraction from activated sludge and soil sample with enzyme lyses methods was investigated in this paper. DNA yield from activated sludge was 3.0 mg/g. VLSS, and 28.2-43.8 μg/g soil respectively. The resulting DNA is suitable for PCR.By studied methods, higher quality and quantity of sludge DNA could be obtained rapidly and inexpensively from large number of samples, and the PCR product obtained from this protocol was not affected by contaminated higher concentration of heavy metals.

  11. Residual soil DNA extraction increases the discriminatory power between samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Clarke, Laurence J; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic soil analysis relies on capturing an accurate and reproducible representation of the diversity from limited quantities of soil; however, inefficient DNA extraction can markedly alter the taxonomic abundance. The performance of a standard commercial DNA extraction kit (MOBIO PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit) and three modified protocols of this kit: soil pellet re-extraction (RE); an additional 24-h lysis incubation step at room temperature (RT); and 24-h lysis incubation step at 55°C (55) were compared using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer I ribosomal DNA. DNA yield was not correlated with fungal diversity and the four DNA extraction methods displayed distinct fungal community profiles for individual samples, with some phyla detected exclusively using the modified methods. Application of a 24 h lysis step will provide a more complete inventory of fungal biodiversity, and re-extraction of the residual soil pellet offers a novel tool for increasing discriminatory power between forensic soil samples.

  12. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  13. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  14. Spatial Variability of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity in Hilly Tea Plantation Soils Under Different Sampling Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the spatial variability of the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were made to provide a theoretical basis for an ecological tea plantation and management of soil fertilizer in the tea plantation. Geostatistics were used to analyze the spatial variability of soil CEC in the tea plantation site on Mengding Mountain in Sichuan Province of China on two sampling scales. It was found that, (1) on the small scale, the soil CEC was intensively spatially correlative, the rate of nugget to sill was 18.84% and the spatially dependent range was 1 818 m, and structural factors were the main factors that affected the spatial variability of the soil CEC; (2) on the microscale, the soil CEC was also consumingly spatially dependent,and the rate of nugget to sill was 16.52%, the spatially dependent range was 311 m, and the main factors affecting the spatial variability were just the same as mentioned earlier. On the small scale, soil CEC had a stronger anisotropic structure on the slope aspect, and a weaker one on the lateral side. According to the ordinary Kriging method, the equivalence of soil CEC distributed along the lateral aspect of the slope from northeast to outhwest, and the soil CEC reduced as the elevation went down. On the microscale, the anisotropic structure was different from that measured on the small scale. It had a stronger anisotropic structure on the aspect that was near the aspect of the slope, and a weaker one near the lateral aspect of the slope. The soil CEC distributed along the lateral aspect of the slope and some distributed in the form of plots.From the top to the bottom of the slope, the soil CEC increased initially, and then reduced, and finally increased.

  15. Comparison of analytical error and sampling error for contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Björn; Luthbom, Karin; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2006-11-16

    Investigation of soil from contaminated sites requires several sample handling steps that, most likely, will induce uncertainties in the sample. The theory of sampling describes seven sampling errors that can be calculated, estimated or discussed in order to get an idea of the size of the sampling uncertainties. With the aim of comparing the size of the analytical error to the total sampling error, these seven errors were applied, estimated and discussed, to a case study of a contaminated site. The manageable errors were summarized, showing a range of three orders of magnitudes between the examples. The comparisons show that the quotient between the total sampling error and the analytical error is larger than 20 in most calculation examples. Exceptions were samples taken in hot spots, where some components of the total sampling error get small and the analytical error gets large in comparison. Low concentration of contaminant, small extracted sample size and large particles in the sample contribute to the extent of uncertainty.

  16. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  17. Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition. The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical. The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Effect of Soil Sampling Density on Detected Spatial Variability of Soil Organic Carbon in a Red Soil Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dong-Sheng; ZHANG Zhong-Qi; YANG Hao; SHI Xue-Zheng; TAN Man-Zhi; SUN Wei-Xia; WANG Hong-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) of different land use patterns and soil types was examined in a county-wide red soil region of South China, using six sampling densities, 14, 34, 68, 130, 255, and 525 samples designed by the method of grid sampling in 6 different grid sizes, labeled as D14, D34, D68, D130, D255, and D525, respectively. The results showed that the coefficients of variation (CVs) of SOC decreased gradually from 62.8% to 47.4% with the increase in soil sampling densities. The SOC CVs in the paddy field change slightly from 30.8% to 28.7%, while those of the dry farmland and forest land decreased remarkably from 58.1%to 48.7% and from 99.3% to 64.4%, respectively. The SOC CVs of the paddy soil change slightly, while those of red soil decreased remarkably from 82.8% to 63.9%. About 604, 500, and 353 (P < 0.05) samples would be needed a number of years later if the SOC change was supposedly 1.52 g kg-2, based on the CVs of SOC acquired from the present sampling densities of D14, D68, and D525,respectively. Moreover, based on the same SOC change and the present time CVs at D255, the ratio of samples needed for paddy field, dry farmland, and forest land should be 1:0.81:3.33, while the actual corresponding ratio in an equal interval grid sampling was 1:0.74:0.46. These indicated that the sampling density had important effect on the detection of SOC variability in the county-wide region, the equal interval grid sampling was not efficient enough, and the respective CV of each land use or soil type should be fully considered when determining the sampling number in the future.

  19. Development of internal forest soil reference samples and testing of digestion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Hislop; J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; R.A. Hallett

    1998-01-01

    Our research requires determinations of total elemental concentrations of forest soils. The lack of certified forest soil reference materials led us to develop internal reference samples. Samples were collected from three soil horizons (Oa, B, and C) at three locations having forested, acidic soils similar to those we commonly analyze. A shatterbox was used to...

  20. Soil development and sampling strategies for the returned Martian surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.

    1988-01-01

    Sampling of the Martian surface materials should be based on the experience gained from the study of soils and rocks collected in cold, dry environments, i.e., dry valleys of Antarctica. Previous studies have suggested that some of our best terrestrial analogs of the Martian soils are represented by those found in the polar deserts of Antarctica. Special sampling considerations must be taken into account when obtaining these samples because they represent at least five distinct types of materials. Weathering of planetary regolith materials occurs from both chemical and physical interactions of the planet's surface materials with the atmosphere and, if present, the hydrosphere and biosphere along with extraplanetary objects which may produce the original surface materials and produce secondary materials that are product of equilibrium between the atmosphere and study weathering processes and regolith development occurring on Martian-like surfaces, simulation studies must be carried out in materials in the field.

  1. Uncertainties in forest soil carbon and nitrogen estimates related to soil sampling methods in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Plante, A. F.; Johnson, A. H.; Pan, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating forest soil carbon and nitrogen (CN) is critical to understanding ecosystem responses to changing climate, disturbance and forest management practices. Most of the uncertainty in soil CN cycling is associated with the difficulty in characterizing soil properties in field sampling because forest soils can be rocky, inaccessible and spatially heterogeneous. A composite coring technique is broadly applied as the standard FIA soil sampling protocol. However, the accuracy of this method might be limited by soil compaction, rock obstruction and plot selection problems during sampling. In contrast, the quantitative soil pit sampling method may avoid these problems and provides direct measurements of soil mass, rock volume and CN concentration representative of a larger ground surface area. In this study, the two sampling methods were applied in 60 forest plots, randomly located in three research areas in the Delaware River Basin in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. In each of the plots, one quantitative soil pit was excavated and three soil cores were collected. Our results show that average soil bulk density in the top 20 cm mineral soil measured from the soil cores was consistently lower than bulk density measured by soil pits. However, the volume percentage of coarse fragments measured by the core method was also significantly lower than the pit method. Conversely, CN concentrations were greater in core samples compared to pit samples. The resulting soil carbon content (0-20 cm) was estimated to be 4.1 ± 0.4 kg m-2 in the core method compared to 4.5 ± 0.4 kg m-2 in the pit method. Lower bulk density but higher CN concentration and lower coarse fragments content from the cores have offset each other, resulting in no significant differences in CN content from the soil pit method. Deeper soil (20-40 cm), which is not accessible in the core method, accounted for 29% of the total soil carbon stock (0-40 cm) in the pit method. Our results suggest that, although soil

  2. Morfologia e classificação de luvissolos e planossolos desenvolvidos de rochas metamórficas no semiárido do nordeste brasileiro Morphology and classification of luvisols and planosols developed on metamorphic rocks in semiarid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomário Barros de Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Lithic Neosols, Luvisols and Planosols. This study aimed to characterize and classify 12 soil profiles in four toposequences representative of the common occurrence of Luvisolics in the Semiarid Region of Northeast Brazil by the Brazilian System of Soil Classification. Two sequences were selected with soils developed from gneisses, in the region of "Cariris Velhos", Paraíba State, and two others, in the "Sertão" region of Pernambuco State, with soils developed on micaschists and phyllite. The soils were morphologically characterized and samples collected for physical and chemical analysis. The changes in the identification criteria of the chromic character introduced in the second version of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification seem to have achieved the objective, allowing the classification of the 10 studied soil profiles of Non-Calcic Brown Soils as Chromic Luvisols. All studied Luvisols were adequately classified by the Brazilian System of Soil Classification up to the fourth level, except for the Luvisol with sodic character, which is not considered as subgroup in the current system version. This study suggests the inclusion of a sodic subgroup in the class of Orthic Chromic Luvisols (Luvissolos Crômicos Órticos to account for these soils, which differ from typical soils because they have a sodic character from the surface down to a depth of 100 cm.

  3. Livermore Big Trees Park 1998 soil sampling plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainer, R. W.

    1998-10-01

    This sampling plan sets out the sampling goals, rationale, locations, and procedures for a plan to determine the extent of plutonium in soil above background levels in Big Trees Park and identify any possible pathways by which plutonium may have reached the park. The public is invited to witness the sampling at Big Trees Park. The plan has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists with guidance from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Radiologic Health and Environmental Health Investigations Branches of the California Health Services Department (CDHS-RHB and CDHS-EHIB), and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Input from citizens and community organizations was also received during an over-70-day public comment period.

  4. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  5. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  6. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  7. Soil Samplers: New Techniques for Subsurface Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Sorini; John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2009-03-31

    Soil sampling techniques for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soil that is being sampled. Preventing VOC loss from soil cores that are collected from the subsurface and brought to the surface for subsampling is often difficult. Subsurface bulk sample retrieval systems are designed to obtain intact cylindrical cores of soil ranging anywhere from one to four inches in diameter, and one to several feet in length. The current technique that is used to subsample these soil cores for VOC analysis is to expose a horizontal section of the soil core to the atmosphere; screen the exposed soil using a photoionization detector (PID) or other appropriate device to locate contamination in the soil core; and use a hand-operated coring tool to collect samples from the exposed soil for analysis. Because the soil core can be exposed to the atmosphere for a considerable length of time during screening and sample collection, the current sub-sampling technique provides opportunity for VOCs to be lost from the soil. This report describes three alternative techniques from the current technique for screening and collecting soil samples from subsurface soil cores for VOC analysis and field testing that has been done to evaluate the techniques. Based on the results of the field testing, ASTM D4547, Standard Guide for Sampling Waste and Soils for Volatile Organic Compounds, was revised to include information about the new techniques.

  8. PEASANT AND SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON PLANOSOLS AS A SOURCE OF MATERIALS IN THE MAKING OF NON-INDUSTRIAL POTTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiana Lira Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopedological studies have mainly focused on agricultural land uses and associated practices. Nevertheless, peasant and indigenous populations use soil and land resources for a number of additional purposes, including pottery. In the present study, we describe and analyze folk knowledge related to the use of soils in non-industrial pottery making by peasant potters, in the municipality of Altinho, Pernambuco State, semiarid region at Brazil. Ethnoscientific techniques were used to record local knowledge, with an emphasis on describing the soil materials recognized by the potters, the properties they used to identify those soil materials, and the criteria employed by them to differentiate and relate such materials. The potters recognized three categories of soil materials: “terra” (earth, “barro” (clay and, “piçarro” (soft rock. The multi-layered arrangement of these materials within the soil profiles was similar to the arrangement of the soil horizon described by formal pedologists. “Barro vermelho” (red clay was considered by potters as the principal ceramic resource. The potters followed morphological and utilitarian criteria in distinguishing the different soil materials. Soils from all of these sites were sodium-affected Alfisols and correspond to Typic Albaqualf and Typic Natraqualf in the Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2010.

  9. Can Soil Penetration Resistance and Bulk Density Be Determined in a Single Undisturbed Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality indicators such as penetration resistance (PR and bulk density (BD are traditionally determined in a single undisturbed soil sample. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PR measurements of undisturbed samples on the determination of BD in the same sample of two soils differing in clay contents. To this end, samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers of two soils of clayey and very clayey texture. Volumetric rings were used to collect a total of 120 undisturbed soil samples from each soil layer that were divided into two subsets containing 60 units each. One sample set, designated “perforated samples”, was used to determine PR and BD in the same undisturbed sample; the other, named “intact samples”, was used to determine BD only. Bulk density values for perforated and intact samples were compared by analysis of variance, using a completely randomized experimental design. Means were compared by the t-test at 5 %. The BD values for the clayey soil were similar in perforated and intact samples from the two layers. However, BD of the very clayey soil was lower in the perforated than in the intact samples at both depths. Therefore, PR and BD in clayey soils can be accurately determined in the same undisturbed sample whereas in very clayey soils, different samples are required for this purpose.

  10. Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hung, Mei-Hua; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Young, Li-Sen; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagellated bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0089(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken on Matsu Island (Taiwan). Strain CC-MHH0089(T) grew at 15-30 °C and pH 5.0-10.0 and tolerated ≤8 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed high pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas azotifigens 6H33b(T) (97.3 %) and Pseudomonas balearica SP1402(T) (96.7 %) and lower sequence similarity to other strains (Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-MHH0089(T) ( = BCRC 80771(T) = JCM 30078(T)).

  11. Evaluation of Uranium Concentration in Soil Samples of Central Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and their decay products (226Ra, 222Rn are present in a number of geological settings in Jordan. Motivated by the existence of uranium anomalies ‎coupled with its lack of conventional ‎‎energy ‎‎resources, Jordan decided that the development of ‎this indigenes ‎resource (uranium is the first step in introducing nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Uranium deposits in Central Jordan were perceived not only as a secured resource that will ‎fulfill Jordan’s energy needs, but also as an economic asset that will ‎finance Jordan’s nuclear program. The average uranium concentration of 236 soil samples using ICP-Mass (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was found to be 109 parts per million (ppm. Results analysis revealed a wide range of 1066 ppm for uranium concentration, and a median of 41 ppm uranium. The measurements frequency distribution indicates that 72% of samples measured had a uranium content of less than 100 ppm, a concentration that characterizes overburden and tailings quality, rather than minable reserves. This paper presents and evaluates the concentration of uranium in central Jordan, being the most promising area with the highest radioactive anomalies in Jordan.

  12. Spectroscopic analyses of soil samples outside Nile Delta of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Osman, Osama; Ezzat, Hend; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2016-11-01

    Soil in Egypt, especially around Delta is exposed to various pollutants which are affecting adversely soil fertility and stability. Humic Acids (HA) as a main part of soil organic matter (SOM) represent the heart of the interaction process of inorganic pollutants with soil. Consequently, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) were used to characterize soil, sediment and extracted HA. Resulting data confirmed that the HA was responsible for transporting inorganic pollutants from surface to subsurface reaching the ground water, which may represent a high risk on public health. The transport process is coming as carboxyl in surface soil changed into metal carboxylate then transferred into the carboxyl in bottom soil.

  13. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

  14. Using site-specific soil samples as a substitution for improved hydrological and nonpoint source predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Guobo; Zhong, Yucen; Zhao, Xin; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-08-01

    Soil databases are one of the most important inputs for watershed models, and the quality of soil properties affects how well a model performs. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the sensitivity of model outputs to soil properties and to (2) use site-specific soil properties as a substitution for more accurate hydrological and nonpoint source (H/NPS) predictions. Soil samples were collected from a typical mountainous watershed in China, and the impacts of soil sample parameters on H/NPS predictions were quantified using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The most sensitive parameters related to predicting flow, sediment, and total phosphorus (TP) mainly were the soil hydrological, the channel erosion processes, and the initial soil chemical environment, respectively. When the site-specific soil properties were used, the uncertainties (coefficient of variation) related to predicting the hydrology, sediment and TP decreased by 75∼80 %, 75∼84 %, and 46∼61 %, respectively. Based on changes in the Nash-Sutcliff coefficient, the model performance improved by 4.9 and 19.45 % for the hydrological and sediment model, accordingly. However, site-specific soil properties did not contribute to better TP predictions because of the high spatial variability of the soil P concentrations across the large watershed. Thus, although site-specific soil samples can be used to obtain more accurate H/NPS predictions, more sampling sites are required to apply this method in large watersheds.

  15. [Influence of interpolation method and sampling number on spatial prediction accuracy of soil Olsen-P].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-xiang; Wu, Chuan-zhou; Zhu, Ke-bao; Cui, Zhen-ling; Chen, Xin-ping; Zhang, Fu-suo

    2009-03-01

    Different from the large scale farm management in Europe and America, the scattered farmland management in China made the spatial variability of soil nutrients at county scale in this country more challenging. Taking soil Olsen-P in Wuhu County as an example, the influence of interpolation method and sampling number on the spatial prediction accuracy of soil nutrients was evaluated systematically. The results showed that local polynomial method, ordinary kriging, simple kriging, and disjunctive kriging had higher spatial prediction accuracy than the other interpolation methods. Considering of its simplicity, ordinary kriging was recommended to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P within a county. The spatial prediction accuracy would increase with increasing soil sampling number. Taking the spatial prediction accuracy and soil sampling cost into consideration, the optimal sampling number should be from 500 to 1000 to evaluate the spatial variability of soil Olsen-P at county scale.

  16. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.

  17. Environmental Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Hazama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts and hazards due to the unstoppable hot mud flow by the East Java ‘LUSI’ Mud Volcano are increasing since its unexpected eruption on May 29, 2006. Analysis should be undertaken, not only to examine its impact on human health and the environment, but also to explore the potential benefits of the mud flow. One may be able to tap the mud flow as a material source for brick and cement. Recently there has been great concern about the health risks associated with exposure to natural radioactivity present in soil and building materials all over the world. In this context, measurements for natural radioactive isotopes such as 238U and 232Th series, and 40K in mud samples were carried out using the HPGe (High-Purity Germanium detector to determine the re-usability of the mud. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations were found to be 13±1, 15±1 and 111±3 Bq/kg (1 Bq = 1 sec-1, respectively, and the corresponding activity index was found to be 0.16±0.02. These values were compared with previous data and our measured accuracy was improved by a factor of nine at the maximum. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and annual effective dose equivalent were also evaluated and all were found to be within acceptable limits.

  18. Sampling and Analysis for Lead in Water and Soil Samples on a University Campus: A Student Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven J.; Zarrabi, Kaveh

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student research project that determined concentrations of lead in water drawn from selected drinking fountains and in selected soil samples on the campus of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. (18 references) (DDR)

  19. Calibration of time domain reflectometry technique using undisturbed soil samples from humid tropical soils of volcanic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, A. M.; Grauel, W. T.; Keller, M.; Veldkamp, E.

    1997-06-01

    Time domain reflectrometry (TDR) is used to measure the apparent dielectric number (Ka) in soils. We studied two soil types (Humitropept and Hapludand) of low bulk density (about 0.7 Mg m-3 at 0.05 m to 0.8 Mg m-3 at 0.3 m depth) and high organic matter content (about 7% at 0.05 m to 4% at 0.3 m depth). Soils are located in a humid tropical environment (average annual soil water content is 0.51 to 0.58 m3 m-3). For calibration, undisturbed soil blocks, with a TDR probe installed in the center, were saturated and then allowed to dry by evaporation. Volumetric water content was calculated from measured Ka values and from gravimetric measurements. Because we used undisturbed soil samples, our calibration accounts for the natural heterogeneity in soils. We tested the suitability of various calibration functions relating Ka to soil water content for our soils. TDR technique underestimated the actual soil water content by 0.05-0.15 m3m-3, when using the widely applied Topp calibration function. A three-phase mixing model with a geometry parameter, α=0.47, fit our data best. We consider mixing models to be a robust approach for calibration of TDR technique on various soils.

  20. Uncertainty-guided sampling to improve digital soil maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Goebes, Philipp; Behrens, Thorsten; Schönbrodt-stitt, Sarah; Wadoux, Alexandre; Xiang, Wei; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) products represent estimates of spatially distributed soil properties. These estimations comprise an element of uncertainty that is not evenly distributed over the area covered by DSM. If we quantify the uncertainty spatially explicit, this information can be used to impro

  1. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  2. Evaluation of soil gas sampling and analysis techniques at a former petrochemical plant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hers, I; Li, L; Hannam, S

    2004-07-01

    Methods for soil gas sampling and analysis are evaluated as part of a research study on soil vapour intrusion into buildings, conducted at a former petro-chemical plant site ("Chatterton site"). The evaluation process was designed to provide information on reliability and selection of appropriate methods for soil gas sampling and analysis, and was based on a literature review of data and methods, and experiments completed as part of the research study. The broader context of this work is that soil gas characterization is increasingly being used for input into risk assessment of contaminated sites, particularly when evaluating the potential intrusion of soil vapour into buildings. There are only a limited number of research studies and protocols addressing soil gas sampling and analysis. There is significant variability in soil gas probe design and sample collection and analysis methods used by practitioners. The experimental studies conducted to evaluate soil gas methods address the permeation or leakage of gases from Tedlar bags, time-dependent sorption of volatile organic compound (VOC)-vapours onto probe surfaces and sampling devices, and analytical and quality control issues for light gas and VOC analyses. Through this work, common techniques for soil gas collection and analysis are described together with implications for data quality arising from the different methods used. Some of the potential pitfalls that can affect soil gas testing are identified, and recommendations and guidance for improved protocols are provided.

  3. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2004-09-15

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is {sup 241}Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  4. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  5. Sampling Position under No-Tillage System Affects the Results of Soil Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Jorge Bernabé Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the spatial behavior of soil physical properties under no-tillage system (NT is required for the adoption and maintenance of a sustainable soil management system. The aims of this study were to quantify soil bulk density (BD, porosity in the soil macropore domain (PORp and in the soil matrix domain (PORm, air capacity in the soil matrix (ACm, field capacity (FC, and soil water storage capacity (FC/TP in the row (R, interrow (IR, and intermediate position between R and IR (designated IP in the 0.0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m soil layers under NT; and to verify if these soil properties have systematic variation in sampling positions related to rows and interrows of corn. Soil sampling was carried out in transect perpendicular to the corn rows in which 40 sampling points were selected at each position (R, IR, IP and in each soil layer, obtaining undisturbed samples to determine the aforementioned soil physical properties. The influence of sampling position on systematic variation of soil physical properties was evaluated by spectral analysis. In the 0.0-0.1 m layer, tilling the crop rows at the time of planting led to differences in BD, PORp, ACm, FC and FC/TP only in the R position. In the R position, the FC/TP ratio was considered close to ideal (0.66, indicating good water and air availability at this sampling position. The R position also showed BD values lower than the critical bulk density that restricts root growth, suggesting good soil physical conditions for seed germination and plant establishment. Spectral analysis indicated that there was systematic variation in soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer, except for PORm. These results indicated that the soil physical properties evaluated in the 0.0-0.1 m layer were associated with soil position in the rows and interrows of corn. Thus, proper assessment of soil physical properties under NT must take into consideration the sampling positions and previous

  6. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  7. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform.

  8. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  9. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  10. Analysis of fullerenes in soils samples collected in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carboni, Andrea; Helmus, Rick; Emke, Erik; Brink, van den Nico; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten; Voogt, de Pim

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon based nanoparticles that may enter the environment as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Although little is known about the presence of these chemicals in the environment, recent studies suggested that soil may act as a sink. The aim of the present

  11. Laboratory Jet Erosion Tests on the Lower American River Soil Samples, Sacramento, CA- Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -8 Laboratory Jet Erosion Tests on the Lower American River Soil Samples, Sacramento, CA – Phase 2 G eo te ch ni...Jet Erosion Tests on the Lower American River Soil Samples, Sacramento, CA – Phase 2 Johannes L. Wibowo and Bryant A. Robbins Geotechnical and...laboratory Jet Erosion Tests performed on Plexiglas tube samples obtained from the Lower American River (LAR) between River Mile (RM) 6.0 and RM

  12. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  13. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    concern at shooting ranges include arsenic and antimony (from ammunition), nickel ( coating on some lead shot), copper, zinc, strontium, and magnesium...sampling, use clean polyethylene sampling bags rather than sample bottles for multi-increment samples (Fig. 7.5). Label the outside of the sample bag...oil. Composition B: Comp B is a high explosive containing 60% RDX, 39% TNT, 1% wax . Concentration: Concentration can be expressed in a variety of

  14. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    concern at shooting ranges include arsenic and antimony (from ammunition), nickel ( coating on some lead shot), copper, zinc, strontium, and magnesium...sampling, use clean polyethylene sampling bags rather than sample bottles for multi-increment samples (Fig. 7.5). Label the outside of the sample bag...explosive containing 60% RDX, 39% TNT, 1% wax . Concentration: Concentration can be expressed in a variety of ways parts per thousand (ppt), which is

  15. Field and Lab Methods to Reduce Sampling Variation in Soil Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, K. G.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural variability in soil and detrital carbon sampling is typically large enough that it hinders accurate assessment of standing stock and changes that may occur following disturbances and experimental treatments. We are developing carbon budgets in forests of Northern California and wish to see how experimental canopy thinning may affect carbon cycling in these forests. In the pre-treatment phase, we have sought methods to quantify detrital carbon pools in an accurate and efficient manner. We have found that small soil excavations 15 cm diameter to a depth of 10 cm work very well to reduce variation an avoid introducing sampling biases. We excavate a pit carefully of uniform dimensions using cutting chisels and scoops. We fill the void created using small pebbles contained in a small net and then weigh the pebbles to obtain a volume estimate of the soil collected. The samples are sorted moist through a series of sieves of 6, 4, and 2 mm into rocks, live roots, dead roots, woody debris, and remaining soil and its organic matter. From a single sample, we estimate proportional rock volume, fine soil bulk density (soil bulk density of the 2 mm fraction), live roots, dead roots, woody debris, and proportion of organic matter in the 2 mm fraction. The standard deviations of soil measures (soil carbon, loss on ignition, bulk density, rock volume, live and dead root mass) were universally reduced over similar measures by soil corers, in some instances by up to 5-fold. Coefficient of variation using excavation pits are typically 5 to 10 %, whereas cores were 20 to 30 %. We have observed that variation in soil organic matter is more a function of variation in soil bulk density than with variation in percent soil organic matter content. As a result, we often see increased soil organic matter stores at depths below 10 cm. Soils beneath highly decayed logs show increases in soil carbon in the mineral soil suggesting woody debris is a source of soil carbon. Below

  16. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  17. Shrinkage anisotropy characteristics from soil structure and initial sample/layer size

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is a physical prediction of such soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics as variation with drying of (i) different sample/layer sizes and (ii) the shrinkage geometry factor. With that, a new presentation of the shrinkage anisotropy concept is suggested through the sample/layer size ratios. The work objective is reached in two steps. First, the relations are derived between the indicated soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics and three different shrinkage curves of a soil relating to: small samples (without cracking at shrinkage), sufficiently large samples (with internal cracking), and layers of similar thickness. Then, the results of a recent work with respect to the physical prediction of the three shrinkage curves are used. These results connect the shrinkage curves with the initial sample size/layer thickness as well as characteristics of soil texture and structure (both inter- and intra-aggregate) as physical parameters. The parameters determining the reference shrinkage c...

  18. Radon exhalation rate from soil samples of South Kumaun Lesser Himalayas, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Gusain, G.S. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com

    2008-08-15

    Ionizing radiation exposure experienced by the general population is mainly due to the indoor radon. Major part of radon comes from the top layer of the earth. The radon emanation is associated with radon in soil and sleepy back radium in the soil. Both field and laboratory measurements were carried out for the instantaneous and integrated radon concentration in soil-gas. The radon exhalation rate from collected soil samples was measured using LR-115 Type II plastic track detector. The soil-gas radon concentration was measured with the help of radon Emanometry method. The effective radium content of the soil samples was also calculated. The correlation coefficient between radium contents in collected soil samples and soil-gas radon from the same locations was calculated as 0.1, while it is 0.2 between radon exhalation rate and soil-gas radon concentration. The results show weak positive correlation due to the geological disturbance in the equilibrium conditions and high mobility of radon in the same geological medium.

  19. Challenges in Bulk Soil Sampling and Analysis for Vapor Intrusion Screening of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft Engineering Issue Paper discusses technical issues with monitoring soil excavations for VOCs and describes options for such monitoring as part of a VI pathway assessment at sites where soil excavation is being considered or used as part of the remedy for VOC-contaminat...

  20. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  1. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  2. Field Sampling and Selecting On-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this issue paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods fordetecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils.

  3. NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

    2006-06-01

    Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM

  4. Soil organic carbon stocks in southeast Germany as affected by land use, soil type and sampling depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, M.; von Lützow, M.; Spörlein, P.; Geuß, U.; Hangen, E.; Reischl, A.; Schilling, B.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2012-04-01

    soils. Therefore, we propose that in future SOC inventories, soils should be sampled down to the parent material and completely analyzed by horizon instead of depth increments in order to increase the accuracy of SOC stock estimations and to elucidate pedogenetic effects on SOC storage. A land use-specific and soil type-specific quantification of functional SOC pools with different turnover times would make it possible to estimate the future development of SOC stocks under a changing climate.

  5. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  6. EVALUATION OF VAPOR EQUILIBRATION AND IMPACT OF PURGE VOLUME ON SOIL-GAS SAMPLING RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential sampling was utilized at the Raymark Superfund site to evaluate attainment of vapor equilibration and the impact of purge volume on soil-gas sample results. A simple mass-balance equation indicates that removal of three to five internal volumes of a sample system shou...

  7. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated py

  8. EG & G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D & D soil box sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D&D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D&D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D&D Soils Packages (EG&G 1991).

  9. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  10. DDT and HCH isomer levels in soils, carrot root and carrot leaf samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Carvajal, O; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Amador-Muñoz, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Hayward-Jones, P M; Valencia-Quintana, R

    2008-10-01

    Agricultural cultivation assists organochlorine pesticide migration from contaminated soils to growing plants. This phenomenon is caused by retention processes that modify volatile pesticide exchange between soil, air and plants. The aim of the study was to monitor organochlorine pesticide (HCB, alpha- and gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels and compare these concentrations in soil, carrot roots and carrot leaves. Fifty soil samples, 50 carrot root and 50 carrot leaf samples were taken from the same fields and analyzed by GLC-ECD. The results reveal organochlorine pesticide diffusion from agricultural soils to growing carrot plants and their vapors adsorption by leaves. Within the carrot plant, organochlorine pesticides accumulate especially in carrot root peel, 3-7 times more than in root flesh.

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  12. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  13. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  14. Assessment of soil sample quality used for density evaluations through computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Bacchi, Osny O.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lfpires@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    There are several methods to measure soil bulk density ({rho}{sub s}) like the paraffin sealed clod (PS), the volumetric ring (VR), the computed tomography (CT), and the neutron-gamma surface gauge (SG). In order to evaluate by a non-destructive way the possible modifications in soil structure caused by sampling for the PS and VR methods of {rho}{sub s} evaluation we proposed to use the gamma ray CT method. A first generation tomograph was used having a {sup 241}Am source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Results confirm the effect of soil sampler devices on the structure of soil samples, and that the compaction caused during sampling causes significant alterations of soil bulk density. Through the use of CT it was possible to determine the level of compaction and to make a detailed analysis of the soil bulk density distribution within the soil sample. (author)

  15. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  16. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  17. Analytical Results for Agricultural Soils Samples from a Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Yager, T.J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since late 1993, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver (Metro District, MWRD), a large wastewater treatment plant in Denver, Colorado, has applied Grade I, Class B biosolids to about 52,000 acres of nonirrigated farmland and rangeland near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA. In cooperation with the Metro District in 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring groundwater at part of this site. In 1999, the USGS began a more comprehensive monitoring study of the entire site to address stakeholder concerns about the potential chemical effects of biosolids applications to water, soil, and vegetation. This more comprehensive monitoring program has recently been extended through 2010. Monitoring components of the more comprehensive study include biosolids collected at the wastewater treatment plant, soil, crops, dust, alluvial and bedrock groundwater, and stream bed sediment. Soils for this study were defined as the plow zone of the dry land agricultural fields - the top twelve inches of the soil column. This report presents analytical results for the soil samples collected at the Metro District farm land near Deer Trail, Colorado, during three separate sampling events during 1999, 2000, and 2002. Soil samples taken in 1999 were to be a representation of the original baseline of the agricultural soils prior to any biosolids application. The soil samples taken in 2000 represent the soils after one application of biosolids to the middle field at each site and those taken in 2002 represent the soils after two applications. There have been no biosolids applied to any of the four control fields. The next soil sampling is scheduled for the spring of 2010. Priority parameters for biosolids identified by the stakeholders and also regulated by Colorado when used as an agricultural soil amendment include the total concentrations of nine trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc), plutonium isotopes, and gross

  18. Bioaccessibility of uranium in soil samples from Port Hope, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Slobodan V; Pan, Pujing; Wong, Larry

    2012-08-21

    Adequate assessment of human health risk of uranium contamination at hazardous waste sites, which is an important step in determining the cleanup strategy, is based on bioavailability data. Bioavailability of uranium from contaminated soil has not been properly determined yet. Bioaccessibility is an in vitro conservative estimate of bioavailability and is thus frequently used for site-specific risk assessment. Bioaccessibility of uranium was measured in 33 soil samples from the Port Hope area in Ontario, Canada, by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Higher bioaccessibility values in the gastric plus intestinal phase, 48.4% ± 16.8%, than in the gastric phase, 20.8% ± 11.7%, are very probably the result of more efficient extraction of uranium from soil by intestinal fluid rich in carbonate ions. The observed variability of measured bioaccessibility values is discussed in light of the results of scanning electron microscope examination of the soil samples. Uranium bioaccessibility values in both gastric (acidic) and gastric plus intestinal (neutral) phases are higher in soil samples with smaller uranium-bearing particles and lower in samples where the uranium-bearing particles are larger. We postulate that the most important reason for variability of measured bioaccessibility values in Port Hope soil samples may be the difference in particle size of uranium-bearing particles.

  19. Sampling Strategies for Soil Available K and P at Field Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Field nutrient distribution maps obtained from the study on soil variations within fields are the basis of precision agriculture. The quality of these maps for management depends on the accuracy of the predicted values, which depends on the initial sampling. To produce reliable predictions efficiently the minimal sampling size and combination should be decided firstly, which could avoid the misspent funds for field sampling work.A 7.9 hectare silage field close to the Agricultural Research Institute at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, was selected for the study. Soil samples were collected from the field at 25 m intervals in a rectangular grid to provide a database of selected soil properties. Different data combinations were subsequently abstracted from this database for comparison purposes, and ordinary kriging used to produce interpolated soil maps.These predicted data groups were compared using least significant difference (LSD) test method. The results showed that the 62 sampling sizes of triangle arrangement for soil available K were sufficient to reach the required accuracy. The triangular sample combination proved to be superior to a rectangular one of similar sample size.

  20. Effect of preservation method on the assessment of bacterial community structure in soil and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Ambrosini, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    The methods used in sample preservation may affect the description of the microbial community structure by DNA-based techniques. This study aims at evaluating the effect of different storage conditions, including freezing, adding two liquid-based preservatives or simply storing samples with no preservative, on the structure of the microbial communities in aliquots of organic-rich soil and water samples as revealed by a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results showed that the number of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) detected in soil aliquots stored with LifeGuard(™) solution was significantly lower than that of samples analyzed immediately after sampling. Moreover, cluster and PCA analyses showed that soil aliquots stored using LifeGuard(™) clustered separately from those stored with the other methods. Conversely, soil and water aliquots stored with DMSO-EDTA-salt solution did not show either significant reduction in the number of TRFs or any change in the structure of the microbial community. Finally, the number of TRFs and the structure of microbial communities from soil aliquots stored with no preservative did not differ from those of aliquots analyzed immediately after sampling. Preservation methods should therefore be accurately evaluated before collecting samples that have to be stored for long time before DNA extraction.

  1. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D & D soils packages, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D&D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D&D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D&D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data.

  4. Uncertainty in sample estimates and the implicit loss function for soil information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    One significant challenge in the communication of uncertain information is how to enable the sponsors of sampling exercises to make a rational choice of sample size. One way to do this is to compute the value of additional information given the loss function for errors. The loss function expresses the costs that result from decisions made using erroneous information. In certain circumstances, such as remediation of contaminated land prior to development, loss functions can be computed and used to guide rational decision making on the amount of resource to spend on sampling to collect soil information. In many circumstances the loss function cannot be obtained prior to decision making. This may be the case when multiple decisions may be based on the soil information and the costs of errors are hard to predict. The implicit loss function is proposed as a tool to aid decision making in these circumstances. Conditional on a logistical model which expresses costs of soil sampling as a function of effort, and statistical information from which the error of estimates can be modelled as a function of effort, the implicit loss function is the loss function which makes a particular decision on effort rational. In this presentation the loss function is defined and computed for a number of arbitrary decisions on sampling effort for a hypothetical soil monitoring problem. This is based on a logistical model of sampling cost parameterized from a recent geochemical survey of soil in Donegal, Ireland and on statistical parameters estimated with the aid of a process model for change in soil organic carbon. It is shown how the implicit loss function might provide a basis for reflection on a particular choice of sample size by comparing it with the values attributed to soil properties and functions. Scope for further research to develop and apply the implicit loss function to help decision making by policy makers and regulators is then discussed.

  5. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Sampling and Sample Preparation Modifications for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    L. W. Pace. 1999. An in virto gastrointestinal method to estimate bioavailable arsenic in contaminated soils and solid media. Environmental Science...and Technology 33: 642−649. Ruby, M. V., A. Davis, R. Schoof, S. Eberle, and C. M. Sellstone. 1996. Estimation of lead and arsenic bioavailability ...2011. Relating the sediment phase speciation of As, Cd, and Cr with their bioavailability for the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis succinea

  7. Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Cetin, Sengonca; Schumann, Peter; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Chen, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated FJAT-4402T, was isolated from the weed rhizosphere soil of the Gobi desert in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the north-west of China. Isolate FJAT-4402T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7) and in 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that isolate FJAT-4402T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (96.2 %). The isolate showed 33.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest reference isolate, B. licheniformis DSM 13T. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of isolate FJAT-4402T was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (28.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 (20.1 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.3 %), iso-C16 : 0 (9.6 %), C16 : 0 (8.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (6.2 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (4.7 %) and the DNA G+C content was 42.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties indicated that strain FJAT-4402T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-4402T ( = DSM 29500T = CGMCC 1.12902T).

  8. Diffusion probe for gas sampling in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O

    2014-01-01

    . Ethylene is immediately removed by flushing with un-amended N2. Equations are presented to correct for dead volumes of connecting tubing and valves. Laboratory tests evaluated recovery of CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2), removal of C2H4, and equilibration of CH4, N2O and CO2 in air and water. Field tests......, in this study ranging from 5 to 100 cm. The probe has a 10 ml diffusion cell with a 3-mm diameter opening covered by a 0.5 mm silicone membrane. At sampling the diffusion cell is flushed with 10 ml N2 containing 50 µl l-1 ethylene (C2H4) as a tracer; tracer recovery is used to calculate sample concentrations...

  9. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD's passive method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T A Salama; U Seddik; T M Dsoky; A Ahmed Morsy; R El-Asser

    2006-08-01

    Thorium-to-uranium ratios have been determined in different soil samples using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). A calibration method based on determination of SSNTD registration sensitivity ratio for -particles of thorium and uranium series has been developed. Thorium and uranium contents of the standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. There is a good agreement between the results of this method and the values of standard samples. The method is simple, inexpensive, non-destructive and has a wide range of applications in environment, building materials and petroleum fields.

  10. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  11. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  12. RESULTS FROM EPA FUNDED RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PURGE VOLUME, SAMPLE VOLUME, SAMPLE FLOW RATE AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS ON SOIL GAS CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two research studies funded and overseen by EPA have been conducted since October 2006 on soil gas sampling methods and variations in shallow soil gas concentrations with the purpose of improving our understanding of soil gas methods and data for vapor intrusion applications. Al...

  13. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  14. Performance of a reciprocal shaker in mechanical dispersion of soil samples for particle-size analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Aparecida Dourado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of the samples in soil particle-size analysis is a fundamental step, which is commonly achieved with a combination of chemical agents and mechanical agitation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a low-speed reciprocal shaker for the mechanical dispersion of soil samples of different textural classes. The particle size of 61 soil samples was analyzed in four replications, using the pipette method to determine the clay fraction and sieving to determine coarse, fine and total sand fractions. The silt content was obtained by difference. To evaluate the performance, the results of the reciprocal shaker (RSh were compared with data of the same soil samples available in reports of the Proficiency testing for Soil Analysis Laboratories of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (Prolab/IAC. The accuracy was analyzed based on the maximum and minimum values defining the confidence intervals for the particle-size fractions of each soil sample. Graphical indicators were also used for data comparison, based on dispersion and linear adjustment. The descriptive statistics indicated predominantly low variability in more than 90 % of the results for sand, medium-textured and clay samples, and for 68 % of the results for heavy clay samples, indicating satisfactory repeatability of measurements with the RSh. Medium variability was frequently associated with silt, followed by the fine sand fraction. The sensitivity analyses indicated an accuracy of 100 % for the three main separates (total sand, silt and clay, in all 52 samples of the textural classes heavy clay, clay and medium. For the nine sand soil samples, the average accuracy was 85.2 %; highest deviations were observed for the silt fraction. In relation to the linear adjustments, the correlation coefficients of 0.93 (silt or > 0.93 (total sand and clay, as well as the differences between the angular coefficients and the unit < 0.16, indicated a high correlation between the

  15. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  16. Isolation of Vahlkampfiids (Willaertia magna and Thecamoeba from Soil Samples in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Valladares

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Vahlkampfiids contains wide variety of genuses with some known as human pathogens such as Naegleria, Vahlkampfia and non pathogens such as Willaertia. Since there was no evidence of presence of Vahlkampfiids in different sources in Iran, we have analyzed soil samples to clarify the presence of these amebas."nMethods: Seven soil samples collected in Tehran were analyzed to clarify the presence of Vahlkampfiids in soil sources, using microscopic examination of non nutrient agar cultures and specific Vahlkampfiids primer pair. "nResults: Vahlkampfiids were detected in 2 out of 7 soil samples by direct examination of cultures. Sequence analysis confirmed that Willaertia magna (W. magna was present in 2 samples. Additionally, Thecamoeba were detected in all of soil samples."nConclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of existing W. magna and Thecamoeba in Iran. Over all, more research should be implicated in Iran for identification of Vahlkampfiids within different environmental sources as well as their pathogenic capability relevant for human beings.

  17. Accurately measuring volume of soil samples using low cost Kinect 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterre, Boy-Santhos; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    The 3D scanner of the Kinect game controller can be used to increase the accuracy and efficiency of determining in situ soil moisture content. Soil moisture is one of the principal hydrological variables in both the water and energy interactions between soil and atmosphere. Current in situ measurements of soil moisture either rely on indirect measurements (of electromagnetic constants or heat capacity) or on physically taking a sample and weighing it in a lab. The bottleneck in accurately retrieving soil moisture using samples is the determining of the volume of the sample. Currently this is mostly done by the very time consuming "sand cone method" in which the volume were the sample used to sit is filled with sand. We show that 3D scanner that is part of the 150 game controller extension "Kinect" can be used to make 3D scans before and after taking the sample. The accuracy of this method is tested by scanning forms of known volume. This method is less time consuming and less error-prone than using a sand cone.

  18. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  19. Sulphate reducing activity detected in soil samples from Antarctica, Ecology Glacier Forefield, King George Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolicka, Dorota; Zdanowski, Marek K; Żmuda-Baranowska, Magdalena J; Poszytek, Anna; Grzesiak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We determined sulphate-reducing activities in media inoculated with soils and with kettle lake sediments in order to investigate their potential in geomicrobiological processes in low-temperature, terrestrial maritime Antarctic habitats. Soil and sediment samples were collected in a glacier valley abandoned by Ecology Glacier during the last 30 years: from a new formed kettle lake sediment and forefield soil derived from ground moraine. Inoculated with these samples, liquid Postgate C and minimal media supplemented with various carbon sources as electron donors were incubated for 8 weeks at 4°C. High rates of sulphate reduction were observed only in media inoculated with soil. No sulphate reduction was detected in media inoculated with kettle lake sediments. In soil samples culture media calcite and elemental sulphur deposits were observed, demonstrating that sulphate-reducing activity is associated with a potential to mineral formation in cold environments. Cells observed on scanning microscopy (SEM) micrographs of post-culture-soil deposits could be responsible for sulphate-reducing activity.

  20. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Dong, Guozhu; Pachepsky, Yakov A.

    2015-09-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only the SWRC and SHC measurements are time-consuming, but also their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from available parameters, such as textural data, organic matter, and bulk density have been under investigation for decades, up to now no research has focused on the effect of sample dimensions on the soil hydraulic properties pedotransfer functions development. The main purpose here is investigating sample internal diameter and height (or length) effects on the prediction of the soil water retention curve and the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We, therefore, develop pedotransfer functions using a novel approach called contrast pattern aided regression (CPXR) and consider the sample dimensions as input variables. Two datasets including 210 and 213 soil samples with known sample dimensions were extracted from the UNSODA database to develop and evaluate pedotransfer functions for the SWRC and SHC, respectively. The 10-fold cross-validation method is applied to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed regression-based models. Our results show that including sample dimensions, such as sample internal diameter and height (or length) could substantially improve the accuracy of the SWRC and SHC pedotransfer functions developed using the CPXR method.

  1. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  2. Radon exhalation from Libyan soil samples measured with the SSNTD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A F; Abdallah, R M; Hussein, N A

    2013-02-01

    Radon concentrations in soil samples collected from the cities of Benghazi and Al-Marj, located in northeastern Libya, were measured using the sealed-can technique based on the CR-39 SSNTDs. Mass and areal radon exhalation rates, radium content and radon concentration contribute to indoor radon, and annual effective doses were determined. The results indicate mostly normal rates, but there were some higher levels of radon concentration and emanation in samples collected from Al-Marj and one sample from Benghazi.

  3. Cost and Performance Report of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    semi- volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Objectives of the demonstration This report was completed as a partial fulfillment of...by the need for fewer ISM samples than grab samples to adequately char - acterize a DU. The cost differential between conventional grab samples and ISM...Ranney. 2003b. Evaluation of the Contamination by Explosives in Soils, Biomass and Surface Water at Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR), Alberta, Phase

  4. Study of nitrogen losses at the microcosm in undisturbed soil samples subjected to thermal shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cancelo-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory thermal shocks of different intensity and rainfall simulations were performed in undisturbed Leptic Umbrisol soil samples. Samples were collected in field using specially designed lysimeter boxes to allow sampling, thermal shocks and surface runoff and subsurface flow water collection during the rainfall simulations. Temperature was recorded during heating and degree-hours of accumulated heat were calculated and nitrogen losses in surface and subsurface water collected after two rainfall simulations were determined. Results show losses of total nitrogen from treatments 200 oC and 67 degrees-hours heat supplied in the leachate obtained after 150 mm of simulated rainfall compared with non-heat treated soils. Is remarkable that soils subjected to higher intensity heat treatments (400 oC and 278 67 degrees-hours show greater losses of N-Nitrate and N-Ammonia by subsurface flow, while this behavior was not observed in the other heat treatments.

  5. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  6. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  7. Optimised Spatial Sampling Scheme for Soil Electriclal Conductivity Based on Variance Quad-Tree(VQT)Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SHI Zhou; WU Ci-fang; LI Feng; LI Hong-yi

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of precise soil data representative of the entire survey area,is a critical issue for many treatments such as irrigation or fertilization in precision agriculture.The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variability of soil bulk electrical conductivity(ECb)in a coastal saline field and design an optimized spatial sampling scheme of ECb based on a sampling design algorithm,the variance quad-tree(VQT)method.Soil ECb data were collected from the field at 20m interval in a regular grid scheme.The smooth contour map of the whole field was obtained by ordinary kriging interpolation,VQT algorithm was then used to split the smooth contour map into strata of different number desired,the sampling locations can be selected within each stratum in subsequent sampling.The result indicated that the probability of choosing representative sampling sites was increased significantly by using VQT method with the sampling number being greatly reduced compared to grid sampling design while retaining the same prediction accuracy.The advantage of the VQT method is that this scheme samples sparsely in fields where the spatial variability is relatively uniform and more intensive where the variability is large.Thus the sampling efficiency can be improved,hence facilitate an assessment methodology that can be applied in a rapid,practical and cost-effective manner.

  8. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  9. Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching From Undisturbed Soil Cores Sampled Along a Natural Clay Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann;

    2011-01-01

    The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  10. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte;

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Soil Metal Concentrations in Terms of Differences in Sampling and Analytical Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hyun [Sangji University, Wonju(Korea)

    1998-12-31

    To investigate the effects of inter-related factors affecting the interpretation of soil-metal concentrations, analysis of soil samples was conducted using various comparative steps. To this end, two soil sites were selected to represent both grassland and playground within a school site. Then, two study sites were investigated using 'individual grid' and 'composite' samples after being treated by two extraction methods. Results of our analysis indicated several important aspects of various factors. In general, disturbed soil site (playground) exhibited systematically enhanced metal levels in most cases than undisturbed site (grassland). However, opposite trends were also apparent for some metals including Pb, V and Zn, as their concentrations were higher in undisturbed soils, when analyzed by Korean Standard Method(KSM). The concentration patterns were more complicated, if analyzed in terms of variability within the 9 rectangular grid points of meter-by-meter intervals. Despite many differences arising from various factors involved in their analyses, computation of their arithmetic mean values were almost indistinguishable from that of their geometric mean values. The overall results of this study thus suggest that interpretation of soil-metal data should be handled with great caution. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  13. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John; Nichols, Tonya L; Shah, Sanjiv R; Pemberton, Adin; Schaefer, Frank W

    2016-11-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  15. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  16. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  18. Up-dating the Cholodny method using PET films to sample microbial communities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordium V. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the use of PET (polyethylene terephtalate films as a modern development of Cholodny’s glass slides, to enable microscopy and molecular-based analysis of soil communities where spatial detail at the scale of microbial habitats is essential to understand microbial associations and interactions in this complex environment. Methods. Classical microbiological methods; attachment assay; surface tension measurements; molecular techniques: DNA extraction, PCR; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM; micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (µCT. Results. We first show, using the model soil and rhizosphere bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and P. putida KT2440, that bacteria are able to attach and detach from PET films, and that pre-conditioning with a filtered soil suspension improved the levels of attachment. Bacteria attached to the films were viable and could develop substantial biofilms. PET films buried in soil were rapidly colonised by microorganisms which could be investigated by CLSM and recovered onto agar plates. Secondly, we demonstrate that µCT can be used to non-destructively visualise soil aggregate contact points and pore spaces across the surface of PET films buried in soil. Conclusions. PET films are a successful development of Cholodny’s glass slides and can be used to sample soil communities in which bacterial adherence, growth, biofilm and community development can be investigated. The use of these films with µCT imaging in soil will enable a better understanding of soil micro-habitats and the spatially-explicit nature of microbial interactions in this complex environment.

  19. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  20. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  1. Exploring effective sampling design for monitoring soil organic carbon in degraded Tibetan grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wilkes, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    The effects of climate change and human activities on grassland degradation and soil carbon stocks have become a focus of both research and policy. However, lack of research on appropriate sampling design prevents accurate assessment of soil carbon stocks and stock changes at community and regional scales. Here, we conducted an intensive survey with 1196 sampling sites over an area of 190 km(2) of degraded alpine meadow. Compared to lightly degraded meadow, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadow were reduced by 11.0%, 13.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Our field survey sampling design was overly intensive to estimate SOC status with a tolerable uncertainty of 10%. Power analysis showed that the optimal sampling density to achieve the desired accuracy would be 2, 3, 5 and 7 sites per 10 km(2) for lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadows, respectively. If a subsequent paired sampling design with the optimum sample size were performed, assuming stock change rates predicted by experimental and modeling results, we estimate that about 5-10 years would be necessary to detect expected trends in SOC in the top 20 cm soil layer. Our results highlight the utility of conducting preliminary surveys to estimate the appropriate sampling density and avoid wasting resources due to over-sampling, and to estimate the sampling interval required to detect an expected sequestration rate. Future studies will be needed to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of SOC variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Soil sampling strategies for site assessments in petroleum-contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geonha; Chowdhury, Saikat; Lin, Yen-Min; Lu, Chih-Jen

    2017-04-01

    Environmental site assessments are frequently executed for monitoring and remediation performance evaluation purposes, especially in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-contaminated areas, such as gas stations. As a key issue, reproducibility of the assessment results must be ensured, especially if attempts are made to compare results between different institutions. Although it is widely known that uncertainties associated with soil sampling are much higher than those with chemical analyses, field guides or protocols to deal with these uncertainties are not stipulated in detail in the relevant regulations, causing serious errors and distortion of the reliability of environmental site assessments. In this research, uncertainties associated with soil sampling and sample reduction for chemical analysis were quantified using laboratory-scale experiments and the theory of sampling. The research results showed that the TPH mass assessed by sampling tends to be overestimated and sampling errors are high, especially for the low range of TPH concentrations. Homogenization of soil was found to be an efficient method to suppress uncertainty, but high-resolution sampling could be an essential way to minimize this.

  3. Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Anto Jeya Dayalan; Pramod Darwin; Prakash S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. Methods: The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPlC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. Results: From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth ofPenicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichiacoli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPlC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. Conclusions:The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research

  4. In situ sampling of small volumes of soil solution using modified micro-suction cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jianbo; Hoffland, E.

    2007-01-01

    Two modified designs of micro-pore-water samplers were tested for their capacity to collect unbiased soil solution samples containing zinc and citrate. The samplers had either ceramic or polyethersulfone (PES) suction cups. Laboratory tests of the micro-samplers were conducted using (a) standard sol

  5. EMERGING MODALITIES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2006-04-01

    The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

  6. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  7. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  8. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  9. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol...

  10. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    ire and bitumen particle concentrations are determined in aerosol and soil samples. They each constitute about 5 wt-% of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in inner city air, collected with a Berner low pressure impactor, 5 m from a road. The particle size distribution shows that 92% of...

  11. Carbon transfer from plant roots to soil - NanoSIMS analyses of undisturbed rhizosphere samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Hirte, Juliane; Bender, S. Franz; Mayer, Jochen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soils are composed of a wide diversity of organic and mineral compounds, interacting to form complex mosaics of microenvironments. Roots and microorganisms are both key sources of organic carbon (OC). The volume of soil around living roots, i.e. the rhizosphere, is a privileged area for soil microbial activity and diversity. The microscopic observation of embedded soil sections has been applied since the 1950´s and has enabled observation of the rhizosphere at the smallest scale of organism interaction, i.e. at the level of root cells and bacteria (Alexander and Jackson, 1954). However, the observation of microorganisms in their intact environment, especially in soil, remains challenging. Existing microscopic images do not provide clear evidence of the chemical composition of compounds observed in the rhizosphere. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials. This technic has been increasingly used in soil science during the last decade (Hermann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014) and more specifically for undisturbed soil sample observations (Vidal et al., 2016). In the present study, NanoSIMS was used to illustrate the biological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the rhizosphere at the microscale. To meet this objective, undisturbed rhizosphere samples were collected from a field experiment in Switzerland where wheat plants were pulse-labelled with 99% 13C-CO2 in weekly intervals throughout the growing season and sampled at flowering. Samples were embedded, sectioned, polished and analyzed with NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 13C, 12C14N, 16O, 31P16O2, and 32S. The δ13C maps were obtained thanks to 12C and 13C images. 13C labelled root cells were clearly distinguished on images and presented highly variable δ13C values. Labelled spots (microorganisms were intimately associated with soil particles, forming

  12. Mercury Fractionation in Superficial Sediment and Paddy Soil Samples from Tianjin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhaoji; Fei, Yuhong; Wu, Guoqing; Qian, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Sediment and soil samples from the Beitang River (BR) and the Haihe River (HR) in Tianjin were analyzed to investigate the extent of mercury contamination. The results show that total mercury (THg) contents in the BR and HR sediments were 2241 ± 1024 and 653 ± 450 ng g(-1), and THg in rice paddy soils were 907 ± 345 and 328 ± 286 ng g(-1), respectively. Industrial and domestic sewage were regarded as the main sources of mercury in the two river basins. Sediment-bound mercury in the BR and the HR were found to be predominantly associated with the organic-bound fraction (55 %) and residual fraction and (54 %), while soil-bound mercury was mainly in organic-bound fraction in paddy soils (61 % and 57 %, respectively). The availability of this element (soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fraction) seemed restricted, but significantly higher in the paddy soils than in sediments. Higher soluble and exchangeable, specifically sorbed fraction and organic-bound fraction may promote the higher toxic methylmercury and bioavailable fraction formation in the soils during the rice cultivation.

  13. Distribution and Migration of Heavy Metals in Undisturbed Forest Soils: A High Resolution Sampling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xin-Ling; ZHANG Gan-Lin; NI Liu-Jian; HE Yue

    2008-01-01

    The vertical distribution and migration of Cu,Zn,Pb,and Cd in two forest soil profiles near an industrial emission source were investigated using a high resolution sampling method together with reference element Ti.One-meter soil profile was sectioned horizontally at 2 cm intervals in the first 40 cm,5 cm intervals in the next 40 cm,and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm.The migration distance and rate of heavy metals in the soil profiles were calculated according to their relative concentrations in the profiles,as calibrated by the reference element Ti.The enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the uppermost layer of the forest soil,and the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased down the profile until reaching their background values.The calculated average migration rates of Cd,Cu,Pb,and Zn were 0.70,0.33,0.37,and 0.76cm year-1,respectively,which were comparable to other methods.A simulation model was proposed,which could well describe the distribution of Cu,Zn,Pb,and Cd in natural forest soils.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  15. High prevalence of Pseudomonas species in soil samples from Ternate Island-Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noura; Salih, K M; Jusuf, N H; Hamid, A A; Yusoff, W M W

    2009-07-15

    In the present study, Ten soil samples were examined and the pH of the soil was recorded. For bacterial isolation, a sterile nutrient and blood agars were used. Gram stain and biochemical tests were done for identification. A total of 384 genus were isolated, 314 (81.8%) were identified as Pseudomonas species of which 245 (78.0%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 42 (13.4%) were Pseudomonas fluorescens, 13 (4.2%) were Pseudomonas mallei, 10 (3.1%) were Pseudomonas putida and 4 (1.3%) were Pseudomonas syringe and are regarded as pathogenic and harmful to man, animal and plants. This study shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a high adaptation capability to grow in soil samples from Ternate, Indonesia. The rest of the bacterial isolates (18.2%) were identified as follows: 24 samples (6.2%) were Micrococcus, 23 samples (6.0%) were E. coli, 12 samples (3.1%) were Pasteurella and 11 samples (2.9%) were Staphylococcus. Pencillium was also isolated.

  16. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kuecuekoemeroglu, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey); Keser, R.; Okumusoglu, N.T.; Korkmaz, F. [Department of Physics, University of Rize, Rize, TR 53100 (Turkey); Karahan, G. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center P.O. Box 1, Atatuerk Airport, Istanbul, TR 34381 (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey)], E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr

    2007-11-15

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  17. Detection of organophosphorous pesticides in soil samples with multiwalled carbon nanotubes coating SPME fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xilan; Li, Ying; Jing, Ruijun; Jiang, Xiaoying; Tian, Mengkui

    2014-12-01

    A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique using stainless steel fiber coated with 20 μm multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gas chromatography with thermionic specific detector (GC-TSD) was developed to determine organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in soil. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as extraction time and temperature, ionic strength, the volume of water added to the soil, sample solution volume to headspace volume ratio, desorption time, and desorption temperature were investigated and optimized. Compared to commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 7 μm) fiber, the PDMS fiber was better to be corrected as phorate, whereas the MWCNTs fiber gave slightly better results for methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos and parathion. The optimized SPME method was applied to analyze OPPs in spiked soil samples. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for the four pesticides were <0.216 ng g(-1), and their calibration curves were all linear (r (2) ≥ 0.9908) in the range from 1 to 200 ng g(-1). The precision (RSD, n = 6) for peak areas was 6.5 %-8.8 %. The recovery of the OPPs spiked real soil samples at 50 and 150 ng g(-1) ranged from 89.7 % to 102.9 % and 94.3 % to 118.1 %, respectively.

  18. DNA Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Genotoxic Compounds in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Marconi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA-based biosensor is proposed as a fast and easyscreening method for the detection of genotoxic compounds in soil samples. The biosensorwas assembled by immobilising double stranded Calf thymus DNA on screen-printedelectrodes. The interactions between DNA and environmental pollutants can causevariations of the electrochemical proprieties of DNA when they cause a DNA damage.Preliminary studies were performed using benzene, naphthalene and anthracene derivativesas model compounds. The effect of these compounds on the surface-confined DNA wasfound to be linearly related to their concentration in solution. On the other hand, theobjective was to optimise the ultrasonic extraction conditions of these compounds fromartificially spiked soil samples. Then, the applicability of such a biosensor was evaluated byanalysing soil samples from an Italian region with ecological risk (ACNA of Cengio, SV.DNA biosensor for qualitative analysis of soil presented a good correlation with a semiquantitativemethod for aromatic ring systems determination as fixed wavelengthfluorescence and interestingly, according results were found also with other bioassays.This kind of biosensors represent a new, easy and fast way of analysis of polluted sites, therefore they can be used as early warnings devices in areas with ecological risk as in situ measurement.

  19. Studying {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from soil and sand samples using CR-39 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafi-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Shakeel-ur-Rehman [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rahman, Said [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-07-15

    Accurate knowledge of exhalation rate plays an important role in characterization of the radon source strength in building materials and soil. It is a useful quantity to compare the relative importance of different materials and soil types. Majority of houses in Pakistan are mainly constructed from soil and sand. Therefore, studies concerning the determination of radon exhalation rate from these materials were carried out using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. In this context, samples were collected from different towns of the Bahawalpur Division, Punjab and major cities of NWFP. After treatment, samples were placed in plastic containers and dosimeters were installed in it at heights of 25cm above the surface of the samples. These containers were hermetically sealed and stored for three weeks to attain equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra. After exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were etched in 25% NaOH at 80 deg. C for 16h. From the measured radon concentration values, {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates were determined. It ranged from 1.56 to 3.33Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for the soil collected from the Bahawalpur Division and 2.49-4.66Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for NWFP. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates from the sand samples were found to range from 2.78 to 20.8Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for the Bahawalpur Division and from 0.99 to 4.2Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} for NWFP. {sup 226}Ra contents were also determined in the above samples which ranged from 28 to 36.5Bqkg{sup -1} in the soil samples collected from the Bahawalpur Division and from 40.9 to 51.9Bqkg{sup -1} in the samples collected from NWFP. In sand samples, {sup 226}Ra contents ranged from 49.2 to 215Bqkg{sup -1} and 22.6-27Bqkg{sup -1} in the samples collected from the Bahawalpur Division and NWFP, respectively. {sup 226}Ra contents in these samples were also determined using HPGe detector. The results of both the techniques are in good agreement within experimental errors.

  20. Radioactivity measurements in soil samples collected in the Republic of Srpska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovic, Marija [Institute Vinca, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: marijam@vin.bg.ac.yu; Todorovic, Dragana [Institute Vinca, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savanovic, Milovan [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Mladena Stojanovica 2, 78000 Banjaluka, Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2008-09-15

    During 2005 and 2006, soil samples were collected from different regions in the Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the war that lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in the Republic of Srpska were imposed upon by NATO forces. Sampled locations were chosen far away from the bombed places in order to check whether the depleted uranium was dispersed over long distances. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). Results showed the presence of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U as well as the produced radionuclide {sup 137}Cs (from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear probes). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated.

  1. Investigating the impact of storage conditions on microbial community composition in soil samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E R Rubin

    Full Text Available Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have allowed scientists to probe increasingly complex biological systems, including the diversity of bacteria in the environment. However, despite a multitude of recent studies incorporating these methods, many questions regarding how environmental samples should be collected and stored still persist. Here, we assess the impact of different soil storage conditions on microbial community composition using Illumina-based 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing. Both storage time and temperature affected bacterial community composition and structure. Frozen samples maintained the highest alpha diversity and differed least in beta diversity, suggesting the utility of cold storage for maintaining consistent communities. Samples stored for intermediate times (three and seven days had both the highest alpha diversity and the largest differences in overall beta diversity, showing the degree of community change after sample collection. These divergences notwithstanding, differences in neither storage time nor storage temperature substantially altered overall communities relative to more than 500 previously examined soil samples. These results systematically support previous studies and stress the importance of methodological consistency for accurate characterization and comparison of soil microbiological assemblages.

  2. An integrated approach to soil structure, shrinkage, and cracking in samples and layers

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recent model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is step-by-step transformed into the shrinkage curve of an aggregated soil at any clay content if it is measured on samples so small that cracks do not occur at shrinkage. Such a shrinkage curve was called a reference curve. The present work generalizes this model to any soil sample size or layer thickness, i.e., to any crack contribution to the shrinkage curve. The approach is based on: (i) recently suggested features of an intra-aggregate structure; (ii) detailed accounting for the contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage; and (iii) new concepts of lacunar factor, crack factor, and critical sample size. The following input parameters are needed for the prediction: (i) all parameters determining the basic dependence of the reference shrinkage curve; (ii) parameters determining the critical sample size (structural porosity and minimum and maximum aggregate size at maximum swelling); and (iii) initial sample size or layer thickness. A ...

  3. Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples in North-Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Lorenzo Morales, Jacob; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-02-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoebae (FLA) which has been reported as the causative agent of the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE). Currently, the transmission dynamics of this pathogen remain poorly understood although the organism has been associated with soils, and thus, soil exposure has been identified as a risk factor for this pathogenic amoeba. Nevertheless, environmental isolation of B. mandrillaris is a rare event and strains of this amoebic species have been isolated from soil and dust sources only in seven previous reports (Iran, Mexico, USA, Peru, Costa Rica, Guinea Bissau, and Jamaica). In Iran, a previous study reported the isolation of B. mandrillaris from dust collected in the city of Tehran and free of known infectious involvement. Therefore, in this work, 55 soil samples collected from public and recreational areas of East Azerbaijan, North-Western Iran, were investigated for the presence of this pathogen. Samples were cultured in 2% non-nutrient agar plates and were monitored for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of B. mandrillaris. The obtained results revealed the presence of this emerging pathogen in 5 of 55 samples included in the study. Homology analysis of the obtained DNA sequences revealed high similarity with previously isolated strains from clinical and environmental sources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris from soil sources in Iran related to human activity and the second time that this pathogen is isolated from the environment in this country.

  4. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  5. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  6. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils....... It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods...... cm intact soil columns sampled from the same field grid also showed that the largest mass of particles and phosphorus leached from this part of the field. Thus, the presented WDC method comparison and results seem highly relevant in regard to field-scale mapping of leaching risk in regard to colloid...

  7. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven. The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site. This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A;

    Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils....... It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods...... cm intact soil columns sampled from the same field grid also showed that the largest mass of particles and phosphorus leached from this part of the field. Thus, the presented WDC method comparison and results seem highly relevant in regard to field-scale mapping of leaching risk in regard to colloid...

  9. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  10. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  11. Application of a Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction sample preparation method with HPLC for soil fungal biomass determination in soils from a detrital manipulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, Áron; Lajtha, Kate; Kozma, János; Fekete, István

    2017-05-01

    Ergosterol is a sterol found ubiquitously in cell membranes of filamentous fungi. Although concentrations in different fungal species span the range of 2.6 to 42μg/mL of dry mass, many studies have shown a strong correlation between soil ergosterol content and fungal biomass. The analysis of ergosterol in soil therefore could be an effective tool for monitoring changes in fungal biomass under different environmental conditions. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) is a new sample preparation method to extract and concentrate organic analytes from liquid samples. SBSE was here demonstrated to be a simple, fast, and cost effective method for the quantitative analysis of ergosterol from field-collected soils. Using this method we observed that soil ergosterol as a measure of fungal biomass proved to be a sensitive indicator of soil microbial dynamics that were altered by changes in plant detrital inputs to soils in a long-term field experiment.

  12. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  13. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  14. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples.

  15. Molecular sieve sampling of CO{sub 2} from decomposition of soil organic matter for AMS radiocarbon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, K. [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 (Finland); Fritze, H. [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Vantaa (Finland); Jungner, H. [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 (Finland); Karhu, K. [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland); Oinonen, M., E-mail: markku.j.oinonen@helsinki.f [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 (Finland); Sonninen, E. [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 (Finland); Spetz, P.; Tuomi, M.; Vanhala, P.; Liski, J. [Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    A molecular sieve based procedure has been established for sampling CO{sub 2} of decomposing soil organic matter for AMS radiocarbon measurements. The sampling and desorption lines are capable to produce well measurable (>1 mg) AMS targets.

  16. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  17. An Alternate Method for Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic Determination of Soil Nitrate Using Derivative Analysis and Sample Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choe, E.; Meer, van der F.; Rossiter, D.; Salm, van der C.; Kim, K.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at examining effective sample treatments and spectral processing for an alternate method of soil nitrate determination using the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prior to FTIR measurements, soil samples were prepared as paste to e

  18. Estimation of radioecological parameters of soil samples from a phosphatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Shaaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for a set of 31 agricultural soil samples from the Nile River banks in the area of El-Sebaiya city, Aswan Governorate, Egypt were measured by gamma-spectrometry. The study revealed that the average activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 23.2 ± 2.8Bq/kg, 21.1 ± 2.8 Bq/kg, and 218.6 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results of the activity concentrations are within the range of values reported for neighbouring areas in Egypt. The values obtained for the hazard indices and the representative level index in all sampling sites were lower than unity, showing that there is no significant risk arising from the exposure to the soil in the studied area. The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose in air outdoors and indoors were calculated from 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil, the average values being 32.64 nGy/h, 40.06 µSv, and 160.25 µSv, respectively. The absorbed dose rate at the eastof El-Sebaiya city is higher than that obtained for the west because of higher concentrations of tri-calcium phosphate in the soil. The studied area is not significantly affected by the industrial activities, except for a few isolated spots.

  19. Comparison of USEPA digestion methods to heavy metals in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Biondi, Caroline Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The use of appropriate analytical methods is of paramount importance for risk assessment and monitoring of potentially toxic metals in soils. In this sense, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two sample digestion methods, recommended by the Brazilian legislation for the management of contaminated areas (CONAMA 2009), aiming at the determination of environmentally available metal concentrations (USEPA 3050B, USEPA 3051A), as well as a total digestion method (USEPA 3052). Samples from 10 classes of soils were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Hg. The results showed that the USEPA method 3051A is more efficient than the USEPA method 3050B in the extraction of levels considered environmentally available of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni. Besides providing a higher recovery of these elements, the method requires shorter digestion time, lower consumption of acids, and reduced risk of contamination. The USEPA method 3051A showed greater efficiency in Hg extraction in soils with higher clay content. Therefore, it is suitable for situations where a wide range of soils with different mineralogical characteristics are analyzed or in order to decrease the losses due to volatilization of the element in open systems.

  20. Sampling Soil CO2 for Isotopic Flux Partitioning: Non Steady State Effects and Methodological Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, H. S. K.; Robinson, D.; Midwood, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of δ13C of soil CO2 are used to partition the surface flux into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Models predict that the δ13CO2 of the soil efflux is perturbed by non-steady state (NSS) diffusive conditions. These could be large enough to render δ13CO2 unsuitable for accurate flux partitioning. Field studies sometimes find correlations between efflux δ13CO2 and flux or temperature, or that efflux δ13CO2 is not correlated as expected with biological drivers. We tested whether NSS effects in semi-natural soil were comparable with those predicted. We compared chamber designs and their sensitivity to changes in efflux δ13CO2. In a natural soil mesocosm, we controlled temperature to generate NSS conditions of CO2 production. We measured the δ13C of soil CO2 using in situ probes to sample the subsurface, and dynamic and forced-diffusion chambers to sample the surface efflux. Over eight hours we raised soil temperature by 4.5 OC to increase microbial respiration. Subsurface CO2 concentration doubled, surface efflux became 13C-depleted by 1 ‰ and subsurface CO2 became 13C-enriched by around 2 ‰. Opposite changes occurred when temperature was lowered and CO2 production was decreasing. Different chamber designs had inherent biases but all detected similar changes in efflux δ13CO2, which were comparable to those predicted. Measurements using dynamic chambers were more 13C-enriched than expected, probably due to advection of CO2 into the chamber. In the mesocosm soil, δ13CO2 of both efflux and subsurface was determined by physical processes of CO2 production and diffusion. Steady state conditions are unlikely to prevail in the field, so spot measurements of δ13CO2 and assumptions based on the theoretical 4.4 ‰ diffusive fractionation will not be accurate for estimating source δ13CO2. Continuous measurements could be integrated over a period suitable to reduce the influence of transient NSS conditions. It will be difficult to disentangle

  1. Rapid Cloning and Expression of Glutaryl-7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid Acylase Genes from Soil Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hui; YU Huimin; LI Qiang; SHEN Zhongyao

    2005-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy was developed to rapidly obtain the gene encoding for an industrially important enzyme, glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7-ACA) acylase. Different soil samples were cultured with a Pseudomonas selective medium to enrich specific microorganisms, and then the genomic DNA was extracted to serve as PCR templates. PCR primers for GL-7-ACA acylase gene amplification were designed on the basis of bioinformatics searches and analyses. The method was used to successfully amplify three GL-7-ACA acylase genes from different soil samples. The GL-7-ACA acylase genes were then cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a relatively high level of 266 unit·L-1.

  2. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: l.beesley@2007.ljmu.ac.u [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  3. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... experiments, the disaggregation provided a good prediction of the soil types, despite the coarse scale of the input maps....

  4. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil and sediment samples from Siwa Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Wael M.; Ali, Khaled; El-Samman, Hussein M.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Gundorina, Svetlana F.; Duliu, Octavian G.

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study geochemical peculiarities of the Siwa Oasis in the Western Egyptian Desert. A total of 34 elements were determined in soil and sediment samples (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U). For data interpretation Cluster analysis was applied. Comparison with the available literature data was carried out.

  6. Insights into bacterial cellulose biosynthesis by functional metagenomics on Antarctic soil samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemont, Renaud; Delsaute, Maud; Pipers, Delphine; D'Amico, Salvino; Feller, Georges; Galleni, Moreno; Power, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the mining of an Antarctic soil sample by functional metagenomics allowed the isolation of a cold-adapted protein (RBcel1) that hydrolyzes only carboxymethyl cellulose. The new enzyme is related to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH5) protein from Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pst_2494) and does not possess a carbohydrate-binding domain. The protein was produced and purified to homogeneity. RBcel1 displayed an endoglucanase activity, producing cellobiose and cellotriose, using carb...

  7. Screening of pesticide residues in soil and water samples from agricultural settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djouaka Rousseau F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of agricultural practices in the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has so far been hypothesized without clear evidence. Many mosquito species, Anopheles gambiae in particular, lay their eggs in breeding sites located around agricultural settings. There is a probability that, as a result of farming activities, insecticide residues may be found in soil and water, where they exercise a selection pressure on the larval stage of various populations of mosquitoes. To confirm this hypothesis, a study was conducted in the Republic of Benin to assess the environmental hazards which can be generated from massive use of pesticides in agricultural settings. Methods Lacking an HPLC machine for direct quantification of insecticide residues in samples, this investigation was performed using indirect bioassays focussed on the study of factors inhibiting the normal growth of mosquito larvae in breeding sites. The speed of development was monitored as well as the yield of rearing An. gambiae larvae in breeding sites reconstituted with water and soil samples collected in agricultural areas known to be under pesticide pressure. Two strains of An. gambiae were used in this indirect bioassay: the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain and the resistant Ladji strain. The key approach in this methodology is based on comparison of the growth of larvae in test and in control breeding sites, the test samples having been collected from two vegetable farms. Results Results obtained clearly show the presence of inhibiting factors on test samples. A normal growth of larvae was observed in control samples. In breeding sites simulated by using a few grams of soil samples from the two vegetable farms under constant insecticide treatments (test samples, a poor hatching rate of Anopheles eggs coupled with a retarded growth of larvae and a low yield of adult mosquitoes from hatched eggs, was noticed. Conclusion Toxic factors

  8. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Real-time immuno-PCR assay for detecting PCBs in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yu; Zhuang, Hui-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    A fast and robust assay, based on immuno-polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) techniques, was developed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples. Real-time IPCR (rt-IPCR) is a powerful technique that combines enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the specificity and sensitivity of PCR. In our assay, indirect ELISAs based on immobilization of PCB37 hapten-ovalbumin conjugates was used for evaluation of the immune response. The effect of optimal reagent concentrations to reduce background fluorescence was also investigated. Using the optimized assay, the linear sensitivity range of the assay covered more than six orders of magnitude, and the minimum detection limits reached 5 fg ml(-1) antigen. Rt-IPCR was tested for its cross-reactivity profiles using four selected congeners and four Aroclor products. The assays were highly specific for congeners but less specific for Aroclor1242. We took four soil samples to validate the method, and the results were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The rt-IPCR results for soil samples correlated well with the concentrations of PCBs obtained by GC/MS (r = 0.99, n = 6). These data indicate that this highly specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be modified for detecting PCB compounds in the environment.

  10. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  11. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  12. In vitro antifungal activities of Actinomyces species isolated from soil samples against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Keikha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cutaneous infections arise from a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Since these pathogenic dermatophytes are eukaryotes in nature, use of chemical antifungal agents for treatment may affect the host tissue cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Actinomyces species against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (abbreviated as T. mentagrophytes. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Material and Methods: In total, 100 strains of Actinomyces species were isolated from soil samples in order to determine their antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes in Kerman, Iran. The electron microscopic study of these isolates was performed, based on the physiological properties of these antagonists (e.g., lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase, using relevant protocols. The isolates were identified using gene 16S rDNA via PCR technique. Results: Streptomyces flavogriseus, Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and Streptomyces rochei were isolated and exhibited the most significant antagonistic activities against T. mentagrophytes. Images were obtained by an electron microscope and some spores, mycelia and morphology of spore chains were identified. Molecular, morphological and biochemical characteristics of these isolates were studied, using the internal 16S rDNA gene. Active isolates of Streptomyces sequence were compared to GenBank sequences. According to nucleotide analysis, isolate D5 had maximum similarity to Streptomyces flavogriseus (99%. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Streptomyces isolates from soil samples could exert antifungal effects on T. mentagrophytes

  13. The measurement of radioactivity in water and soil samples from Republic of Srpska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, D.J.; Jankovic, M.M.

    2008-07-01

    During 2005 and 2006 water and soil samples were collected from different regions in Republic of Srpska, in order to evaluate their radioactivity. During the War lasted from 1994 to 1995, it is known that some locations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republic of Srpska belongs territorially to Bosnia and Herzegovina) were imposed by NATO forces and targeted by depleted uranium. For investigation we chose locations which are far away from the bombed places in order to check whether the depleted uranium was dispersed on long distances. The activity concentrations of radio-nuclides in water and soil samples were determined by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%). Results showed the presence of natural radio-nuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U as well as the produced radionuclide 137Cs. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated for soil samples. (author)(tk)

  14. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Bala; Vinod Kumar; Rohit Mehra

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg⁻¹ with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg⁻¹ . The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ (granite) with a mean value of59.94 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹.

  15. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  16. The main physical properties of planosol in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation under different long-term reduced tillage practices in the Baltic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kstutis Romaneckas; Egidijusarauskis; DovilAviienyt; Sidona Buragien; David Arney

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sustainable reduced til age (RT) on the physical properties of soil is wel documented worldwide;however, there is no precise information about the inlfuence of long-term RT or no-til (NT) on the soils at the boundary for grain maize-growing in the semi-humid subarctic climate conditions of the Baltic states, especial y on the formation of a hard-ened upper soil layer (10–15 cm in depth)-“loosening hardpan”. This study was carried out at the Research Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania from 2009–2012. The investigations were based on a long-term (since 1988) ifeld experiment. The aim of the investigation was to ascertain the inlfuence of reduced primary til age on the main soil’s physical properties. This study examined soils that were deep ploughing (DP), shal ow ploughing (SP), deep cultivation (DC), shal ow cultivation (SC), and no-til (NT). Reducing the til age intensity to NT had no signiifcant effect on the structural soil’s composition;however, the stability of the structure of the>1 and>0.25 mm-size fractions was signiifcantly higher in the non-reversibly til ed (DC, SC) and NT plots. The penetration resistance of the DP soils was less after primary til age and wintering, and became similar to the NT plots at the end of the maize growth season. After primary til age and wintering, the soil moisture content in the upper soil layer (0–5 cm depth) of the NT plots was 17–49 and 16–18%higher than that in the DP. Long-term reduction of primary til age up to NT general y had no signiifcant effect on the moisture content and soil bulk density of the 0–10 and 10–20 cm layers. The results showed that long-term RT stabilized the physical quality of soil. Less soil penetration resistance was established in the DP plots compared to both RT and NT, however, indicators of the formation of a uniform“loosening hardpan”layer were not found. It is summarized that long-term RT or NT systems stabilize, or may increase

  17. [Physical and chemical methods for eliminating propagules of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from soil samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covacevich, Fernanda; Castellari, Claudia C; Echeverría, Hernán E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate methods to eliminate or reduce the number of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from soil samples without affecting their edaphic or microbiological properties. At an early trial we evaluated moist heat (autoclaving), dry heat (oven), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde at a range of 100.0-3.3μl/g and 16.7-3.3μl/g respectively. There was no germination in plants of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sown on substrates receiving NaClO (100.0-33.3μl/g), whereas autoclaving significantly increased the available soil phosphorous content. Both treatments failed to eradicate AMF colonization at 9 weeks; therefore, they were discarded. In a second trial, oven and formaldehyde (10.0μl/g) treatments were analyzed to assess the effects of seed decontamination and AMF reinoculation. Both procedures were effective in reducing or eliminating indigenous AMF at a range of soil P availability of 12-29mg/kg. However, the time between soil treatment and AMF multiplication and safety requirements were greater in the case of formaldehyde application. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of {sup 7}BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas e Hidrotecnicas (CIHH/UTP-PA), Universidad Tecnologica de Panama (Panama); Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cosmogenic {sup 7}Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The {sup 7}Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. {sup 7}Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to {sup 228}Ac (E{sub γ} = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the {sup 7}Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of {sup 228}Ac in the {sup 7}Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  19. Caesium-137 soil sampling and inventory variability in reference locations: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ross A.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sampling design, the number of samples collected and the lateral variation of caesium-137 (137Cs) in uneroded reference locations were extracted from previously published work. The focus was on published work which used 137Cs reference inventory (Bq m-2) for qualitative or quantitative estimation of sediment redistribution (SRD) within the landscape. The objective of this study was to address one of the methodological concerns facing the 137Cs technique - that is, the lack of a rigorous statistical treatment of reference locations. The limited attention paid to the reference location is not justified as true estimates of SRD are based on the assumption of an unbiased, independent, random probability sample estimate, commonly the arithmetic mean. Results from the literature survey indicated that only 11% of the reference locations sampled for 137Cs expressly stated that a probability sampling design was used (transect or systematic-aligned grid). The remaining locations were generally sampled using a non-probability based design, more commonly known as haphazard sampling. Of the 75 reference study areas identified only 40 provided enough information to determine the dispersion around the mean, and from this the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all available data. The median CV was 19·3%, with 95% confidence limits of 13·0-23.4%, indicating that approximately 11 random, independent samples would generally be necessary to adequately quantify the reference 137Cs area activity with an allowable error of 10% at 90% confidence. Further analysis indicated that only one-third of the studies sampled a sufficient number of 137Cs reference locations. This value would actually be lower as sampling frameworks were based on non-probability sampling procedures. For 137Cs reference locations it is recommended that a probability sampling design be utilized, preferably the systematic-aligned grid method, and as a minimum first-order estimate about 11 samples

  20. Analysis and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and Plant Samples of a Coal Mining Area in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, K E; Ukoha, P O

    2016-03-01

    This study analysed coal, plant and soil samples collected from the vicinity of Okobo coal mine in Nigeria for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluated the sources of the PAH contamination in the environmental samples. The environmental samples were extracted by sonication using a ternary solvent system and analysed for 16 PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analysis of the samples identified some of the target PAHs. The ranges of total concentrations (in mg/kg) of PAHs in the coal, plant and soil samples were, 0.00-0.04, 0.00-0.16 and 0.00-0.01 respectively. The evaluation of the results of the PAH analysis of the environmental samples using diagnostic ratios revealed that the PAHs in the soil samples were mainly of petrogenic origin, while those in plant samples indicated mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic origins.

  1. Transgenic nematodes as biosensors for metal stress in soil pore water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Charumathi; Lafayette, Ivan; Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa; Haque, Mainul; King, John; Johnsen, Bob; Baillie, David; Gutierrez, Carmen; Martin, Jose A Rodriguez; de Pomerai, David

    2012-03-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying stress-reporter green fluorescent protein transgenes were used to explore patterns of response to metals. Multiple stress pathways were induced at high doses by most metals tested, including members of the heat shock, oxidative stress, metallothionein (mtl) and xenobiotic response gene families. A mathematical model (to be published separately) of the gene regulatory circuit controlling mtl production predicted that chemically similar divalent metals (classic inducers) should show additive effects on mtl gene induction, whereas chemically dissimilar metals should show interference. These predictions were verified experimentally; thus cadmium and mercury showed additive effects, whereas ferric iron (a weak inducer) significantly reduced the effect of mercury. We applied a similar battery of tests to diluted samples of soil pore water extracted centrifugally after mixing 20% w/w ultrapure water with air-dried soil from an abandoned lead/zinc mine in the Murcia region of Spain. In addition, metal contents of both soil and soil pore water were determined by ICP-MS, and simplified mixtures of soluble metal salts were tested at equivalent final concentrations. The effects of extracted soil pore water (after tenfold dilution) were closely mimicked by mixtures of its principal component ions, and even by the single most prevalent contaminant (zinc) alone, though other metals modulated its effects both positively and negatively. In general, mixtures containing similar (divalent) metal ions exhibited mainly additive effects, whereas admixture of dissimilar (e.g. trivalent) ions often resulted in interference, reducing overall levels of stress-gene induction. These findings were also consistent with model predictions.

  2. Radon exhalation rate from the soil, sand and brick samples collected from NWFP and FATA, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Said; Mati, N; Matiullah; Ghauri, Badar

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterise the building materials as an indoor radon source, knowledge of the radon exhalation rate from these materials is very important. In this regard, soil, sand and brick samples were collected from different places of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan. The samples were processed and placed in plastic containers. NRPB radon dosemeters were installed in it at heights of 25 cm above the surface of the samples and containers were then hermetically sealed. After 40-80 d of exposure to radon, CR-39 detectors were removed from the dosemeter holders and etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C for 16 h. From the measured radon concentration values, (222)Rn exhalation rates were determined. Exhalation rate form soil, sand and brick samples was found to vary from 114 +/- 11 to 416 +/- 9 mBq m(-2) h(-1), 205 +/- 16 to 291 +/- 13 mBq m(-2) h(-1) and 245 +/- 12 to 365 +/- 11 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively.

  3. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J; Hrenn, H; Schumm, C; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A

    2006-11-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area.

  4. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic composition was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry. There was a little deviation of U/Th ratio from the average values in some soil samples. Presence of 236U as well as depleted uranium was observed in 235U/238U ratio measurement in the same soil sample.

  5. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

  6. Space Weathering of Olivine in Lunar Soils: A Comparison to Itokawa Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith particles from airless bodies preserve a record of the space weathering processes that occurred during their surface exposure history. These processes have major implications for interpreting remote-sensing data from airless bodies. Solar wind irradiation effects occur in the rims of exposed grains, and impact processes result in the accumulation of vapordeposited elements and other surface-adhering materials. The grains returned from the surface of Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission allow the space weathering "style" of a chondritic, asteroidal "soil" to be compared to the lunar case. Here, we present new studies of space-weathered olivine grains from lunar soils, and compare these results to olivine grains from Itokawa. Samples and Methods: We analyzed microtome thin sections of olivine grains from the 20-45 micron fractions of three lunar soils: 71061, 71501 and 10084 (immature, submature and mature, respectively). Imaging and analytical data were obtained using a JEOL 2500SE 200kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope equipped with a thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Similar analyses were obtained from three Hayabusa olivine grains. Results and Discussion: We observed lunar grains showing a range of solar flare track densities (from olivines all show disordered, highly strained, nanocrystalline rims up to 150-nm thick. The disordered rim thickness is positively correlated with solar flare track density. All of the disordered rims are overlain by a Si-rich amorphous layer, ranging up to 50-nm thick, enriched in elements that are not derived from the host olivine (e.g., Ca, Al, and Ti). The outmost layer represents impact-generated vapor deposits typically observed on other lunar soil grains. The Hayabusa olivine grains show track densities olivines in immature and submature lunar soils and indicate surface exposures of approx. 10(exp 5) years. The outermost few nanometers of the disordered rims on Hayabusa olivines are

  7. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  8. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z. [GEO-ECO TAO, Geo-Ecology, Testing and Assessment Operations, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2005-07-01

    State of environment in Georgia is influenced significantly by political and economic situation of the last several years.The consequences of these conditions are pollution of water, air, and soil with health-hazardous emissions, dissemination of uncontrolled waste, highly toxic substances and unfit military and industrial materials in civil, agricultural, and military sites and respective facilities. In Georgia the specific problems of soil contamination are: spot type distribution of contaminants; simultaneous (synergetic) impacts of various pollutants; chronic and enduring impacts; pollution of moderate or low intensity. Pollutants, at low doses, may not cause immediate changes; however in some time they can create danger and become the risk factors for acquired lethal diseases developed in living organisms and accumulated in environment. Several cases of contamination with radionuclide substances distribution have been detected on in a number of regions in Georgia, which became the range for investigation of specific, spot type of pollution. The soil samples contaminated with following nuclides were studied: Single sources {sup 226}Ra, Dust {sup 226}Ra, Single sources {sup 90}Sr, Single sources {sup 137}Cs. The main goal of the team is complex study of contaminated territories. In parallel with polluted spots' indication, the investigation of ecological systems' reactions to diverse impacts is carried out. Bioassays application significantly increases quality and reliability of: assessment of contaminated territories; selection of optimal and available technologies for sanation and remediation; recommendations on urgent measures. As bio-indicators the main groups of microorganisms were studied: Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte fungi. The primary results showed that behaviour of observed microorganisms colonies could be satisfactorily described with the following parameters: CCU; Meeting factor; Diameter of colonies; Morphological similarity and

  9. A survey on the pathogenic fungi in soil samples of potted plants from Sari hospitals, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, M T; Mohseni-Bandpi, A; Moradi, S

    2004-09-01

    A total of 23 soil samples of potted plants was collected from hospitals in Sari, Iran. Each sample contained approximately 200 g soil, taken from a depth of 0-10 cm of the pots. Samples were analysed by two different methods. (1) Culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol (SC); cultured fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic characterization. (2) The hair-baiting technique (HBT) was used to isolate the keratinophilic fungi. After culture on SC medium, 100% of plates were positive for fungal growth, and in total 1150 colonies with 13 different types of fungi were isolated. Penicillium spp. (52%), Acremonium spp. (20%), Paecilomyces spp. (11.9%), Cladsporium spp. (3.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (3.1%) were the predominant fungal species. Rhizopus spp. (0.1%) were less frequent. Keratinophilic fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum cookei and Chrysosporium spp. were isolated using HBT. The presence of pathogenic fungi such as Cladosporium spp, Aspergillus spp, M. gypseum, and M. cookei in potted plants in hospitals represents a potential source of nosocomial infection.

  10. A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

  11. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates....... Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were...

  12. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...... and the so-called degree of P saturation (oxalate-extractable P on iron and aluminum minerals). Because higher colloidal P concentration was countered by a lower colloidal leaching, the total amount of leached P stayed remarkably constant along the natural clay gradient....

  13. Study of the radiological doses and hazard indices in soil samples from Karbala city, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kaabi, Mohammed Abdulhussain; Al-Shimary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The radiological doses and hazard indices of natural radionuclides $^{238}$U,$^{232}$Th and $^{40} $K in soil samples from Kerbala city were evaluated using gamma-ray spectroscopy system using NaI(Tl) ${"1.5\\times 2"}$ detector in low-background with 24 hour. The average values of absorbed gamma-ray dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and annual gonadal dose equivalent were found to be 90.83$\\pm$2.00 nGy/h, 111.89$\\pm$2.46 $\\mu$Sv/y and 640.85$\\pm$15.44 $\\mu$Sv/y respectively. The ave...

  14. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj; Waenlor Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, T...

  16. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  17. Carbon mineralisation and plant growth in soil amended with compost samples at different degrees of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Antonio; Bernal, María Pilar; Roig, Asunción

    2003-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen mineralisation of a composting mixture of brewing yeast and lemon tree prunings was studied, at different degrees of stabilisation of this matrix, within an incubation experiment in soil. Meanwhile, a growth test in pots with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was carried out using the selected soil and equal amounts of the composting mixture taken at different maturation steps, in order to evaluate the additions of these organic amendments in terms of fertilising value. Samples of the composting mixture, when poorly transformed through the biostabilisation process, showed high CO2-C releases in the soil, due to the microbial attack on easily degradable organic fractions still present in the mixture, with 24.7% mineralisation of the initial total organic carbon (TOC) after a 70 day incubation. On the other hand, mature compost was the most stable matrix, with only 5.4% of TOC mineralised after 70 days. Furthermore, amendments with the initial composting mixture led to negative net N-mineralisation during 56 days of incubation with soil. Only slight negative values of the net N-mineralisation were detected with fully stabilised compost. Nevertheless, pot experiments with ryegrass revealed that mature compost may promote N mineralisation to certain extents. Moreover, mature compost did not produce any phytotoxic effect, behaving as a slow-action organic fertiliser with N made available through a progressive mineralisation. Thus, the results gained through this study are a confirmation that the fertilising quality of a compost destined for agricultural uses is heavily affected by the complete exhaustion of the maturation reactions.

  18. Part A: Geochemistry of Soil Samples from 50 Solution-Collapse Features on the Coconino Plateau, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Wenrich, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    Soil sampling surveys were conducted during 1984-1986 across 50 solution-collapse features exposed on the Coconino Plateau of northern Arizona in order to determine whether soil geochemistry can be used to distinguish mineralized breccia pipes from unmineralized collapse features. The 50 sampled features represent the variety of collapse features that crop out on plateau surfaces in northwestern Arizonaoodeeplyorooted solution-collapse breccia pipes, near-surface gypsum collapses, and sinkholes. Of the 50 features that were sampled in this study, 3 are confirmed breccia pipes that contain significant uranium and base-metal minerals, I is believed to be a sinkhole with no economic potential, and 4 are stratabound copper deposits whose possible relationship to breccia pipes is yet to be determined. The remaining collapse features are suspected to overlie breccia pipes, although some of these may represent near surface gypsum collapse features. However, no exploratory drilling results or breccia exposures exist to indicate their underlying structure. The low cost and ease of soil sampling suggested that this technique be evaluated for breccia pipe exploration. This report provides the locations and geochemical results for the soil sampling surveys and brief descriptions of the 50 collapse features. The analytical results of almost 2,000 soil samples are provided in tabular hardcopy and dBase III Plus diskcopy format. The analytical data is provided in digital format to allow the reader to choose their own methods for evaluating the effectiveness of soil sampling over known and suspected breccia pipes. A pilot survey conducted over 17 collapse features in 1984 suggested that soil sampling might be useful in distinguishing mineralized breccia pipes from other circular features. Followup detailed surveys in 1985 and 1986 used a radial sampling pattern at each of 50 sites; at least one third of the samples were collected from areas outside of the collapse feature to

  19. Part D: Geochemistry of Soil Samples from 50 Solution-Collapse Features on the Coconino Plateau, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Wenrich, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    Soil sampling surveys were conducted during 1984-1986 across 50 solution-collapse features exposed on the Coconino Plateau of northern Arizona in order to determine whether soil geochemistry can be used to distinguish mineralized breccia pipes from unmineralized collapse features. The 50 sampled features represent the variety of collapse features that crop out on plateau surfaces in northwestern Arizonaoodeeplyorooted solution-collapse breccia pipes, near-surface gypsum collapses, and sinkholes. Of the 50 features that were sampled in this study, 3 are confirmed breccia pipes that contain significant uranium and base-metal minerals, I is believed to be a sinkhole with no economic potential, and 4 are stratabound copper deposits whose possible relationship to breccia pipes is yet to be determined. The remaining collapse features are suspected to overlie breccia pipes, although some of these may represent near surface gypsum collapse features. However, no exploratory drilling results or breccia exposures exist to indicate their underlying structure. The low cost and ease of soil sampling suggested that this technique be evaluated for breccia pipe exploration. This report provides the locations and geochemical results for the soil sampling surveys and brief descriptions of the 50 collapse features. The analytical results of almost 2,000 soil samples are provided in tabular hardcopy and dBase III Plus diskcopy format. The analytical data is provided in digital format to allow the reader to choose their own methods for evaluating the effectiveness of soil sampling over known and suspected breccia pipes. A pilot survey conducted over 17 collapse features in 1984 suggested that soil sampling might be useful in distinguishing mineralized breccia pipes from other circular features. Followup detailed surveys in 1985 and 1986 used a radial sampling pattern at each of 50 sites; at least one third of the samples were collected from areas outside of the collapse feature to

  20. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Kai-Wei; Lee, Dar-Yuan; Teng, Yun-Lung

    2005-11-01

    Correctly classifying "contaminated" areas in soils, based on the threshold for a contaminated site, is important for determining effective clean-up actions. Pollutant mapping by means of kriging is increasingly being used for the delineation of contaminated soils. However, those areas where the kriged pollutant concentrations are close to the threshold have a high possibility for being misclassified. In order to reduce the misclassification due to the over- or under-estimation from kriging, an adaptive sampling using the cumulative distribution function of order statistics (CDFOS) was developed to draw additional samples for delineating contaminated soils, while kriging. A heavy-metal contaminated site in Hsinchu, Taiwan was used to illustrate this approach. The results showed that compared with random sampling, adaptive sampling using CDFOS reduced the kriging estimation errors and misclassification rates, and thus would appear to be a better choice than random sampling, as additional sampling is required for delineating the "contaminated" areas.

  1. Determinação de matéria orgânica do solo pela perda de massa por Ignição, em amostras do Rio Grande do Sul Soil organic matter determination by weight loss-on-ignition in samples from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy

    2007-04-01

    laboratories and it generates chromium-contaminated waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight loss-on-ignition (LOI method in comparison to the wet digestion procedure based on sulfuric acid-chromium solution as commonly used in soil analysis laboratories of Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC states, Brazil. The results obtained by the LOI method were further compared with the Walkley-Black standard-method, which also uses dichromate. The SOM content was determined in 19 samples from different soil units in RS and in 49 samples from the Central Depression of the same state. The 19 samples included: Vertisol (1, Gleysols (2, Argisols (6, Luvisol (1, Neosol (1, Latosols (3, Plinthosol (1, Planosol (1, Alisol (1, Nitosol (1, and Mollisol (1. Central Depression samples were provided by the Federal University of Santa Maria Soil Analysis Laboratory. The mean SOM contents obtained by LOI were 22 and 94 % higher than the means obtained with the sulfuric acid-chromium solution, and 27 and 46 % higher than that obtained with the Walkley-Black method, in Central-Depression and other RS soil samples, respectively. The LOI method was significantly correlated with the dichromate methodologies. Results indicate LOI for SOM analysis as a replacement of the dichromate methods. Equations that estimate the SOM content based on LOI should be developed for all RS soil classes.

  2. Study of the radiological doses and hazard indices in soil samples from Karbala city, Iraq

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Kaabi, Mohammed Abdulhussain

    2015-01-01

    The radiological doses and hazard indices of natural radionuclides $^{238}$U,$^{232}$Th and $^{40} $K in soil samples from Kerbala city were evaluated using gamma-ray spectroscopy system using NaI(Tl) ${"1.5\\times 2"}$ detector in low-background with 24 hour. The average values of absorbed gamma-ray dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and annual gonadal dose equivalent were found to be 90.83$\\pm$2.00 nGy/h, 111.89$\\pm$2.46 $\\mu$Sv/y and 640.85$\\pm$15.44 $\\mu$Sv/y respectively. The average values of gamma representative level index and external hazard index resulting from natural radionuclides for all samples in the study area were 1.43$\\pm$0.031 and 0.53$\\pm$0.011 respectively. The obtained results in current work were compared with other results for different countries.

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity in soil samples of Dez river sides – Khouzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nasrabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical features of each region of the world affect the activity concentration of natural radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and potassium. In this study, 26 soil samples were randomly collected from sides of the Dez River and transferred to the Laboratory for preparation. Activity concentration of natural radioactive materials was measured using p-type HPGe detector with a 38% relative efficiency. The results indicated that radioactivity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples varied over a range of 15.97 - 32.87Bqkg-1, 8.04 - 33. 85 Bqkg-1 and 106.82 - 471.35 Bqkg-1, respectively while their mean values were 25.21, 19.71 and 289.57Bqkg-1 in that order. Statistical results at 5% internal error showed that the mean values of radionuclides' activity concentrations were lower than their defined ones--the average values of the world and Iran. The results of radiological parameters predicted no radioactivity danger in the region.

  4. Characterization of sorption sites on aggregate soil samples using synchrotron x-ray computerized microtomography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Reno, Marissa Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; McLain, Angela A.; Rivers, Mark L. (CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL)

    2004-06-01

    Synchrotron-source X-ray computerized microtomography (CMT) was used to evaluate the adsorptive properties of aggregate soil samples. A linear relationship between measured mean mass attenuation coefficient (s) and mass fraction iron was generated by imaging mineral standards with known iron contents. On the basis of reported stoichiometries of the clay minerals and identifications of iron oxyhydroxides (1), we calculated the mass fraction iron and iron oxyhydroxide in the intergranular material. The mass fractions of iron were estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.22 for measurements made at 18 keV and from 0.18 to 0.21 for measurements made at 26 keV. One aggregate sample also contained regions within the intergranular material with mass fraction iron ranging from 0.29 to 0.31 and from 0.33 to 0.36 for the 18 and 26 keV measurements, respectively. The mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide ranged from 0.18 to 0.35 for the low-iron intergranular material and from 0.40 to 0.59 for the high-iron intergranular material. Using absorption edge difference imaging with CMT, we visualized cesium on the intergranular material, presumably because of adsorption and possible exchange reactions. By characterizing the mass fraction iron, the mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide, and the adsorptive capacity of these soil mineral aggregates, we provide information useful for conceptualization, development, and parameterization of transport models.

  5. Determination of thorium(IV with rifampicin in synthetic mixture and soil samples by spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A validated spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of thorium(IV in synthetic mixture and soil samples. The method is based on the complexation of thorium(IV with rifampicin at room temperature which absorbs maximally at 525 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.16–23.2 μg mL−1 with apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 8.23 × 103 L mol−1 cm−1 and 0.0232 μg/cm2/0.001 absorbance unit, respectively. The influence of variables was investigated and optimized. Interference due to other metal ions was studied and the tolerance limit was achieved. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of thorium(IV in a synthetic mixture containing various other metal ions and in soil samples. The results of analyses of the proposed method were statistically compared with the reference method showing acceptable recovery and precision.

  6. Implications of the field sampling procedure of the LUCAS Topsoil Survey for uncertainty in soil organic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    The LUCAS Topsoil survey is a pan-European Union initiative in which soil data were collected according to standard protocols from 19 967 sites. Any inference about soil variables is subject to uncertainty due to different sources of variability in the data. In this study we examine the likely magnitude of uncertainty due to the field-sampling protocol. The published sampling protocol (LUCAS, 2009) describes a procedure to form a composite soil sample from aliquots collected to a depth of between approximately 15-20. A v-shaped hole to the target depth is cut with a spade, then a slice is cut from one of the exposed surfaces. This methodology gives rather less control of the sampling depth than protocols used in other soil and geochemical surveys, this may be a substantial source of variation in uncultivated soils with strong contrasts between an organic-rich A-horizon and an underlying B-horizon. We extracted all representative profile descriptions from soil series recorded in the memoir of the 1:250 000-scale map of Northern England (Soil Survey of England and Wales, 1984) where the base of the A-horizon is less than 20 cm below the surface. The Soil Associations in which these 14 series are significant members cover approximately 17% of the area of Northern England, and are expected to be the mineral soils with the largest organic content. Soil Organic Carbon content and bulk density were extracted for the A- and B-horizons, along with the thickness of the horizons. Recorded bulk density, or prediction by a pedotransfer function, were also recorded. For any proposed angle of the v-shaped hole, the proportions of A- and B-horizon in the resulting sample may be computed by trigonometry. From the bulk density and SOC concentration of the horizons, the SOC concentration of the sample can be computed. For each Soil Series we drew 1000 random samples from a trapezoidal distribution of angles, with uniform density over the range corresponding to depths 15-20 cm and

  7. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  8. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  9. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  10. The stability of TNT, RDX and PETN in simulated post-explosion soils: Implications of sample preparation for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H A; DeTata, D A; Lewis, S W; Nic Daeid, N

    2017-03-01

    Explosives residues in soils may be a useful source of evidence following the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED), such as a vehicle-borne IED. Soil samples collected from the vicinity of an explosion scene will often be stored for some time prior to analysis, yet explosives residues in soil samples are susceptible to rapid degradation or transformation. Although some research has assessed the use of different storage temperatures with a view to reducing explosives' degradation over time, further research examining the degradation of explosives in soil when stored under a variety of storage conditions is crucial to determine the optimal sample collection and storage procedures for soil containing explosives residues. In this work, three different soils were spiked with solutions of TNT, RDX and PETN and stored either at room temperature, refrigerated or frozen. Samples were extracted over 6 weeks, with additional samples gamma-irradiated or nitrogen purged prior to storage. Experimental results indicate that TNT underwent very rapid degradation at room temperature, attributed to microbial action, whereas PETN and RDX proved to be more stable. Gamma irradiation and nitrogen purging proved of some benefit for mitigating TNT degradation, with lower storage temperatures ultimately proving the most effective method of mitigating degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of microbial contamination of feces and soil on a laying-hen farm depending on sampling site and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Trawińska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate soil collected from a laying-hen farm and bird manure according to the season of the year and sampling site. Soil samples were taken at the poultry facility wall and at the distances of 15 m and 45 m from the building. Bird feces samples were collected inside the poultry house at the entrance and at 1/4 and 1/2 length of the building. Soil and bird feces samples were evaluated by bacteriological qualitative and quantitative analyses. The largest bacterial load was determined in the samples taken at the poultry facility wall in December/January. Soil microbial contamination degree was low. The highest bacterial count in bird manure was found in the samples collected at 1/2 length of the hen house at the end of December/January. The qualitative study of bird feces showed the presence of E. coli bacteria all through the research period and Enterobacter spp. in the samples taken from July until September. Microbial contamination of soil environment and bird feces is most likely to be affected by winter period as at that time the highest microbial population can be determined. This fact may be linked to the prevailing climatic and microclimatic conditions.

  12. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  13. Adsorption behavior of herbicide butachlor on typical soils in China and humic acids from the soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duanping; Xu, Zhonghou; Zhu, Shuquan; Cao, Yunzhe; Wang, Yu; Du, Xiaoming; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2005-05-01

    Three kinds of soils in China, krasnozem, fluvo-aquic soil, and phaeozem, as well as the humic acids (HAs) isolated from them, were used to adsorb the herbicide butachlor from water. Under the experimental conditions, the adsorption amount of butachlor on soils was positively correlated with the content of soil organic matter. HAs extracted from different kinds of soils had different adsorption capacity for the tested herbicide, which was positively correlated with their content of carbonyls. The adsorption mechanism was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cross-polarization with magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS 13C NMR) techniques. It was showed that the adsorption mainly took place on the C=O, phenolic and alcoholic O-H groups of HAs. It was also confirmed that the adsorption mechanism was hydrogen bonds formation between the above groups of HAs and butachlor molecules.

  14. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  15. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba strains from soil samples in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Todd, Cheridah D; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Cabello-Vilchez, Alfonso Martín; González, Ana C; Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Lindo, John F; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in soil samples collected between 2012 and 2013 in Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Identification of Acanthamoeba strains was based on the morphology of the cyst and trophozoite forms. Subsequently, positive samples were cloned for their molecular characterization at the genotype level by sequencing the DF3 region located in the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba as previously described. Sequencing results revealed the presence of T2, T5 and T4 genotypes within the studied samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of Acanthamoeba in Gran Canaria Island and the first study at the genotype level in the Canary Islands.

  17. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  18. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

  19. Soil and sediment sample analysis for the sequential determination of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Levent, D; Barci, V; Barci-Funel, G; Hurel, C

    2008-02-15

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: transuranic (TRU) and strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by uranium and tetravalent actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium-238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. Plutonium isotopes in alpha spectrometry planchet deposits could be also analysed by ICPMS.

  20. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  1. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-02-15

    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.

  2. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  3. As(V)/Cr(VI) retention on un-amended and waste-amended soil samples: competitive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana M; Conde-Cid, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials. The individual forest soil sample, pyritic material, and oak ash showed clearly higher As(V) sorption, whereas Cr(VI) sorption was higher on pine bark. Sorption was up to 50 % higher for As(V) than for Cr(VI) on the forest soil sample, oak ash, and pyritic material, while pine bark sorbed 95 % more Cr(VI). Regarding binary mixtures, the presence of mussel shell increased As(V) sorption on pine bark and Cr(VI) sorption on hemp waste. As regards the amendments, in the case of the forest soil sample, the amendments with oak ash and mussel shell increased As(V) sorption, while pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption; in the vineyard soil sample, the mussel shell amendment increased As(V) sorption; in the pyritic material, pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption. These results could be useful to appropriately manage the soils and individual or mixed by-products assayed when As(V) and Cr(VI) pollution occurs.

  4. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y;

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates....... Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were......Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to de-termine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat...

  5. Assessment of the levels of DDT and its metabolites in soil and dust samples from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Batres-Esquivel, Lilia E; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of DDT and its metabolites in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) in five communities in Chiapas, Mexico. DDT and its metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The soil levels of total DDT ranged from non detectable (samples the levels ranged from non detectable (soil and dust as important pathways of toxicant exposure. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis.

  6. Silicate melt inclusions and glasses in lunar soil fragments from the Luna 16 core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1972-01-01

    More than 2000 fragments were studied microscopically, and electron microprobe analyses were made of 39 selected areas, from a few square mm of polished surface, through 75- to 425-??m fragments of lunar soil from two samples of the Luna 16 core. The silicate melt inclusions and glasses differ in important details from those observed earlier in the Apollo samples. Melt inclusions in olivine contain epitaxially oriented daughter crystals, but also show a similar epitaxy around the outside of the crystals not observed in previous lunar samples. Melt inclusions in ilmenite suggest trapping at successive stages in a differentiation sequence. There is abundant evidence for late-stage silicate liquid immiscibility, with melt compositions similar but not identical to those from Apollo 11 and 12. A comparison of the alkali ratio of any given bulk rock analysis with that of its late-stage, high-silica melt shows gross differences for different rocks. This is pertinent to understanding late-stage differentiation processes. Glass fragments and spherules exhibit a wide range of crystallization textures, reflecting their wide range of compositions and cooling histories. No significant differences were found between the two portions of core examined (Zones A and D). ?? 1972.

  7. The effect of interstitial gaseous pressure on the thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 lunar soil sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, K.-I.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 soil sample is measured as a function of interstitial gas density, and implications for the thermal properties of lunar and Martian regolith are discussed. Measurements were performed for samples consisting of a mixture of Knippa and Berkely basalt powders with a grain size distribution identical to that of Apollo 12 lunar soil samples by the needle probe technique at interstitial pressures of He, N2, Ar and CO2 from 133,000 to 0.0133 Pa. It is shown that sample thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing interstitial gas pressure down to 1.0 Pa, due to the decreasing effective thermal conductivity of interstitial gas with decreasing gas pressure. Constant thermal conductivity values of 8.8 mW/m per K and 10.9 mW/m per K are obtained for sample densities of 1.70 and 1.85 g/cu cm, respectively, in agreement with in situ lunar regolith measurements. The results, which are greater than those obtained in previous soil studies, are explained by the dense packing of soil particles and enhanced intergranular thermal contact in the present experimental configuration, rather than the influence of interstitial gas pressure. The differences in conductivity between loose soils and packed regolith may also be used to account for the two peaks observed in Martian surface thermal inertia data.

  8. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  9. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  10. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site—Working towards a toolbox for better assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. En...

  11. Express method of gamma-ray analysis of the soil blocks which have been sampled without a disturbance of the turf layer

    CERN Document Server

    Tertyshnik, E G

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents method of gamma-analysis of the soil patterns sampled soon after of nuclear accident. The method does not require of sample preparation and intends for analysis of the soil samples with a non-homogeneous distribution of activity at the depth. Technique of calibration of the detector efficiency is considered, that have been used when soil blocks sampling by means of the non-disturbance method (by rings) after Chernobyl accident were measured.

  12. A study on the soil characteristic and properties of riverbank soil samples from Sungai Perak, Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlan, M. N.; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Ghazali, M. F.; Selamat, M. R.; Othman, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) technology is new in Malaysia and only a few efforts have been made to understand the RBF mechanisms and processes. Soil characteristics and properties play important roles in determining the suitability of the site for the RBF application. A research has been carried out in Kota Lama Kiri, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia to identify the characteristics of the riverbank soil for different layers of the pumping well (PW) and three adjacent monitoring wells namely MW2, MW3, and MW5. Particle size distributions and hydraulic conductivities of the soils were obtained from sieve analyses and constant head permeability tests. The subsurface soils of the study site consisted of medium sand, fine sand, coarse sand and gravel but them medium sand was highest in percentage over the other types of soil. The aquifer extended down to 8 m. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the PW was 0.91 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 6 m deep. The highest hydraulic conductivity value for the monitoring wells was 5.03 cm/s and obtained for sample taken from 2.20 to 3.20 m of MW5. The overall well production capacity determined from the pumping test was 112.10 m3/hr.

  13. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  14. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Waenlor, Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71%) of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  15. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71% of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  16. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  17. Integration of Metagenomic and Biogeochemical Data from Soils Sampled from a Long-Term Reciprocal Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, V. L.; Hess, N. J.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term impacts of climate conditions on soil ecosystems are difficult to discern with sufficient resolution to underpin a predictive understanding of ecosystem response to global climate change. The structure and function of the microbial community is intimately linked to soil organic carbon (SOC) by both the deposition of new carbon, and metabolism and respiration of existing SOC. We are studying the resilience of the microbial community, and the vulnerability of the soil carbon reservoirs, to changing climate conditions using a reciprocal soil transplant experiment initiated in 1994 in eastern Washington. Soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between two elevations (310 m and 844 m); the lower site is warmer and drier with 0.8% soil carbon, and the upper site is cooler and wetter with 1.8% soil carbon. We resampled these cores in 2012-13 to analyze the structure of the microbial community, biochemical activities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and the soil carbon and nitrogen content. We hypothesized that microbial and biochemical dynamics developed under cool, moist conditions would destabilize under hot, dry conditions, such that carbon and nitrogen losses would be faster in warmer climate soils than the accruals in cooler climate soils. Metagenomics data analyses show that the microbial communities below 5 cm depth in the transplanted soils are most similar to those in the native and control soils from their original (pre-1994) location, whereas the surface microbial community has been influenced by their new (post-1994) location. Enzyme activities are highest in soils from the cooler, moister location, and the activities of the reciprocally transplanted soils are shifting toward the activities typical of their new location. Integration of these results with high-resolution mass spectrometry data of the soil carbon moieties will contribute to our fundamental understanding of climate change effects on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle.

  18. Analytical results and sample locations of reanalyzed NURE stream-sediment and soil samples for the Humboldt River basin mineral-environmental assessment, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), began a study in 1996 to describe to the geochemistry of the Humboldt River Basin. The principal sample media evaluated are stream-sediment and soil samples retrieved from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) archives located in Denver, Colorado. Samples were retrieved from the Wells, McDermitt, Vya, Lovelock, Winnemucca, Elko, Ely, Millett, Reno, and Tonopah 1? x 2? quadrangles in northern Nevada. The data are appropriate for large-scale reconnaissance resource evaluations and landscape geochemical-geoenvironmental evaluations. The analytical results are presented in this report.

  19. Re-sampling of carbon stocks in forest soils and afforestation areas after 18 years – results from the 7x7 km Kvadratnet in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Vesterdal, Lars; Stupak, Inge;

    Forest soil plots (N=112) of the size 50x50 meter were sampled in 1989-90 (C1) and re-sampled in 2007-9 (C2) by soil auger, producing composite samples from the depths 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm. The soils were classified according to the carbon concentration in the uppermost mineral soil h...... especially base rich loamy soils to take full advantage of the nitrogen deposition and CO2 fertilization effects.......Forest soil plots (N=112) of the size 50x50 meter were sampled in 1989-90 (C1) and re-sampled in 2007-9 (C2) by soil auger, producing composite samples from the depths 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm. The soils were classified according to the carbon concentration in the uppermost mineral soil...... horizon (0-25 cm) at C1. Soils with less than 1.8% carbon gained carbon during the 18 yr period, while initially very carbon rich (4soils and organic soils (C%>12) lost carbon. We hypothesize that the carbon losses reflect a very slow process of adaptation to the current more aerobic...

  20. Diversity of Microbial Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZYmes) Associated with Freshwater and Soil Samples from Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Camila; Fróes, Adriana; Lopes, Fabyano Álvares Cardoso; Thompson, Fabiano L; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Bruce, Thiago

    2017-07-01

    Semi-arid and arid areas occupy about 33% of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available about microbial diversity in the semi-arid Caatinga, which represents a unique biome that extends to about 11% of the Brazilian territory and is home to extraordinary diversity and high endemism level of species. In this study, we characterized the diversity of microbial genes associated with biomass conversion (carbohydrate-active enzymes, or so-called CAZYmes) in soil and freshwater of the Caatinga. Our results showed distinct CAZYme profiles in the soil and freshwater samples. Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were the most abundant CAZYme families, with glycoside hydrolases more dominant in soil (∼44%) and glycosyltransferases more abundant in freshwater (∼50%). The abundances of individual glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferase, and carbohydrate-binding module subfamilies varied widely between soil and water samples. A predominance of glycoside hydrolases was observed in soil, and a higher contribution of enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis was observed in freshwater. The main taxa associated with the CAZYme sequences were Planctomycetia (relative abundance in soil, 29%) and Alphaproteobacteria (relative abundance in freshwater, 27%). Approximately 5-7% of CAZYme sequences showed low similarity with sequences deposited in non-redundant databases, suggesting putative homologues. Our findings represent a first attempt to describe specific microbial CAZYme profiles for environmental samples. Characterizing these enzyme groups associated with the conversion of carbohydrates in nature will improve our understanding of the significant roles of enzymes in the carbon cycle. We identified a CAZYme signature that can be used to discriminate between soil and freshwater samples, and this signature may be related to the microbial species adapted to the habitat. The data show the potential ecological roles of the CAZYme repertoire and

  1. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  2. Additional Sediment/Soil Sampling Conducted at the Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Project Site during October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10 Percent Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D1 D ep th In te rv... Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D2 D ep th In te rv al (f ee t) Gravel - Fine Sand - Coarse Sand - Medium Sand - Fine Silt

  3. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  4. Soil moisture optimal sampling strategy for Sentinel 1 validation super-sites in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Jerzy; Rojek, Edyta; Slominska, Ewa; Slominski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture (SM) exhibits a high temporal and spatial variability that is dependent not only on the rainfall distribution, but also on the topography of the area, physical properties of soil and vegetation characteristics. Large variability does not allow on certain estimation of SM in the surface layer based on ground point measurements, especially in large spatial scales. Remote sensing measurements allow estimating the spatial distribution of SM in the surface layer on the Earth, better than point measurements, however they require validation. This study attempts to characterize the SM distribution by determining its spatial variability in relation to the number and location of ground point measurements. The strategy takes into account the gravimetric and TDR measurements with different sampling steps, abundance and distribution of measuring points on scales of arable field, wetland and commune (areas: 0.01, 1 and 140 km2 respectively), taking into account the different status of SM. Mean values of SM were lowly sensitive on changes in the number and arrangement of sampling, however parameters describing the dispersion responded in a more significant manner. Spatial analysis showed autocorrelations of the SM, which lengths depended on the number and the distribution of points within the adopted grids. Directional analysis revealed a differentiated anisotropy of SM for different grids and numbers of measuring points. It can therefore be concluded that both the number of samples, as well as their layout on the experimental area, were reflected in the parameters characterizing the SM distribution. This suggests the need of using at least two variants of sampling, differing in the number and positioning of the measurement points, wherein the number of them must be at least 20. This is due to the value of the standard error and range of spatial variability, which show little change with the increase in the number of samples above this figure. Gravimetric method

  5. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, K.-W. [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Pitou, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lee, D.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: dylee@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Teng, Y.-L. [Graduate Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-11-15

    Correctly classifying 'contaminated' areas in soils, based on the threshold for a contaminated site, is important for determining effective clean-up actions. Pollutant mapping by means of kriging is increasingly being used for the delineation of contaminated soils. However, those areas where the kriged pollutant concentrations are close to the threshold have a high possibility for being misclassified. In order to reduce the misclassification due to the over- or under-estimation from kriging, an adaptive sampling using the cumulative distribution function of order statistics (CDFOS) was developed to draw additional samples for delineating contaminated soils, while kriging. A heavy-metal contaminated site in Hsinchu, Taiwan was used to illustrate this approach. The results showed that compared with random sampling, adaptive sampling using CDFOS reduced the kriging estimation errors and misclassification rates, and thus would appear to be a better choice than random sampling, as additional sampling is required for delineating the 'contaminated' areas. - A sampling approach was derived for drawing additional samples while kriging.

  6. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Be

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

  7. Use of X-ray diffraction technique and chemometrics to aid soil sampling strategies in traceability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

    2012-08-30

    Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause-effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Some Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Soil Samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorafor, K. A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of soil samples around Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria were examined to determine the pollution status of the soil quality. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed that the soil samples had pH range of 4.4 – 5.2. Tinapa soil has the highest value of Copper (39.63mg/kg and Nickel (11.36mg/kg and Anantigha has the highest value of Zinc (14.59mg/kg, Iron Fe (78.19mg/kg and Manganese (47.42mg/kg. The results revealed a high total count of 23.5x106 cfu/g in Anantigha and 24.5x10-3 cfu/g in Tinapa for bacteria and fungi respectively. Some bacteria isolates found during the study includes, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilus, Clostridium sp, Arthrobacter sp, Streptomyces sp, Nocardia sp, Pseudomonas sp and Micrococcus sp., and Fungal isolates includes, Actinomycete sp, Verticullium sp, Aspergillus sp, Mucor sp, Nigospora sp and Paecilomyces sp. From the result, soil sample from Anantigha have comparatively the highest Total Bacterial Counts compared to the other two locations. The health implications of this work is that Anantigha and Tinapa areas being low lying were likely, because of the presence of Escherichia coli, to experience gastro-intestinal diseases such as dysentery and cholera than the Ediba environments.

  9. Variation in alpha radioactivity of plants with the use of different fertilizers and radon measurement in fertilized soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, Rishi Pal

    2014-01-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radin from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Fertilizers are commonly used in agricultural field worldwide to enhance the crop yield. In the present investigation, a control study was carried out on the lady's finger plants grown in earthen pots. To observe the effect of fertilizers their equal amounts were added to the soil just before the plantation. The alpha track densities were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), a sensitive detector for alpha particles. The measured alpha track densities (T cm(-2)d(-1)) in lady's finger plants on top and bottom face of leaves after 30, 50 and 70 days of plantation varied from 49 ± 11 to 206 ± 2.6, 49 ± 16 to 248 ± 16 and 57 ± 8.5 to 265 ± 32 respectively in various leaf samples. The alpha track densities were found to vary with nature of fertilizers added to the soil and an increase was also observed with time. The alpha track densities were also measured in soil samples mixed with different fertilizers. The radon exhalation rates in various soil samples and soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of alpha tracks were also calculated.

  10. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  11. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15N and (13C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin H Klaus

    Full Text Available Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15N and δ(13C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15N (δ(15N plant - δ(15N soil to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13C in hay and δ(15N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be

  12. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15)N and (13)C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Valentin H; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used Δδ(15)N (δ(15)N plant - δ(15)N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in δ(13)C in hay and δ(15)N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that δ(13)C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. Δδ(15)N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only δ(13)C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently

  13. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  14. Sampling Size Required for Determining Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Properties at Early Establishment of Second Rotation Hoop Pine Plantations in Subtropical Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into forest soils face the problem of the high level of spatial variability that is an inherent property of all forest soils. In order to investigate the effect of changes in residue management practices on soil properties in hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex A. Cunn.) plantations of subtropical Australia it was important to understand the intensity of sampling effort required to overcome the spatial variability induced by those changes. Harvest residues were formed into windrows to prevent nitrogen (N) losses through volatilisation and erosion that had previously occurred as a result of pile and burn operations. We selected second rotation (2R) hoop pine sites where the windrows (10-15 m apart) had been formed 1, 2 and 3 years prior to sampling in order to examine the spatial variability in soil carbon (C)and N and in potential mineralisable N (PMN) in the areas beneath and between (inter-) the windrows. We examined the implications of soil variability on the number of samples required to detect differences in means for specific soil properties,at different ages and at specified levels of accuracy. Sample size needed to accurately reflect differences between means was not affected by the position where the samples were taken relative to the windrows but differed according to the parameter to be sampled. The relative soil sampling size required for detecting differences between means of a soil property in the inter-windrow and beneath-windrow positions was highly dependent on the soil property assessed and the acceptable relative sampling error. An alternative strategy for soil sampling should be considered, if the estimated sample size exceeds 50 replications. The possible solution to this problem is collection of composite soil samples allowing a substantial reduction in the number of samples required for chemical analysis without loss in the precision of the mean estimates for a particular soil property.

  15. Determination of Total Chromium and Chromium Species in Kombolcha Tannery Wastewater, Surrounding Soil, and Lettuce Plant Samples, South Wollo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Belayneh Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the determination of total chromium (total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI in Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater and the surrounding (soil and lettuce plant samples where the wastewater flows. The levels of total Cr, Cr(VI, and Cr(III in wastewater, soil, and lettuce plant samples were determined by FAAS, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and difference (Cr(VI from total Cr, respectively. Among all samples taken, the maximum amounts of total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI were obtained at the discharging point and the minimum amounts of total Cr and Cr(III were found downstream (400 m from the junction of Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater. On the other hand, the minimum concentration of Cr(VI was obtained in lettuce plant sample. The amounts of total Cr in all samples except soil sample were above the permissible limit as set by WHO/FAO. The concentrations of Cr(III in all wastewater samples were above the permissible level, whereas the concentration of Cr(VI in wastewater was above the permissible level except 400 m from the junction. The result showed that a remarkable elimination of total Cr and Cr species has not been achieved by this leather industry as its level was not much decreased when entered into the water systems. Therefore, effective treatment methods should be applied to the wastewater for the wellbeing of the surroundings.

  16. Radioactivity Levels and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate in Soil Samples from Kohistan (Pakistan) Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan M. Khan; M. Ismail; K. Khan; P. Akhter

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and an anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs is carried out in some soil samples collected from Kohistan district of N.W.F.P. (Pakistan), using gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma spectrometry is operated using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector coupled with a computer based high resolution multi channel analyzer. The speciSc activity in soil ranges from 24.72 to 78.48Bq·kg-1 for 226Ra, 21.73 to 75.28Bq·kg-1 for 232Th, 7.06 to 14.9Bq·kg-1 for l37Cs and 298.46 to 570.77Bq·kg-1 for 40K with the mean values of 42.11, 43.27, 9.5 and 418.27Bq·kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370Bq·kg-1). Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this remote area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The internal and external hazard indices have the mean values of 0.48 and 0.37 respectively. Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study is nominal and does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public.

  17. Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Humberto Bustos, E-mail: hbustos@ut.edu.co; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martinez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera [Universidad del Tolima, Grupo Ciencia de Materiales y Tecnologia en Plasma (Colombia); Alcazar, German Antonio Perez [Universidad del Valle, Grupo Metalurgia Fisica y Teoria de las Transiciones de Fase (Colombia)

    2012-03-15

    Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) of {sup 57}Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibague and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe{sup + 3} type sites and the other two to Fe{sup + 2} type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

  18. Diversity of Microorganisms Isolated from the Soil Sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang, Yu Liu, Yonggang Yin, Haojie Jin, Shouxian Wang, Feng Xu, Shuang Zhao, Xiaoli Geng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificially cultivating Chroogomphus rutilus is too inefficient to be commercially feasible. Furthermore, isolating C. rutilus mycelia in the wild is difficult. Thus, it is important to determine the natural habitat of its fruiting body. This study focused on the ecology of the C. rutilus habitat to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the bacterial isolates were divided into two monophyletic clusters which had significant hits to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Using internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis, fungal isolates were divided into four monophyletic clusters: Penicillium, Trichoderma, Mortierella, and Bionectria. Moreover, the phylogenetic diversity of these isolates was analysed. The results indicated that numerous microorganisms were present in C. rutilus habitat. This was the first reported examination of the microbiological ecology of C. rutilus.

  19. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” [2] The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. [5] As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  20. Roseomonas vinacea sp. nov., a Gram-negative coccobacillus isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan; Wang, Dong; Liu, Hong-Yu; Sun, Cheng-Hang; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yue-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Strain CPCC 100056(T), which was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The organism was coccobacillus-shaped, non-motile and formed vinaceous colonies on ISP2 agar medium. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7c and C(16:1)omega7c and/or C(16:1)omega6c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. A comparison of sequences in GenBank revealed that strain CPCC 100056(T) exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (84.5-95.5%) with Roseomonas species. Strain CPCC 100056(T) could be distinguished from all Roseomonas species with validly published names by differences in phenotypic and genotypic properties. In view of the combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain CPCC 100056(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Roseomonas, Roseomonas vinacea sp. nov.; the type strain is CPCC 100056(T) (=KCTC 22045(T) =CCM 7468(T)).

  1. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  2. Insights into bacterial cellulose biosynthesis by functional metagenomics on Antarctic soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlemont, Renaud; Delsaute, Maud; Pipers, Delphine; D'Amico, Salvino; Feller, Georges; Galleni, Moreno; Power, Pablo

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the mining of an Antarctic soil sample by functional metagenomics allowed the isolation of a cold-adapted protein (RBcel1) that hydrolyzes only carboxymethyl cellulose. The new enzyme is related to family 5 of the glycosyl hydrolase (GH5) protein from Pseudomonas stutzeri (Pst_2494) and does not possess a carbohydrate-binding domain. The protein was produced and purified to homogeneity. RBcel1 displayed an endoglucanase activity, producing cellobiose and cellotriose, using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. Moreover, the study of pH and the thermal dependence of the hydrolytic activity shows that RBcel1 was active from pH 6 to pH 9 and remained significantly active when temperature decreased (18% of activity at 10 degrees C). It is interesting that RBcel1 was able to synthetize non-reticulated cellulose using cellobiose as a substrate. Moreover, by a combination of bioinformatics and enzyme analysis, the physiological relevance of the RBcel1 protein and its mesophilic homologous Pst_2494 protein from P. stutzeri, A1501, was established as the key enzymes involved in the production of cellulose by bacteria. In addition, RBcel1 and Pst_2494 are the two primary enzymes belonging to the GH5 family involved in this process.

  3. Trends in the levels of metals in soils and vegetation samples collected near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, M; Bocio, A; Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 and 2001, the levels of a number of elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were determined in 40 soil and 40 herbage samples collected near a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constantí, Catalonia, Spain). In 2003, soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points in which samples had been taken in the previous surveys. During the period 1998-2003, As, Be, Cr, Ni, and V levels showed significant increases in soils. In contrast, the levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn significantly decreased. With respect to herbage, while Cr, Mn, and V concentrations significantly increased, those of As levels diminished. On the other hand, human health risks derived from metal ingestion and inhalation of soils were also assessed. In relation to noncarcinogenic risks, all elements presented a value inside the safe interval. In turn, Cd and Cr were also in the safe interval of carcinogenic risks, whereas in contrast As levels clearly exceeded the regulatory limits concerning carcinogenic risks. According to the results of the previous (2001) and current (2003) surveys, the fluctuations in the metal concentrations suggest that the influence of the HWI is minimal in relation to other metal pollution sources in the area.

  4. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  5. Selenium speciation in acidic environmental samples: application to acid rain-soil interaction at Mount Etna volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Geerke H; Iglesías, Mònica; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Corvini, Philippe F X; Lenz, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Speciation plays a crucial role in elemental mobility. However, trace level selenium (Se) speciation analyses in aqueous samples from acidic environments are hampered due to adsorption of the analytes (i.e. selenate, selenite) on precipitates. Such solid phases can form during pH adaptation up till now necessary for chromatographic separation. Thermodynamic calculations in this study predicted that a pHacid rain-soil interaction samples from Etna volcano was developed. With a mobile phase containing 20mM ammonium citrate at pH 3, selenate and selenite could be separated in different acidic media (spiked water, rain, soil leachates) in acid rain-soil interaction using synthetic rain based on H(2)SO(4) and soil samples collected at the flanks of Etna volcano demonstrated the dominance of selenate over selenite in leachates from samples collected close to the volcanic craters. This suggests that competitive behavior with sulfate present in acid rain might be a key factor in Se mobilization. The developed speciation method can significantly contribute to understand Se cycling in acidic, Al/Fe rich environments.

  6. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  7. Recovery of Francisella tularensis from soil samples by filtration and detection by real-time PCR and cELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellek, Ricela; Jimenez, Oscar; Aizpurua, Carmen; Fernandez-Frutos, Begoña; De Leon, Patricia; Camacho, Maite; Fernandez-Moreira, Daniel; Ybarra, Carmen; Carlos Cabria, Juan

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a specific and highly sensitive method able to detect very low concentrations of Francisella tularensis in soil samples by real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green I. tul4 gene, which encodes the 17-kDa protein (TUL4) in F. tularensis strains, was amplified using a LightCycler (LC) device. We achieved a detection limit of 0.69 fg of genomic DNA from F. tularensis subp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS), corresponding to a value less than 3.4 genome equivalents per reaction. The qPCR was shown to be specific, highly sensitive and reproducible. In addition, we evaluated 2 new methods for recovering bacteria from soil based on 1-step filtration using glass fiber filters and PVDF filters. These filtration methods enabled us to recover F. tularensis efficiently from soil samples. As few as 50 CFU per 0.5 g of soil were detected by qPCR. Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) allowed us to detect and quantify the amount of bacteria recovered from soil by an immunological method. Although qPCR was more sensitive than cELISA, we did not observe substantial differences in the amount of bacteria quantified by both methods.

  8. Phosphorus concentrations in sequentially fractionated soil samples as affected by digestion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequential fractionation has been used for several decades for improving our understanding on the effects of agricultural practices and management on the lability and bioavailability of phosphorus in soil, manure, and other soil amendments. Nevertheless, there have been no reports on how manipulatio...

  9. Occurrence and quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in soil and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Soil and air inhalation and/or ingestion are important vehicles for these parasites. To our knowledge, the results obtained in the present study represent the first QMRAs for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis due to soil and air inhalation/ingestion in Mexico. In addition, this is the first evidence of the microbial air quality around these parasites in rural zones.

  10. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  11. Modelling soil organic carbon stocks in global change scenarios: a CarboSOIL application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Rojas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, as a consequence of the increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration, may significantly affect both soil organic C storage and soil capacity for C sequestration. In this research we develop a methodology to predict soil organic C (SOC contents and changes under global change scenarios. CarboSOIL model is a new component of the land evaluation decision support system MicroLEIS, which was designed to assist decision makers to face specific agro-ecological problems. CarboSOIL, developed as a GIS tool to predict SOC contents at different depths, was previously trained and tested in two Mediterranean areas: Andalusia (SW Spain and Valencia (E Spain. The model was applied under different IPPC scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 according to different global climate models (BCCR-BCM2, CNRMCM3 and ECHAM5 and output data were linked to spatial datasets (soil and land use to quantify SOC stocks. CarboSOIL model has proved its ability to predict the short-, medium- and long-term trends (2040s, 2070s and 2100s of SOC dynamics and sequestration under projected future scenarios of climate change. Results showed an overall trend towards decreasing of SOC stocks in the upper soil sections (0–25 cm and 25–50 cm for most soil types and land uses, but predicted SOC stocks tend to increase in the deeper soil section (50–75 cm. Soil types as Arenosols, Planosols and Solonchaks and land uses as "permanent crops" and "open spaces with little or no vegetation" would be severely affected by climate change with large decreases of SOC stocks, in particular under the medium-high emission scenario A2 by 2100. The information developed in this study might support decision-making in land management and climate adaptation strategies in Mediterranean regions and the methodology could be applied to other Mediterranean areas with available soil, land use and climate data.

  12. In-situ 1-D and 2-D mapping of soil core and rock samples using the LIBS long spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfa, C. T. (Christopher T.); Cremers, D. A. (David A.); Ebinger, M. H. (Michael H.)

    2004-01-01

    LIBS is being developed for stand-off interrogation of samples up to 20 m from a lander or rover. Stand-off capability is important to access targets not conveniently located for in-situ analysis. On the other hand, in-situ techniques are still important and are being developed for future missions such as MSL. Retrieved samples may consist of loose soils, subsurface soil cores, drilled rock cores, and ice cores. For these sample types, it is possible to employ LIBS analysis and take advantage of LIBS capabilities. These include: (1) rapid analysis, (2) good detection sensitivity for many elements, (3) good spatial resolution (3-100 microns), and (4) ability to clean a surface prior to analysis. Using LIBS, it is possible to perform a 1-dimensional analysis, for example, determining element concentrations along a soil core, or a 2-dimensional mapping of the sample surface using a unique 'long' spark. Two-dimensional sampling has been developed previously by focusing the laser pulses as small spots on the sample and then moving the sample a short distance between sampling locations. Although demonstrated, this method is time consuming, requiring a large number of shots to span even a small region (for 3 micron resolution, an area 600 x 480 microns sampled in {approx} 30 min using a 20 Hz laser). For a spacecraft instrument, the ability to more rapidly prepare a 2D elemental spatial map will be desirable. Here they discuss the use of LIBS for sampling along a core in 1D (detection of carbon) and for 2D mapping of a rock face.

  13. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  14. Validation of Bayesian kriging of arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury surface soil concentrations based on internode sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C M; Davis, H T; Liu, Y; Lawson, A B; McDermott, S

    2009-06-15

    Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) statistical method which compared the measured and LOOCV predicted values. Validation also was carried out using additional field sampling of soil metal concentrations at points between original sampling locations, which were compared to kriging prediction distributions. LOOCV results suggest that Bayesian kriging was a good predictor of metal concentrations. When measured internode metal concentrations and estimated kriged values were compared, the measured values were located within the 5th-95th percentile prediction distributions in over half of the internode locations. Estimated and measured internode concentrations were most similar for As and Pb. Kriged estimates did not compare as well to measured values for concentrations below the analytical minimum detection limit, or for internode samples that were very close to the original sampling node. Despite inherent variability in, metal concentrations in soils, the kriged estimates were validated statistically and by in situ measurement.

  15. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  16. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Mixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Schirmack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Ar plasma-sterilization at a temperature below 80 °C to examine its effects on the viability of microorganisms when intermixed with tested soil. Due to a relatively low temperature, this method is not thought to affect the properties of a soil, particularly its organic component, to a significant degree. The method has previously been shown to work well on spacecraft parts. The selected microorganism for this test was Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for its remarkable resistance to radiation effects. Our results showed a reduction in microbial counts after applying a low temperature plasma, but not to a degree suitable for a sterilization of the soil. Even an increase of the treatment duration from 1.5 to 45 min did not achieve satisfying results, but only resulted in in a mean cell reduction rate of 75% compared to the untreated control samples.

  18. Quick survey for detection, identification and characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes from some selected soil and water samples across Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen which is widely distributed in nature and plays a pivotal role in ecosystem. Acanthamoeba species may cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba in soil and water resources of Pakistan. Here, Acanthamoeba were recovered on non-nutrient agar plate lawn with E. coli and identified by morphological characteristics of the cyst. Furthermore PCR was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Overall our PCR and sequencing results confirmed pathogenic genotypes including T4 and T15 from both soil and water samples. This is our first report of Acanthamoeba isolation from both soil and water resources of Pakistan which may serve as a potential treat to human health across the country.

  19. Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Mixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmack, Janosch; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We used Ar plasma-sterilization at a temperature below 80 °C to examine its effects on the viability of microorganisms when intermixed with tested soil. Due to a relatively low temperature, this method is not thought to affect the properties of a soil, particularly its organic component, to a significant degree. The method has previously been shown to work well on spacecraft parts. The selected microorganism for this test was Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for its remarkable resistance to radiation effects. Our results showed a reduction in microbial counts after applying a low temperature plasma, but not to a degree suitable for a sterilization of the soil. Even an increase of the treatment duration from 1.5 to 45 min did not achieve satisfying results, but only resulted in in a mean cell reduction rate of 75% compared to the untreated control samples. PMID:27240407

  20. Soil profiles' development and differentiation as revealed by their magnetic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Soil profiles' development is a major theme in soil science research, as far as it gives basic information on soil genesis and classification. The use of soil magnetic properties as indicators for physical and geochemical conditions during pedogenesis received great attention during the last decade mainly in relation to paleoclimate reconstructions. However, tracking the observed general relationships with respect to degree of soil differentiation would lead to capitalization of this knowledge and its further utilization as pedogenic indicator. Here we present an overview of the observed relationships and depth variations of magnetic characteristics along ten soil profiles of Chernozems, Luvisols and Planosols from Bulgaria. Depending on the general soil group considered, different relationships between depth distribution of the relative amount of superparamagnetic (SP), single domain (SD) and larger pseudo single domain (PSD) to multi domain (MD) ferrimagnetic fractions are revealed. The profiles of the soil group with pronounced accumulation of organic matter in the mineral topsoil (Chernozems and Phaeozems) a systematic shift in the relative maxima of SP- and SD- like concentration proxies is observed with the increase of profile differentiation. In contrast, the group of soils with clay-enriched subsoil horizon (e.g. Luvisols) shows different evolution of the depth distribution of the grain-size proxy parameters. The increase of profile's degradation leads to a decrease in the amount of the SP fraction and a split in its maxima into two depth intervals related to the eluvial and illuvial horizons respectively. Along with this tendency, the maximum of the SD fraction moves to progressively deeper levels of the illuvial horizon. The third soil group of the Planosols is characterized by specific re-distribution of the iron oxides, caused by the oscillating oxidation - reduction fluctuations within the profile. The diagnostic eluvial and illuvial soil horizons are

  1. An analysis of the soil sampling needs on the Benton Lake Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this analysis were to monitor changes in the soil due to flooding and wetland management and to evaluate how different water management systems...

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF NEUTRAL PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP summarizes the method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of neutral persistent organic pollutants. It covers the extraction and concentration of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  4. In situ Shear Tests of Soil Samples with Grass Roots in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Comino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The presence of vegetation increases the soil burden stability along slopes and reduces soil erosion. Its contribution is due to mechanical (reinforcing soil shear resistance and hydrologic controls on streambank and superficial landslides. This study presented the results carried out from experimental in situ test focused to study the increased shear resistance of soil blocks due to root-reinforcement. A shear apparatus was set up in order to realize the measure. Approach: In this research the researchers tested the capacity root reinforcement of Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis (Poaceae families, Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratensis and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae families grass species widespread in the Alpine environment. Results: In situ shear tests results revealed that grass roots fail progressively and their tendency were to slip, without failing. Shear-strengths calculated for root-reinforced soil with Fabaceae, yielded values between 19 and 166% higher than directly measured shear-strengths in soil with no roots. The shear displacement had an increase included between 493 and 1.900%. The shear time was always superior. The clod with roots, after the trials, were always packed together. Conclusion: These data were lower than those obtained with Poaceae tests (from 50-318%, but the two grass families were functional for a grass mix useful in technical seeding.

  5. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  6. Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: sampling, analytical methods, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed; Lindsay, James

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the locations, descriptions, analytical procedures used, and an inter-lab comparison of over 1100 geochemical analyses of samples of soil and sediment in and downstream of a major lead-zinc-silver mining district in the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) drainage basin of northern Idaho. The samples fall in 3 broad categories: (1) samples from vertical profiles of floodplain soils in the valley of the main stem of the CdA River (767 samples) and of the South Fork of the CdA River (38 samples), (2) size fractionated surficial samples of sediment bedload within the channel of the South Fork of the CdA River (68 samples), and (3) samples from vertical profiles of sediment bedload within the channel of the main stem of the CdA River (260 samples). Five different laboratories contributed geochemical data for this report. Four of the five laboratories employed analytical methods that require sample dissolution prior to analysis; one laboratory (US Geological Survey) used analytical instrumentation (energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence [EDXRF]) that is applied to pulverized samples. Some dissolution procedures use four acids (hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric; Eastern Washington University [EWU] Geochemical Laboratory and XRAL Laboratories, Inc.), others use two acids (nitric acid and aqua regia; CHEMEX Labs, Inc.), and some use only concentrated nitric acid (ACZ Laboratories, Inc.). Most analyses of dissolved samples were done by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or by ICP - MS (Mass Spectroscopy). Some analyses for Ag and K were done by Flame Atomic Absorption (FAA). Inter-laboratory comparisons are made for 6 elements: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron

  7. Liquid-solid sample preparation followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction determination of multiclass pesticides in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durović, Rada D; Dordević, Tijana M; Santrić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes development and validation of a multiresidue method for the determination of five pesticides (terbufos, prochloraz, chloridazon, pendimethalin, and fluorochloridone) belonging to different pesticide groups in soil samples by GC/MS, followed by its application in the analysis of some agricultural soil samples. The method is based on a headspace solid-phase microextraction method. Microextraction conditions, namely temperature, extraction time, and NaCI content, were tested and optimized using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Three extraction solvents [methanol, methanol-acetone (1 + 1, v/v), and methanol-acetone-hexane (2 + 2 + 1, v/v/v)] and the optimum number of extraction steps within the sample preparation stage were optimized for the extraction procedure. LOD values for all the studied compounds were less than 12 microg/kg. Recovery values for multiple analyses of soil samples fortified at 30 microg/kg of each pesticide were higher than 64%. The method was proven to be repeatable, with RSD lower than 15%.

  8. PCDD/F and metal concentrations in soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Bocio, A; Agramunt, M C; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2002-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Tl, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in 16 soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). Metal concentrations were also analyzed in air filters from three sampling stations placed nearthe facility. For most metals, concentrations were similar or even lower than previously reported values for other areas from Catalonia. On the other hand, the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) were also determined in four soil and 16 herbage samples. Mean values were 0.37 and 0.16 ng I-TEQ/kg for soils and herbage, respectively, values which in comparison with data from other surveys are rather low. No significant differences between metal and PCDD/F concentrations in samples collected at distances lower or greater than 3.5 km of the facility were noted. The current results show that the cement plant has a low impact on the metal and PCDD/F levels in the environment under direct influence of the facility. These results should be of interest to assess future temporal variations in the levels of metals and PCDD/Fs in this area.

  9. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Verification Sampling of LANL-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-18-2 for Land Conveyance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Public Law 105-119 directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convey or transfer parcels of land to the Incorporated County of Los Alamos or their designees and to the Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in trust for the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. Los Alamos National Security is tasked to support DOE in conveyance and/or transfer of identified land parcels no later than September 2022. Under DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (O458.1, 2013) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) implementing Policy 412 (P412, 2014), real property with the potential to contain residual radioactive material must meet the criteria for clearance and release to the public. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is a second investigation of Tract A-18-2 for the purpose of verifying the previous sampling results (LANL 2017). This sample plan requires 18 projectspecific soil samples for use in radiological clearance decisions consistent with LANL Procedure ENV-ES-TP-238 (2015a) and guidance in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM, 2000). The sampling work will be conducted by LANL, and samples will be evaluated by a LANL-contracted independent lab. However, there will be federal review (verification) of all steps of the sampling process.

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  12. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  13. Aquipuribacter nitratireducens sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample of a mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, T N R; Anil Kumar, P; Tank, M; Sunil, B; Poorna, Manasa; Zareena, Begum; Shivaji, S

    2015-08-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, non-motile bacterium, designated strain AMV4T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from a mud volcano located in the Andaman Islands, India. The colony was pale orange. Strain AMV4T was positive for oxidase, aesculinase, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase activities and negative for amylase, catalase, cellulase, protease, urease and lipase activities. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AMV4T was a member of the order Actinomycetales and was closely related to Aquipuribacter hungaricus with a sequence similarity of 97.13% (pairwise alignment). Phylogenetic analyses showed that strain AMV4T clustered with Aquipuribacter hungaricus and was distantly related to the other genera of the family Intrasporangiaceae. DNA-DNA hybridization between strains AMV4T and Aquipuribacter hungaricus IV-75T showed a relatedness of 28%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (6.9%), anteiso-C15 : 0 (25.3%), C16 : 0 (12.9%), anteiso-C16 : 0 (5.6%), C18 : 1ω9c (19.8%) and C18 : 3ω6,9,12c (9.1%). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain AMV4T was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Strain AMV4T contained MK-10(H4) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid, two unidentified phospholipids and five unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain AMV4T was 74.3 mol%. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, it is proposed that strain AMV4T represents a novel species of the genus Aquipuribacter, with the suggested name Aquipuribacter nitratireducens sp. nov. The type strain is AMV4T ( = CCUG 58430T = DSM 22863T = NBRC 107137T).

  14. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  15. Mapping of 137Cs in Ida-Virumaa, June 2005. CGS Area Specific Spectrum Stripping and ESC from soil sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    This report describes some results from a Baltic-Danish exercise with carborne gamma-ray spectrometry (CGS) measurements performed in Estonia in the summer of 2005. The goal was to measure the low level of contamination with 137Cs that still exists as part of the fall-out from the Chernobyl...... accident in April 1986. Another goal was to check the sensitivity calibration of the systems from soil sampling by the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC)....

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection for the determination of fenbutatin oxide in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, P; Montes, R; Lamas, J P; García-López, M; Orriols, I; Rodríguez, I

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the determination of the miticide bis[tris(2-methyl-2-phenylpropyl)tin] oxide, also known as fenbutatin oxide (FBTO), in agricultural soils is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by analyte derivatization and extraction into isooctane was the used sample preparation approach. Selective determination was achieved by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Influence of different parameters on the performance of the extraction process is thoroughly discussed; moreover, some relevant aspects related to derivatization, determination and quantification steps are also presented. As regards PLE, the type of solvent and the temperature were the most relevant variables. Under optimized conditions, acetone, without any acidic modifier, was employed as extractant at 80 degrees C. Cells were pressurized at 1500 psi, and 2 static cycles of 1 min each were applied. Acetone extracts (ca. 25 mL) were concentrated to 1 mL, derivatized with sodium tetraethyl borate (NaBEt(4)) and the FBTO derivative, resulting from cleavage of the Sn-O-Sn bond followed by ethylation of the hydroxyl fragments, extracted into isooctane and determined by GC-AED. Under final working conditions, the proposed method provided recoveries from 76 to 99% for spiked soil samples, a limit of quantification of 2 ng g(-1) and an acceptable precision. Analysis of samples from vineyards sprayed with FBTO, confirmed the persistence of the miticide in soil for more than 1 year after being applied.

  17. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  18. Comparative study on production,purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S; Anto; Jeya; Dayalan; Pramod; Darwin; Prakash; S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp.would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp.in different media with altered carbohydrate source.Methods:The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum(P.chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate.The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source.The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product.Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA).And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA,along with characterization using other pathogens.Results:From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis,only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore,India,and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital,Bangalore,India,showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P.chrysogenum.Different production media showed varied range of growth of PenicilUum.Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay.Characterization of penicillin on pathogens,like wild Escherichia coli strain,Klebsiella spp.,and MRSA,gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant.HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced.Accordingly,the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample,8S.S2 mAu.Therefore,there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples.Conclusions: The Penicillium spp.could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments.This research focuses on various unexplored sources

  19. Study on Emission Spectral Lines of Iron, Fe in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Fadhli; Ramli, Muliadi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, LIBS technique has been used for detection of heavy metal especially iron, Fe in soil sample. As there are a large number of emission spectral lines due to Fe and other constituents in soil, this study is intended to identify emission spectral lines of Fe and finally to find best fit emission spectral lines for carrying out a qualitative and quantitative analysis. LIBS apparatus used in this work consists of a laser system (Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a spectrograph (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny- Turner) and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) 1024x256 pixels (Andor I*Star). The soil sample was collected from Banda Aceh city, Aceh, Indonesia. For spectral data acquisition, the soil sample has been prepared by a pressing machine in the form of pellet. The laser beam was focused using a high density lens (f=+150 mm) and irradiated on the surface of the pellet for generating luminous plasma under 1 atmosphere of air surrounding. The plasma emission was collected by an optical fiber and then sent to the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for acquisition of the emission spectra. It was found that there are many Fe emission lines both atomic lines (Fe I) and ionic lines (Fe II) appeared in all detection windows in the wavelength regions, ranging from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The emission lines of Fe with strong intensities occurs together with emission lines due to other atoms such as Mg, Ca, and Si. Thus, the identification of emission lines from Fe is complicated by presence of many other lines due to other major and minor elements in soil. Considering the features of the detected emission lines, several emission spectral lines of Fe I (atomic emission line), especially Fe I 404.58 nm occurring at visible range are potential to be good candidate of analytical lines in relation to detection

  20. Radiochemical Separation and Measurement by Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma source (ICP-SFMS of Plutonium Isotopes in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Torres-Cortés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold: to optimize the radiochemical separation of Plutonium (Pu from soil samples, and to measure the Pu concentration. Soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwaves; then, Pu purification was carried out with Pu AG1X8 resin. Pu isotopes were measured using Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma source (ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of 238UH+ in the samples a desolvation system (Apex was used. The limit of detection (LOD of Pu was determined. The efficiency of Pu recovery from soil samples varies from 70 to 93%.

  1. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  2. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-xin Shen

    Full Text Available A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1 Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2 Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length × 10 cm (width × 10 cm (depth, referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS and placed them (10 each in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.

  3. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples.

  4. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, Julie; Frederick, Timothy; Frame, Alicia; Vallero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS) to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab") samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

  5. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and (131)I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here.

  6. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only are the SWRC and SHC measurements time-consuming, their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from availab...

  7. Incremental soil sampling root water uptake, or be great through others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Allmaras pursued several research topics in relation to residue and tillage research. He looked for new tools to help explain soil responses to tillage, including disk permeameters and image analysis. The incremental sampler developed by Pikul and Allmaras allowed small-depth increment, volumetr...

  8. Effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation in soil solution samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, PFAM; Bouwman, LA; Boon, GT

    1999-01-01

    The effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation was studied in a 10-week pot experiment. A copper-tolerant grass variety (Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain) was grown in pots that contained either clean (copper-total approx. 30 mg kg(-1)) or copper contaminated soil

  9. Effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation in soil solution samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, PFAM; Bouwman, LA; Boon, GT

    1999-01-01

    The effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation was studied in a 10-week pot experiment. A copper-tolerant grass variety (Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain) was grown in pots that contained either clean (copper-total approx. 30 mg kg(-1)) or copper contaminated soil (copper-t

  10. Effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation in soil solution samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, PFAM; Bouwman, LA; Boon, GT

    1999-01-01

    The effect of plant growth on copper solubility and speciation was studied in a 10-week pot experiment. A copper-tolerant grass variety (Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain) was grown in pots that contained either clean (copper-total approx. 30 mg kg(-1)) or copper contaminated soil (copper-t

  11. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg(-1). The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg(-1). High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type.

  12. The effect of uranium migration on radionuclide distributions for soil samples at the El-Gor area, Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, A; Aly, H A S

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations and distributions of the activity of natural radionuclides in soil samples were investigated in fifteen soil samples at El-Gor area representing two profiles (A and B) using a HP-Ge detector and alpha counting by SSNTD (CR-39), respectively. The average concentrations of the radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra, (235)U, (232)Th and (40)K are 203.4, 177.23, 9.77, 43.33 and 386.22 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, and profile A and (238)U, (226)Ra, (235)U, (232)Th and (40)K have average concentrations of 232.58, 246, 11.7, 31.7, and 277.07 Bq kg(-1) for profile B, respectively. The eTh and eU were estimated to detect the migration process of uranium into or out of an area or uranium to or from the studied profiles. The results indicate a migration of uranium by 29% for profile A and 65.37% for profile B. The activity ratio ((238)U/(226)Ra) was found to be 0.9 in profile A and 1.15 in profile B. These ratios coincide with the uranium migration processes. The responsible mass corresponding to the measured (226)Ra activity was also calculated. The radon activity concentrations for the two profiles are nearly 300 Bq m(-3). The emanation coefficient (η) was calculated from the ratio of the expected radon activity to the measured radon for the studied soil samples. The value of η was found to depend only on the radium activity regardless to soil formation.

  13. Heavy Metals (Mg, Mn, Ni and Sn contamination in Soil Samples of Ahvaz II Industrial Estate of Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil l Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the rapid industrial development in Khuzestan province of Iran during recent years, this study was performed to analyze the variation of metals concentrations (Mg, Mn, Ni, and Sn in soil samples of Ahvaz II Industrial estate during the spring season of 2013. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 27 topsoil samples were collected from nine stations. The intensity of the soil contamination was evaluated, using a contamination factor (Cf and geo-accumulation index (I-geo. Results:  The mean soil concentrations (in mg kg-1 (dry weight were in ranged within 870-1144 (Mg, 188-300 (Mn, 93-199 (Ni and 9-15 (Sn. The data indicated that the I-geo value for all metals falls in class ‘1’. Also the Cf value for Mg and Mn falls in class ‘0’, the Cf value for Sn falls in class ‘1’ and the Cf value for Ni falls in the classes of ‘1’ and ‘2’. The result of the Pearson correlation showed that there were significant positive associations between all metals. Conclusions: According to the results which were achieved by a cluster analysis, there were significant positive associations among all metals based on Pearson correlation coefficient, especially between Ni and Sn; also both of them with Mn. Because the Ni originates from oil sources it can be resulted that Mn and Sn originate from oil sources, too. Therefore, industrial activities and exploitation of oil reservoirs are the main cause of pollution in that area. Also, it can be concluded that, with increasing the distance from the source of pollution, the accumulation of contaminants in the soil samples decreased.

  14. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    and urine samples were also prepared by adding acetonitrile, shaking, centrifugation, and evaporation. Extracts were then analyzed by UHPLC-MSn (TF LXQ), UHPLC-HRMS/MS (TF Q-Exactive), and GC-MS (TF ISQ). Urine samples were additionally tested for 9-carboxy-THC by immunoassay and ethanol by headspace GC......, sertraline, and loperamide could be detected. 9-carboxy-THC was detected in most samples by immunoassay and confirmed by GC-MS; six thereof with immunoassay concentrations >50 ng/mL. The average ethanol concentration was 0.60 g/L ± 0.12 (α=0.05, n=21). In the soil samples, the following drugs of abuse could...

  15. Evaluation and characterization of anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yafei; Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, re-combined estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) gene yeast assays combined with a novel approach based on Monte Carlo simulation were used for evaluation and characterization of soil samples collected from Jilin along the Second Songhua River to assess their antagonist/agonist properties for ER and AR. The results showed that estrogenic activity only occurred in the soil samples collected in the agriculture area, but most soil samples showed anti-estrogenic activities, and the bioassay-derived 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents ranged from N.D. to 23.51 μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined as potential contributors associated with anti-estrogenic activity in these soil samples. Moreover, none of the soil samples exhibited AR agonistic potency, whereas 54% of the soil samples exhibited AR antagonistic potency. The flutamide equivalents varied between N.D. and 178.05 μg/g. Based on Monte Carlo simulation-related mass balance analysis, the AR antagonistic activities were significantly correlated with the media polar and polar fractions. All of these results support that this novel calculation method can be adopted effectively to quantify and characterize the ER/AR agonists and antagonists of the soil samples, and these data could help provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts.

  16. Methodology for the detection of contamination by hydrocarbons and further soil sampling for volatile and semi-volatile organic enrichment in former petrol stations, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rosales Aranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal detection and quantification of contamination plumes in soil and groundwater by petroleum organic compounds, gasoline and diesel, is critical for the reclamation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil at petrol stations. Through this study it has been achieved a sampling stage optimization in these scenarios by means of the location of potential contamination areas before sampling with the application of the 2D electrical resistivity tomography method, a geophysical non destructive technique based on resistivity measurements in soils. After the detection of hydrocarbons contaminated areas, boreholes with continuous coring were performed in a petrol station located in Murcia Region (Spain. The drillholes reached depths down to 10 m and soil samples were taken from each meter of the drilling. The optimization in the soil samples handling and storage, for both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds determinations, was achieved by designing a soil sampler to minimize volatilization losses and in order to avoid the manual contact with the environmental samples during the sampling. The preservation of soil samples was performed according to Europe regulations and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations into two kinds of glass vials. Moreover, it has been taken into account the determination techniques to quantify the hydrocarbon pollution based on Gas Chromatography with different detectors and headspace technique to reach a liquid-gas equilibrium for volatile analyses.

  17. Geometric factor and influence of sensors in the establishment of a resistivity-moisture relation in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, M.; Mansilla-Plaza, L.; Sánchez-de-laOrden, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prior to field scale research, soil samples are analysed on a laboratory scale for electrical resistivity calibrations. Currently, there are a variety of field instruments to estimate the water content in soils using different physical phenomena. These instruments can be used to develop moisture-resistivity relationships on the same soil samples. This assures that measurements are performed on the same material and under the same conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature). A geometric factor is applied to the location of electrodes, in order to calculate the apparent electrical resistivity of the laboratory test cells. This geometric factor can be determined in three different ways: by means of the use of an analytical approximation, laboratory trials (experimental approximation), or by the analysis of a numerical model. The first case, the analytical approximation, is not appropriate for complex cells or arrays. And both, the experimental and numerical approximation can lead to inaccurate results. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to obtain a compromise solution between both techniques, providing a more precise determination of the geometrical factor.

  18. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADIUM CONTENT AND RADON EXHALATION RATE FROM SOIL SAMPLES USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Prasad, Mukesh; Joshi, Veena; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Soil is the most important factor affecting the radon level in the human living environments. It depends not only on uranium and thorium contents but also on the physical and chemical properties of the soil. In this paper, the measurements of radium content and mass exhalation rate of radon from the soil samples collected from Uttarkashi area of Garhwal Himalaya are presented. The correlation between radium content and radon mass exhalation rate from soil has also been obtained. The radium was measured by gamma ray spectrometry, while the mass exhalation rate of radon has been determined by both active and passive methods. The radium activity in the soil of study area was found to vary from 45±7 to 285±29 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 99 Bq kg(-1) The radon mass exhalation rate was found to vary from 0.59 × 10(-5) to 2.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.4 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by passive technique and from 0.8 × 10(-5) to 3.2 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) with an average of 1.5 × 10(-5) Bq kg(-1) h(-1) by active technique. The results suggest that the measured radium value is positively correlated with the radon mass exhalation rate measured with both the active and passive techniques. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Accumulation of sulfur and heavy metals in soil and tree leaves sampled from the surroundings of Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, A; Koparal, A S

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the quantities of sulfur and heavy metals, resulting from the Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant (TPP) in Turkey, have been assessed in tree leaves and soil samples within a 10 km radius of the plant. Leaves of Salix alba L., Populus tremula L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Quercus infectoria L., Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe. trees have been used with the aim of determining how far the gas and particles emitted from the TPP are carried, and for assessment of environmental impact. The results obtained from locations chosen at various distances to the TPP, indicate that the contaminating agents are very dense and effective; particularly in the prevailing wind direction and within 10 km of the plant. They gradually lose their density and effect beyond this distance. The sulfur and heavy metal analyses made in soils taken from these locations indicate a similarity with the data obtained from the leaves.

  1. MCNP ESTIMATE OF THE SAMPLED VOLUME IN A NON-DESTRUCTIVE IN SITU SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.; DIOSZEGI, I.; MITRA, S.

    2004-05-03

    Global warming, promoted by anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emission into the atmosphere, is partially mitigated by the photosynthesis processes of the terrestrial echo systems that act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} scrubbers and sequester carbon in soil. Switching from till to no till soils management practices in agriculture further augments this process. Carbon sequestration is also advanced by putting forward a carbon ''credit'' system whereby these can be traded between CO{sub 2} producers and sequesters. Implementation of carbon ''credit'' trade will be further promulgated by recent development of a non-destructive in situ carbon monitoring system based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Volumes and depth distributions defined by the 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 90 percent neutron isofluxes, from a point source located at either 5 or 30 cm above the surface, were estimated using Monte Carlo calculations.

  2. An improved protocol for DNA extraction from alkaline soil and sediment samples for constructing metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Digvijay; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-09-01

    An improved single-step protocol has been developed for extracting pure community humic substance-free DNA from alkaline soils and sediments. The method is based on direct cell lysis in the presence of powdered activated charcoal and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone followed by precipitation with polyethyleneglycol and isopropanol. The strategy allows simultaneous isolation and purification of DNA while minimizing the loss of DNA with respect to other available protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction. Moreover, the purity levels are significant, which are difficult to attain with any of the methods reported in the literature for DNA extraction from soils. The DNA thus extracted was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be processed for restriction digestion, PCR amplification as well as for the construction of metagenomic libraries.

  3. Detection of VX contamination in soil through solid-phase microextraction sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the VX degradation product bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Gary L; Kimm, Gregory; Koch, David; Savage, Paul B; Ding, Bangwei; Smith, Philip A

    2003-04-11

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) sampling and analysis method was developed for bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide (a degradation product of the nerve agent VX) in soil. A 30-min sampling time with a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fiber and high temperature alkaline hydrolysis allowed detection with 1.0 microg of VX spiked per g of agricultural soil. The method was successfully used in the field with portable GC-MS instrumentation. This method is relatively rapid (less than 1 h), avoids the use of complex preparation steps, and enhances analyst safety through limited use of solvents and decontamination of the soil before sampling.

  4. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujić, Predrag; Čeliković, Igor; Žunić, Zora S.

    2008-08-01

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined 235U/238U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  5. Sampling Natural Viral Communities from Soil for Culture-Independent Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Wommack, K. Eric; Radosevich, Mark

    2003-01-01

    An essential first step in investigations of viruses in soil is the evaluation of viral recovery methods suitable for subsequent culture-independent analyses. In this study, four elution buffers (10% beef extract, 250 mM glycine buffer, 10 mM sodium pyrophosphate, and 1% potassium citrate) and three enumeration techniques (plaque assay, epifluorescence microscopy [EFM], and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were compared to determine the best method of extracting autochthonous bacteriop...

  6. Development of Sampling Methods for Powders and Soil for Detection of Biothreat Agents by Electrochemiluminecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for the analysis of such materials. Some work on the development of methods to detect bacteria in powders has been reported for Bacillus thuringiensis ...gut fluid has been described for the extraction of Bacillus thuringiensis from soil [ 17]; however, little analytical data is available on the...of biological threat agents including Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, ricin, Vibrio cholerae, Botulinum toxin , and Bacillus anthracis [21, 23, 24]. ECL

  7. Comparative GC/MS and LC/MS detection of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in soil and water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, M.; Hamm, S. [Eurofins, Hamburg (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Arbeitswissenschaft e.V. (GfA), Dortmund (Germany); Schaefer, A. [Eurofins Analytik GmbH, Wiertz - Eggert - Joerissen, Hamburg (Germany); Esser, U. [GfA Constult GmbH, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a crucial additive flame retardant (FR) for FR Polystyrene insulation foams (both expandable (EPS) as well as extrudable polystyrene (XPS)), polystyrene masterbatches and textile FR coatings. The total consumption of HBCD within the European Union (EU) is estimated to be about 10,000 tons out of 16,700 worldwide per year. The technical HBCD product usually is a mixture of the three diastereoisomers {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-HBCD with the {gamma}- isomer as main component. Compared to other flame retardants only few data on HBCD levels in the environment have been published. Within this study a series of soil and water samples from HBCD processing plants was analysed by GC/MS (LRMS-EI). Besides GC/MS, also liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is often used for HBCD detection in environmental samples. Whilst GC/MS only provides information about the total of the three HBCD isomers, LC/MS is able to selectively monitor and quantify the three components. On the other hand GC/MS usually has the advantage of a higher sensitivity. In order to verify the GC/MS results and to check the comparability to LC/MS analytical data, five soil and five water samples showing a wide range of HBCD concentrations were analysed by using both techniques. The comparative analyses by means of LC/MS confirmed the HBCD identification and quantification of the GC/MS. The differences between the total HBCD results of the GC/MS and the LC/MS analyses were less than 24%. The {gamma}- isomer proved to be the main HBCD diastereoisomer in the soil and water samples tested.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junxia; Lin, Zhenkun [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Kuangfei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Chunyan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology/State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cui, Changyuan [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Lin, Junda [Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab for Technology and Application of Model Organisms, Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined PBDE concentrations in various matrices from different industrial areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated PBDE levels were found in areas with low-voltage electrical manufactures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Areas with e-waste recycling activities also had higher PBDE concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE content and composition in water samples varied from one area to another. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE composition in sediment/soil and biological samples was predominated by BDE-209. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively in electrical and electronic products, but little is known about their distribution in the environment surrounding the manufacturing factories. This study reports PBDE contamination in various matrices from the location (Liushi, Zhejiang province) that produces more than 70% of the low-voltage electrical appliances in China. Additionally, PBDE contamination was compared with other industries such as the e-waste recycling business (Fengjiang) in the same region. Specifically, we measured seven PBDE congeners (BDEs - 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) in water, sediment, soil, plant, and animal tissues from four different areas in this region. The present study revealed elevated PBDE concentrations in all matrices collected from Liushi and Fengjiang in comparison with highly industrialized areas without significant PBDE contamination sources. In water samples, there were large variations of PBDE content and composition across different areas. In sediment/soil and biological samples, BDE-209 was the predominant congener and this could be due to the abundant usage of deca-BDE mixtures in China. Our findings provide the very first data on PBDE contamination in the local environments surrounding the electronics industry, and also reveal widespread PBDE contamination in highly industrialized coastal regions of China.

  9. Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 μg/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 μg/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples. Graphical Abstract The method developed in this study was used to determine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood smoke and soil.

  10. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-02-23

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores.

  11. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2017-01-01

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores. PMID:28230151

  12. Potential microbial contamination during sampling of permafrost soil assessed by tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Schostag, Morten; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2017-02-01

    Drilling and handling of permanently frozen soil cores without microbial contamination is of concern because contamination e.g. from the active layer above may lead to incorrect interpretation of results in experiments investigating potential and actual microbial activity in these low microbial biomass environments. Here, we present an example of how microbial contamination from active layer soil affected analysis of the potentially active microbial community in permafrost soil. We also present the development and use of two tracers: (1) fluorescent plastic microspheres and (2) Pseudomonas putida genetically tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein production to mimic potential microbial contamination of two permafrost cores. A protocol with special emphasis on avoiding microbial contamination was developed and employed to examine how far microbial contamination can penetrate into permafrost cores. The quantity of tracer elements decreased with depth into the permafrost cores, but the tracers were detected as far as 17 mm from the surface of the cores. The results emphasize that caution should be taken to avoid microbial contamination of permafrost cores and that the application of tracers represents a useful tool to assess penetration of potential microbial contamination into permafrost cores.

  13. Determination of irradiated reactor uranium in soil samples in Belarus using 236U as irradiated uranium tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladislav P; Matusevich, Janna L; Kudrjashov, Vladimir P; Boulyga, Sergei F; Becker, J Sabine

    2002-12-01

    This work presents experimental results on the distribution of irradiated reactor uranium from fallout after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in comparison to natural uranium distribution in different soil types. Oxidation processes and vertical migration of irradiated uranium in soils typical of the 30 km relocation area around Chernobyl NPP were studied using 236U as the tracer for irradiated reactor uranium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as the analytical method for uranium isotope ratio measurements. Measurements of natural uranium yielded significant variations of its concentration in upper soil layers from 2 x 10(-7) g g(-1) to 3.4 x 10(-6) g g(-1). Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers at the investigated sampling sites varied from 5 x 10(-12) g g(-1) to 2 x 10(-6) g g(-1) depending on the distance from Chernobyl NPP. In the majority of investigated soil profiles 78% to 97% of irradiated "Chernobyl" uranium is still contained in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil do not have any significant influence on processes of fuel particle destruction. Results obtained using carbonate leaching of 236U confirmed that more than 60% of irradiated "Chernobyl" uranium is still in a tetravalent form, ie. it is included in the fuel matrix (non-oxidized fuel UO2). The average value of the destruction rate of fuel particles determined for the Western radioactive trace (k = 0.030 +/- 0.005 yr(-1)) and for the Northern radioactive trace (k = 0.035 + 0.009 yr(-1)) coincide within experimental errors. Use of leaching of fission products in comparison to leaching of uranium for study of the destruction rate of fuel particles yielded poor coincidence due to the fact that use of fission products does not take into account differences in the chemical properties of fission products and fuel matrix (uranium).

  14. Development of A Real-Time PCR Assay for Plasmodiophora brassicae and Its Detection in Soil Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-ping; LI Yan; SHI Yan-xia; XIE Xue-wen; Chai A-li; LI Bao-ju

    2013-01-01

    A SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay was developed to detect and quantify Plasmodiophora brassicae ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A pair of primers PBF1/PBR1 was designed based on the conservative region of rDNA-ITS of P. brassicae. The positive plasmid pB12 was obtained and used as the template to create standard curve. The specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility of real-time PCR were evaluated respectively. Naturally and artificially infested soil samples containing different concentrations of P. brassicae were detected. The results demonstrated that standard curve established by recombinant plasmid was shown a fine linear relationship between threshold cycle and template concentration. The melting curve was specific with the correlation coefficient of 0.995 and that the amplification efficiency was 93.8%. The detection limit of P. brassicae genomic DNA was approximately 40 copies per 25μL. The sensitivity of the assay was at least 100-fold higher than conventional PCR. Only DNA from P. brassicae could be amplified and detected using this assay, suggesting the highly specific of this assay. The coefficient of variation was less than 3%, indicating the PCR method revealed high reproducibility. The detection limit in soil samples corresponded to 1 000 resting spores g-1 soil. Bait plants were used to validate the real-time PCR assay. This developed real-time PCR assay allows for fast and sensitive detection of P. brassicae in soil and should be useful in disease management and pest interception so as to prevent further spread of P. brassicae.

  15. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  16. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  17. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone. The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp., marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria, and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp.,

  18. Determination of a Thorium Content in Soil Samples by Means of Gamma-Activation Analysis and X-Ray Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, O D; Gustova, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2003-01-01

    A highly sensitive method based on the reaction ^{232}Th(\\gamma, n)^{231}Th (T_{1/2} = 25.5 h) is developed for determining thorium in soil and environmental samples with a thorium content at a level of 3x10^{-7} g/g. Samples were irradiated for 4 hours with a maximum photon energy of 24.5 MeV at a compact electron accelerator - the MT-25 microtron of FLNR, JINR. The average electron current was about 15 {\\mu}A. The irradiated samples were tested using an X-ray spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector and a resolution of 200 eV (Fe_{K\\alpha} - 6.4 keV).

  19. Differences in determination of chemical elements in soil and attic dust samples due to various acid treatments, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šajn

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an assessment of relationship existing between analytical values of samples, which were treated with two different acid procedures: four acid digestion and extraction in aqua regia. The sample population consisted of 256 soil samples and 139 atticdust samples collected within the frame of various geochemical studies in Slovenia. After acid treatments, elementary composition of the samples was determined by means of ICP method. As we were interested in functional relationships between both treatment procedures, we performed bivariate analysis of elementary compositions. A regression line based on the logarithms of data was used as a basic correlation indicator. We correlated the following 31 elements: Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn.The majority of analytical values for elements in our samples, treated with both procedures,showed a high degree of correlation and a good functional relationship. A weak relationship existed only between those elements that were on detection limits of theanalytical method or had a weak variability (Ag, Ba, Bi, K, Na, Ti, and W. On the basis of the results of double treatment and analysis of samples we calculated the boundary, warning and critical values, which are related to four acid digestion.

  20. Heterogeneous areas-identification of outliers and calculation of soil sampling uncertainty using the modified RANOVA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dołęgowska, Sabina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M

    2016-10-01

    We modified the robust analysis of variance (RANOVA) method to calculate sampling uncertainty of selected trace elements determined in soil samples from two heterogeneous remote historic metal ore mining areas. Classical RANOVA is down-weighting the outlying values by replacing them during the calculation process with mean ± c·σ r . Because the arithmetic mean is greatly influenced by outliers, it cannot represent a robust statistic. The main novel contribution of this work is use of median value that is independent on outliers and replace all extreme values during the calculation process with median ± 2·σ r . In our work, 18 duplicate, composite soil samples were collected, digested with aqua regia in a closed microwave system, and analyzed twice for selected trace elements. To extract homogenous groups within sampling areas and make the results more accessible for interpretation, a cluster analysis was done. Subsequently, histograms of each element were prepared and statistical tests were applied to determine the normal distribution of datasets. For abnormally distributed elements, the outlying values were identified by four different methods: boxplot, mean ± c·σ r , mean ± c·σ, and median ± 2·σ r . For five elements, the amount of outliers identified by the median ± 2·σ r procedure was less than 10 %, and for these elements, the sampling uncertainty was computed using a modified RANOVA method. The sampling uncertainty computed with this method was 28.9 % for Cd, 15.2 % for Co, 14.5 % for Mn, 12.7 % for Ni, and 16.3 % for Zn, whereas that computed with a traditional model was 16.7 % for Cd, 9.2 % for Co, 20.5 % for Mn, 17.9 % for Ni, and 16.3 % for Zn.

  1. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  2. Application of portable gas chromatography-photo ionization detector combined with headspace sampling for field analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You-Ya; Yu, Ji-Fang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Chao-Yan; Xie, Ya-Bo; Ma, Li-Qiang; Gu, Qing-Bao; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    A method based on headspace (HS) sampling coupling with portable gas chromatography (GC) with photo ionization detector (PID) was developed for rapid determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in soils. Optimal conditions for HS gas sampling procedure were determined, and the influence of soil organic matter on the recovery of BTEX from soil was investigated using five representative Chinese soils. The results showed that the HS-portable-GC-PID method could be effectively operated at ambient temperature, and the addition of 15 ml of saturated NaCl solution in a 40-ml sampling vial and 60 s of shaking time for sample solution were optimum for the HS gas sampling procedure. The recoveries of each BTEX in soils ranged from 87.2 to 105.1 %, with relative standard deviations varying from 5.3 to 7.8 %. Good linearity was obtained for all BTEX compounds, and the detection limits were in the 0.1 to 0.8 μg kg(-1) range. Soil organic matter was identified as one of the principal elements that affect the HS gas sampling of BTEX in soils. The HS-portable-GC-PID method was successfully applied for field determination of benzene and toluene in soils of a former chemical plant in Jilin City, northeast China. Considering its satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility and particular suitability to be operated in ambient environment, HS sampling coupling with portable GC-PID is, therefore, recommended to be a suitable screening tool for rapid on-site determination of BTEX in soils.

  3. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  4. New sample treatment for determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in agricultural soils by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimer, M; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; López, I; Berna, J L; Vílchez, J L

    2007-03-01

    A new sample-treatment procedure has been developed for determination of total linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), i.e. homologues and isomers, in agricultural soil. The procedure involves two steps, ultrasound-assisted extraction of LAS from the samples with methanol then clean-up of the methanolic extracts and preconcentration of the LAS by solid-phase extraction on two adsorbent cartridges (SAX and C18). The ultrasound-assisted procedure reduces extraction time (10 min in contrast with 6-12 h for conventional Soxhlet extraction) and requires only small volumes of organic solvent. The effect of different variables interacting in the ultrasound-assisted extraction process was studied. Finally, separation and quantification of the homologues and isomers of LAS was performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). 2-Octylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Na-2ØC8-LAS) was used as internal standard. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for determination of LAS in agricultural soil samples from the fertile plain of Granada (Spain).

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples around a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeji, Mark C; Agwu, Kenneth K; Idigo, Felicitas U

    2012-11-01

    The radionuclides present in phosphate ore, phosphogypsum and soil samples in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plants in Nigeria were identified and their activity concentration determined to assess the potential radiation impact on the environment due to fertilizer production. The mean activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K radionuclides in phosphate ore samples were 616 ± 38.6, BDL (Below Detection Level) and 323.7 ± 57.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively. For the phosphogypsum, 334.8 ± 8.8, 4.0 ± 1.4, and 199.9 ± 9.3 Bq kg(-1) respectively and for soil samples range from 20.5 ± 7.3 to 175.7 ± 10.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 15.5 ± 1.5 to 50.4 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 89.5 ± 8.1 to 316.1 ± 41.3 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was 71.4 nGy h(-1). The mean annual effective dose was 86 μSv.

  6. Determination of n-alkanes contamination in soil samples by micro gas chromatography functionalized by multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubo; Zhang, Runzhou; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yonghuan; Xu, Tianbai; Li, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weijun; Dong, Shurong; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2016-09-01

    A new method for separation of 11 n-alkanes: octane, o-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, n-pentdecne, n-hexadecath, heptadecane, n-octadecane in soil samples was developed. Kuderna-Danish (K.D.) concentrator enrichment prior to ultrasonic extraction and the silicone chromatography column purification and with gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) could be used for n-alkanes determination. The micro channels of open tubular column were fabricated onto a silicon wafer to replace the quartz capillary chromatographic column. The column structure and analysis parameters that affected the column separation were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extract reagent was centrifuged and collected. A silicone chromatography column and a K.D. concentrator were used for further clean-up and enrichment. Using this method, the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 0.03-0.15 and 0.1-0.5 mg kg(-1) in soil samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was under 12%. The optimized procedure that presented good analytical performance (with recoveries ranging from 56.5% to 89.2%), was successfully applied to determine n-alkane content in farmland soil samples adjacent to a highway. The results showed that the MWCNTs-functionalized column is capable of separating the alkane contaminations with high resolution in about 3 min, which is much shorter than that of GC-MS and other conventional analytical methods, demonstrating its great potential for rapid analysis.

  7. Use of Innovative and Advanced Computer Simulations of Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Soils and Other Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeske Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several aspects of computer simulations and models of heavy metals speciation in environmental samples. The methods can be effectively used in environmental sciences, soil science, and assessment of mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated areas. The article presents all of the methods based on examples, and with interpretation of results. The effect depends on the reliability of data used in models. The results are essential for predicting the fate and behaviour of elements in the environment, and can also be used to develop solubility curves.

  8. Quick survey for detection, identification and characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes from some selected soil and water samples across Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Tanveer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen which is widely distributed in nature and plays a pivotal role in ecosystem. [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] species may cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the presence of [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] in soil and water resources of Pakistan. Here, [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] were recovered on non-nutrient agar plate lawn with [i]E.[/i] [i]coli[/i] and identified by morphological characteristics of the cyst. Furthermore PCR was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Overall our PCR and sequencing results confirmed pathogenic genotypes including T4 and T15 from both soil and water samples. This is our first report of [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] isolation from both soil and water resources of Pakistan which may serve as a potential treat to human health across the country.

  9. Impact of land-use on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture: evidence from a desertified dryland using repeated paired sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuehua; Tang, Shuangli; Cornwell, William K; Gao, Shuqin; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-03-01

    Desertification resulting from land-use affects large dryland areas around the world, accompanied by carbon loss. However it has been difficult to interpret different land-use contributions to carbon pools owing to confounding factors related to climate, topography, soil texture and other original soil properties. To avoid such confounding effects, a unique systematic and extensive repeated design of paired sampling plots of different land-use types was adopted on Ordos Plateau, N China. The sampling enabled to quantify the effects of the predominant land-use types on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture, and to define the most promising land-use choices for carbon storage, both in grassland on sandy soil and in desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results showed that (1) desertification control should be an effective measure to improve the carbon sequestration in sandy grassland, and shrub planting should be better than grass planting; (2) development of man-made grassland should be a good choice to solve the contradictions of ecology and economy in desert grassland; (3) grassland on sandy soil is more vulnerable to soil degradation than desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results may be useful for the selection of land-use types, aiming at desertification prevention in drylands. Follow-up studies should directly investigate the role of soil texture on the carbon storage dynamic caused by land-use change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae, spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae, black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae. In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

  11. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  12. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  13. Test of Tree Core Sampling for Screening of Toxic Elements in Soils from a Norwegian Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Tree core samples have been used to delineate organic subsurface plumes. In 2009 and 2010, samples were taken at trees growing on a former dump site in Norway and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations in wood were in averag...

  14. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Teresita M; Skillman, Jane E; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    This is the first study to assess the diversity and community structure of the Agaricomycotina in an ectotrophic forest using above-ground fruiting body surveys as well as soil rDNA sampling. We recovered 132 molecular operational taxonomic units, or 'species', from fruiting bodies and 66 from soil, with little overlap. Fruiting body sampling primarily recovered fungi from the Agaricales, Russulales, Boletales and Cantharellales. Many of these species are ectomycorrhizal and form large fruiting bodies. Soil rDNA sampling recovered fungi from these groups in addition to taxa overlooked during the fruiting body survey from the Atheliales, Trechisporales and Sebacinales. Species from these groups form inconspicuous, resupinate and corticioid fruiting bodies. Soil sampling also detected fungi from the Hysterangiales that form fruiting bodies underground. Generally, fruiting body and soil rDNA samples recover a largely different assemblage of fungi at the species level; however, both methods identify the same dominant fungi at the genus-order level and ectomycorrhizal fungi as the prevailing type. Richness, abundance, and phylogenetic diversity (PD) identify the Agaricales as the dominant fungal group above- and below-ground; however, we find that molecularly highly divergent lineages may account for a greater proportion of total diversity using the PD measure compared with richness and abundance. Unless an exhaustive inventory is required, the rapidity and versatility of DNA-based sampling may be sufficient for a first assessment of the dominant taxonomic and ecological groups of fungi in forest soil.

  15. Remote robot manipulator coupled with remote-controlled guide vehicle for soil sampling in hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiho

    The important initial step for remediation of hazardous waste is contaminant analysis since the cleanup operation can not begin until the contaminants in hazardous waste sites have been clearly identified. Ames Laboratory, one of the U.S. Department of Energy sites, has developed a robotic sampling system for automation of real-time contaminant analysis in situ which will provide the advantage of lowering the cost per sample, eliminating personnel exposure to hazardous environments, and allowing quicker results. Successful accomplishment of real-time contaminant analysis will require a remote manipulator to perform the sampling tasks in remote and unstructured surroundings, and a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move a remote manipulator into the desired sampling location. This thesis focuses on the design and construction of a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move the robotic sampling system into the contaminated field to obtain soil samples at the desired locations, the development of an integrated dynamic model of a remote manipulator, the identification of dynamic parameters in the integrated dynamic model, and the design of a mobile robotic sampling system. A four-wheeled vehicle prototype has been constructed and its performance tested manually in the field to verify the design requirements. To remotely control the vehicle, mechanical requirements to activate the brake, throttle, transmission, and steering linkages were determined based on experimental results. A teleoperated control utilizing hundred feet long umbilical cords was first employed to remotely control the vehicle. Next, the vehicle was modified to remotely operate in the field by radio control without the aid of long umbilical cords, satisfying all the design specifications. To reduce modeling error in the robotic system, the integrated dynamic system comprised of a remote manipulator (located on a trailer pulled by the remote-controlled guide vehicle) and its drive system has been modeled

  16. Using X-ray imaging for monitoring the development of the macropore network in a soil sample exposed to natural boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John

    2015-04-01

    Soil macrostructure is not static but continuously modified by climatic and biological factors. Knowledge of how a macropore network evolves in an individual soil sample is however scarce because it is difficult to collect respective time-lapse data in the field. In this study I investigated whether it is reasonable to use X-ray imaging to monitor the macropore network development in a small topsoil column (10 cm high, 6.8 cm diameter) that is periodically removed from the field, X-rayed and subsequently installed back in the field. Apart from quantifying the structural changes of the macropore network in this soil sample, I investigated whether earthworms entered the soil column and whether roots grew beyond the lower bottom of the column into the subsoil. The soil was sampled from a freshly hand-ploughed allotment near Uppsala (Sweden) in the beginning of June 2013. Rucola (eruca vesicaria) was sown on the top of the column and in its vicinity. When the soil column was for the first time removed from the field and scanned in October 2013, it contained four new earthworm burrows. Root growth into the subsoil was largely absent. Over winter, in May 2014, no further earthworm burrows had formed. Instead, the macrostructure had started to disintegrate somewhat. No crop was sown in the 2014 vegetation period and the soil sample was left unploughed. In October 2014, the column contained again new earthworm burrows. Furthermore, a dandelion had established on the soil column together with some grasses. Several roots had now connected the soil column with the subsoil. The study shows that X-ray tomography offers a promising opportunity for investigating soil structure evolution, even though it cannot be directly installed in the field.

  17. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  18. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7-104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7-8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L(-1). The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg(-1) in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg(-1) in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t1/2=11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(-)-ethiprole (t1/2=34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety.

  19. Dating samples of lunar soil from the Mare Crisium by the Ar/39/-Ar/40/ technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanin, L. L.; Arakeliants, M. M.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Ivanenko, V. V.; Pupyrev, Iu. G.; Tarasov, L. S.; Frikh-Khar, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    Two samples (dolerite and gabbro fragments) from a depth of 184 cm in the Luna 24 core are dated using the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique. The values obtained are found to be lower than all published isotopic ages for the Luna 24 samples. An analysis of possible dating errors of the lunar samples, together with the good agreement of the results from the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique of geochronologic standards and anorthosite from the Korosten pluton with the results from Rb-Sr, U-Pb, and Sm-Nd methods, attests the reliability of the values.

  20. A procedure for estimating Bacillus cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples - A potential exploration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of bacterial spores of the Bacillus cereus group in soils and stream sediments appears to be a sensitive indicator of several types of concealed mineral deposits, including vein-type gold deposits. The B. cereus assay is rapid, inexpensive, and inherently reproducible. The test, currently under investigation for its potential in mineral exploration, is recommended for use on a research basis. Among the aerobic spore-forming bacilli, only B. cereus and closely related strains produce an opaque zone in egg-yolk emulsion agar. This characteristic, also known as the Nagler of lecitho-vitellin reaction, has long been used to rapidly indentify and estimate presumptive B. cereus. The test is here adapted to permit rapid estimation of B. cereus spores in soil and stream-sediment samples. Relative standard deviation was 10.3% on counts obtained from two 40-replicate pour-plate determinations. As many as 40 samples per day can be processed. Enough procedural detail is included to permit investigation of the test in conventional geochemical laboratories using standard microbiological safety precautions. ?? 1985.

  1. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  2. SOURCE PROFILES AND FINGERPRINTS OF FINE AND COARSE SANDS RESUSPENDED FROM SOILS SAMPLED IN CENTRAL INNER MONGOLIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Chun-Xing Hai; Ming Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprints and source profiles of fine and coarse sands that originate from Central Inner Mongolia during Asian continental sandstorms (ACS) can be used to identify the origin of Asian sands and to trace them as they travel downwind. Soil samples collected at various land surfaces in Central Inner Mongolia were resuspended using a dry powder atomizer in an enclosure chamber. The resuspended sands were then sampled by two dichotomous samplers situated at the bottom of the enclosure chamber for fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) sands, respectively. The chemical composition of sands, including water-soluble ionic species, metallic contents, and carbonaceous contents, were further analyzed. Results from resuspension tests indicated that the soils contained considerably more coarse particles than fine.Moreover, Mg, K, Al, and Fe in coarse sand had strong correlations with each other. The ratio of Mg, K, Fe (or Al) to Al (or Fe) and OC/EC in the coarse sands can be used as the fingerprints of Asian sands originating from Central Inner Mongolia.

  3. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  4. Use of a (137)Cs re-sampling technique to investigate temporal changes in soil erosion and sediment mobilisation for a small forested catchment in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E; Alewell, Christine; Callegari, Giovanni; Mabit, Lionel; Mallimo, Nicola; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion and both its on-site and off-site impacts are increasingly seen as a serious environmental problem across the world. The need for an improved evidence base on soil loss and soil redistribution rates has directed attention to the use of fallout radionuclides, and particularly (137)Cs, for documenting soil redistribution rates. This approach possesses important advantages over more traditional means of documenting soil erosion and soil redistribution. However, one key limitation of the approach is the time-averaged or lumped nature of the estimated erosion rates. In nearly all cases, these will relate to the period extending from the main period of bomb fallout to the time of sampling. Increasing concern for the impact of global change, particularly that related to changing land use and climate change, has frequently directed attention to the need to document changes in soil redistribution rates within this period. Re-sampling techniques, which should be distinguished from repeat-sampling techniques, have the potential to meet this requirement. As an example, the use of a re-sampling technique to derive estimates of the mean annual net soil loss from a small (1.38 ha) forested catchment in southern Italy is reported. The catchment was originally sampled in 1998 and samples were collected from points very close to the original sampling points again in 2013. This made it possible to compare the estimate of mean annual erosion for the period 1954-1998 with that for the period 1999-2013. The availability of measurements of sediment yield from the catchment for parts of the overall period made it possible to compare the results provided by the (137)Cs re-sampling study with the estimates of sediment yield for the same periods. In order to compare the estimates of soil loss and sediment yield for the two different periods, it was necessary to establish the uncertainty associated with the individual estimates. In the absence of a generally accepted procedure

  5. Continuous-flow fractionation of selenium in contaminated sediment and soil samples using rotating coiled column and microcolumn extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonina, Elena Yu; Fedotov, Petr S; Wennrich, Rainer

    2012-01-15

    Dynamic fractionation is considered to be an attractive alternative to conventional batch sequential extraction procedures for partitioning of trace metals and metalloids in environmental solid samples. This paper reports the first results on the continuous-flow dynamic fractionation of selenium using two different extraction systems, a microcolumn (MC) packed with the solid sample and a rotating coiled column (RCC) in which the particulate matter is retained under the action of centrifugal forces. The eluents (leachants) were applied in correspondence with a four-step sequential extraction scheme for selenium addressing "soluble", "adsorbed", "organically bound", and "elemental" Se fractions extractable by distilled water, phosphate buffer, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and sodium sulphite solutions, respectively. Selenium was determined in the effluent by using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Contaminated creek sediment and dumped waste (soil) samples from the abandoned mining area were used to evaluate resemblances and discrepancies of two continuous-flow methods for Se fractionation. In general, similar trends were found for Se distribution between extractable and residual fractions. However, for the dumped waste sample which is rich in organic matter, the extraction in RCC provided more effective recovery of environmentally relevant Se forms (the first three leachable fractions). The most evident deviation was observed for "adsorbed" Se (recoveries by RCC and MC are 43 and 7 mg kg(-1), respectively). The data obtained were correlated with peculiarities of samples under investigation and operational principles of RCC and MC.

  6. Influence of organic manure amendments on water repellency, water entry value, and water retention of soil samples from a tropical Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage T.D.P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lowered stability of soil aggregates governed by insufficient organic matter levels has become a major concern in Sri Lanka. Although the use of organic manure with water repellent properties lowers the wetting rates and improves the stability of soil aggregates, its effects on soil hydrophysical properties are still not characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relation of water repellency induced by organic manure amendments to the water entry value and water retention of a Sri Lankan Ultisol. The soil was mixed with ground powders of cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, Gliricidia maculata (GL and hydrophobic Casuarina equisetifolia (CE leaves to obtain samples ranging from non-repellent to extremely water repellent, in two series. Series I was prepared by mixing GL and CE with soil (5, 10, 25, 50%. Series II consisted of 5% CM, GM, and GL, with (set A and without (set B intermixed 2% CE. Water repellency, water entry value, and water retention of samples were determined in the laboratory. Soil-water contact angle increased with increasing organic matter content in all the samples showing positive linear correlations. Although the samples amended with CE showed high soil-water contact angles in series I, set A (without 2% CE and set B (with 2% CE in series II did not show a noticeable difference, where >80% of the samples had soil-water contact angles <90°. Water entry value (R2 = 0.83–0.92 and the water retention at 150 cm suction (R2 = 0.69–0.8 of all the samples increased with increasing soil-water contact angles showing moderate to strong positive linear correlations. However, set A (without 2% CE and set B (with 2% CE in series II did not differ noticeably. Water entry value of about 60% the samples was <2.5 cm. Mixing of a small amount (2% of hydrophobic organic matter with commonly used organic manures slightly increased the water repellency of sample soils, however not up to detrimental levels. It

  7. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua, E-mail: wangmha@njau.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7–104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7–8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L{sup −1}. The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg{sup −1} in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg{sup −1} in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(−)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. - Highlights: • The ethiprole enantiomers were completely separated. • A novel method for enantioselective determination of ethiprole was developed. • The absolute configurations of ethiprole enantiomers were firstly determined. • The (R)-(+)-ethiprole was preferentially degraded in

  8. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jmoreda@udc.es; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Pazo de Longora, Lians, E-15179. Oleiros (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna. Campus da Zapateira s/n. E-15071. A Coruna (Spain); University Institute of Environment, University of A Coruna, Pazo de Longora, Lians, E-15179. Oleiros (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Antonio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bermejo-Barrera, Adela [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Avenida das Ciencias, s/n. E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 deg. C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  9. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  10. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  11. Distribution pattern of PCBs, HCB and PeCB using passive air and soil sampling in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti; Kull, Ain; Holoubek, Ivan; Cupr, Pavel; Klanova, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Passive air sampling survey of the Central and Eastern Europe was initiated in 2006. This paper presents data on toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorocyclohexane compounds (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH,gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) compounds (p,p'DDE, p,p'DDD, p,p'DDT, o,p'DDE, o,p'DDD, and o,p'DDT) determined in ambient air and soil samples collected at Estonian monitoring stations. Ambient air and soil samples were collected in five sites in northern Estonia. Passive air samplers were deployed four times over 4-week periods covering the period April-August 2006. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (HP 5890) supplied with a Quadrex fused silica column 5% Ph for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Local ground-boundary wind field was modeled for each monitoring station and sampling period on the basis of observed wind data from the nearest meteorological station with a high quality of time series and compared with upper air (at 850- and 500-hPa level) data from Tallinn-Harku aerological station. Median levels of PCB at Estonian stations varied between 3 and 9 ng/filter, although the maximum in Kohtla-Järve reached as high as 28 ng/filter. Sampling rates about 3.5 m(3)/day were determined by empirical measurements, making approximately 100 m(3) for a 28-day sampling cycle. In general, OCP levels in soil were at the limit of detection, except Tallinn site and Muuga Port affected mainly by local sources. However, the atmospheric PCB concentrations are in agreement with the soil analyses where highest PCB levels were found in the soil sample for Tallinn (12.0 ng/g dry weight). For HCB, the atmospheric distribution was quite uniform, with the background levels sometimes higher than the urban ones. HCB and PeCB concentrations were very low in May and June when meridional airflow from

  12. Designing sampling schemes for effect monitoring of nutrient leaching from agricultural soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Noij, I.G.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A general methodology for designing sampling schemes for monitoring is illustrated with a case study aimed at estimating the temporal change of the spatial mean P concentration in the topsoil of an agricultural field after implementation of the remediation measure. A before-after control-impact (BAC

  13. Selected analytical challenges in the determination of pharmaceuticals in drinking/marine waters and soil/sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Kumirska, Jolanta; Borecka, Marta; Caban, Magda; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-03-20

    Recent developments and improvements in advanced instruments and analytical methodologies have made the detection of pharmaceuticals at low concentration levels in different environmental matrices possible. As a result of these advances, over the last 15 years residues of these compounds and their metabolites have been detected in different environmental compartments and pharmaceuticals have now become recognized as so-called 'emerging' contaminants. To date, a lot of papers have been published presenting the development of analytical methodologies for the determination of pharmaceuticals in aqueous and solid environmental samples. Many papers have also been published on the application of the new methodologies, mainly to the assessment of the environmental fate of pharmaceuticals. Although impressive improvements have undoubtedly been made, in order to fully understand the behavior of these chemicals in the environment, there are still numerous methodological challenges to be overcome. The aim of this paper therefore, is to present a review of selected recent improvements and challenges in the determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. Special attention has been paid to the strategies used and the current challenges (also in terms of Green Analytical Chemistry) that exist in the analysis of these chemicals in soils, marine environments and drinking waters. There is a particular focus on the applicability of modern sorbents such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in sample preparation techniques, to overcome some of the problems that exist in the analysis of pharmaceuticals in different environmental samples.

  14. Searching for nonlocal lithologies in the Apollo 12 regolith: a geochemical and petrological study of basaltic coarse fines from the Apollo lunar soil sample 12023,155

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Crawford, Ian; Joy, K. H.; Downes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    New data from a petrological and geochemical examination of 12 coarse basaltic fines from the Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155 provide evidence of additional geochemical diversity at the landing site. In addition to the bulk chemical composition, major, minor, and trace element analyses of mineral phases are employed to ascertain how these samples relate to the Apollo 12 lithological basalt groups, thereby overcoming the problems of representativeness of small samples. All of the samples studi...

  15. A Soil Sampling Method for Accurate Measurement of Mercury Concentration in Soil Air%一种准确测定土壤空气汞浓度的采样方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓云; 郑有飞; 林克思

    2016-01-01

    was detected in the soil air extracted from the topsoil layer(0~3 cm)and the concentration decreased significantly with soil depth, but leveled off after the depth went beyond 20 cm. The experiment on effect of sampling flow on accuracy of the measurement,shows that when the sampling flow rate was below 30 ml min-1 RSD of the measurement was<10.0% and when the sampling flow rate went beyond 30 ml min-1,RSD increased,which indicates that at a higher flow rate than 30 ml min-1,the device may suck some air from the atmosphere into its chamber,and a flow rate of 20 ml min-1 is a safe one that enables the device to extract soil air merely from the soil profile. Then the air samples were analyzed with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence(CVAFS)method. Results show that the absolute detection limit is 0.023 ng m-3. Air mercury concentration in the paddy soils varied in range from 6 to 18.94 ng m-3. When the parallel experimental device was used to determine mercury concentrations of the air in the laboratory and soil air in the farmland simultaneously relative standard deviations of two measurements were both<15%. The comparison experiments show that the device collects air samples merely from soil profiles,rather than from the atmosphere above the soil surface. Mercury concentration of the soil air in paddy soils peaked at noon,which may be attributed to the higher temperature in the topsoil,intensive light and effective radiation during the noon time,enhancing photochemical reactions of mercury and increasing mercury concentration in the soil air. The highest concentration of gaseous mercury in the soil air was detected in soils at 6 cm in depth of the soil profile and then in soils at 3 cm in depth,which suggests that mercury in the soil air of the topsoil escapes into the atmosphere rapidly and its diffusion at 6 cm is retarded by soil. Additionally,the higher water content at 6 cm than at 3 cm may provide profitable additions for mercury in soil and soil water to convert

  16. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  17. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  18. Representativeness of soil samples collected to assess mining-related contamination of flood plains in southeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Historical lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of lead and zinc to the environment (Juracek, 2006; Juracek and Becker, 2009). In response to concern about the mining-related contamination, southeast Cherokee County, Kansas, was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) National Priority List as a Superfund hazardous waste site (fig. 1). To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County Superfund site, a study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that was requested and funded by USEPA. As part of the study, surficial-soil sampling was used to investigate the extent and magnitude of mining-related lead and zinc contamination in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the Superfund site. In mining-affected areas, flood-plain soils had lead and zinc concentrations that far exceeded background levels as well as probable-effects guidelines for toxic aquatic biological effects (Juracek, 2013). Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment.

  19. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 94, Group ESH-19. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Lyons, C.R.; Coriz, F.

    1996-08-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY94 to characterize possible contaminant movement out of Area G through surface-water and sediment runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. Ten metals were also analyzed on selected soils using analytical laboratory techniques. All radiochemical data are compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and reported in LA-12986. Baseline concentrations for future disposal operations were established for metals and radionuclides by a sampling program in the proposed Area G Expansion Area. Considering the amount of radioactive waste that has been disposed at Area G, there is evidence of only low concentrations of radionuclides on perimeter surface soils. Consequently, little radioactivity is leaving the confines of Area G via the surface water runoff pathway.

  20. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction, concentration, and derivatization of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING DUST AND SOIL SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method for extracting and preparing a dust or soil sample for analysis of polar persistent organic pollutants is summarized in this SOP. It covers the extraction, concentration, and derivatization of samples that are to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  2. Gas-Chromatographic analysis of Mars soil samples with the SAM instrument onboard Curiosity - the 359 first sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Cyril; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Mahaffy, Paul; Buch, Arnaud; Goutail, Jean Pierre; Cabane, Michel; Glavin, Daniel; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Meftah, Mustapha; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Brunner, Anna; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Millan, Maeva; Pascalin

    Amongst the SAM suite of instruments, SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal/chemical treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. The first soil samples analyzed with SAM were composed of windblown dust and sand collected at the Rocknest site, while the second site analyzed was a basin called “Yellowknife Bay” where two holes were drilled (John Klein & Cumberland) and analysis showed these sites to be a fluvio-lacustrine sediment.. For their analysis, these samples were subjected to a pyrolysis at temperatures reaching about 850°C. For SAM-GC and GCMS analyses, different fractions of pyrolysates were collected at different temperature in the ambient-900°C range in order to discriminate potential different volatile fractions present in the solid sample. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of a thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was used as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. This channel is also equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) capable to detect the most abundant species (with abundances down to approximately 10-10mol). His channel is thus complementary to the mass spectrometer detection for quantification of such species, as this last instrument does not have linear response in this domain of high abundance, whereas it is significantly more sensitive than the TCD. The results obtained with this instrument first show that the performances of SAM-GC is representative of those obtained during calibrations of the instrument in laboratory, and also that results are repeatable. Hence, the instrument performs nominally, making it the first GCMS running successfully on Mars since the Viking missions (middle of the 70’s). Moreover, the complementarity of GC towards MS is also shown, both by allowing the

  3. Analytical results, database management and quality assurance for analysis of soil and groundwater samples collected by cone penetrometer from the F and H Area seepage basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, D.R.; Johnson, W.H.; Serkiz, S.M.

    1994-10-01

    The Quantification of Soil Source Terms and Determination of the Geochemistry Controlling Distribution Coefficients (K{sub d} values) of Contaminants at the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB) study was designed to generate site-specific contaminant transport factors for contaminated groundwater downgradient of the Basins. The experimental approach employed in this study was to collect soil and its associated porewater from contaminated areas downgradient of the FHSB. Samples were collected over a wide range of geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, conductivity, and contaminant concentration) and were used to describe the partitioning of contaminants between the aqueous phase and soil surfaces at the site. The partitioning behavior may be used to develop site-specific transport factors. This report summarizes the analytical procedures and results for both soil and porewater samples collected as part of this study and the database management of these data.

  4. Application of the SmartSampling Methodology to the Evaluation of Contaminated Landscape Soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAUTMAN,CHRISTOPHER A.

    2000-08-01

    Portions of the SmartSampling{trademark} analysis methodology have been applied to the evaluation of radioactive contaminated landscape soils at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Specifically, the spatial, volumetric distribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) contamination within Area of Concern 16E-1 has been modeled probabilistically using a geostatistical methodology, with the purpose of identifying the likelihood of successfully reducing, with respect to a pre-existing, baseline remediation plan, the volume of soil that must be disposed of offsite during clean-up. The principal objective of the analysis was to evaluate the likelihood of successful deployment of the Segmented Gate System (SGS), a novel remediation approach that emphasizes real-time separation of clean from contaminated materials during remediation operations. One primary requirement for successful application of the segmented gate technology investigated is that a variety of contaminant levels exist at the deployment site, which would enable to the SGS to discriminate material above and below a specified remediation threshold value. The results of this analysis indicate that there is potential for significant volume reduction with respect to the baseline remediation plan at a threshold excavation level of 23 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs. A reduction of approximately 50%, from a baseline volume of approximately 1,064.7 yd{sup 3} to less than 550 yd{sup 3}, is possible with acceptance of only a very small level of engineering risk. The vast majority of this volume reduction is obtained by not excavating almost all of levels 3 and 4 (from 12 to 24 inches in depth), which appear to be virtually uncontaminated, based on the available data. Additional volume reductions related to soil materials on levels 1 (depths of 0--6 inches) and 2 (6--12 inches) may be possible, specifically through use of the SGS technology. Level-by-level evaluation of simulation results suggests that as much as 26 percent of level 1 and as

  5. Development of molecularly imprinted microspheres for the fast uptake of 4-cumylphenol from water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Priyanka; Kaur, Varinder; Singh, Raghubir; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted microspheres containing binding sites for the extraction of 4-cumylphenol have been prepared for the first time. The imprinted microspheres were synthesized by a precipitation method using 4-cumylphenol as a template molecule, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer and divinylbenzene-80 as a cross-linker for polymer network formation. The formation and the morphology of molecularly imprinted microspheres were well characterized using infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric studies, and scanning electron microscopy. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis revealed the high surface area of the sorbent indicating formation of molecularly imprinted microspheres. The developed microspheres were employed as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of 4-cumylphenol and showed fast uptake kinetics. The sorption parameters were optimized to achieve efficient sorption of the template molecule, like pH, quantity of molecularly imprinted microspheres, time required for equilibrium set-up, sorption kinetics, and adsorption isotherm. A standard method was developed to analyze the sorbed sample quantitatively at 279 nm using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was validated by determining target analyte from synthetic samples, bottled water, spiked tap water, and soil samples. The prepared material is a selective and robust sorbent with good reusability.

  6. Influence of windthrows and tree species on forest soil plant biomass and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, B.; Hager, H.

    2012-04-01

    The role of forests has generally been recognized in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol within articles 3.3 and 3.4, RES-E Directive of EU, Country Biomass Action Plans etc.). Application of mitigation actions, to decrease of CO2-emissions and, as the increase of carbon(C)-stocks and appropriate GHG-accounting has been hampered due to a lack of reliable data and good statistical models for the factors influencing C-sequestration in and its release from these systems (e.g. natural and human induced disturbances). Highest uncertainties are still present for estimation of soil C-stocks, which is at the same time the second biggest C-reservoir on earth. Spruce monocultures have been a widely used management practice in central Europe during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes (e.g. submontane to lower montane elevation zone) and on heavy soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially on blowdown. As the windthrow-areas act as CO2-source, we hypothesize that conversion to natural beech and oak forests will provide sustainable wood supply and higher stability of stands against blowdown, which simultaneously provides the long-term belowground C-sequestration. This work focuses on influence of Norway spruce, Common beech and Oak stands on belowground C-dynamics (mineral soil, humus and belowground biomass) taking into consideration the increased impact of windthrows on spruce monocultures as a result of climate change. For this purpose the 300-700m altitude and pseudogley (planosols/temporally logged) soils were chosen in order to evaluate long-term impacts of the observed tree species on belowground C-dynamics and human induced disturbances on secondary spruce stands. Using the false chronosequence approach, the C-pools have been estimated for different compartments and age classes. The sampling of forest floor and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 (homogenous plots) and 50x50cm (inhomogeneous

  7. Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S; Menrath, W; Chen, M; Roda, S; Succop, P

    1999-01-01

    Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions.

  8. Determination of low methylmercury concentrations in peat soil samples by isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS using distillation and solvent extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Piispanen, Juha; Starr, Mike; Nieminen, Tiina; Kantola, Marjatta; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2015-04-01

    Most often, only total mercury concentrations in soil samples are determined in environmental studies. However, the determination of extremely toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in addition to the total mercury is critical to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment. In this study, N2-assisted distillation and acidic KBr/CuSO4 solvent extraction methods were applied to isolate MeHg from wet peat soil samples collected from boreal forest catchments. Determination of MeHg was performed using a purge and trap GC-ICP-MS technique with a species-specific isotope dilution quantification. Distillation is known to be more prone to artificial MeHg formation compared to solvent extraction which may result in the erroneous MeHg results, especially with samples containing high amounts of inorganic mercury. However, methylation of inorganic mercury during the distillation step had no effect on the reliability of the final MeHg results when natural peat soil samples were distilled. MeHg concentrations determined in peat soil samples after distillation were compared to those determined after the solvent extraction method. MeHg concentrations in peat soil samples varied from 0.8 to 18 μg kg(-1) (dry weight) and the results obtained with the two different methods did not differ significantly (p=0.05). The distillation method with an isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS was shown to be a reliable method for the determination of low MeHg concentrations in unpolluted soil samples. Furthermore, the distillation method is solvent-free and less time-consuming and labor-intensive when compared to the solvent extraction method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a molecular beacon real-time PCR assay for detection of Baylisascaris procyonis in different soil types and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatcombe, Rachel R; Jothikumar, Narayanan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R; Hill, Vincent R

    2010-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a helminth parasite commonly found in North American raccoons (Procyon lotor) that is a cause of clinical neural, ocular, and visceral larva migrans in humans when infective eggs are ingested. Rapid detection of B. procyonis eggs in contaminated soil and water would assist public health analysts in evaluating risks associated with public exposure to areas of known raccoon activity. In this study, a molecular beacon probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to enable rapid and specific detection of eggs of Baylisascaris spp. The molecular beacon assay targeted the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (cox-2) gene of B. procyonis. To determine method sensitivity, experiments testing various egg levels (250, 25, and five eggs) were performed by seeding into 0.5-g soil samples or 0.5-mL water samples. Different soil sample types were extracted using a commercial nucleic acid extraction kit. Specificity testing using previously characterized helminth tissue specimens indicated that the assay was specific to Baylisascaris spp. Little real-time PCR inhibition was observed for most of the soil and water samples. A seed level of 250 eggs was detected for all soil types, and two seed levels (25 and five eggs) were detected for surface water samples. These results demonstrate that the reported real-time PCR assay was effective for the sensitive detection of B. procyonis in a wide range of soil types, and should be a useful tool for investigations of soil or water potentially contaminated with eggs of this parasite.

  10. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Cox, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS 15N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by 15N NMR. Liquid state 15N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (1H-15N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  11. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2009-02-28

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS ¹⁵N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by ¹⁵N NMR. Liquid state ¹⁵N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (¹H–¹⁵N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  12. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  13. Inter-laboratory variation in the chemical analysis of acidic forest soil reference samples from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Ross; S.W. Bailey; R.D. Briggs; J. Curry; I.J. Fernandez; G. Fredriksen; C.L. Goodale; P.W. Hazlett; P.R. Heine; C.E. Johnson; J.T. Larson; G.B. Lawrence; R.K. Kolka; R. Ouimet; D. Pare; D. deB. Richter; C.D. Schirmer; R.A. Warby

    2015-01-01

    Long-term forest soil monitoring and research often requires a comparison of laboratory data generated at different times and in different laboratories. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with these analyses is necessary to assess temporal changes in soil properties. Forest soil chemical properties, and methods to measure these properties, often differ from...

  14. Assessment of the levels of DDT and DDE in soil and blood samples from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Martinez-Salinas, Rebeca Isabel; Hernandez-Benavides, Diego; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar; Perez-Maldonado, Ivan Nelinho

    2012-12-01

    In Mexico, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was used until the year 2000, principally in agriculture and anti-paludal program health campaigns. The southeastern region of Mexico was an important area of malaria, and from 1957 DDT was applied indoors every 6 months, with a coverage of 2 g/m(2). The current study was performed in Tabasco, a Mexican state located in the southeastern region of Mexico. DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (DDE) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, low levels were found in household outdoor samples; the levels of DDT ranged from not detectable to 0.048 mg/kg, and of DDE from 0.001 to 0.068 mg/kg. An important finding was that, in all communities where DDT in blood was analyzed, exposure to DDT was found, indicating both past and present exposure. Although the levels found in this study were lower than other studies in Mexico, there is a need to evaluate whether the people living in the study area are at risk.

  15. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

  16. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples.

  17. Monitoring PCDD/Fs in soil and herbage samples collected in the neighborhood of a hazardous waste incinerator after five years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Bocio, A.; Schuhmacher, M.; Liobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili Univ., Reus (Spain); Diaz-Ferrero, J. [Inst. Quimic de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants, usually generated during combustion processes. Until recently, waste incineration was widely referenced as one of the most important sources of PCDD/F release to the atmosphere. In 1999, the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain began regular operations. This facility is placed in Tarragona, Catalonia. The presence of this HWI, as well as that of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) at a few kilometers, increased the concern of the public opinion in relation to the potential toxic emissions, especially those of metals and PCDD/Fs, which could affect the health of the population living in the area. Previously to regular operations (1996) the baseline levels of PCDD/Fs in soil and vegetation samples collected near the HWI were determined. A second survey was carried out two years later (1998) in order to establish the temporal variation in PCDD/F concentrations in soil and vegetation samples taken at the same sampling points. Vegetation is considered an adequate short-term environmental monitor for PCDD/Fs. Therefore, in the surveillance program of the facility (1999-2003), herbage samples (40) were annually collected at the same sampling points in which baseline samples had been taken. Moreover, considering soil as a suitable long-term monitor for PCDD/Fs, 40 soil samples in this matrix were again collected in 2001 and 2003 to examine the temporal variations of PCDD/F levels in the area. In the present study, we present the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in soil and vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of the HWI after 5 years of regular operations.

  18. Investigation of radioactivity in soil samples from the location Jagtlust 2, Kapelle, Netherlands. Letter report; Onderzoek naar radioactiviteit in grondmonsters verkregen op adres Jagtlust 2 te Kapelle. Briefrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerts, P.C.; Kwakman, P.

    2011-12-15

    In 1940, there used to be a paint factory at the current location of a dwelling at Jagtlust 2, where luminescent paint was made. Historic research has not revealed whether the luminescent materials were based on phosphorescent or radio-active components. A soil research has been conducted at the location to examine if any pollution with a radio-active nature still exists in the soil. The following research has been done: establishing of the location where the soil samples need to be taken; taking several soil samples; determining the radio-activity level of the soil samples [Dutch] Rond 1940 stond er op de plek van het woonhuis Jagtlust 2 een verffabriek, waar met lichtgevende verf werd gewerkt. Uit historisch onderzoek door de gemeente is niet duidelijk geworden of de lichtgevende materialen waren gebaseerd op fosforiserende of radioactieve componenten. Door middel van een bodemonderzoek is nagegaan of op de aangegeven locatie nog verontreinigingen van radioactieve aard in de bodem aanwezig zijn. Het volgende onderzoek is uitgevoerd: het bepalen van locatie waar grondmonsters moeten worden genomen; het nemen van enkele grondmonsters; het bepalen van radioactiviteitsgehalte van de grondmonsters.

  19. Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples at Pengerang, Kota Tinggi, Johor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Nur Nazihah; Khoo, Kok Siong [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Pengerang area consists of a mix of private plantation, individual residential lots and state land, which is leased for agriculture related activities. The analysis was conducted to determine the specific activity of the initial value and the radiation hazard indices in the surrounding area in Pengerang. This area will be developed into a major downstream for oil and gas. The aims of this preliminary study were 1) to determine the specific activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K of soil samples at six selected areas by Gamma-ray spectrometry and 2) to calculate the radiation hazard indices. The specific activities (Bq/kg) of the samples ranged from 7.08±5.01 to 36.29±25.72 Bq/kg, 5.62±3.98 to 34.53±24.07 Bq/kg, 4.75±3.42 to 24.76±17.66 Bq/kg and 10.58±7.51 to 101.25±72.00 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K, respectively. These values were well within the range that reported by UNSCEAR. The study also examined the radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained were 48.49±28.06 Bq/kg for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), 0.34 Bq/kg for Representative Level Index (I{sub γ}), 21.83 nGy/h for Absorbed dose rates (D), 0.27 mSv/y for Annual Effective Dose Rates (Deff), 0.13 and 0.18 for External Hazards Index (H{sub ex}) and Internal Hazard Index (H{sub in}), respectively. These calculated hazard indices were used to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rates associated with it were well below their permissible limit. The overall findings show that no radiological threat to the health of the population in the study area.

  20. In situ silicone tube microextraction: a new method for undisturbed sampling of root-exuded thiophenes from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Brian K; Matz, Tricia; Lamoreaux, Jessica; Wilcox, David S; Gimsing, Anne Louise; Mayer, Philipp; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    The difficulties of monitoring allelochemical concentrations in soil and their dynamics over time have been a major barrier to testing hypotheses of allelopathic effects. Here, we evaluate three diffusive sampling strategies that employ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sorbents to map the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of root-exuded thiophenes from the African marigold, Tagetes erecta. Solid phase root zone extraction (SPRE) probes constructed by inserting stainless steel wire into PDMS tubing were used to monitor thiophene concentrations at various depths beneath marigolds growing in PVC pipes. PDMS sheets were used to map the distribution of thiophenes beneath marigolds grown in thin glass boxes. Concentrations of the two major marigold thiophenes measured by these two methods were extremely variable in both space and time. Dissection and analysis of roots indicated that distribution of thiophenes in marigold roots also was quite variable. A third approach used 1 m lengths of PDMS microtubing placed in marigold soil for repeated sampling of soil without disturbance of the roots. The two ends of the tubing remained out of the soil so that solvent could be washed through the tubing to collect samples for HPLC analysis. Unlike the other two methods, initial experiments with this approach show more uniformity of response, and suggest that soil concentrations of marigold thiophenes are affected greatly even by minimal disturbance of the soil. Silicone tube microextraction gave a linear response for alpha-terthienyl when maintained in soils spiked with 0-10 ppm of this thiophene. This method, which is experimentally simple and uses inexpensive materials, should be broadly applicable to the measurement of non-polar root exudates, and thus provides a means to test hypotheses about the role of root exudates in plant-plant and other interactions.

  1. Effects of fresh soil samples and modified ASI extractant on soil available nutrient determination%新鲜土样和改进ASI浸提剂对土壤有效养分测试的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺冬仙; 白由路; 鲁绍坤; 田爽

    2011-01-01

    通过分析基于风干土样和新鲜土样、ASI(Agro Services International)浸提剂和改进ASI浸提剂进行测量的土壤有效养分含量的相关性,探索一种基于新鲜土样和联合浸提剂进行土壤有效养分测试的方法.结果表明,利用ASI浸提剂测量的北京潮土新鲜土样的NO3--N和NH4+-N、有效P、K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Mn、Zn、有机质含量及pH值,与风干土样的测量值均呈显著的线性相关关系,经该线性方程回归检验的测量相对误差小于5%~9%;利用改进ASI浸提剂测量的新鲜土样和风干土样的NH4+-N,有效P、K、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Mn、Zn含量与基于ASI浸提剂测量的也呈显著的线性相关关系,经该线性方程回归检验的测量相对误差小于5%~8%.因此,基于新鲜土样和改进ASI浸提剂测量石灰性土壤有效养分含量是可行的,可为车载式土壤养分检测提供一种快捷的土样浸提前处理方法.%In order to meet require of pre-treatment of soil samples before measurement in soil nutrient testing for vehicle application, soil available nutrient determinations based on fresh soil samples and modified ASI ( Agro Services International) extractant were explored and compared with that based on air-dried soil samples and ASI extractant. In the soil available nutrient determinations based on ASI extractant for fresh and air-dried soils (fluvo-aquic soil) collected in Beijing, there are significant linear correlations between the available nutrient contents of NO3- -N, NH4+ -N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, organic matter, and pH value under the treatments of fresh and air-dried soils, and the relative errors are less than 5%-9%. In the soil nutrient determinations based on fresh and air-dried soils for modified ASI and ASI extractants, there are significant linear correlations between the available nutrient contents of NH4+ -N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, and he relative errors are less than 5%-8%. Therefore

  2. Simultaneous determination of iodide and iodate in soil solution samples by HPLC with electrochemical detection and post-column reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Akira; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Tsukada, Hirofumi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, Fukushima 960-1196 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Iodine-129 (half-life 1.6 x 10{sup 7} y) discharged into the atmosphere from nuclear facilities (e.g., a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant) is partly deposited on land and introduced into soil. Stable iodine ({sup 127}I) can be used as a natural analogue to predict the long-term behavior of {sup 129}I in the terrestrial environment. Iodine in soil mainly exists as I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and organic iodine. Because the mobilities of these species in soil are quite different, iodine speciation in soil solution is a key for predicting the behavior of iodine in soil. We developed a new speciation method suitable for routine analysis of many soil solution samples, and successfully applied the method to real samples. The method involves determining the concentration of total iodine and then separately measuring the I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations with an HPLC system. The HPLC system (Nano-space SI-2; Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan) consisted of a UV/Vis spectrometer and an electrochemical (amperometric) detector (50 mV Ag/AgCl). Two reverse-phase columns (2.0 x 50 mm Capcel Pak DD C8 and 2.0 x 250 mm Capcel Pak MGII C18; Shiseido) were serially connected, and a switching valve was set between them. I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} in the sample solution were separated from each other in the DD C8 column. IO{sub 3}{sup -} eluted first from the column, while I{sup -} was retained. After IO{sub 3}{sup -} was further separated from other halogen acids with the C18 column, IO{sub 3}{sup -} was reacted with KBr and o-dianisidine in a thermos-reactor (90 deg. C), and absorption at 450 nm was measured with the UV/Vis spectrometer. The concentration of I{sup -} eluted from the first column was determined with the electrochemical detector. To determine the concentration of total iodine in the sample solution, organic iodine was decomposed by UV irradiation (UV digester 705; Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for 30 min at 20 deg. C. The iodine in the solution was reduced to I

  3. Children's health risk assessment based on the content of toxic metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in urban soil samples of Podgorica, Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoša, Boban; Djurović, Dijana; Pirnat, Aleksandra; Bulat, Zorica; Barjaktarović-Labović, Snežana

    2015-09-01

    Due to their low tolerance to pollutants and hand-to-mouth pathways the health risk is very high in children's population. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk to children's health based on the content of heavy metals in urban soil samples from Podgorica, Montenegro. This study included the investigation of several toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in soil samples from public parks and playgrounds. Sampling was conducted in a period October-November, 2012. Based on cluster analysis, soil samples were divided into two groups related to similarity of metal content at examinated locations: the group I--near by recreational or residential areas of the city, and the group II--near traffic roads. Concentration of toxic metals, in urban soil samples were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd) and by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry technique after microwave digestion. Due to exposure to urban soil, non-cancerogenic index hazardous index (HI) for children was estimated using 95th percentile values of total metal concentration. The value of the total (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) HI is calculated for maximum, minimum and the average concentration of metals for children. Mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in the surface layer of the studied urban soils were 85.91 mg/kg, 2.8 mg/kg and 52.9 mg/kg and 112.5 mg/kg, respectively. Samples from group II showed higher metal content compared to group I. Urbanization and traffic are the main sources of pollution of the urban soils of Podgorica. Most of the samples (93.5%) had a high Pb content, 12.9% of the samples had a higher content of Cd, while Cu and Zn were within the limits prescribed by national legislation. At one location the level of security for lead is HI = 0.8 and very closed to maximum acceptable value of 1. It is probably the result of intensive traffic near by. All metals investigated showed relatively higher concentrations at sites

  4. Determination of thorium isotopes in mineral and environmental water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry and the fate of thorium in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guogang; Torri, G; Ocone, R; Di Lullo, A; De Angelis, A; Boschetto, R

    2008-10-01

    A method has been developed for determination of thorium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha-spectrometry. After fusion with Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)O(2) at 600 degrees C, soil samples were leached with HNO(3) and HCl. Thorium in water sample or in soil leaching solution was coprecipitated together with iron (III) as hydroxides and/or carbonates at pH 9 with ammonia solution, separated from uranium and other alpha-emitters by a Microthene-TOPO (tri-octyl-phosphine oxide) chromatographic column, electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk, and measured by alpha-spectrometry. The method was checked with two certified reference materials supplied by the IAEA, and reliable results were obtained. The detection limits of the method for water (soil) samples are 0.44 microBq l(-1) (0.070 Bq kg(-1)) for (232)Th, 0.80 microBq l(-1) (0.13 Bq kg(-1)) for (230)Th and 1.0 microBq l(-1) (0.16 Bq kg(-1)) for (228)Th, respectively, if 100 l of water (0.50 g) for each sample are analysed. A variety of water or soil samples were analysed using this procedure and giving average thorium yields of 75.5+/-14.2% for water and 93.4+/-4.5% for soil. The obtained concentrations of thorium isotopes in water samples are in the range of 0.0007-0.0326 mBq l(-1) for (232)Th, thorium isotopes in water was studied. The exposure impact due to intake of thorium in the analysed drinking water was evaluated, showing a negligible amount of dose contribution. The concentrations of (232)Th, (230)Th and (228)Th in the analysed soil samples are in the range of 30.2-48.6, 32.5-60.5 and 31.0-53.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The obtained mean ratio is 1.04+/-0.05 for (228)Th/(232)Th and 1.20+/-0.41 for (230)Th/(232)Th.

  5. Development and application of a most probable number-PCR assay to quantify flagellate populations in soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Line; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the first successful molecular detection and quantification of soil protozoa. Quantification of heterotrophic flagellates and naked amoebae in soil has traditionally relied on dilution culturing techniques, followed by most-probable-number (MPN) calculations. Such methods...... are biased by differences in the culturability of soil protozoa and are unable to quantify specific taxonomic groups, and the results are highly dependent on the choice of media and the skills of the microscopists. Successful detection of protozoa in soil by DNA techniques requires (i) the development...

  6. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  7. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  8. Determination of traces of Pt and Rh in soil and quartz samples contaminated by automobile exhaust after an ion-exchange matrix separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Kińska, Katarzyna; Pałdyna, Joanna; Czyżewska, Monika; Boder, Kamila; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring of PGEs content in the natural samples is a crucial point in the environment science since catalytic car converters have been introduced. In the presented paper application of a very sensitive voltammetric method for determination of traces of Pt and Rh in the environmental samples contaminated by automobile exhausts is discussed. Voltammetric measurements were carried out in the supporting electrolyte containing formaldehyde and semicarbazide. PGEs were separated from the digested solutions of soils or quartz samples, collected from monitoring plots-by applying an ion-exchange resin Cellex-T. Pt was very effectively separated from the matrix approaching nearly 100% recovery after its elution by hydrochloric acid. Moreover the conditions of soil and quartz samples digestion were discussed. To validate the obtained result an independent analytical method-ICP MS was applied and analysis of certified reference material road dust 723-was completed.

  9. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked with FEMA and state and local agencies to respond to the emergencies throughout the Gulf.

  10. Hurricane Katrina Soil Sampling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Hurricane Katrina made landfall in August 2005, causing widespread devastation along the Gulf Coast of the United States. EPA emergency response personnel worked...

  11. Validation of a liquid chromatography ultraviolet method for determination of herbicide diuron and its metabolites in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LUCIA S.M. FELICIO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diuron is one of the most widely herbicide used worldwide, which can undergo degradation producing three primary metabolites: 3,4-dichlorophenylurea, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1-methylurea, and 3,4-dichloroaniline. Since the persistence of diuron and its by-products in ecosystems involves risk of toxicity to environment and human health, a reliable quantitative method for simultaneous monitoring of these compounds is required. Hence, a simple method without preconcentration step was validated for quantitation of diuron and its main metabolites by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Separation was achieved in less than 11 minutes using a C18 column, mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (45:55 v/v at 0.86 mL min-1 and detection at 254 nm. The validated method using solid-liquid extraction followed by an isocratic chromatographic elution proved to be specific, precise and linear (R2 ˃ 0.99, presenting more than 90% of recovery. The method was successfully applied to quantify diuron and their by-products in soil samples collected in a sugarcane cultivation area, focusing on the environmental control.

  12. An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santawamaitre, T., E-mail: tods_education@hotmail.co [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H.; Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Matthews, M. [Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay chains as well as {sup 40}K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h{sup -1} and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}.

  13. An evaluation of the level of naturally occurring radioactive material in soil samples along the Chao Phraya river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santawamaitre, T.; Regan, P. H.; Bradley, D. A.; Matthews, M.; Malain, D.; Al-Sulaiti, H. A.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of natural radioactivity in river sediments and riverbank surface soils collected along the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries in Thailand. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in 238U and 232Th decay chains as well as 40K in all samples have been determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using a hyper-pure germanium detector in a low background configuration. The ranges of specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 15.2-67.0, 16.8-73.3 and 204.6-656.5 Bq kg -1, respectively. Additionally, evaluations have been made of the absorbed gamma dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation in order to assess any excess radiological risk from agricultural usage of fertilizers. In this study, the absorbed dose rate was observed to vary from 30.5 to 102.6 nGy h -1 and the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent to range from 37.4 to 125.8 μSv yr -1.

  14. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g-1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 +/- 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Hymenobacter sp. Strain AT01-02, Isolated from a Surface Soil Sample in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Cai Holm; Paulino-Lima, Ivan Glaucio; Fujishima, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 5.09-Mb draft genome sequence of Hymenobacter sp. strain AT01-02, which was isolated from a surface soil sample in the Atacama Desert, Chile. The isolate is extremely resistant to UV-C radiation and is able to accumulate high intracellular levels of Mn/Fe....

  16. Assessment of pesticide contamination in soil samples from an intensive horticulture area, using ultrasonic extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F

    2005-03-15

    In order to reduce the amount of sample to be collected and the time consumed in the analytical process, a broad range of analytes should be preferably considered in the same analytical procedure. A suitable methodology for pesticide residue analysis in soil samples was developed based on ultrasonic extraction (USE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For this study, different classes of pesticides were selected, both recent and old persistent molecules: parent compounds and degradation products, namely organochlorine, organophosphorous and pyrethroid insecticides, triazine and acetanilide herbicides and other miscellaneous pesticides. Pesticide residues could be detected in the low- to sub-ppb range (0.05-7.0mugkg(-1)) with good precision (7.5-20.5%, average 13.7% R.S.D.) and extraction efficiency (69-118%, average 88%) for the great majority of analytes. This methodology has been applied in a monitoring program of soil samples from an intensive horticulture area in Póvoa de Varzim, North of Portugal. The pesticides detected in four sampling programs (2001/2002) were the following: lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, atrazine, desethylatrazine, alachlor, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, procymidone and chlorfenvinphos. Pesticide contamination was investigated at three depths and in different soil and crop types to assess the influence of soil characteristics and trends over time.

  17. Annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Agramunt, M C; Bocio, A; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2003-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of metals and PCDD/PCDFs, in May 2001 soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs. In general terms, metal concentrations in soils did not change between May 2000 and May 2001, while significant decreases in the levels of Cr, Ni and V were found in herbage. On the other hand, no significant differences in the mean I-TEQ values of PCDD/PCDFs were found in soil and herbage samples. The results of this survey show that according to the annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs the environmental impact of the cement plant on the area under its direct influence is not relevant.

  18. An optical method for carbon dioxide isotopes and mole fractions in small gas samples: tracing microbial respiration from soil, litter, and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Wenjuan Huang; Kenneth Hammel

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Carbon dioxide isotope (Δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a...

  19. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.