Sample records for planning rural

  1. Plan of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This presentation shows the policies of the Government of Guatemala on renewable energy for the rural population, the current demand of energy and trends for 2004. Also presents the budget for financing electrification projects with solar energy and hydro energy and the number of users to be included by geographical zone

  2. The developing rural electrification plan continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica


    The article overviews the current situation of the rural electrification in Guatemala, including demand and supply of energy and the plans of the government in covering the rural areas through the promotion of renewable energy sources

  3. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans. (United States)


    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  4. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund


    that in such an assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural...... by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis...

  5. Spatial planning for sustainable rural municipalities


    Thellbro, Camilla


    Local natural resources (LNRs) are essential for the socioeconomy of rural societies. The United Nations (UN) Agenda 21 and “Our Common Future” state that local spatial planning is central for the prospect of balancing ecological, social and economic sustainable development (SuD). Stakeholder participation in spatial planning enhances acceptance and improves preconditions for successful planning outcomes. Consequently, it is important to increase knowledge about LNRs and the use of them and t...

  6. Planning for rural energy system: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, V.


    This paper discusses the central importance of energy inputs in development, and presents the complex interactions within subsystems that contribute a Rural Energy System. This paper also brings about the importance of the primary data for realistic renewable energy planning at the micro level in a given rural system. Factors that render secondary data somewhat inadequate for such applications are discussed. The differences between energy related data from secondary and primary sources in respect of representative villages in Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, India, are detailed. A rural system model for computing the output from various components of a rural system is also presented. This projection is made by making use of a set of technical coefficients, which relate the inputs to the outputs from individual segments of the rural production system. While some of the technical coefficients are developed based on previously published data, a large number have been quantified on the basis of careful survey. The usefulness of the model is discussed. The paper also presents a Linear Programming Model for optimum resource allocation in a rural system. The objective function of the Linear Programming Model is maximizing the revenue of the rural system where in optimum resource allocation is made subject to a number of energy and non-energy related relevant constraints. The model also quantifies the major yields as well as the byproducts of different sectors of the rural economic system. (Author)

  7. Planning for rural energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, V


    Roger Revell estimated the total energy use from all sources at 490 kg per capita in 1970 to 71 in terms of UN coal equivalent, while international statistics of energy use, based only on commercial energy, reported a figure of 150 to 190 kg per capita. The largest proportion of energy use was in the domestic sector - almost 2/3. Another interesting observation of Revelle is that, taking the proportion of food energy used in work, an adult woman works about as hard as a British coal miner. Is this low energy profile good or bad. To quote Revelle again: ''The men and women of rural India are tied to poverty and misery because they use too little of energy and use it inefficiently and really all they use is secured by their own physical efforts. A transformation of rural society could be brought about by increasing the quantity and in improving the technology of energy use''. Thus energy conservation - the dominant US theme - has limited significance in India, restricted to some industries. India with a per capita consumption of 201 kg compared to world average of 2059 kg in 1974, necessarily has to increase its energy consumption.

  8. Ecological support for rural land-use planning. (United States)

    David M. Theobald; Thomas Spies; Jeff Kline; Bruce Maxwell; N. T. Hobbs; Virginia H. Dale


    How can ecologists be more effective in supporting ecologically informed rural land-use planning and policy? Improved decision making about rural lands requires careful consideration of how ecological information and analyses can inform specific planning and policy needs. We provide a brief overview of rural land-use planning, including recently developed approaches to...

  9. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section... Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.306 Financing rural development planning. States will be required to finance rural development planning through their own resources, revenue-sharing allocations, or the...

  10. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi


    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  11. The importance of traditional healers in the planning of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of traditional healers in the planning of rural healthcare ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... There has been increasing debate on whether traditional healers actually matter in planning for healthcare delivery and ...

  12. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...

  13. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min


    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  14. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiaolong; Xu Xiao; Li Min


    Rural development has long been the focus of China's central and local governments.Since the late 2000s,rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends.To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,this paPer reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines.This study also summarizes main rural transformation features,including the aging population,hollow villages,changes in the allocation of land resource,semi-urbanization,and regional differences in rural development.Finally,it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,such as making differentiated rural development strategies,exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use,and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  15. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN


    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  16. Planning for Interagency Cooperation in Rural Development. CARD Report 45. (United States)

    Rogers, David L.; Glick, Edward L.

    With a major emphasis on cooperative planning in rural development, three elements of development process were identified: (1) integration of units involved, occurring when several organizations contribute to a larger collective effort; (2) decentralized planning and local initiative, occurring when planning initiative is at the local level; (3)…

  17. Rural Planning in Regional Development: The Kenyan Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly independent governments of Asia and Africa embarked on comprehensive ... had proved very effective in assisting European countries to recover from the destruction ... rural development planning and management, poverty alleviation ...

  18. Stakeholder participation in planning rural development strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisto, Roberta; Lopolito, Antonio; Vliet, van Mathijs


    In advanced countries, rural areas are a complex web of social, political and historical factors. In addition, several kinds of uncertainties are usually present. As a consequence, frequent mismatches arise in practise between measures and rural development goals and priorities. To overcome this

  19. Rural planning organizations--their role in transportation planning and project development in Texas : technical report. (United States)


    While a formal planning and programming process is established for urbanized areas through Metropolitan : Planning Organizations, no similar requirement has been established for rural areas. Currently, under the : Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficie...

  20. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  1. Strategic Teleconference Planning in Rural Health Education. (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Boswell, Judy


    An introduction to planning interactive health education teleconferences via satellite discusses participant recruitment, satellite transmission coordination, scheduling considerations, format design, and use of site facilitators. Teleconference training of community service providers and community leaders should combine passive delivery of…

  2. Plan de viabilidad de una casa rural


    Nieto González, Óscar


    Este proyecto consiste en la puesta en marcha de una casa rural en la localidad de Argés, próxima a la ciudad de Toledo, se llamará “La Casona de Argés”, la casa tendrá 4 habitaciones dobles y una suite, todas ellas con cuarto de baño y además de las estancias habituales como cocina y salón dispondrá de un semisótano destinado a zona de juegos, una piscina, y una amplia parcela acondicionada para juegos y disfrute de los huéspedes. El negocio va estar enfocado a un público que viaje con niños...

  3. Improving reproductive health in rural China through participatory planning. (United States)

    Kaufman, Joan; Liu, Yunguo; Fang, Jing


    China's new health reform initiative aims to provide quality accessible health care to all, including remote rural populations, by 2020. Public health insurance coverage for the rural poor has increased, but rural women have fared worse because of lower status and lack of voice in shaping the services they need. Use of prenatal care, safe delivery and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) services is inadequate and service seeking for health problems remains lower for men. We present findings from a study of gender and health equity in rural China from 2002 to 2008 and offer recommendations from over a decade of applied research on reproductive health in rural China. Three studies, conducted in poor counties between 1994 and 2008, identified problems in access and pilot tested interventions and mechanisms to increase women's participation in health planning. They were done in conjunction with a World Bank programme and the global Gender and Health Equity Network (GHEN). Reproductive health service-seeking improved and the study interventions increased local government commitment to providing such services through new health insurance mechanisms. Findings from the studies were summarised into recommendations on gender and health for inclusion in new health reform efforts.

  4. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador. (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita


    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  5. Family planning and fertility decline in rural Iran: the impact of rural health clinics. (United States)

    Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad; Abbasi-Shavazi, M Jalal; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat


    During the first few years of the Islamic Revolution of 1979, and aided by pro-natal government policies, Iranian fertility was on the rise. In a reversal of its population policy, in 1989, the government launched an ambitious and innovative family planning program aimed at rural families. By 2005, the program had covered more than 90% of the rural population and the average number of births per rural woman had declined to replacement level from about 8 births in the mid 1980s. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of a particular feature of the program - health houses - on rural fertility, taking advantage of the variation in the timing of their construction across the country. We use three different methods to obtain a range of estimates for the impact of health houses on village-level fertility: difference-in-differences (DID), matching DID, and length of exposure. We find estimates of impact ranging from 4 to 20% of the decline in fertility during 1986-1996. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Effect of development of rural commodity economy on family planning]. (United States)

    Chen, X


    The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.

  7. A Study on the Innovations of Rural Planning and Management of Chengdu, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng; Fan; Qiu; Jian


    China has adopted a dual urban-rural administration system for many years which gives far more attention to cities than to rural areas. Designated as a National Comprehensive Reform Experiment Area for Coordinated Urban-Rural Development, Chengdu is one of several areas in China where the practice of rural planning was fi rstly carried out. After the earthquakes in Wenchuan in 2008 and Lushan in 2013, the post-disaster reconstruction further enriched the local capabilities of rural planning and management. The practice of Chengdu demonstrates that the success of rural planning and management depends on two aspects, a well-organized and well-developed legal systems and institutions and bottom-up selfadministration of local residents which incorporates the social relationships of local communities based on clan and blood kinships. This paper introduces the positive experience of Chengdu in rural planning and management that could be benefi cial for other areas in the country.

  8. Attachment and Aspiration: What Influences Rural Youths' Educational and Residential Plans? White Paper (United States)

    Howley, Caitlin; Hambrick, Kimberly


    Building on recent research, ICF sought to explore how socioeconomic status and attachment to place influence rural youths' educational and residential preferences across a wider geographic region. Our research questions included: What are rural high school students' educational and residential plans? And what factors influence rural youths' plans…

  9. Exploration on Planning Methods for Rural Communities in the Local Economic and Institutional Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; WANG; Xin; PAN; Zhilun; XIAO; Xiangwei; CHENG; Caige; LI


    This paper reviews the wave of rural community construction, compares the urban and rural areas on the aspects of land property right, financing channels, construction management procedures, and the user-builder difference, and examines the unique characteristics of rural communities. On the basis of that, it proposes some planning methods for the rural community planning and construction, such as encouraging public participation, conducting public facility-oriented planning, and providing house-design menu, and further puts forward some supporting measures and policies.

  10. Achieving success with family planning in rural Afghanistan. (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil


    Afghan women have one of the world's highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country's health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world's highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24-27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up.

  11. Development of a nurse case management service: a proposed business plan for rural hospitals. (United States)

    Adams, Marsha Howell; Crow, Carolyn S


    The nurse case management service (NCMS) for rural hospitals is an entrepreneurial endeavor designed to provide rural patients with quality, cost-effective healthcare. This article describes the development of an NCMS. A detailed marketing and financial plan, a review of industry trends, and the legal structure and risks associated with the development of the venture are presented. The financial plan projects a minimum savings of 223,200 dollars for rural institutions annually. To improve quality and reduce cost for rural hospitals, the authors recommend implementation of an NCMS.

  12. A Planning Model for the Development of Programs for Abused and Neglected Children in Rural Areas. (United States)

    Chamberlain, William A.

    Described are planning steps involved in developing programs for abused and neglected children in rural areas. Among barriers cited are economic factors and resistance to social planning. Emphasized is the need for congruence among local and regional agencies and organizations. Analyzed are six planning stages: entry, in which consultants gain…

  13. Study on Plan of Rural Waterfront Greenway in Beijing Based On Valley Economy (United States)

    Feng, Li; Ma, Xiaoyan


    Valley economy is a major strategy for the development of Beijing mountainous area. This paper tried to apply the theory of rural waterfront greenway in valley, propose the grade system of rural greenway, which has important meaning to the refining of ecological network, the integration of tourism resources, and the promotion of agricultural industry in rural area. By way of illustration, according to the detailed analysis of the hydrology, altitude, slope, aspect, soil and vegetation conditions by GIS, the waterfront greenway, named ‘four seasons flowers’, in Yanqing county area was planned, so as to provide scientific guidance for the rural waterfront greenway construction.

  14. Land use planning in the Netherlands; finding a balance between rural development and protection of the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der M.J.


    In the Netherlands rural development is subjected to several forms of planning. Three planning systems exist: spatial planning, environmental planning and water management. However, the origins of these systems cannot be found in problems of rural development, but in the problems of urbanization and

  15. Socio-economic and Environmental impacts, planning and administration of rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Haroun Osman


    The majority of the population in Sudan still lives in the rural areas where they still suffer from problems of poverty, unemployment, high rates of illiteracy, poor health services, shortage of water, and migration to urban areas. Development plans within decentralization efforts taking place in the country should give great importance to rural development by activating rural productive sector comprising agriculture and small scale industries. Rural electrification (RE) can play an important role as akey infrastructure for rural development, and could change the rural communities socially and economically to the better. RE also have desirable environmental impacts when substituting polluting and scare fuels such as petroleum fuel and fuel wood by electricity. Compared with urban electrification, RE is characterized by scattered consumers, low demands, and low load factors. This results in high connection costs of electricity per consumer, and high unit (Kwh) cost. In Sudan, rural electricity demands range from small industries of 50 or industries and individual farms. To bring electricity supply to these different categories of rural consumers at a reasonable investment cost requires proper planning. It needs regular data collection and updating, selection of appropriate technology, project formulation, financing implementation, management, and follow-up. The Sudan National Electricity Corporation (NEC), gives priority to the generation and transmission of electricity to the big urban and industrial areas. NEC treats RE as low priority to which resources are only devoted after the more urgent needs of the urban and industrial consumers not impossible, for a utility like the NEC to construct, operate, and maintain a large number of small scale projects in rural areas. To enable RE to play an effective institution with RE as its primary objectives is very crucial. This paper aims to highlight the importance of RE and its impacts on the rural inhabitants socially

  16. Using a Strategic Plan to Promote Technology in Rural School Districts. (United States)

    VanSciver, James H.


    About six years ago, a rural Delaware school district formed a community/staff long-range planning committee to craft a strategic plan that would identify school system values and reallocate resources. As vision and mission statements emerged, technology evolved as a major value, with three goals related to funding and accessibility. Collaborative…

  17. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included “Family planning is against my religious beliefs” ...

  18. Study on planning and design of ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly (United States)

    Han, Zhoulin; Jiang, Nan; He, Yunxiao; Long, Yanping


    In order to deal with the increasingly serious aging problem in China, a new model about serving the aged better needs to be explored. This paper puts forward the concept of ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly, a novel pattern that combining the rural retirement place with pastoral complex which is proposed recently. A concrete example of Deteng complex in Mianyang is given to explore the construction condition and planning approach. Three important aspects including pastoral, ecology, serving the aged are the core elements to develop ecological tourist rural complex for the elderly.

  19. An Examination of Family Physicians Plan Implementation in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Family physician plan (FPP) and referral system (RS) is one of the major plans in Iran's health system with the aim of increasing the accountability in the health market, enhancing the public's access to the health services, lowering the unnecessary costs and equitable distribution of health across the society.

  20. Analyzing Rural Versus Urban Differences in Career Dissatisfaction and Plans to Leave Among Pennsylvanian Physicians. (United States)

    Vick, Brandon


    This study estimates whether physicians in rural Pennsylvania have higher odds of career dissatisfaction and plans to leave patient care in the next 6 years, compared to their urban counterparts. Rural-urban differences were estimated across specific subgroups of physicians (gender, race, and specialty) and with regard to specific sources of career dissatisfaction. The 2012 Pennsylvania Health Workforce Survey of Physicians allowed for analysis of 17,444 physicians younger than 55 years old actively practicing patient care. Multivariate, logistic regression was performed to estimate the associations with 2 outcome areas: career dissatisfaction and plans to leave patient care in the next 6 years. Controls included rural setting, age, sex, race, work hours, specialty, and practice characteristics. Over 12% of under-55 physicians are dissatisfied with their careers and over 18% report plans to leave patient care in the next 6 years. Rural physicians in Pennsylvania have 18.6% higher odds of reporting career dissatisfaction and 29.5% higher odds of leaving patient care in the next 6 years (P work (i.e., stress, practice demands, and lack of autonomy) and family situations and less related to income concerns. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana. (United States)

    Norwood, Carolette


    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  2. An Examination of Family Physicians Plan Implementation in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Razieh Mirzaeian

    recognizing the advantages and disadvantages of this Plan based ... physicians and health care managers and employees working in the Borujen town (n=62). ..... Nworie J. Using the Delphi technique in educational technology research.

  3. Aspirations, Expectations, and Influences on the Post-Secondary Plans of Rural Youth (United States)

    Corra, Jennifer Lynn


    This study examines the influences that high school seniors considered when making their plans for after graduation. Bourdieu's theory of habitus and Coleman's social capital theory inform the conceptual framework. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students and school counselors from four rural Kentucky school districts. Family, peers and…

  4. Application of Greenhouse Gas Inventory to Urban Rural Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; C.; T.; YIP


    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventory analysis provides crucial scientific basis to support the preparation of urban-rural planning policies on managing climate change. This article reviews current studies on GHG inventory in China and points out the short fall in translating these inventory data into specific local policies. It examines the issue of setting up the GHG inventory based on the statutory urban-rural planning systems in China. It enables the local government to set up a platform coordinating various city policies and to serve well as the platform for local emission mitigation and removal policies. The urban-rural planning GHG inventory system needs to address the issue of spatial boundary in accounting for local emission sources and origins with respect to the boundaries of planning area, and it must directly relate to the various statutory master plan policy contents and the local municipal government functional structure. Finally it presents a case study of applying the proposed inventory as a planning tool for Jiangyin at the Jiangsu Province.

  5. Index of Access: a new innovative and dynamic tool for rural health service and workforce planning. (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J; Humphreys, John S


    Objective Improving access to primary health care (PHC) remains a key issue for rural residents and health service planners. This study aims to show that how access to PHC services is measured has important implications for rural health service and workforce planning. Methods A more sophisticated tool to measure access to PHC services is proposed, which can help health service planners overcome the shortcomings of existing measures and long-standing access barriers to PHC. Critically, the proposed Index of Access captures key components of access and uses a floating catchment approach to better define service areas and population accessibility levels. Moreover, as demonstrated through a case study, the Index of Access enables modelling of the effects of workforce supply variations. Results Hypothetical increases in supply are modelled for a range of regional centres, medium and small rural towns, with resulting changes of access scores valuable to informing health service and workforce planning decisions. Conclusions The availability and application of a specific 'fit-for-purpose' access measure enables a more accurate empirical basis for service planning and allocation of health resources. This measure has great potential for improved identification of PHC access inequities and guiding redistribution of PHC services to correct such inequities. What is known about the topic? Resource allocation and health service planning decisions for rural and remote health settings are currently based on either simple measures of access (e.g. provider-to-population ratios) or proxy measures of access (e.g. standard geographical classifications). Both approaches have substantial limitations for informing rural health service planning and decision making. What does this paper add? The adoption of a new improved tool to measure access to PHC services, the Index of Access, is proposed to assist health service and workforce planning. Its usefulness for health service planning is

  6. The role of land use planning in sustainable rural systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van H.N.


    The creation of a more sustainable countryside has become a very important item across the world. Several methods, approaches and policies can be applied and agencies, interests groups etc. can become active in this regard. Land-use planning, as one of these activities, is challenged to play an

  7. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  8. 2015 Plan. Project 6: urban and rural distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The main development trends of distribution systems in 2015 Plan is studied, with the data of market continuity, costs and evolution of the physique system. Some factors that will influence the evolution of the distribution systems are presented and the impacts of economic view are discussed. The strategic lines that will give direction for the distribution expansion, including the energy conservation are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  9. Determinants of family planning service uptake and use of contraceptives among postpartum women in rural Uganda. (United States)

    Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M


    Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.

  10. Informal Planning in Depopulating Rural Areas : A resource-based view on informal planning practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syssner, Josefina; Meijer, M.


    Planning research has increasingly recognised that planning in depopulating areas differs from planning in growth areas. Several studies have sought to identify planning theories and strategies that are capable of meeting the challenges presented by depopulating areas. However, most of these studies

  11. Reconceptualising risk: Perceptions of risk in rural and remote maternity service planning. (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Kornelsen, Jude; Longman, Jo; Robin, Sarah; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Pilcher, Jennifer; Martin, Tanya; Grzybowski, Stefan; Donoghue, Deborah; Rolfe, Margaret; Morgan, Geoff


    to explore perceptions and examples of risk related to pregnancy and childbirth in rural and remote Australia and how these influence the planning of maternity services. data collection in this qualitative component of a mixed methods study included 88 semi-structured individual and group interviews (n=102), three focus groups (n=22) and one group information session (n=17). Researchers identified two categories of risk for exploration: health services risk (including clinical and corporate risks) and social risk (including cultural, emotional and financial risks). Data were aggregated and thematically analysed to identify perceptions and examples of risk related to each category. fieldwork was conducted in four jurisdictions at nine sites in rural (n=3) and remote (n=6) Australia. 117 health service employees and 24 consumers. examples and perceptions relating to each category of risk were identified from the data. Most medical practitioners and health service managers perceived clinical risks related to rural birthing services without access to caesarean section. Consumer participants were more likely to emphasise social risks arising from a lack of local birthing services. our analysis demonstrated that the closure of services adds social risk, which exacerbates clinical risk. Analysis also highlighted that perceptions of clinical risk are privileged over social risk in decisions about rural and remote maternity service planning. a comprehensive analysis of risk that identifies how social and other forms of risk contribute to adverse clinical outcomes would benefit rural and remote people and their health services. Formal risk analyses should consider the risks associated with failure to provide birthing services in rural and remote communities as well as the risks of maintaining services. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving change in rural workforce planning: the medical schools outcomes database. (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan P; Landau, Louis I


    The Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) is an ongoing longitudinal tracking project ofmedical students from all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2005 to track the career trajectories of medical students and will directly help develop models of workforce flow, particularly with respect to rural and remote shortages. This paper briefly outlines the MSOD project and reports on key methodological factors in tracking medical students. Finally, the potential impact of the MSOD on understanding changes in rural practice intentions is illustrated using data from the 2005 pilot cohort (n = 112). Rural placements were associated with a shift towards rural practice intentions, while those who intended to practice rurally at both the start and end of medical school tended to be older and interested in a generalist career. Continuing work will track these and future students as they progress through the workforce, as well as exploring issues such as the career trajectories of international fee-paying students, workforce succession planning, and the evaluation of medical education initiatives.

  13. Participatory process in tourism planning at Alfredo Wagner/ SC rural spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Loch


    Full Text Available This paper is the outcome of a Master Theses focusing participatory processes as a tool for tourism planning in Alfredo Wagner (Santa Catarina State. The study was conducted to identify modifications in rural spaces in that place, where farmers are facing economic difficulties and have tried to enter tourism business to overcome them. The article analyzes participatory processes as starters to make rural producers and local agents get interested in tourism business, being participation the key factor for tourism planning. An exploratory research was conducted to describe the Municipality and also a bibliographic research. As e result it was observed that the main public agents do not dialog with each other and that partnership with private agents is needed. In spite of this lack of integration, involvement was achieved and it was possible to identify which are the necessary steps for tourism development.

  14. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.


    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  15. The assignment of occupation densities and the rural soil classification in the territorial classification plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez R, Luis Anibal; Largacha R, Antonio


    Regulations concerning land use density controls in non-urban areas are often ineffective in protecting the rural character of such areas, within the context of Colombia's territorial organization plans What they tend to do is indirectly promote urban expansion through the fixing of minimum plot sizes Rather than question the methods employed in land use classification, the present study uses the case of the rural area of Santa Elena on the outskirts of Medellin and the existing zoning controls as established in the territorial organization plan, and focuses on the regulations established for each land use category as they effect occupation densities and patterns of plot fragmentation. On the one hand a simulation is undertaken of the trends which would result from land occupation in accordance with existing regulations concerning land use classification and plot size This indicates that the overall effect would be to disperse settlement patterns and fragment the landscape Secondly, an alternative scenario is developed based on the modification of minimum plot sizes for each of the three land use classifications established in the existing plan (protection, rural and suburban) In this way, and through the perspective of landscape ecology, It Is shown that in certain cases less dispersion and greater concentration of settlements can be achieved, and in other cases dispersion is minimized The use of GIS is fundamental in the development of such simulation techniques

  16. Energy futures, state planning policies and coal mine contests in rural New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Linda H.


    The United Nations 2015 Climate Change Conference established a framework for keeping global temperature increase “well below” two degrees Celsius through commitments by the parties to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement has implications for the energy policies of all countries, not least major coal exporters like Australia. By contrast, the government's 2015 Energy White Paper lays out the vision for the country's future as a “global energy superpower” dominated by the export of fossil fuels for decades to come. Legislative frameworks around planning, land use, mining, heritage and environment have moved in synchrony with this agenda. Rural landowners in the big coal rich geological basins of Australia are directly impacted by current government policies on energy exports and on domestic supply. This article follows the coal value chain to rural communities in New South Wales where new mines are being built, and analyses the politics of land use, natural resources and energy from the vantage point of landowner engagement with government and corporations in the policy, legislative and regulatory domains. The need for more equitable, democratic and precautionary approaches to energy policy, heritage and environmental planning and agricultural land use is highlighted. - Highlights: • Australian energy policies prioritise coal and gas exports to emerging economies. • Rural landholders are marginalised in mining law, environmental protection legislation and planning regulations. • Disputes with companies centre on control of natural resources necessary for agriculture.

  17. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda. (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K


    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F


    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  19. Determinants of unmet need for family planning in rural Burkina Faso: a multilevel logistic regression analysis. (United States)

    Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela


    Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.

  20. Rural community birth: Maternal and neonatal outcomes for planned community births among rural women in the United States, 2004-2009. (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Gordon, Wendy; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Cheyney, Melissa


    Approximately 22% of women in the United States live in rural areas with limited access to obstetric care. Despite declines in hospital-based obstetric services in many rural communities, midwifery care at home and in free standing birth centers is available in many rural communities. This study examines maternal and neonatal outcomes among planned home and birth center births attended by midwives, comparing outcomes for rural and nonrural women. Using the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset of 18 723 low-risk, planned home, and birth center births, rural women (n = 3737) were compared to nonrural women. Maternal outcomes included mode of delivery (cesarean and instrumental delivery), blood transfusions, severe events, perineal lacerations, or transfer to hospital and a composite (any of the above). The primary neonatal outcome was a composite of early neonatal intensive care unit or hospital admissions (longer than 1 day), and intrapartum or neonatal deaths. Analysis involved multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, antepartum, and intrapartum risk factors. Rural women had different risk profiles relative to nonrural women and reduced risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in bivariable analyses. However, after adjusting for risk factors and confounders, there were no significant differences for a composite of maternal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.93-1.19]) or neonatal (aOR 1.13 [95% CI 0.87-1.46]) outcomes between rural and nonrural pregnancies. Among this sample of low-risk women who planned midwife-led community births, no increased risk was detected by rural vs nonrural status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The walk out of the rural kitchen : towards planning energy services for sustainable rural livelihoods in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Nouralla


    This thesis is about rural energy services, the problems with accessibility and the consequences of their inaccessibility on rural livelihoods in the traditional rural areas of Sudan. The thesis is organised in six chapters. Chapter 1 starts by providing a background to the political and economic

  2. Towards Strengths-Based Planning Strategies for Rural Localities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rönkkö Emilia


    Full Text Available In this article, we will introduce the topic of strengths-based planning strategies for rural localities in Finland. The strengths-based approach focuses on capacity building and competence enhancement with the local people, encouraging communities to valorise, identify and mobilise existing but often unrecognised assets. Setting focus only on the deficiencies and problems easily inflicts a ‘surrender mentality‘ in places outside of the urbanisation impact, creating a narrative that both decision-makers and community members start to believe. Hence, the role and potential of smaller rural localities is easily forgotten by planners, politicians and the public at large. Addressing the scale of rural localities in spatial planning, we will first reflect upon the main findings from our earlier research project “Finnish rural localities in the 2010`s” conducted by Lahti University of Applied Sciences, the University of Oulu and Aalto University in 2013-2015. Findings from the research project affirmed the unfortunate consequences of rapid urbanisation, rational blueprint planning and overoptimistic expectations of growth in the 1960s and 70s, which have resulted in the state of permanent incompleteness in rural localities today. However, these localities possess many under-utilised strengths, and we consider it essential for the future development of rural localities to make the most of this potential, and not only tackle the downwards spiral. This requires the ability to engage local stakeholders around a common vision for the future, and strategic approach based on endogenous strengths. We will discuss these possibilities via two theoretically informed case studies. The first one, Vieremä, is situated in the region of Northern Savo, and the other one, Vääksy, is the main centre in the municipality of Asikkala, situated in the region of Päijät-Häme in Southern Finland. Our study design can be characterised as qualitative research

  3. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens. (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane


    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  4. Rural environmental planning in a family farm: education, extension and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Developing research, teaching and extension in university programs is fundamental to capacitate professionals for the challenging endeavors. Considering the importance of these three university functions as relevant learning practices, the objective of this study was to analyze qualitatively the development of teaching project proposals associated with extension activities, directed to the rural environmental planning in an Agricultural Production Unit, in order to identify the issues and their degree of applicability. Twenty project proposals were developed in the "Rural Environmental Planning" course to plan an Agricultural Production Unit, which were subsequently evaluated by the farmer. This discipline is part of the Bachelor's degree course in Environmental Management and Analysis of the Universidade Federal de São Carlos. The projects followed qualitative research methods using the systemic and participatory approach. At the end of the process the farmer answered an evaluation matrix of the projects. Development of the projects was particularly important for the students and for their knowledge on the various topics covered, which also resulted in factual improvement perspectives in the Agricultural Production Unit. Construction of knowledge was participatory and integrated between the students and farmer.

  5. Managing rural landscapes in the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden- comparing planning systems and instruments in three different contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busck, A.G.; Hidding, M.C.; Kristensen, S.B.P.; Persson, C.; Praestholm, S.


    Urban growth and sprawl have put pressure on surrounding rural areas for a long time, and planning history abounds with examples of how to cope with this development. The problem is also acknowledged in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), which, apart from recommending planning

  6. Benefits of family planning: an assessment of women's knowledge in rural Western Kenya. (United States)

    Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva


    The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15-49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region.


    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.


    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.


    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  9. Underperformance of Planning for Peri-Urban Rural Sustainable Development: The Case of Mentougou District in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin


    Full Text Available As the basic cell of social structures and spatial units, rural settlement is now experiencing profound changes through the rapid urbanization process underway in China, particularly in peri-urban areas which serve as the main platform and battlefield for urban–rural integration in China’s latest round of new urbanization. Therefore, how to achieve better planning for rural settlement in peri-urban areas is becoming a pressing and paramount research agenda. This paper attempts to explore the possible reasons for the underperformance of planning practice for rural settlement in peri-urban areas of China by taking the Mentougou district of Beijing as a case study. Following a quick and comprehensive review of planning in Mentougou district, a systematic and critical evaluation is then conducted accordingly. It shows that the plans generally play a positive role in development orientation and implementation. Yet, there is still a lot of room for improvement, particularly in the following aspects: (1 lack of initiative and innovation at the local level; (2 lack of long-term vision and consistent implementation; (3 lack of rationale-oriented approach; (4 lack of scientific and in-depth research; (5 lack of multi-stakeholder participation. As a way forward, this paper thus proposes a revised planning scheme for local practice, including classification of typologies and the customized planning design for each typology. At last, this paper calls for more in-depth scientific research on some key topics in the planning field, domestically and internationally.

  10. Riparian rehabilitation planning in an urban-rural gradient: Integrating social needs and ecological conditions. (United States)

    Guida-Johnson, Bárbara; Zuleta, Gustavo A


    In the present context of global change and search for sustainability, we detected a gap between restoration and society: local communities are usually only considered as threats or disturbances when planning for restoration. To bridge this gap, we propose a landscape design framework for planning riparian rehabilitation in an urban-rural gradient. A spatial multi-criteria analysis was used to assess the priority of riversides by considering two rehabilitation objectives simultaneously-socio-environmental and ecological-and two sets of criteria were designed according to these objectives. The assessment made it possible to identify 17 priority sites for riparian rehabilitation that were associated with different conditions along the gradient. The double goal setting enabled a dual consideration of citizens, both as beneficiaries and potential impacts to rehabilitation, and the criteria selected incorporated the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This approach can potentially be adapted and implemented in any other anthropic-natural interface throughout the world.

  11. Strategies with photovoltaic systems in Bolivia from the analysis of a pilot plan for rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Fuentes, M.H.; Morales Udaeta, M.E.; Ferreira Affonso, O.; Ribeiro Galvao, L.C.


    The objective of this paper objective is to show the policy and economics Bolivian rural electrification across the pilot plan named Inti K'anchay, using promotion of meetings among the agents; development of a credit structure and the concept of self-electrification; and reduction of differential costs. As a result of the Pilot plan 500 new systems have been installed, of which 446 have been installed by private companies. Environmental impacts have been reduced, as a consequence, though the substitution of diesel, candles and LPG. One conclusion is the fact that the organization of the user communities has been useful for the phases of identification, promotion and initial installation, notwithstanding the fact that, as time goes by and the installation becomes more familiar, the operation of the systems and management of the loans, for instance, tend to turn into individual chores rather than group activities. (authors)

  12. Development and Validation of a Gender Ideology Scale for Family Planning Services in Rural China (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.


    The objectives of this study are to develop a scale of gender role ideology appropriate for assessing Quality of Care in family planning services for rural China. Literature review, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers and clients from two counties in eastern and western China, as well as experts’ assessments, were used to develop a scale for family planning services. Psychometric methodologies were applied to samples of 601 service clients and 541 service providers from a survey in a district in central China to validate its internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity with realistic and strategic dimensions. This scale is found to be reliable and valid, and has prospects for application both academically and practically in the field. PMID:23573222

  13. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas


    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  14. Improving rural electricity system planning: An agent-based model for stakeholder engagement and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jose F.; Miller, Shelie; Johnson, Jeremiah X.; Riolo, Rick R.


    Energy planners in regions with low rates of electrification face complex and high-risk challenges in selecting appropriate generating technologies and grid centralization. To better inform such processes, we present an Agent-Based Model (ABM) that facilitates engagement with stakeholders. This approach evaluates long-term plans using the cost of delivered electricity, resource mix, jobs and economic stimulus created within communities, and decentralized generation mix of the system, with results provided in a spatially-resolved format. This approach complements existing electricity planning methods (e.g., Integrated Resource Planning) by offering novel evaluation criteria based on typical stakeholder preferences. We demonstrate the utility of this approach with a case study based on a “blank-slate” scenario, which begins without generation or transmission infrastructure, for the long-term rural renewable energy plans of Liberia, West Africa. We consider five electrification strategies: prioritizing larger populations, deploying large resources, creating jobs, providing economic stimulus, and step-wise cost minimization. Through the case study we demonstrate how this approach can be used to engage stakeholders, supplement more established energy planning tools, and illustrate the effects of stakeholder decisions and preferences on the performance of the system. - Highlights: • An Agent Based Model, BABSTER, for electrification planning is presented. • BABSTER provides a highly engaging spatially resolved interface. • Allows flexible investigation of decision strategies with real-world incentives. • We show that decision strategies directly impact centralization and resource choice. • It is illustrated through the case study of Liberia, West Africa.

  15. Institutional barriers to a ‘perfect’ policy: A case study of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawhood, Rebecca; Gross, Robert


    This paper investigates the political and institutional factors that have influenced the success of the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan (Plan d'Action Sénégalais d'Électrification Rurale, PASER). PASER is of interest because its innovative design attracted extensive offers of finance from donors and independent power providers, however it has had limited effect on electrification levels. This paper examines PASER's progress and problems in detail, with the aim of informing rural electrification policy internationally. An extensive literature review was combined with 26 semi-structured stakeholder interviews, to produce a snapshot of the Plan's status after its first decade of operation. PASER's experiences are compared with other reform-based rural electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. PASER has faced significant institutional and political barriers, with delays arising from organisational opposition, inconsistent ministerial support, protracted consultations and the inherent challenges of implementing an innovative policy framework in a country with limited institutional capacity. The development of human and institutional capacity has been compromised by inconsistent political commitment. Such experiences mirror those of electrification initiatives across Sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst PASER's successes in garnering external support and fundraising are noteworthy and won praise from early reviews, in terms of delivery the Plan has failed to resolve common institutional barriers. - Highlights: • Factors influencing the Senegalese Rural Electrification Action Plan are investigated. • 26 Stakeholder interviews inform a review of the Plan after 10 years of operation. • The Plan has attracted extensive finance, but installations are severely delayed. • The delays are found to be largely the result of institutional and political barriers. • These barriers mirror the experiences of electrification

  16. Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities. (United States)

    Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana


    In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure

  17. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar. (United States)

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai


    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.

  18. How to use sustainability indicators for tourism planning: the case of rural tourism in Andalusia (Spain). (United States)

    Blancas, F J; Lozano-Oyola, M; González, M; Guerrero, F M; Caballero, R


    This paper proposes an indicators system to analyse the sustainability of tourist activity at rural destinations in countries with a consolidated tourism sector. The proposed system aims at providing tourist managers and policy-makers with information to better understand the transition to sustainability at specific destinations and to encourage them to carry out corresponding policy and management responses. To illustrate how indicators can be quantified, we create a practical guideline on how to use the statistical information available. Likewise, we suggest a method for obtaining sustainability indexes by aggregation that reduces the subjectivity associated with the composite indicator. This procedure is based on the combination of principal component analysis and distance to a reference point. Together with the definition of sustainable tourism indicators, we explain how to use these systems and sustainability indexes to fulfil three practical uses in tourism sector planning: the comparison and characterisation of destinations, the definition of benchmarking practices, and the quantification of sustainable tourism objectives. Each practical use is illustrated using the case of rural zones in a consolidated destination such as Andalusia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural water-supply and sanitation planning: The use of socioeconomic preconditions in project identification (United States)

    Warner, Dennis B.


    Recognition of the socioeconomic preconditions for successful rural water-supply and sanitation projects in developing countries is the key to identifying a new project. Preconditions are the social, economic and technical characteristics defining the project environment. There are two basic types of preconditions: those existing at the time of the initial investigation and those induced by subsequent project activities. Successful project identification is dependent upon an accurate recognition of existing constraints and a carefully tailored package of complementary investments intended to overcome the constraints. This paper discusses the socioeconomic aspects of preconditions in the context of a five-step procedure for project identification. The procedure includes: (1) problem identification; (2) determination of socioeconomic status; (3) technology selection; (4) utilization of support conditions; and (5) benefit estimation. Although the establishment of specific preconditions should be based upon the types of projects likely to be implemented, the paper outlines a number of general relationships regarding favourable preconditions in water and sanitation planning. These relationships are used within the above five-step procedure to develop a set of general guidelines for the application of preconditions in the identification of rural water-supply and sanitation projects.

  20. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tassinari


    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  1. The long-term demographic role of community-based family planning in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Phillips, J F; Hossain, M B; Arends-Kuenning, M


    Experimental studies demonstrating the effectiveness of nonclinical distribution of contraceptives are typically conducted in settings where contraceptive use is low and unmet need is extensive. Determining the long-term role of active outreach programs after initial demand is met represents an increasingly important policy issue in Asia, where contraceptive prevalence is high and fixed service points are conveniently available. This article examines the long-term rationale for household family planning in Bangladesh-where growing use of contraceptives, rapid fertility decline, and normative change in reproductive preferences are in progress, bringing into question the rationale for large-scale deployment of paid outreach workers. Longitudinal data are analyzed that record outreach encounters and contraceptive use dynamics in a large rural population. Findings demonstrate that outreach has a continuing impact on program effectiveness, even after a decade of household visitation. The policy implications of this finding are reviewed.

  2. The concept of cluster- villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse...... and uses each other’s strengths, as well as developing the individual village in addition to the specific potentials of that village. In recent years, rural Denmark has been undergoing a sweeping and very noticeable process of adjustment, Development in municipal service provision plays a particular...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  3. Heritage tourism development in rural Russia: A case study in collaborative tourism planning in an international setting (United States)

    Roy Ramthun; Susan Williams; Vladimir Shalaev; Svetlana Guseva; Irina Polinkova; Sofia Chervakova; Svetlana Ivanova; Anna Pahkmutova; Anastasia Shalaev


    In the United States, advisers from such organizations as universities and extension services often assist rural communities with community planning and development efforts. These outside groups typically facilitate communication and discussion among stakeholders and help to lay out a process by which the community may proceed towards its shared goals. Faculty members...

  4. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  5. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas]. (United States)

    Xiao, S H


    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.

  6. Young People's Preferences for Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Malawi: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Michaels-Igbokwe

    Full Text Available To quantify the impact of service provider characteristics on young people's choice of family planning (FP service provider in rural Malawi in order to identify strategies for increasing access and uptake of FP among youth.A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess the relative impact of service characteristics on preferences for FP service providers among young people (aged 15-24. Four alternative providers were included (government facility, private facility, outreach and community based distribution of FP and described by six attributes (the distance between participants' home and the service delivery point, frequency of service delivery, waiting time at the facility, service providers' attitude, availability of FP commodities and price. A random parameters logit model was used to estimate preferences for service providers and the likely uptake of services following the expansion of outreach and community based distribution (CBDA services. In the choice experiment young people were twice as likely to choose a friendly provider (government service odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, p<0.01; private service OR = 1.99, p<0.01; CBDA OR = 1.88, p<0.01 and more than two to three times more likely to choose a provider with an adequate supply of FP commodities (government service OR = 2.48, p<0.01; private service OR = 2.33, p<0.01; CBDA = 3.85, p<0.01. Uptake of community based services was greater than facility based services across a variety of simulated service scenarios indicating that such services may be an effective means of expanding access for youth in rural areas and an important tool for increasing service uptake among youth.Ensuring that services are acceptable to young people may require additional training for service providers in order to ensure that all providers are friendly and non-judgemental when dealing with younger clients and to ensure that supplies are consistently available.

  7. Clustering Algorithm As A Planning Support Tool For Rural Electrification Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pornillosa Parreno Jr


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study clustering algorithm was developed to optimize electrification plans by screening and grouping potential customers to be supplied with electricity. The algorithm provided adifferent approach in clustering problem which combines conceptual and distance-based clustering algorithmsto analyze potential clusters using spanning tree with the shortest possible edge weight and creating final cluster trees based on the test of inconsistency for the edges. The clustering criteria consists of commonly used distance measure with the addition of household information as basis for the ability to pay ATP value. The combination of these two parameters resulted to a more significant and realistic clusters since distance measure alone could not take the effect of the household characteristics in screening the most sensible groupings of households. In addition the implications of varying geographical features were incorporated in the algorithm by using routing index across the locations of the households. This new approach of connecting the households in an area was applied in an actual case study of one village or barangay that was not yet energized. The results of clustering algorithm generated cluster trees which could becomethetheoretical basis for power utilities to plan the initial network arrangement of electrification. Scenario analysis conducted on the two strategies of clustering the households provideddifferent alternatives for the optimization of the cost of electrification. Futhermorethe benefits associated with the two strategies formulated from the two scenarios was evaluated using benefit cost ratio BC to determine which is more economically advantageous. The results of the study showed that clustering algorithm proved to be effective in solving electrification optimization problem and serves its purpose as a planning support tool which can facilitate electrification in rural areas and achieve cost-effectiveness.

  8. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Early Findings on Changes in Plan Availability and Premiums in Rural Places, 2014-2015. (United States)

    Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith


    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in HIMs from 2014 to 2015 in terms of choices offered and premiums charged, with emphasis on how these measures vary across rural and urban places. Key Findings. (1) In 74 percent of HIM rating areas, the number of firms operating increased by at least one, while the number of firms decreased in only about 6 percent of rating areas. Further, 64 percent of rating areas with fewer than 50 persons per square mile gained at least one firm. (2) There was no consistent pattern of premium increases with respect to rating area population density (used as a proxy here for the degree of "ruralness" of the rating areas). Nationally, rural areas are not experiencing higher premium increases than their urban counterparts. In fact, the lowest increases in second-lowest cost silver plan premiums occurred in the medium-density population rating areas of 51 to 300 persons per square mile. (3) Average adjusted premiums increased from 2014 to 2015 by 6.7 percent in Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) compared to just 1.4 percent in State-Based Marketplaces (SBMs). Regardless of SBM or FFM status, premium increases across the United States were negatively correlated with the number of firms entering the market. (4) Analysis of the most rural states, in terms of percentage of the population classified as nonmetropolitan, shows that, in general, premiums fell significantly in rural places where they had been rather high, and they increased in rural places where they had been rather low. The five rural states with the lowest premium increases had an average of 0.17 firms entering the market, while the five with the highest premium increases had an average of 0.50 firms exiting the market.

  9. Landscape Planning and Ecological Networks. Part A. A Rural System in Nuoro, Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Montis


    Full Text Available Urban-rural landscape planning research is nowadays focusing on strategies and tools that support practitioners in designing integrated spaces starting from the analysis of local areas, where human and natural pressures interfere. A prominent framework is provided by the ecological networks, whose design regards the combination of a set of green areas or patches (the nodes interconnected through environmental corridors (the edges. Ecological networks are useful for biodiversity protection and enhancement, as they are able to counteract fragmentation, and to create or strengthen relations and exchanges among otherwise isolated elements. Biodiversity evolution, indeed, depends on the quantity and quality of spatial cohesion of natural areas.  In this paper, we aim at designing an ecological network for the periurban area on the town of Nuoro in central Sardinia. The narrative unfolds in two parts. Part A is presented in this paper and includes its methodological premises, i.e. biodiversity conservation and ecological network analysis and design, and the introductory elements of a spatial analysis on a pilot ecological network of one hundred patches. We locate patches by focusing on the ecosystems supported by the target vegetal species holm oak (Quercus ilex and cultivated or wild olive (Olea europaea var. sativa, O. europaea var. sylverstis. These are very common plants species in the municipality and some animal species are active as seed dispersal. The reminder, i.e. Part B, of the essay is presented in an homonymous paper that focuses on the illustration of the network analysis conceived as a monitoring system and, in future perspective, as a planning support system.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan. (United States)

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Hameed, Waqas; Gul, Xaher; Sarfraz, Shabnum; Baig, Imam Yar; Villanueva, Monica


    This study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder's perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF) voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016. A decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs) to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program. A total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient). The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62-5.31). The result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  11. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania. (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin


    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  12. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio


    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  13. Community based study on married couples' family planning knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban Gambia. (United States)

    Jammeh, Sulayman S S; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee-Hsieh, Jane


    Family planning services have been free of charge and available in all the health facilities in the Gambia since 1975 yet contraceptive prevalence is only 17.5% and even 6% in some areas. Since the last census in 2003, there existed no available data on married couples' contraception status. To explore married couples' family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices in rural and urban Gambia and to analyze what factors may affect such knowledge, attitudes and practices. Quantitative cross-sectional study design was used. Through convenience sampling, 176 men and 235 women representing a total of 176 couples participated. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean scores of the married couples family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices were 19.00 ± 6.11(ranging from 0 to 64), 6.90 ± 3.08 (0 to 14) and 4.69 ± 3.3 (0 to 19) respectively. Urban residents had higher scores on family planning practice than rural residents (pfamily planning knowledge, attitude and practice in Gambia", as well as suggesting broader health intervention programs in health education and promotion.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton


    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder’s perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016.MethodA decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program.ResultsA total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient. The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62–5.31.ConclusionThe result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  15. Factors influencing the intention of women in rural Ghana to adopt postpartum family planning. (United States)

    Eliason, Sebastian; Baiden, Frank; Quansah-Asare, Gloria; Graham-Hayfron, Yvonne; Bonsu, Derek; Phillips, James; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi


    Uptake of postpartum family planning (PPFP) remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and very little is known about how pregnant women arrive at their decisions to adopt PPFP. This information is needed to guide the development of interventions to promote PPFP. We conducted a survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural district in Ghana. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore how knowledge of various family planning (FP) methods, past experience with their use and the acceptability of PPFP to male partners and close relations influenced the intention of pregnant women to adopt PPFP. We interviewed 1914 pregnant women in four health facilities. About 84% considered PPFP acceptable, and 70% intended to adopt a method. The most preferred methods were injectables (31.5%), exclusive breastfeeding (16.7%), and oral contraceptive pills (14.8%). Women whose first choice of PPFP method were injectables were more likely to be women who had had past experience with its use (O.R = 2.07, 95% C.I. 1.50-2.87). Acceptability of PPFP by the pregnant woman (O.R. = 3.21, 1.64-6.26), perception of partner acceptability (O.R. = 3.20, 1.94-5.48), having had prior experience with the use of injectables (O.R. = 3.72, 2.61-5.30) were the strongest predictors of the intention to adopt PPFP. Conversely women who knew about the diaphragm (O.R. = 0.59, 0.38-0.93) and those who had past experience with IUD use (O.R. = 0.13, 0.05-0.38) were less likely to want to adopt PPFP. Acceptability of PPFP to the pregnant woman, male partner approval, and past experience with the use of injectables are important factors in the PPFP decisions of women in this population. Antenatal and early postnatal care need to be adapted to take these factors into consideration.

  16. Analysing the relationship between family planning workers' contact and contraceptive switching in rural Bangladesh using multilevel modelling. (United States)

    Hossain, Mian B


    With a population of over 131 million and a fertility rate of 29.9 per 1000, population growth constitutes a primary threat to continued economic growth and development in Bangladesh. One strategy that has been used to cease further increases in fertility in Bangladesh involves using family planning outreach workers who travel throughout rural and urban areas educating women regarding contraceptive alternatives. This study uses a longitudinal database to assess the impact of family planning outreach workers' contact upon contraceptive switching and upon the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Using longitudinal data on contraceptive use from the Operations Research Project (ORP) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) in Bangladesh, multiple decrement life table analysis and multilevel, discrete-time competing risk hazards models were used to estimate the cumulative probabilities of switching to an alternative form of contraceptive use after a woman engaged in a discussion with an outreach worker. After controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the analysis revealed that family planning outreach workers' contact with women significantly decreases the risk of transitioning to the non-use of contraceptives. This contact also reduces the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Family planning workers' contact with women is associated with the increased risk of a woman switching from one modern method to another modern method. The study results indicate that side-effects and other method-related reasons are the two primary reasons for contraceptive discontinuation in rural Bangladesh.

  17. Factors related to severe untreated tooth decay in rural adolescents: a case-control study for public health planning. (United States)

    Skaret, E; Weinstein, P; Milgrom, P; Kaakko, T; Getz, T


    In this case-control study of rural adolescents we identified factors to discriminate those who have high levels of tooth decay and receive treatment from those with similar levels who receive no treatment. The sample was drawn from all 12-20-year-olds (n = 439) in a rural high school in Washington State, U.S. The criterion for being included was 5 or more decayed, missing or filled teeth. The questionnaire included structure, history, cognition and expectation variables based on a model by Grembowski, Andersen and Chen. No structural variable was related to the dependent variable. Two of 10 history variables were related: perceived poor own dental health and perceived poor mother's dental health. Four of eight cognition variables were also predictive: negative beliefs about the dentist, not planning to go to a dentist even if having severe problems, not being in any club or playing on a sports team and not having a best friend. No relationship was found for the expectation variable 'usual source of care'. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that untreated tooth decay is associated with avoidance of care and point to the importance of history and cognition variables in planning efforts to improve oral health of rural adolescents.

  18. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in asymptomatic family planning patients in rural New Mexico.


    Bell, T A; Ebenezer, M R


    We tested 98 asymptomatic women seen in state-funded contraception clinics in rural New Mexico. A fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody stain revealed Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 25% of asymptomatic unmarried women and 3% of married women (P = .03). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in only one woman. As in urban clinics providing contraception, the prevalence of gonorrhea is rare in rural New Mexico, but chlamydial infections are common in young unmarried women.

  20. Rural Aging (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  1. Guided preparedness planning with lay communities: enhancing capacity of rural emergency response through a systems-based partnership. (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Perry, Charlene; Azur, Melissa; Taylor, Henry G; Gwon, Howard; Mosley, Adrian; Semon, Natalie; Links, Jonathan M


    Community disaster preparedness plans, particularly those with content that would mitigate the effects of psychological trauma on vulnerable rural populations, are often nonexistent or underdeveloped. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a model of disaster mental health preparedness planning involving a partnership among three, key stakeholders in the public health system. A one-group, post-test, quasi-experimental design was used to assess outcomes as a function of an intervention designated Guided Preparedness Planning (GPP). The setting was the eastern-, northern-, and mid-shore region of the state of Maryland. Partner participants were four local health departments (LHDs), 100 faith-based organizations (FBOs), and one academic health center (AHC)-the latter, collaborating entities of the Johns Hopkins University and the Johns Hopkins Health System. Individual participants were 178 community residents recruited from counties of the above-referenced geographic area. Effectiveness of GPP was based on post-intervention assessments of trainee knowledge, skills, and attitudes supportive of community disaster mental health planning. Inferences about the practicability (feasibility) of the model were drawn from pre-defined criteria for partner readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in the project. Additional aims of the study were to determine if LHD leaders would be willing and able to generate post-project strategies to perpetuate project-initiated government/faith planning alliances (sustainability), and to develop portable methods and materials to enhance model application and impact in other health jurisdictions (scalability). The majority (95%) of the 178 lay citizens receiving the GPP intervention and submitting complete evaluations reported that planning-supportive objectives had been achieved. Moreover, all criteria for inferring model feasibility, sustainability, and scalability were met. Within the span of a six-month period

  2. Planning and Management Directed to Urban Sustainability: an analysis of the Italian Circuit of Rural Tourism (CITUR), Colombo, Paraná


    Arruda Dias, Eliza Mara; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná; Bollmann, Harry Alberto; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná


    This text’s objective is to discuss the importance of urban planning and management directed to sustainability, presenting the rural tourism as an alternative public policy. For the case study, the Italian Circuit of Rural Tourism (CITUR) in Colombo, Parana was considered, analyzing it as a public policy that contributes to a sustainable municipal development. For the research’s development, CITUR entrepreneurs, visitors, and representatives of the municipal government were interviewed. For a...

  3. The NABRIN Report. Report of the National Advisory Board on Rural Information Needs Planning Committee. (United States)

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC.

    This report begins with an executive summary and an introduction; the introduction provides a brief statement about the innovative process which led to the proposal to establish a National Advisory Board on Rural Information Needs (NABRIN) in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). A background statement gives an overview of the many problems…

  4. The Life Plans of Rural School Students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan (United States)

    Abankina, T. V.


    Data from a comparative study of the educational, career, and migration strategies of rural school students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan show high levels of educational aspiration. This is likely to increase the flow of population to urban areas, to increase the rate of urbanization, and to have demographic and economic consequences that will…

  5. The role of decentralized generation and storage technologies in future energy systems planning for a rural agglomeration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Densing, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander


    This study presents a framework to quantitatively evaluate decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) performance and policy impacts in a rural setting. The role of DGSTs in the future energy systems planning of a rural agglomeration in Switzerland is examined using a cost optimization modeling approach. Heat and electricity demand for major sectors are considered. Scenarios introduce DGSTs in a stepwise manner to measure incremental impacts on future capacity planning compared to a baseline scenario. Sub-scenarios also examine the impacts of carbon mitigation policies, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out for key energy carriers and conversion technologies. DGSTs enable a significant reduction in electricity grid usage for the community considered. Small hydro with a storage reservoir and photovoltaics enable the community to become largely self-sufficient with over 80% reductions in grid imports by 2050 compared to the baseline scenario. Storage enables maximum usage of the available hydro potential which also leads to network upgrade deferrals and a significant increase in photovoltaic installations. Investment decisions in small hydro are robust against cost variations, while heating technology investment decisions are sensitive to oil and grid electricity prices. Carbon pricing policies are found to be effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions. - Highlights: •Rural case study on decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) benefits. •Cost optimization model and scenarios developed to assess DGSTs until 2050. •Small hydro and photovoltaics (PV) increase self-sufficiency of community. •Storage enables full hydro potential usage and increased PV penetration. •Carbon price policies effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions.

  6. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  7. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mubita-Ngoma


    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina González-Cubero


    Full Text Available RESUMEN A finales de los años 50 se publican dos libros dedicados al Plan Nacional de Construcciones Escolares del Ministerio de Educación Nacional, relativos a las Escuelas rurales y viviendas de maestros y a las Escuelas Graduadas respectivamente, que ponen a España en sintonía con los trabajos que se vienen realizando por organizaciones internacionales en aras de escolarizar a la población infantil y mejorar las condiciones de la enseñanza. Al contener los prototipos elaborados en sendos concursos para servir de instrumento en la construcción de tales establecimientos en todo el país, los libros muestran el deseo de cambio que recorre la arquitectura española y apuntan el camino futuro a seguir, dando también fe de la forja de arquitectos escolares que realizan relevantes obras en su trayectoria posterior.

  9. Two-Step Optimization for Spatial Accessibility Improvement: A Case Study of Health Care Planning in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo


    Full Text Available A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling formulates a two-step approach to a new problem of minimizing disparity of spatial accessibility. Our field work in a health care planning project in a rural county in China indicated that residents valued distance or travel time from the nearest hospital foremost and then considered quality of care including less waiting time as a secondary desirability. Based on the case study, this paper further clarifies the sequential decision-making approach, termed “two-step optimization for spatial accessibility improvement (2SO4SAI.” The first step is to find the best locations to site new facilities by emphasizing accessibility as proximity to the nearest facilities with several alternative objectives under consideration. The second step adjusts the capacities of facilities for minimal inequality in accessibility, where the measure of accessibility accounts for the match ratio of supply and demand and complex spatial interaction between them. The case study illustrates how the two-step optimization method improves both aspects of spatial accessibility for health care access in rural China.

  10. El potencial agrológico en la ordenación del suelo rural; estudio comparado de tres casos en Asturias = Agrological potential in rural land planning; comparative study of three cases in Asturies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ortega Montequín


    Full Text Available Mediante este trabajo se relacionan los suelos naturales (edafología con los suelos urbanísticos rurales a través de tres casos en Asturias, con objeto de establecer un enfoque en la ordenación del territorio en que se consideren los suelos rurales como parte del sistema productivo. A lo largo de este artículo se presenta parte de una tesis doctoral por compendio de publicaciones titulada El potencial agrológico y su consideración en la Ordenación del Territorio. El caso de Asturias.Through this work the soil are overlaped with planning rural land through three cases in Asturias, in order to set a focus on spatial planning where rural lands are considered as a part of the productive system. Along this article is presented a part of a doctoral thesis (by publications called Potential agrological and its consideration by the Land Planning. The case of Asturies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka


    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  12. Application of a tool of aid to the energy planning in isolated rural communities. Case of application Las Peladas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez Leyva, Lázaro Ventura; Jerez Pereira, Rubén; Pompa Chávez, Yanel; Tamayo Saborit, Michel; Rosa Andino, Alain de la


    This work refers the experience of a study of case realized in the rural community Las Peladas, located in the municipality Bartolome Maso Marquez, of the Granma province. In the same the application of a multi-objective mathematical model like computer tool of aid to the planning appears energetics, in agreement with the specific characteristics of the analyzed locality. The field study was based on the results of a participating survey, the observation and compilation of data that it made possible to obtain a characterization of the community and, this way, of delimiting the necessary parameters for the application of the tool. Five alternatives were evaluated: Aeolian energy, biomass, to pave, hydraulics and the connection to the national network. Of them, the model suggests, that the photovoltaic energy solar exerts the greater influence in the improvement of the integral sustainability of the capitals natural, physical, financial, human and social in the community. (author)

  13. Impact of the "Planning to be Active" leisure time physical exercise program on rural high school students. (United States)

    Hortz, Brian; Petosa, Rick


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention designed to increase the frequency of leisure time planned moderate and vigorous physical exercise among rural high school students attending physical education class. Students in treatment and comparison groups were exposed to an activity-based physical education curricula. The treatment group received eight behavioral skill-building lessons integrated into the existing curriculum. The Social Cognitive Theory-based educational treatment increased levels of moderate physical exercise occurring outside the classroom. This study demonstrated an impact on adolescent leisure time moderate physical exercise using classroom instruction. The intervention was most effective with students who were previously sedentary. The curricular approaches used to promote regular moderate exercise may be useful for sedentary adolescents.

  14. Nursing Personnel Planning for Rural Hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, Using Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs (United States)

    Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Das; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Saha, Indranil


    ABSTRACT Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO—Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel. PMID:25895199

  15. The Dilemma and Way-Out of Urban and Rural Planning Management in China’s Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei; WANG; Yandong; WANG


    In China, for small and medium-sized cities, urban and rural planning management should play an important role during the process of urbanization. However, it failed to do that in reality due to a series of limits, such as local fiscal deficiency, scarce human resources, incomplete management systems, historic planning defects, inadequate supervisions, and imperfect regulations, etc. This paper made a comprehensive analysis on the dilemma of urban and rural planning management in China’s small and medium-sized cities and the interests and status of the government, enterprises and public in space resource allocation and put forward the methods to improve the quality of planning management in China’s small and medium-sized cities from the view of systems and mechanisms.

  16. The Planning of Tourism on Rural Areas: The Stakeholders' Perceptions of the Boticas Municipality (Northeastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remoaldo Paula


    Full Text Available Most of the strategies developed to “save” rural territories in Europe have not been successful. One of their main problems has been the adoption of the top-down paradigm when approaching the development of those territories. Portugal is a good example of the difficulty in adopting a bottom-up paradigm. The main objective of this paper is to present the perceptions of the local (including the residents and regional stakeholders acting at Boticas, regarding the set of resources available and the development of the tourism industry. Boticas is a northern Portuguese, rural low-density municipality. In capturing those perceptions, the research contributes to the establishment of a more integrated and innovative development strategy and thus, a more capable strategy for profiting from the potential associated with the growth of the tourism industry that has been experienced recently in Portugal. The adoption of a mixed-method was suggested for evaluating these resources and capturing the perceptions of the tourist potential by different stakeholders. Empirical data was collected through a survey of 373 of its residents and 25 interviews conducted with local and regional actors, further supported by an inventory of the cultural resources and their capacity for visits. We conclude here that, residents tend to have a very positive perception of tourism development, and indeed, their perceptions largely met those of other stakeholders.

  17. The Impact of Desired Family Size Upon Family Planning Practices in Rural East Pakistan (United States)

    Mosena, Patricia Wimberley


    Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)

  18. Development of performance measures for the assessment of rural planning organizations. (United States)


    In order for the Transportation Planning Board to provide oversight and assistance to the 20 RPOs in the state, they : need effective evaluation criteria and performance measures. The existing measures, including the annual : performance report, do n...

  19. Discrepancies Between Planned and Actual Operating Room Turnaround Times at a Large Rural Hospital in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Morgenegg


    retrospective study examined the OR turnaround data of 875 elective surgery cases scheduled at the Marienhospital, Vechta, Germany, between July and October 2014. The frequency distributions of planned and actual OR turnaround times were compared and correlations between turnaround times and various factors were established, including the time of day of the procedure, patient age and the planned duration of the surgery. Results: There was a significant difference between mean planned and actual OR turnaround times (0.32 versus 0.64 hours; P <0.001. In addition, significant correlations were noted between actual OR turnaround times and the time of day of the surgery, patient age, actual duration of the procedure and staffing changes affecting the surgeon or the medical specialty of the surgery (P <0.001 each. The quotient of actual/planned OR turnaround times ranged from 1.733–3.000. Conclusion: Significant discrepancies between planned and actual OR turnaround times were noted during the study period. Such findings may be potentially used in future studies to establish a tool to improve OR planning, measure OR management performance and enable benchmarking.

  20. Rural development index: a contribution for the planning of the wide using of the access to electric power; Indicador de desenvolvimento rural: uma contribuicao para o planejamento da universalizacao do acesso a energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, Marcio; Souza, Danielle; Batista, Norma [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails:;;; Camacho, Cristiane F.; Paz, Luciana; Rodrigues, Alexia [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails:;;


    This paper aims to present a methodology to be applied in the evaluation of projects of rural electrification including those related to the social, economic, energy and environmental areas. Based on the analysis of data collected in a large field research that covered all country, it was created the Rural Development Index (IDR) that seeks to summarize the acquired information to help in the evaluation and planning of the Electric Sector's actions concerned to the rural areas. Thus, it is presented the results of the methodology application in three Brazilian states during the two phases of the research, before and after the supply of electric energy in a regular and safe basis. (author)

  1. Spatial Planning of Rural tourism with MAPPAC technique. Case study Khur and Biabanak County, (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Faraji Sabokbar


    Full Text Available Reviewing the concepts of space and tourism industry, tourism is in an old, deep, unbreakable bound with spatial and physical dimensions. In this way, the lack of systematic and scientific ranking process in spatial locating of rural tourism spots and also improper distribution of infrastructures are the critical deficiencies in this field. The research intends to introduce the hidden potentials and unique capabilities of Khur and Biabanak County, Iran. And prioritize their tourism spots. So tourism planners would be able to recognize proper space distribution. First, the weights of each criterion were calculated by a pairwise comparison questionnaire of AHP method, and MAPPAC technique was used for ranking. AHP was done in Expert Choice software and MAPPAC in MS Excel. Results showed that villages such as Bayaze, Jandagh, Mehrejan, Garmeh, and Iraj which are also older have a higher rank.

  2. Study on Rural Ecological Conservation and Health Care Plan to Respond Aging Population (United States)

    Zhao, Jing Yu; Fu, Fei


    The problem of aging is a problem that the society must face now. Under the rapid development and expansion of modern cities, the traditional village which is the back garden of the city depends on its advantages and characteristics of the farmland water network ecological infrastructure to develop the health planning. It is an important way to develop economic and ecological protection. However, the study of this direction is still in its infancy in china. This paper attempts to establish an adaptive POE evaluation model for elderly open space through the investigation and analysis, and further explore the physiological and psychological needs of the elderly for the environment. Based on the above survey data, this paper studies the planning and planning strategy of the health industry in the natural villages in the suburbs of Dujiangyan. From the point of view of sustainable development, it is more effective to protect and develop the ecological infrastructure of villages.

  3. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India. (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita


    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  4. Family planning in a rural setting in Uganda, the USHAPE initiative. (United States)

    Clark, Emily; Goodhart, Clare


    The total fertility rate in Uganda is 5.9 children per woman, and women admit to having nearly two more children than they actually want. The maternal mortality rate remains stubbornly high. Family planning saves lives. It prevents maternal deaths by delaying motherhood, helping women limit their family size and avoid unwanted pregnancies. It also reduces infant mortality. USHAPE (Ugandan Sexual Health and Pastoral Education) is an initiative run in conjunction with the Royal College of General Practitioners in south-west Uganda. USHAPE aims to disseminate positive messages about modern contraception in an attempt to dispel fears and misconceptions and address the high rate of unmet need. The aim was to determine the rate of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in the population local of Kisiizi hospital and to use the successful USHAPE model to train health workers to address this need. 100 patients were screened in the outpatient department to determine the level of unmet need by asking 2 questions. Level 1 training aims enhance every staff member's knowledge, so that the responsibility for family planning is adopted by the whole institution. Level 2 trains clinicians to become full family planning providers, with the necessary communication, educational and practical skills. The screening for unmet need for contraception revealed that 51% have an unmet need, which is higher than the national average of 38%. Sixty-eight members of staff at Kisiizi trained to a basic level and a further 32 staff have been trained to Level 2 higher level. The USHAPE approach has begun to tackle some of the barriers to accessing family planning, but there are further areas which need development. Our cascade model of training, involves training Ugandan USHAPE trainers with the aim of future scale up and long-term development.

  5. General practice registrars' intentions for future practice: implications for rural medical workforce planning. (United States)

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim


    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91)=3.528, P=0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88)=-4.280, Pmedical graduates intend to own their own practice compared with 52% of international medical graduates (χ 2 (1)=8.498, P=0.004). Future general practitioners (GPs) intend to work fewer hours than current GPs. Assumptions about lifestyle factors, practice models and possible professional roles should be carefully evaluated when developing strategies to recruit GPs and GPRs into rural practice.

  6. Male involvement in maternal healthcare through Community- based Health Planning and Services: the views of the men in rural Ghana. (United States)

    Bougangue, Bassoumah; Ling, How Kee


    The need to promote maternal health in Ghana has committed the government to extend maternal healthcare services to the door steps of rural families through the community-based Health Planning and Services. Based on the concerns raised in previous studies that male spouses were indifferent towards maternal healthcare, this study sought the views of men on their involvement in maternal healthcare in their respective communities and at the household levels in the various Community-based Health Planning and Services zones in Awutu-Senya West District in the Central Region of Ghana. A qualitative method was employed. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with married men, community health officers, community health volunteers and community leaders. The participants were selected using purposive, quota and snowball sampling techniques. The study used thematic analysis for analysing the data. The study shows varying involvement of men, some were directly involved in feminine gender roles; others used their female relatives and co-wives to perform the women's roles that did not have space for them. They were not necessarily indifferent towards maternal healthcare, rather, they were involved in the spaces provided by the traditional gender division of labour. Amongst other things, the perpetuation and reinforcement of traditional gender norms around pregnancy and childbirth influenced the nature and level of male involvement. Sustenance of male involvement especially, husbands and CHVs is required at the household and community levels for positive maternal outcomes. Ghana Health Service, health professionals and policy makers should take traditional gender role expectations into consideration in the planning and implementation of maternal health promotion programmes.

  7. Strengthening government health and family planning programs: findings from an action research project in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Simmons, R; Phillips, J F; Rahman, M


    An ongoing study at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) is based on the premise that public sector health and family planning programs can be improved through an assessment of the dysfunctional aspects of their operations, the development of problem-solving capabilities, and the transfer of strategies successfully tested in a small-scale pilot project. This paper reports findings from a field trial implemented in a subunit of the project area at an early stage of the project. Operational barriers to public sector program implementation are discussed with regard to the quantity of work, the quality of work, supplies and facilities, integration of health and family planning, and leadership, supervision, and decision making. Initial results of the ICDDR,B intervention on these managerial processes are also indicated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu


    Full Text Available The majority of the research on the uncertainties of spatial data and spatial analysis focuses on some specific data feature or analysis tool. Few have accomplished the uncertainties of the whole process of an application like planning, making the research of uncertainties detached from practical applications. The paper discusses the uncertainties of the geographical information systems (GIS based land suitability assessment in planning on the basis of literature review. The uncertainties considered range from index system establishment to the classification of the final result. Methods to reduce the uncertainties arise from the discretization of continuous raster data and the index weight determination are summarized. The paper analyzes the merits and demerits of the “Nature Breaks” method which is broadly used by planners. It also explores the other factors which impact the accuracy of the final classification like the selection of class numbers, intervals and the autocorrelation of the spatial data. In the conclusion part, the paper indicates that the adoption of machine learning methods should be modified to integrate the complexity of land suitability assessment. The work contributes to the application of spatial data and spatial analysis uncertainty research on land suitability assessment, and promotes the scientific level of the later planning and decision-making.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Patricio Bayas Escudero


    Full Text Available El plan estratégico se realizó con el objetivo de que las parroquias San Isidro y Charapotó impelementen e impulsen el turismo rural sostenible como alternativa de desarrollo a través de la aplicación de una herramienta de planificación y gestión turística, con lo cual se facilitará el uso adecuado de los recursos turísticos para mejorar la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. El diseño de este plan constó de tres fases; en la primera: se elaboró un diagnóstico, con base a información proporcionada por los principales actores del sector turístico del cantón Sucre y de ambas parroquias, quienes determinaron las principales fortalezas y debilidades; para el diagnóstico se aplicó las matrices de evaluación de factores internos y externos; con la aplicación de fichas de inventarios turísticos se identificaron trece recursos, se empleó la matriz de potencialidades para determinar el grado de relevancia turística de cada recurso inventariado, con la matriz de Leopold se identificaron los impactos ambientales de los recursos turísticos más vulnerables y mediante la matriz FODA se establecieron las estrategias del plan. En la segunda fase se determinó la misión, visión, valores, políticas, objetivos estratégicos, programas y proyectos, se fijó el tiempo de ejecución para cada proyecto mediante un cronograma y se estableció el respectivo presupuesto. La última fase consta de los parámetros de evaluación, en donde aparecen los medios de difusión del plan, así como las herramientas para el seguimiento y evaluación de los programas y proyectos.

  10. Developing pictorial asthma action plans to promote self-management and health in rural youth with asthma: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Duncan, Christina L; Walker, Heather A; Brabson, Laurel; Williford, Desireé N; Hynes, Lisa; Hogan, Mary Beth


    Asthma action plans (AAPs) provide asthma management instructions to families; however, AAPs typically are written at a 7th-9th grade reading level, making them less useful in lower literacy families. There is a need to develop simpler AAP formats and content to optimize their utility across all families, including those who are rural and may be at a risk for literacy concerns. Because using pictures can simplify and enhance health education, our study's aim was to develop a pictorial AAP through a series of focus groups with key stakeholders - youth with asthma, caregivers, and physicians. Fourteen caregiver/youth dyads and four physicians participated in separate focus groups where their preferences for pictorial AAP structure and content were obtained. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded with ATLAS.ti, and analyzed for themes. Youth and their caregivers prefer that the AAPs include simple, cartoon-like pictures customized to the patient. Physicians emphasized AAP's capability to display pictures of controller medication given its importance in preventing asthma exacerbations. A stoplight format, currently used in most written AAPs, received positive reviews. Specific suggestions for pictures showing symptoms, medications, and how to take medication were suggested. Words and short phrases accompanying the pictures were thought to add clarity. Key stakeholders viewed pictorial AAPs as positive and potentially effective alternatives to standard written AAPs. It is expected that low literacy youth and caregivers would more easily understand a pictorial AAP presentation, which should facilitate better medication adherence and asthma outcomes in these children.

  11. Landscape Planning and Ecological Networks. Part B. A Rural System in Nuoro, Sardinia

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    Andrea De Montis


    Full Text Available This paper represents the continuation, i.e. Part B, of an homonymous paper aiming at designing an ecological network for the periurban area on the town of Nuoro in central Sardinia. While in Part A we illustrate the methodological premises and introduce a spatial network analysis-based study of a pilot ecological network, in this paper we apply a complex network analysis approach to the construction and characterization of the dynamics of the ecological network of Nuoro.  We are interested in monitoring the performance of the ecological network evolving from a real to a hypothetical scenario, where the two target vegetal species (holm oak and cultivated or wild olive are present in each patch. We focus on global network properties and on three different centrality measures: degree, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality. We also take into account the influence of the intensity of the connection (i.e. the weight by introducing the corresponding weighted centrality measures. Through thematic mapping we illustrate the pattern of each centrality indicator throughout the entire pilot set of patches. In this way, we demonstrate how spatial network analysis is useful to monitor the performance of the network and to support decision-making, management, and planning.

  12. A GIS-based decision support tool for renewable energy management and planning in semi-arid rural environments of northeast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, C.; Fraidenraich, N.; Barbosa, E.M. de S. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - CDU, CEP 50.740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Candeias, A.L.B. [Departamento de Engenharia Cartografica da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Academico Helio Ramos, s/n - CDU, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); de Carvalho Neto, P.B.; de Melo Filho, J.B. [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco -DTG- CHESF, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)


    This work describes the development of a management and planning system on a GIS (Geographic Information System) platform destined to decision makers that is, administrators, planners or consultants in renewable energies. It was conceived to deal with the management and planning of solar systems, biomass and aeolics in rural regions of Brazil. The prototype of the GIS tool covers an area of 183, 500 km{sup 2} and is made up of three blocks: management of installed renewable systems, inclusion (planning) of new systems and updating of the data banks. The GISA SOL 1.0 (Geographic Information System Applied to Solar Energy) has a total of 80 layers of information that permit the realization of spatial analyses on management and planning of renewable sources of energy at macro-spatial (state) and local (municipality) levels. A description and the methodology used for its development and a description of the functionalities will be made here. The system was developed mainly for PV systems as a support tool for management and planning of the Energy Development Program for States and Municipalities (PRODEEM), a program for inclusion in large scale of solar photovoltaic energy in the rural environment, conducted by the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Brazil. (author)

  13. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires (United States)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.


    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  14. Faith in the 'cultural fix': limits to a planned cultural change program in a rural health service. (United States)

    Mahony, K


    This paper, by way of a narrative on the author's participation, explains the limits to a planned cultural change program in a large rural health service. Cultural change was identified by the CEO as crucial to the success of a major restructuring of the service, and the attitudes and beliefs of the 'old guard' were considered to be constraining progress. Advocates of cultural integration contend that shared core values across an organisation can overcome such obstacles. This is a matter of faith. An application of Habermasian theory suggests that organisational leaders are drawing on traditional/religious beliefs and practices to bolster their visions and missions at a time of motivational crisis. Though a need for cultural change in some sectors of the health services is acknowledged, the particular challenges in attempting to manipulate the traditionally embedded culture and sub-cultures of the health services is highlighted. An analysis of some of the ideas and beliefs surrounding authority, deference and discipline is undertaken. It is argued that the ritualistic reinforcement of these beliefs and the reproduction of sub-cultures along material and ideal interests militate against the implementation of objectives delineated by the CEO. While cultural analysis has revealed the irrational face of organisations and can bring to conscious awareness the taken-for-granted beliefs which inform behaviour, the cultural integrationists have a further agenda. They aim to manipulate organisational culture to subtly control employees' beliefs and hence behaviour. Cultural control is a covert form of top down authority that can be just as directive and centralizing as bureaucratic control. The author also maintains that cultural change programs alone cannot fix a problem that arose in the macro-economic sphere: a chronic lack of resources ever since the state responded to the economic crisis by cutting funds to health and welfare services.

  15. Assessing Family Planning Service Quality And User Experiences In Social Franchising Programme - Case Studies From Two Rural Districts In Pakistan. (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hameed, Waqas; Awan, Muhammad Ali


    Studies have documented the impact of quality family planning services on improved contraceptive uptake and continuation, however, relatively little is known about their quality of service provision especially in the context of social franchising. This study examined the quality of clinical services and user experiences among two models in franchised service providers in rural Pakistan. This facility-based assessment was carried out during May-June 2015 at the 20 randomly selected social franchise providers from Chakwal and Faisalabad. In our case, a franchise health facility was a private clinic (mostly) run by a single provider, supported by an assistant. Within the selected health facilities, a total 39 user-provider interactions were observed and same users were interviewed separately. Most of the health facilities were in the private sector. Comparatively, service providers at Greenstar Social Marketing/Population Services International (GSM/PSI) model franchised facilities had higher number of rooms and staff employed, with more providers' ownership. Quality of service indices showed high scores for both Marie Stopes Society (MSS) and GSM/PSI franchised providers. MSS franchised providers demonstrated comparative edge in terms of clinical governance, better method mix and they were more user-focused, while PSI providers offered broader range of non-FP services. Quality of counselling services were similar among both models. Service providers performed well on all indicators of interpersonal care however overall low scores were noted in technical care. For both models, service providers attained an average score of 6.7 (out of the maximum value of 8) on waste disposal mechanism, supplies 12.5 (out of the maximum value of 15), user-centred facility 2.7 (out of the maximum value of 4), and clinical governance 6.5 (out of the maximum value of 11) and respecting clients' privacy. The exit interviews yielded high user satisfaction in both service models. The

  16. Utilization of health care services in rural and urban areas: a determinant factor in planning and managing health care delivery systems. (United States)

    Oladipo, Jimoh Ayanda


    Disparities in use of healthcare services between rural and urban areas have been empirically attributed to several factors. This study explores the existence of this disparity and its implication for planning and managing healthcare delivery systems. The objectives determine the relative importance of the various predisposing, enabling, need and health services factors on utilization of health services; similarity between rural and urban areas; and major explanatory variables for utilization. A four-stage model of service utilization was constructed with 31 variables under appropriate model components. Data is collected using cross-sectional sample survey of 1086 potential health services consumers in selected health facilities and resident milieu via questionnaire. Data is analyzed using factor analysis and cross tabulation. The 4-stage model is validated for the aggregate data and data for the rural areas with 3-stage model for urban areas. The order of importance of the factors is need, enabling, predisposing and health services. 11 variables are found to be powerful predictors of utilization. Planning of different categories of health care facilities in different locations should be based on utilization rates while proper management of established facilities should aim to improve health seeking behavior of people.

  17. Evaluation plan : national advanced rural transportation systems : field operational tests of traveler information services in tourism areas : executive summary (United States)


    This evaluation addresses technical challenges of developing advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) in rural environments, institutional benefits and issues, usefulness of the information to the traveling public, effectiveness of various media ...

  18. CHARM, a gender equity and family planning intervention for men and couples in rural India: protocol for the cluster randomized controlled trial evaluation. (United States)

    Yore, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusadana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita


    Globally, 41% of all pregnancies are unintended, increasing risk for unsafe abortion, miscarriage and maternal and child morbidities and mortality. One in four pregnancies in India (3.3 million pregnancies, annually) are unintended; 2/3 of these occur in the context of no modern contraceptive use. In addition, no contraceptive use until desired number and sex composition of children is achieved remains a norm in India. Research shows that globally and in India, the youngest and most newly married wives are least likely to use contraception and most likely to report husband's exclusive family planning decision-making control, suggesting that male engagement and family planning support is important for this group. Thus, the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) intervention was developed in recognition of the need for more male engagement family planning models that include gender equity counseling and focus on spacing contraception use in rural India. For this study, a multi-session intervention delivered to men but inclusive of their wives was developed and evaluated as a two-armed cluster randomized controlled design study conducted across 50 mapped clusters in rural Maharashtra, India. Eligible rural young husbands and their wives (N = 1081) participated in a three session gender-equity focused family planning program delivered to the men (Sessions 1 and 2) and their wives (Session 3) by village health providers in rural India. Survey assessments were conducted at baseline and 9&18 month follow-ups with eligible men and their wives, and pregnancy tests were obtained from wives at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Additional in-depth understanding of how intervention impact occurred was assessed via in-depth interviews at 18 month follow-up with VHPs and a subsample of couples (n = 50, 2 couples per intervention cluster). Process evaluation was conducted to collect feedback from husbands, wives, and VHPs on program

  19. Plan de negocio para la creación de una casa rural casitas El Teu-Llar en la isla de Lanzarote




    [ES] El presente trabajo final de carrera tiene por objeto la realización de un plan de negocio para implantar una empresa dedicada al alojamiento rural en el municipio de Haría (Lanzarote). El nombre comercial de la misma será Casitas el Teu-Llar queriendo hacer presente en el nombre tanto la procedencia de la propietaria (Valencia) como el lema de la empresa que es sentirse en casa. Los servicios que proporcionará estarán divididos en tres líneas de negocio (alojamiento, restauración y ...

  20. Smoking behaviors and intentions among adolescents in rural China: the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the role of social influence. (United States)

    Su, Xuefen; Li, Liping; Griffiths, Sian M; Gao, Yang; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H


    This study investigated the associations between the variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), influence of significant others, and smoking intentions and behaviors among adolescents living in rural southern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2609 students in two junior high schools in rural Shantou, Guangdong province, using a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate univariate and adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analyses showed that having favorable attitudes towards smoking on psychological and social aspects, perceived behavioral control, and having most friends who were current smokers were significantly associated with smoking intentions in the next six months and in the next five years. Having most family members who were current smokers was also significantly related to smoking intention in the next five years. Having favorable attitudes towards smoking on psychological aspect and negative attitudes on physical aspect, perceived support from friends on smoking, and having most friends and senior relatives being current smokers were significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever smoking. Perceived behavioral control and having most friends being current smokers were also significantly associated with regular smoking and smoking in the past 30days. Our results suggest that the key constructs of the TPB model and friends' smoking behaviors play important roles in accounting for smoking intentions and behaviors among a sample of rural Chinese adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plan estratégico para el desarrollo del turismo rural comunitario en la región Cusco


    Sepúlveda Medina, Hollman; Basurto Zapata, Rafael; Vizcarra Gutiérrez, Yuri


    El turismo es una de las actividades económicas que ha tenido un crecimiento importante en los últimos años, convirtiendo a esta industria atractiva para su desarrollo en países con potencial turístico, como el Perú. El turismo rural comunitario es una alternativa dentro de la industria del turismo para el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales que mediante una organización adecuada, les permite aprovechar el entorno y específicamente los recursos turísticos con que cuentan. En Latinoaméric...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo E. Vega V


    Full Text Available Al despuntar el siglo XXI, en Colombia aún persistencondiciones de desigualdad y atraso en el medio rural,que se reflejan en el comportamiento de algunosindicadores sociales, entre los que se destacan: delos 12.2 millones de pobladores rurales, el 82.6%se encuentra por debajo de la línea de pobreza y deéstos el 43.4% vive en condiciones de pobrezaextrema; que contrastan con las áreas urbanas, dondeestos niveles se sitúan en el 51% y el 15.8%respectivamente.

  3. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)


    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  4. Planning and managing rural recreational traffic flows: why the future can’t be more like the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.; Beunen, R.


    The increasing popularity of rural tourism can cause traffic related problems at certain areas. Traffic congestion and parking problems are likely to occur as the infrastructure at these countryside destinations is seldom capable of dealing with the growing number of cars. Values which make the

  5. Unmet Needs of Family Planning Among Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Rural Area of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, South India. (United States)

    Vishnu Prasad, R; Venkatachalam, J; Singh, Zile


    Global contraceptive usage was 63.3 % in 2010 which was 9 % more than that in 1990. NFHS-III 2005-2006 revealed that the contraceptive prevalence rate was 56 % while in the past decade it was 48 %. In India, female sterilization is the most commonly preferred method of contraception accounting for 76 %, while in Tamil Nadu it was 90 %. Thus, this study aims at measuring the prevalence of unmet needs of family planning and its determinants in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out as a community-based cross-sectional study in Chunambed panchayat, a rural area in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India, among 505 women of age group 15-49 years. Cluster random sampling was done to select the households to include in the study. In every household, all the available and eligible women were explained about the study and recruited after obtaining informed consent. Chi-square test was applied for finding the difference in proportion, and p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in our study population was nearly 31 %; it was even more for younger age groups and for the women whose family size was less. 51.7 % of the participants were currently using a contraceptive measure and very few of their partners used contraception. Government health facilities were the major source of contraceptive service and majority of our participants were well aware about the various contraceptive methods. Unmet needs of family planning were high in our study population, and the knowledge about the contraceptive use and family planning was found to be fairly adequate.

  6. El ecoturismo como estrategia de desarrollo rural en América Latina : caso de la aldea indígena Plan Grande Quehueche (Izabal, Guatemala

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    Francisco Enríquez Narváez


    Full Text Available Los proyectos de desarrollo rural a escala internacional ponen cada vez mayor énfasis en la implementación de proyectos de ecoturismo, aprovechando como recursos los valores culturales y ambientales del territorio. Los resultados, a nivel general, no se pueden considerar satisfactorios. En este trabajo se analizan las causas de los fracasos de muchos de los proyectos de ecoturismo que se han implementado en América Latina, para profundizar después en los casos que se han desarrollado en Guatemala, abriendo una puerta al optimismo a partir de los resultados que se están obteniendo en un proyecto de ecoturismo que se desarrolla en la aldea Plan Grande Quehueche de Izabal (Guatemala.Rural development projects, at International level, are based ever increasing in the implementation of ecotourism projects. This tourism type is supported by the rich cultural and ecological valúes existing in the territory. The results, in general, cannot be considered satisfactory. In this paper the failures causes of many ecotourism projects implemented in Latín America, are analyze, afterwards the cases that have developed in Guatemala and finally the good results obtained in the ecotourism project of the small village Plan Grande Quehueche of the Department of Izabal in Guatemala are also analyzed.

  7. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando


    The 13 Distribution Divisions in which Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has administratively and technically structured the electric energy distribution in the attended territory it has to take care of, are also constituted by a total of 120 of Distribution Zones, classified according to the product of their number of clients, by their volume of annual sales, in medium and low tension, as zones type I, II and III. Examples of zones type III are the Guadalajara Zone and the Metropolitan Zone North Monterrey, East and West (metropolis), type II are predominantly urban zones such as Queretaro and Tepic, and type I is predominantly rural such as the Zapotlan Zones and Los Altos, in the state of Jalisco. Because of the cost and number of facilities that are authorized for their construction in the Distribution Rural Zones (Type I), one must be assured that these works are really the necessary ones to satisfy the demand of power within the quality commitments and with the best economy in the time. Otherwise, a great possibility exists of constructing expensive facilities and that little will help to solve the distribution system problems. Although annually reviews and updates are made of the Budget of Investments of Operation (PIO), and the Work Program of Investment of Electric Sector (POISE), the case that has occurred sometimes is that facilities are constructed where all the passages of the Planning Process were not applied or that the analysis was not sufficient, being very probable that some or several of the following types of errors have been committed: a) The allocation of the processes to facilities that are not necessary in the short term. b) Constructing a non-useful work or of little usefulness causes that facilities with greater yield are not constructed. c) The priority of works is not the most adequate. d) Not to have a long term vision so that the facilities that are constructed in the short term are useful in the long term plan. e) Some facilities

  8. Migration plans of the rural populations of the Third World countries: a probit analysis of micro-level data from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. (United States)

    Mcdevitt, T M; Hawley, A H; Udry, J R; Gadalla, S; Leoprapai, B; Cardona, R


    This study 1) examines the extent to which a given set of microlevel factors has predictive value in different socioeconomic settings and 2) demonstrates the utility of a probit estimation technique in examining plans of rural populations to migrate. Data were collected in 1977-1979 in Thailand, Egypt, and Colombia, 3 countries which differ in culture, extent of urbanization, and proportion of labor force engaged in nonextractive industries. The researchers used identical questionnaires and obtained interviews in 4 rural villages with the "migration shed" of each country's capital city. There were 1088 rural-resident men and women interviewed in Thailand, 1088 in Colombia, and 1376 in Egypt. The researchers gathered information about year-to-year changes in residence, marital status, fertility, housing, employment status, occupation, and industry. While in all 3 countries return moves are relatively frequent, especially among males, the proportions of migrants who have moved 3 or more times do not rise above 10%. The model used portrays the formation of migration intentions of the individual as the outcome of a decision process involving the subjective weighing of perceived differentials in well-being associated with current residence and 1 or more potential destinations, taking into account the direct relocation costs and ability to finance a move. The researchers used dichotomous probit and ordinal probit techniques and 4 variations on the dependant variable to generate some of the results. The only expectancy variable significant in all countries is age. Education is also positively and significantly associated with intentions to move for both sexes in Colombia and Egypt. Marital status is a deterrent to migration plans for males in Colombia and both sexes in Egypt. Previous migration experience fails to show any significant relationship to propensity to move. Conclusions drawn from the data include: 1) the effects of age and economic status appear to increase

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods among the rural females of Bagbahara block Mahasamund district in Chhattishgarh State, India

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    Mohammad Jawed Quereishi


    Full Text Available Background If many women in Chhattisgarh are not using family planning, it is not due to a lack of knowledge. Knowledge of contraception is nearly universal; 98 percent of currently married women know at least one modern family planning method. Women are most familiar with female sterilization (97 percent, followed by male sterilization (86 percent, the pill (68 percent, the condom (55 percent, and the IUD (40 percent. About two out of every five women (43 percent have knowledge of at least one traditional method. Yet only 45 percent of married women in Chhattisgarh are currently using some method of contraception, about the same as in Madhya Pradesh (44 percent but less than the national average (48 percent. Contraceptive prevalence in Chhattisgarh is considerably higher in urban areas (59 percent than in rural areas (42 percent. Objectives To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods, and factors that could affect their use, among the rural females of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Methods A total of 326 females of reproductive age group (15-49years from the rural areas of Bagbahara block of Mahasamund district in Chhattisgarh state were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of semi-structured interview schedule, which consists of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different contraceptive methods and factors affecting the use of these methods. Results Most of the respondents (79% were aware of at least one contraceptive method. The most common source of information on contraception was Health staffs (46%, followed by ASHA (Mitanin workers (42.5%, media (7.5% and relatives/friends (4%. Knowledge of non-contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 19% of the respondents, while knowledge about various adverse effects was reported by 32% of the respondents. About 62% of respondents showed favourable attitude towards family planning methods

  10. Socio-culturele structuur en innovatie : een structuur-vergelijkend onderzoek naar adoptie van family planning in de periode 1969 - 1973 door Sundanese echtparen in twee rurale gemeenschappen op West-Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norren, van B.


    This publication contains a comparative study of socio- cultural influences on the process of family planning adoption during the period 1969-1973 in two rural communities in the regency of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. One community, to be called Cianyar, is a ward in an agrarian village, while

  11. Aspects of spatial policy planning and fundamentals of protection of the environment in the context of sustainable rural development

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    Aneta Zaremba


    Full Text Available The formulated theme of the article was considered, in the context of the legal recourse to spatial planning in accordance with the countryside balanced development. In the work selected environmental aspects are discussed in the context of the legal instruments governing the spatial policy. The purpose of the article is not so much the presentation of spatial planning instruments as their verification from an environmental point of view.

  12. Geographic specificity and positionality of public input in transportation: a rural transportation planning case from Central Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg P. Griffin


    Full Text Available Current transportation planning processes often incorporate public input, but the types of engagement techniques can affect the ability of practitioners to meaningfully include local ideas. This study incorporates literature integrating communicative rationality with participatory mapping, supported by a case study focusing on two public engagement techniques. A transportation planning process in Central Texas is evaluated in terms of the geographic specificity and positionality of comments received from open-ended responses on a questionnaire and a facilitated mapping session, and reviews this input for relevance to developing a transportation plan. Although all input received from the public can be valuable in the process, location-based comments may be more actionable by transportation planners. Participants’ perceived roles likely affect their level of engagement, which planners can facilitate to maximize the quality of involvement. Planners are advised to understand the positionality of project stakeholders and professionals, designing involvement methods considering geographic specificity appropriate for each project.

  13. Access to Money and Relation to Women’s Use of Family Planning Methods among Young Married Women in Rural India (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita


    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women’s access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women’s access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women’s status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women’s social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n=855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women’s access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59%) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged: 1.5 – 1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women’s FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women’s ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women’s power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted. PMID:26971270

  14. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Program offers direct loans and/or grants for essential community facilities in rural areas, which can include ...

  15. Social franchising and vouchers to promote long-term methods of family planning in rural Pakistan: a qualitative stocktaking with stakeholders. (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ahmed, Aftab; Shaikh, Babar T


    The overall use of modern contraception in Pakistan is quite low, especially in rural areas. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of social franchising (SF) approaches in increasing access to modern contraception and improving the quality of healthcare in resource-poor areas in Asia and Africa. Drawing on best practices in SF, the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) implemented an SF model in certain rural areas of Pakistan to increase access to affordable and quality family planning (FP) services. The model was branded as Suraj (sun) and complemented with an innovative voucher scheme for intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). This paper describes the perspectives of Suraj clients, field workers mobilization (FWMs), and providers on various components of the Suraj model. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in six randomly selected intervention districts in the Sindh and Punjab provinces. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) with clients and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers and FWMs. Data were manually analyzed using constant comparison and the thematic analysis approach. Clients showed positive attitudes towards modern contraceptive methods and identified Suraj FWMs and signboards as sources of information. Almost all clients reported IUCDs as effective methods as they have manageable side effects and require fewer visits to clinics. They spoke highly of voucher schemes as these enabled them to avail free IUCD services. Clients also appreciated many components of Suraj clinics, including cleanliness, privacy, confidentiality, the sterilization of instruments, and courteous Suraj providers and FWMs. Most Suraj providers said that IUCD insertion and infection-prevention training enhanced their ability to provide IUCD services and increased their standing in local communities. They reported that the role of FWMs was crucial in mobilizing the community and increasing their FP clientele. The FWMs said that attitudes

  16. Strategic Plan for Coordinating Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Transit Development in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.


    The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, located along the border between North Carolina and Tennessee, is the most visited national park in the United States. This rugged, mountainous area presents many transportation challenges. The immense popularity of the Smokies and the fact that the primary mode of transportation within the park is the personal vehicle have resulted in congestion, damage to the environment, impacts on safety, and a degraded visitor experience. Access to some of the Smokies historical, cultural, and recreational attractions via a mass transit system could alleviate many of the transportation issues. Although quite a few organizations are proponents of a mass transit system for the Smokies, there is a lack of coordination among all parties. In addition, many local residents are not completely comfortable with the idea of transit in the Smokies. This document provides a brief overview of the current transportation needs and limitations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, identifies agencies and groups with particular interests in the Smokies, and offers insights into the benefits of using Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies in the Smokies. Recommendations for the use of rural ITS transit to solve two major transportation issues are presented.

  17. The effectiveness of birth plans in increasing use of skilled care at delivery and postnatal care in rural Tanzania: a cluster randomised trial. (United States)

    Magoma, Moke; Requejo, Jennifer; Campbell, Oona; Cousens, Simon; Merialdi, Mario; Filippi, Veronique


    To determine the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing use of skilled care at delivery and in the postnatal period among antenatal care (ANC) attendees in a rural district with low occupancy of health units for delivery but high antenatal care uptake in northern Tanzania. Cluster randomised trial in Ngorongoro district, Arusha region, involving 16 health units (8 per arm). Nine hundred and five pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation and above (404 in the intervention arm) were recruited and followed up to at least 1 month postpartum. Skilled delivery care uptake was 16.8% higher in the intervention units than in the control [95% CI 2.6-31.0; P = 0.02]. Postnatal care utilisation in the first month of delivery was higher (difference in proportions: 30.0% [95% CI 1.3-47.7; P < 0.01]) and also initiated earlier (mean duration 6.6 ± 1.7 days vs. 20.9 ± 4.4 days, P < 0.01) in the intervention than in the control arm. Women's and providers' reports of care satisfaction (received or provided) did not differ greatly between the two arms of the study (difference in proportion: 12.1% [95% CI -6.3-30.5] P = 0.17 and 6.9% [95% CI -3.2-17.1] P = 0.15, respectively). Implementation of birth plans during ANC can increase the uptake of skilled delivery and post delivery care in the study district without negatively affecting women's and providers' satisfaction with available ANC services. Birth plans should be considered along with the range of other recommended interventions as a strategy to improve the uptake of maternal health services. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Rural nurse job satisfaction. (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A


    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  19. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort. (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William


    of the communities and provide the best venue for PA promotion for both students and adult citizens, and can potentially serve as a platform for change in rural communities such as McDowell County.

  20. Can a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Men Change Their Gender Ideology? Results from the CHARM Intervention in Rural India. (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Silverman, Jay; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Velhal, Gajanan; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita


    We assess the effect of CHARM, a gender equity and family planning counseling intervention for husbands in rural India, on men's gender ideology. We used a two-armed cluster randomized control trial design and collected survey data from husbands (n=1081) at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. We used a continuous measure of support for gender equity and a dichotomous measure of equitable attitudes toward women's role in household decision-making. To assess differences on these outcomes, we used generalized linear mixed models. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, men who received the CHARM intervention were significantly more likely than men in the control group to have equitable attitudes toward household decision-making at 9-months follow-up; there was a non-significant difference between the groups for the measure of support for gender equity. For household decision-making, differences were not sustained at 18-months follow-up. Given the role of husbands' gender ideology in women's contraceptive use, the CHARM intervention represents a promising approach for challenging root causes of women's unmet need for contraception. © 2018 The Population Council, Inc.

  1. Communication Planning. (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978


    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  2. Discussing dying in the diaspora: attitudes towards advance care planning among first generation Dutch and Italian migrants in rural Australia. (United States)

    Sinclair, Craig; Smith, Jessica; Toussaint, Yann; Auret, Kirsten


    Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and interpreted using a Foucauldian perspective on knowledge and power. Migration experiences, ongoing contact with the native country and participation in migrant community support networks influenced attitudes towards ACP. Dutch participants framed ACP discussions with reference to euthanasia, and adopted a more individualist approach to medical decision-making. Italian participants often spoke of familial roles and emphasized a family-based decision making style. The importance of migrant identity has been neglected in previous discussions of cultural factors influencing ACP uptake among ethnic minority groups. The unique migration experience should be considered alongside culturally appropriate approaches to decision-making, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP among migrant groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Raj

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE counseling in family planning (FP services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2 and with their wives (session 3 in India.A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men's IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3% received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple's session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04 and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57-1.58, p = 0.05, and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01. Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03 and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004 follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02. No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in

  4. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousens Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Methods Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. Results The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Conclusions Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care

  5. High ANC coverage and low skilled attendance in a rural Tanzanian district: a case for implementing a birth plan intervention. (United States)

    Magoma, Moke; Requejo, Jennifer; Campbell, Oona M R; Cousens, Simon; Filippi, Veronique


    In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors underlying this divergent pattern of high use of antenatal services and low use of skilled delivery care. Specifically, the study examined beliefs and behaviors related to antenatal, labor, delivery and postnatal care among the Maasai and Watemi ethnic groups. The perspectives of health care providers and traditional birth attendants on childbirth and the factors determining where women deliver were also investigated. Twelve key informant interviews and fifteen focus group discussions were held with Maasai and Watemi women, traditional birth attendants, health care providers, and community members. Principles of the grounded theory approach were used to elicit and assess the various perspectives of each group of participants interviewed. The Maasai and Watemi women's preferences for a home birth and lack of planning for delivery are reinforced by the failure of health care providers to consistently communicate the importance of skilled delivery and immediate post-partum care for all women during routine antenatal visits. Husbands typically serve as gatekeepers of women's reproductive health in the two groups - including decisions about where they will deliver- yet they are rarely encouraged to attend antenatal sessions. While husbands are encouraged to participate in programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission of HIV, messages about the importance of skilled delivery care for all women are not given emphasis. Increasing coverage of skilled delivery care and achieving the full implementation of Tanzania's Focused Antenatal Care Package in Ngorongoro depends upon improved training and monitoring of

  6. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M


    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  7. Rural Airports (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  8. Rural Health Disparities (United States)

    ... in the Delta Region for specific data. U.S. – Mexico Border While life expectancy in many counties of ... documents the successes, challenges, and relevant information for planning. ... on rural/urban disparities see What sources cover health behaviors and ...

  9. Rural Youth Education Project: First Wave (United States)

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2006


    In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their future aspirations, the factors influencing these aspirations, whether their plans change as they age, and if they attain their goals and plans. The main research questions…

  10. Does the design and implementation of proven innovations for delivering basic primary health care services in rural communities fit the urban setting: the case of Ghana's Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). (United States)

    Adongo, Philip Baba; Phillips, James F; Aikins, Moses; Arhin, Doris Afua; Schmitt, Margaret; Nwameme, Adanna U; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Binka, Fred N


    Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban residents also requires a

  11. Rural transit emergency planning guidance. (United States)


    Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...

  12. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Final Report (United States)


    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications Study was conducted as part of the U.S. DOT's overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities and challenges of planning and...

  13. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.


    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  14. Using Videoconferencing To Deliver a Health Education Program to Women Health Consumers in Rural and Remote Queensland: An Early Attempt and Future Plans. (United States)

    Faulkner, Kathryn; McClelland, Linda


    A seminar on menopausal health was presented to a live audience and remote audiences at 10 sites in rural Queensland (Australia) via videoconferencing. Questionnaires completed by 128 audience members indicated positive reception of the content and delivery method. Similar replies from live and remote audience members indicated that the…

  15. Unifying Two Regional Planning Methodologies in an Analysis of the Rural and Agricultural Development Potential of the Province of Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study will investigate Yozgat’s agricultural potential for rural development. There are many emigrants from Yozgat. The elderly population here is increasing, and although the agricultural potential is strong, it is not used effectively. The method used in this study includes a combination of two approaches. The first approach includes the critical factors of rural development: physical systems, social systems, creative systems, local systems and economic systems. The second approach includes the accelerators of rural population, in addition to the opportunities and limiters. The most important problem related to the analysis of rural development is the selection of a perspective on the province in question. This study will guide future studies of provinces and regions. The study concluded that Yozgat’s social life should be as lively and strong as its agricultural production and animal husbandry potential. Moreover, Yozgat has important ecotourism destinations, and this potential should be used. The greatest necessity of Yozgat is agro-industry that will serve for the processing of agricultural and animal husbandry products.

  16. Rural maternity care. (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer


    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  17. El desarrollo rural y la transformación del patrimonio arquitectónico tradicional. El caso de la aldea indígena Plan Grande Quehueche (Izabal, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Sepúlveda, Rafael


    Full Text Available The rural development based on ecotourism is supported by the rich cultural and ecological values existing in the territory. Nevertheless, the economic development of the rural communities is used to induce a counterproductive transformation of the cultural values of these communities, basic element of this tourist modality. One of the cultural values affected by this phenomenon is the vernacular architecture. The objective of this paper is to analyze the causes and the initial process of transformation of the vernacular architecture of the small village Plan Grande Quehueche of the Department of Izabal in Guatemala. This process has affected the formal aspects of the inside house, building materials and traditional architectural typology. The paper finishes indicating the preventive measures and/or correctors that would be able to finish this phenomenon of vernacular architectural patrimony degradation.

    [es] El desarrollo rural basado en el ecoturismo se sustenta sobre los ricos valores ecológicos y culturales que existen en el territorio. Sin embargo, paradójicamente, el desarrollo económico de las comunidades rurales suele llevar aparejado una transformación contraproducente de los valores culturales de dichas comunidades, pilar básico de esta modalidad turística. Uno de los valores culturales que se ven afectados por este fenómeno es la arquitectura popular. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las causas y el proceso inicial de transformación de la arquitectura popular de la aldea Plan Grande Quehueche del Departamento de Izabal en Guatemala y que está afectando a los aspectos formales del interior de las viviendas, a los materiales de construcción y a la tipología arquitectónica tradicional. El trabajo termina indicando las medidas preventivas y/o correctoras oportunas que se podrían establecer para poner fin a este fenómeno de degradación del patrimonio arquitectónico tradicional. [fr] Le développement rural

  18. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison


    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  19. Rural African women and development. (United States)

    Kabadaki, K


    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  20. Rural Youth Education Project: Second Wave (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Demi, Mary Ann; Curry, Alisha; Snyder, Anastasia R.


    In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their educational and career aspirations and the factors influencing their aspirations, whether their plans change as they age and if they attain their goals. In its entirety,…

  1. Uso de la evaluación en un contexto de múltiples agentes: el caso del plan de desarrollo rural del país vasco (en el marco de la UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Díez López


    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la utilización de los resultados y del proceso seguido en la evaluación de un programa de desarrollo rural basada en un enfoque participativo. Para ello, se utiliza la experiencia de la Evaluación Intermedia del Plan de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible del País Vasco 2000-2006. La premisa fundamental del equipo evaluador es que la participación incrementa la utilización de la evaluación, favoreciendo su uso en el diseño y en la toma de decisiones. El artículo se estructura en dos partes fundamentales: la primera de ellas describe la adecuación del modelo de evaluación participativa a los intereses y propósitos de nuestra evaluación. La segunda parte examina el impacto que este modelo de evaluación tuvo sobre el uso de sus hallazgos y recomendaciones. Esta valoración permitió extraer lecciones que pueden ayudar a reforzar el uso de la evaluación en contextos donde participan múltiples agentes, favoreciendo así el desarrollo de la gobernanza.

  2. Rural expressway intersection safety toolbox : desktop reference. (United States)


    This document is intended to be a guide for planning-level decisions concerning safety : issues and subsequent potential improvements at rural expressway intersections. It is : NOT a design guide. It simply presents the gamut of safety treatment opti...

  3. Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in northern Ghana. (United States)

    Sakeah, Evelyn; Doctor, Henry V; McCloskey, Lois; Bernstein, Judith; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Mills, Samuel


    The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated men must be targeted with health

  4. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole


    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  5. Marketing strategy determinants in rural hospitals. (United States)

    Smith, H L; Haley, D; Piland, N F


    Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed.

  6. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials.  This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  7. Towards regional differentiation of rural development policy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Venema, G.S.


    In this study a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) in four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia) is made. Such plans are

  8. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  9. Assessing the gap between the acute trauma workload and the capacity of a single rural health district in South Africa. What are the implications for systems planning? (United States)

    Clarke, D L; Aldous, C; Thomson, S R


    This study focuses on a single rural health district in South Africa, and attempts to establish the burden of disease and to review the capacity of the district hospitals to deal with this load. Ethical approval to undertake this study was obtained from both the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal and the Department of Health. The audit was performed over a 6-month period in the four district hospitals of rural Sisonke District. There were four components to this audit. 1. Information on the hospital incidence of acute trauma in Sisonke was also sourced from the epidemiology unit of the Department of Health in Pietermaritzburg 2. Each of the district hospitals was visited and the medical manager was interviewed. The medical manager was asked to complete the World Health Organization's Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care. (SAT). 3. The operative registers were reviewed to determine the number of index cases for trauma. This information was used to determine the unmet need of acute trauma in the district. 4. Each hospital was classified according to the Trauma Society of South Africa (TSSA) guidelines for levels of trauma care. The annual incidence of trauma in the Sisonke District is estimated to be 1,590 per 100,000 population. Although there appeared to be adequate infrastructure in the district hospitals, the SAT revealed significant deficits in terms of capacity of staff to adequately treat and triage acute trauma patients. There is a significant unmet need for trauma care in Sisonke. The four district hospitals can best be classified as Level IV centers of trauma care. There is a significant burden of trauma in the Sisonke District, yet the capacity to deal with this burden is inadequate. Although the physical infrastructure is adequate, the deficits relate to human resources. The strategic choices are between enhancing the district hospitals' capacity to deal with acute trauma, or deciding to bypass them completely and

  10. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa


    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals.

  11. Women in rural development. (United States)

    Palmer, I


    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  12. Micro-regional planning: evidence-based community buy-in for health development in five of Mexico’s poorest rural districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrizón Ascencio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation was a core tenet of Primary Health Care as articulated in the 1970s. How this could be generated and maintained was less clear. This historical article describes development of protocols for evidence-based community mobilisation in five local administrative units (municipios in the Mexican state of Guerrero between 1992 and 1995. Methods A sample of five to eight sentinel sites represented each of the most impoverished municipalities of the poorest five of the state's seven regions. A 1992 baseline survey of diarrhoea and its actionable determinants provided the substrate for discussion with local planners and communities. Municipal planners used different strategies to promote participation. In one municipality, new health committees took control of water quality. In another, municipal authorities hired health promoters; a song promoted oral rehydration, and house-to-house interpersonal discussions promoted chlorination. In the poorest and most mountainous municipality, radio casera (home-made radio soap operas used local "stars". In the largest and most disparate municipality, a child-to-family scheme relied on primary and secondary school teachers. The research team assessed outcomes at intervals and used the results to reinforce local planning and action. Results Diarrhoea rates declined in all five municipalities, and there were several positive intermediate outcomes from the communication strategies – changing knowledge, household practices and uptake of services. There was a strong link between specific contents of the communication package and the changing knowledge or practices. Conclusions Apart from these evidence-based interventions, other factors probably contributed to the decline of childhood diarrhoea. But, by monitoring implementation of planning decisions and the impact this has at community level, micro-regional planning can stimulate and reinforce actions likely to improve the

  13. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems. (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J


    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  14. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique


    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A


    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  15. Medicaid and Rural Health (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  16. Emerging potential for radical e-enabled improvements in rural collaboration and accessibility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naude, AH


    Full Text Available volumes, as well as problems associated with limited local human capacities and uncoordinated or misdirected rural development planning; and enhanced accessibility - addressing the typical problems of rural isolation such as inadequated or costly digital...

  17. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design. (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah


    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Issues Facing the Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism and the Path Selection


    ZHANG, Jianhong


    There is a long way to go for sustainable development of rural tourism. It is necessary to strengthen the planning for training rural tourism talents, and establish sustainable reserve tourism service personnel; innovate upon the promotion mode of rural tourism and open the tourist source market; strengthen the building of characteristic brand of rural tourism, and create sustainable development core of tourism; give play to the role of government in guiding rural tourism, strengthen the opti...

  19. Toward an assessment of the social role of rural midwives and its implication for the family planning program: an Iranian case study. (United States)

    Beeman, W O; Bhattacharyya, A K


    An axiom of family planning programming is the importance of culturally-appropriate communicators and motivators. Traditional midwives seem ideal for this task but few studies have been done to verify this assumption by analyzing the midwife's social role as perceived by the community. 325 married women and 81 unmarried girls from a "model village" near Shiraz were interviewed by female undergraduates. 82.5% of the women are of childbearing age; 66% married before 14 years; 33% use contraception, mostly the pill, but most want large families because they expect high child mortality rates. Most of the older women are able to assist in childbirth but none, except the village's one recognized midwife, who is considered to have divine backing, will do so except in an emergency. The midwife's activities cause her to be held in low esteem by the community because 1) she has contact with a woman's sexual parts and this fact is public; 2) she has contact with vaginal excretia which are, in Islam, polluting; and 3) she is paid for her services, which labels her as a woman "without shame". The midwife is, however, widely used since women and their husbands fear the trip to the hospital and treatment by a male doctor much more than a midwife-supervised birth. The midwife in the study village had been there only 2 years and feels that she is not fully trusted. She is not consulted on birth control at all, because women expect the pill to be dispensed by doctors and consider other methods as a matter strictly between husband and wife. The midwife's role seems to complement that of the government health authorities rather than compete. The midwife's low status and circumscribed sphere of activity, the weak respect in which her advice is held and the pattern of having only 1 recognized midwife in a village at a time make the midwife a poor agent for family planning services. Her effectiveness as an agent of social change could be improved by training her in hygienic practices of

  20. The Effect of Integrating Family Planning with a Maternal and Newborn Health Program on Postpartum Contraceptive Use and Optimal Birth Spacing in Rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ahmed, Salahuddin; McKaig, Catharine; Begum, Nazma; Mungia, Jaime; Norton, Maureen; Baqui, Abdullah H


    Meeting postpartum contraceptive need remains a major challenge in developing countries, where the majority of women deliver at home. Using a quasi-experimental trial design, we examine the effect of integrating family planning (FP) with a community-based maternal and newborn health (MNH) program on improving postpartum contraceptive use and reducing short birth intervals MNH activities in the intervention arm, but provided only MNH services in the control arm. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in the intervention arm was 15 percent higher than in the control arm at 12 months, and the difference in CPRs remained statistically significant throughout the 24 months of observation. The short birth interval of less than 24 months was significantly lower in the intervention arm. The study demonstrates that it is feasible and effective to integrate FP services into a community-based MNH care program for improving postpartum contraceptive use and lengthening birth intervals. © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.

  1. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.Assessment......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  2. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia. (United States)

    Bariabagar, H


    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  3. Interest in rural clinical school is not enough: Participation is necessary to predict an ultimate rural practice location. (United States)

    Playford, Denese; Puddey, Ian B


    Rural exposure during medical school is associated with increased rural work after graduation. How much of the increase in rural workforce by these graduates is due to pre-existing interest and plans to work rurally and how much is related to the extended clinical placement is not known. This cohort study compared the employment location of medical graduates who professed no rural interest as undergraduates (negative control), with those who applied but did not participate in Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) (positive control), and those who applied and participated in RCSWA (participants). All 1026 University of Western Australia students who had an opportunity to apply for a year-long rotation in RCSWA from 2004 to 2010, and who had subsequently graduated by the end of 2011, were included. Graduates' principal workplace location (AHPRA, Feb 2014). The three groups differed significantly in their graduate work locations (χ 2 = 39.2, P rural background (OR 2.99 (95% CI 1.85, 4.85), P Rural Bonded Scholarship (OR 3.36 (95% CI 1.68, 6.73, P = 0.001) and actually participating in the RCSWA remained significantly related to rural work (OR 3.10 (95% CI 1.95, 4.93), P rural work, RCSWA graduates were three times more likely to work rurally than either control group. These data suggest that RCSWA has a significant independent effect on rural workforce. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  4. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa


    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  5. Rural electrification in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Otto


    This paper discusses the plan of the rural electrification in Guatemala considering the factors that affect costs of installation of power systems such as topography, energy consumption and homes density. Also advantages and limitations of hydro power, solar energy and wind energy are discussed with analyses of costs of production of wind energy. The geothermal energy in Guatemala is also described with analyses of feasibility

  6. Planning community-based intervention for speech for children with cleft lip and palate from rural South India: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniyan Balasubramaniyan


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A community-based rehabilitation programme, Sri Ramachandra University-Transforming Faces project, was initiated to provide comprehensive management of communication disorders in individuals with CLP in two districts in Tamil Nadu, India. This community-based programme aims to integrate hospital-based services with the community-based initiatives and to enable long-term care. The programme was initiated in Thiruvannamalai (2005 district and extended to Cuddalore (2011. The aim of this study was to identify needs related to speech among children with CLP, enroled in the above community-based programme in two districts in Tamil Nadu, India. Design: This was a cross–sectional study. Participants and Setting: Ten camps were conducted specifically for speech assessments in two districts over a 12-month period. Two hundred and seventeen individuals (116 males and 101 females> 3 years of age reported to the camps. Methods: Investigator (SLP collected data using the speech protocol of the cleft and craniofacial centre. Descriptive analysis and profiling of speech samples were carried out and reported using universal protocol for reporting speech outcomes. Fleiss' Kappa test was used to estimate inter-rater reliability. Results: In this study, inter-rater reliability between three evaluators revealed good agreement for the parameters: resonance, articulatory errors and voice disorder. About 83.8% (n = 151/180 of the participants demonstrated errors in articulation and 69% (n = 124/180 exhibited abnormal resonance. Velopharyngeal port functioning assessment was completed for 55/124 participants. Conclusion: This study allows us to capture a “snapshot” of children with CLP, living in a specific geographical location, and assist in planning intervention programmes.

  7. What Is Rural? Revised (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016


    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  8. Social Health Insurance in Nigeria: Policy Implications in A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.

  9. Post-Secondary Education and Rural-Urban Migration (United States)

    Synge, J.


    This study examined education and career plans of Scottish rural youth who entered post-secondary education in order to determine the extent to which the educational system offers rural youth not only specific training but only entry to the urban labour market. (Author/RK)

  10. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Davison, A.; Logan-Sinclair, P.; Sturt University, Dubbo, NSW; Greenough, R.


    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa


    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  12. Rural Health in the People's Republic of China; Report of a Visit by the Rural Health Systems Delegation, June 1978. (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A 28-day visit to the People's Republic of China during June and July 1978 by the Rural Health Systems Delegation from the United States, sponsored by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China, resulted in an exchange of information about rural health policy and planning. Specific areas of emphasis included:…

  13. Remoteness and maternal and child health service utilization in rural Liberia: A population–based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Kenny


    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand distance from health facilities as a barrier to maternal and child health service uptake within a rural Liberian population. Better understanding the relationship between distance from health facilities and rural health care utilization is important for post–Ebola health systems reconstruction and for general rural health system planning in sub–Saharan Africa.

  14. Rural influentials' perceptions of tourism and its potential for economic development: a qualitative study (United States)

    Steven W. Burr


    Rural residents' perceptions of tourism and its associated impacts are likely to be important in planning, development, marketing, and operation of existing and future tourism projects. This study examines rural influentials' perceptions of tourism as a tool for economic revitalization in Pennsylvania's rural counties, its present impact, and its...

  15. 76 FR 30244 - Veterans' Rural Health Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... on health care issues affecting enrolled Veterans residing in rural areas. The Committee examines... Rural Health Strategic Plan discussion and work session and the other is the Committee's annual report... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Veterans' Rural Health Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting The...

  16. Transformations of Rural Society between 1700–1850

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velková, Alice


    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 109-158 ISSN 1210-8499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : social stratification * property transfers * rural family * the 18th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. Smart Growth Self-Assessment for Rural Communities (United States)

    Tool to help small towns and rural communities assess their existing policies, plans, codes, and zoning regulations to determine how well they work to create healthy, environmentally resilient, and economically robust places.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros


    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  19. Department of Rural and Urban Planning, University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 14, 2016 ... Visualization of tsetse eradication operations that have been going on since early 20 th century is .... to prevent tsetse flies spreading into. Zimbabwe by ... districts operations. Defensive measures were put in place to safeguard the reclaimed areas and protect the cattle near the infested areas. Targets and ...

  20. Rural Health Concerns (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  1. Medicare and Rural Health (United States)

    ... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...

  2. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase


    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  3. Girl child in rural India. (United States)

    Devendra, K


    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  4. Seasonality of Rural Finance


    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed


    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  5. Local commitment for sustainable rural landscape development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, K.


    In Dutch rural planning, constraints concerning the accessibility and other physical characteristics of an area are no longer a major problem. More important is the policy-making process at higher levels of society and processes of economic and social restructuring, over which local people do not

  6. Amenity migration - driving force for rural development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Michael; Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan


    Roč. 4, 3-4 (2007), s. 57-69 ISSN 1841-0375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA403/07/0714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Amenity migration * tourism * rural development Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  7. Evaluating the Peruvian Rural Communication Services Project. (United States)

    Mayo, John


    Reviews the Peruvian Rural Communication Services (PRCS) Project and outlines selected findings. Topics discussed include a brief description of Peru's economic and social conditions; satellite communication systems; audio teleconferencing; telephone service; planning and administration; research design features; data collection; and project…

  8. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After independence rural development, hitherto an ensemble of discrete interventions, became part of the overall national development plan. ... This paper attempts to fill this gap, trying to show that the familiar parameters of Lesotho's economy - dependency, dominance of foreign aid, poverty and subsistence production ...

  9. Defining the medical imaging requirements for a rural health center

    CERN Document Server


    This book establishes the criteria for the type of medical imaging services that should be made available to rural health centers, providing professional rural hospital managers with information that makes their work more effective and efficient. It also offers valuable insights into government, non-governmental and religious organizations involved in the planning, establishment and operation of medical facilities in rural areas. Rural health centers are established to prevent patients from being forced to travel to distant urban medical facilities. To manage patients properly, rural health centers should be part of regional and more complete systems of medical health care installations in the country on the basis of a referral and counter-referral program, and thus, they should have the infrastructure needed to transport patients to urban hospitals when they need more complex health care. The coordination of all the activities is only possible if rural health centers are led by strong and dedicated managers....

  10. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina


    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  11. Desarrollo rural vs. desarrollo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Moreno, M.ª Luisa


    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the discussion about the concepts of rural development and local development starting from the different lines that tend in their making up: the Geographic epistemology, the politics based on them and the material processes of development. The issues of this discussion are: the difficulty of reflect this development processes in quantitative evidences (indicators due to their rather qualitative character; the ambiguous definition of their scale, and related to that, their condition spread or concentrated; their suitability to make compatible objectives of both territorial and social cohesion; the limitations to be extrapolated the concept of stakeholders, own of local development, to rural development; the lack of coordination between economic planning and urban planning to the detriment of a true sustainability and, in the opposite, the threats that are to the rural space the application of sustainability politics designed from the urban context.

    El objeto de este artículo es la discusión de los conceptos de desarrollo rural y local a partir de las distintas líneas que convergen en su definición: las elaboraciones epistemológicas de la Geografía, los instrumentos de planificación en ellos basados y los procesos reales. Los términos de esta discusión son los siguientes: La dificultad de expresar en indicadores los resultados de estos procesos de desarrollo, dado su carácter más cualitativo que cuantitativo; la ambigua definición de su escala, y, en relación con ello, su carácter difuso o concentrado; su idoneidad para compatibilizar objetivos de cohesión social y territorial; las limitaciones de la extrapolación al desarrollo rural del concepto de «actores» propio del desarrollo local; la carencia de coordinación entre planificación económica y urbana en detrimento de una sostenibilidad real y, a la inversa, las amenazas para el espacio rural derivadas de la aplicación de políticas de

  12. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IGNAT


    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  13. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff


    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  14. 76 FR 47055 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP) (United States)


    ... (ERP) AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service... 12, 2004, at 69 FR 60541 requiring all borrowers to maintain an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that... major natural or manmade disaster or other causes. This ERP requirement was not entirely new to the...

  15. Linking human and natural systems in the planning process (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer


    Planning links human and natural systems in the urban-rural interface by engaging people in consideration of the future of natural resources. We review evolving ideas about what planning entails, who it involves, and what its outcomes should be. Sense of place, collaboration, emergent planning, and other new developments in planning are discussed. Smaller plans,...

  16. Spatiotemporal Changes in Rural Settlement Land and Rural Population in the Middle Basin of the Heihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiang Shi


    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the spatiotemporal expansion of rural settlement land and the variation of rural population is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. Based on the integration of Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images and demographic data, using mathematical models, landscape indexes, and a decoupling model, the spatiotemporal changes of the rural settlement land area and its decoupling relationship with the rural registered population were analyzed for the middle basin of the Heihe River in China. During the period 1986–2014, the following changes occurred: (1 The study area experienced increases of 124.94%, 55.16%, and 1.56% in rural settlement land area, number of patches, and rural registered population, respectively; (2 Edge-expansion, dispersion, and urban encroachment were the dominant patterns of dynamic changes in the studied rural settlement land. Among these, edge-expansion was the most prevalent development pattern; it contributed more than half of the total increase in the number of patches and the total area growth; (3 The annual growth rate of the rural registered population increased from 0.7% in 1986–2002 to −0.5% in 2002–2014. By that time the rural settlement land area had undergone a gentle increase from 3.4% to 3.6%. Generally, the rural registered population and rural settlement land has experienced a shift from weakly decoupled in 1986–2009 to strongly decoupled in 2009–2014; (4 From 1986 to 2014, rural urbanization and modernization were the main causes that led to the decline in the rural registered population; however, economic growth promoted the expansion of rural settlement land during this same period. We believe that with the rapid development of urbanization, the decoupling relationship between the rural settlement land area and the reduction in the rural registered population cannot be completely reversed in the short term. It is recommended that

  17. 7 CFR 632.21 - Reclamation plan. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reclamation plan. 632.21 Section 632.21 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Participation § 632.21 Reclamation plan. (a) Responsibility. Land users are responsible for developing a reclamation plan that will serve as a basis for a...

  18. Oral Health in Rural Communities (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  19. Rural and Urban Youth Programs. (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  20. Medical student attitudes before and after participation in rural health fairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Landy


    Full Text Available Background: Despite an increased need, residents of rural communities have decreased access to healthcare and oftenpresentuniquehealthcare challenges associated with their rurality. Ensuring medical students receive adequate exposure to these issues is complicated by the urban location of most medical schools. Health fairs (fairs conducted in rural communities can provide students exposure to ruralhealth;however, it is unknown how participation affects attitudes regarding these issues. Materials and Methods: During the 2010-2011 academic year, first-year medical students were surveyed before and after participating in a rural fair regarding the importance of rural health issues, the need for exposure to rural healthcare, their plans to practice in a rural community,andthe educational impact of fairs. Results : Of the 121participating students, 77% and 61% completed pre- and post-fair surveys, respectively. Few had lived in a rural area or planned to practice primary care. Participants strongly agreed that the delivery of healthcare in rural areas was important, and that all physicians should receive rural health training (4.8 and 3.7 out of 5, respectively despite less than halfplanning to practice in a rural community.After participating in a rural fair, student attitudes were unchanged, although 87% of participants strongly agreed their involvement had contributed to improving patient health and 70% that the fairs provided rural medicine experience. Conclusions : Among urban medical school students with varied interests in primary care, there was strong interest in volunteering at rural fairs and appreciation for the importance of rural health. Fairs provided interested students with rural medicine experience that reinforced student attitudes regarding rural health. Further, students felt their participation improved patient health.

  1. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  2. 7 CFR 1948.79 - Application procedure for planning grants. (United States)


    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... growth management and/or housing plans; (3) A statement declaring that the planning neither duplicates... preapplication and accompanying documents; (2) Consult with the Governor of the appropriate State concerning the...

  3. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  4. Vejnettet og det urban-rurale landskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas


    and form and space and time. With this description it becomes clear that the development of modern road systems, which can be linked to the realisation of the functional divided city, has created a modern city which form and structure compromises the simple dichotomies city-country and centreperiphery...... of the traditional conception of the city. In this perspective the modern city appears more like an urban-rural landscape where urban and rural elements constitutes a complex patchwork. The character of this urban-rural landscape challenges the division among the traditional disciplines of urban and landscape......The western culture of planning has a tradition of considering infrastructure predominantly from technical, technocratic or historical perspectives that removes the focus away from infrastructure’s role in the mediating between culture and nature and in the production of the “city” (see Graham...

  5. Surgery in remote and rural Scotland. (United States)

    Sim, Andrew J W; Grant, Fiona; Ingram, Annie K


    Over the past 15 years, rural surgery in Scotland has emerged from the backwaters of the Scottish Health service to a recognized and important part of overall health care provision in Scotland. No longer is the rural surgeon regarded by his city colleague as the eccentric poor relation of the urban specialist. The rural surgeon is now more likely to have the skills and experience necessary for the work that must be done. Training pathways are defined to ensure succession planning. The support of the Scottish Government, Health Boards, and the Royal Colleges has been essential; their continued involvement will ensure safe surgery for those who dwell in the more isolated areas of Scotland.

  6. The Devil is in the Details:Rural-Sensitive Best Practices for Accountability Under No Child Left Behind (United States)

    Jimerson, Lorna


    The report has three sections. The first section is a chart that examines each of the 12 policy areas and describes its significance for rural schools. For each area, the most "rural-sensitive" position has been identified. The second section examines how each of these 12 policy areas is treated in the NCLB plan for 15 of the most "rural" states.…

  7. Biotelemetry: could technological developments assist healthcare in rural India. (United States)

    Singh, Kanika


    In India 60-70% of the population live in rural villages. The rural population suffers from a burden of disease and disorders due to the non-availability of appropriate healthcare personnel and facilities. Since 1950, the Indian Government has responded with a series of five-year plans but has been unable to address the lack of healthcare professionals prepared to work in isolated and rural areas. The use of biotelemetry is proposed as a solution, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The development of biotelemetry in India will improve healthcare for the rural and remote population and ease the effects of the shortage of rural healthcare professionals. However, a number of questions remain and require further consideration.

  8. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd


    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  9. Tourism in rural Alaska (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski


    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  10. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.


    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  11. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  12. Networking the rural community. (United States)

    Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I


    A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.

  13. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration. (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  14. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  15. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut


    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA


    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  17. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  18. The Practice of Midwifery in Rural US Hospitals. (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Henning-Smith, Carrie; Hung, Peiyin


    Workforce shortages limit access to care for pregnant women in rural and remote areas. The goal of this analysis was to describe the role of certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) in providing maternity care in rural US hospitals and to examine state-level variation in rural CNM practice. We identified 306 rural hospitals with at least 10 births in 2010 using discharge data from the Statewide Inpatient Databases for 9 US states. We conducted a telephone survey of hospital maternity unit managers (N = 244) from November 2013 to March 2014 to understand their maternity care workforce and practice models. We describe the presence of CNMs attending births by hospital and state characteristics. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined whether CNMs attend births, adjusting for hospital characteristics, practice regulations, and state. We also analyzed the content of open-ended responses about staffing plans, challenges, and opportunities that unit managers identified, with a focus on midwifery practice. CNMs attend births at one-third of rural maternity hospitals in 9 US states. Significant variability across states appears to be partially related to autonomous practice regulations: states allowing autonomous midwifery practice have a greater proportion of rural hospitals with midwives attending births (34% vs 28% without autonomous midwifery practice). In rural maternity hospitals, CNMs practice alongside obstetricians in 86%, and with family physicians in 44%, of hospitals. Fourteen percent of all respondents planned recruitment to increase the number of midwives at their hospital, although many, especially in smaller hospitals, noted challenges in doing so. CNMs play a crucial role in the maternity care workforce in rural US hospitals. The participation of CNMs in birth attendance varies by hospital birth volume and across state settings. Interprofessional practice is common for CNMs attending births in rural hospitals, and administrators hope to increase the

  19. Qualitative exploration of the career aspirations of rural origin health science students in South Africa. (United States)

    Diab, Paula N; Flack, Penny S; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Reid, Stephen J Y


    There is evidence in the literature that rural background significantly encourages eventual rural practice. Given the shortage of healthcare providers in rural areas, we need to explore ways of ensuring throughput and success of rural-origin students in health sciences. It is therefore important to understand who these students are, what motivates them and the factors involved in the formation of their career choices. The aim of this study is to understand the aspirations of undergraduate health science students of rural origin with regard to their future career plans. The objectives of the study include to explore and identify the key issues facing rural-origin students with regard to their future career plans. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 health science students from two South African universities. Transcriptions were analyzed with the aid of Nvivo v8 ( The findings suggest health science students of rural origin studying at universities in the South African context face specific challenges related to the nature of the contrast between rural and urban life, in addition to the more generic adaptations that confront all students on entering tertiary education. In order to support rural students in their studies, academic, financial, emotional and social stressors need to be addressed. Universities should strengthen existing support structures as well as aid the development of further support that may be required.Key words: career plan, health science, rural background, South Africa.

  20. Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Newman


    Full Text Available Civic expansion and land use migrations to urban peripheries can accelerate the conversion of agricultural land uses. Widespread trepidation concerning urban sprawl has led to innovative frameworks for conserving or enhancing farmland. New Ruralism is one such framework, linking farmland preservation with developmental plans to reduce farmland conversion and low density development. Although the concept is still evolving, recent support for New Ruralism has grown. One of the most important factors in creating a New Ruralism-based development is coherent policy for permanent agricultural preserves. These preserves require the simultaneous, careful planning of land preservation balanced with the location of future development. This paper discusses the current condition of farmland loss and reviews issues and challenges associated with farmland preservation with existing New Ruralism developments. The goal is to synthesize this information into recommendations for increasing farmland preservation opportunities in New Ruralism-based developments. A more comprehensive definition for New Ruralism is presented, accompanied by several priorities for maximizing the economic, environmental, and cultural viability of New Ruralism-based farmland preserves.

  1. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana. (United States)

    Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaetse, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa


    Botswana's medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. This study explored the impact of rural training on students' attitudes towards rural practice. The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The thirty-six participants' age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirtythree desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas.Keyords: rural health, student perceptions.

  2. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.


    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  3. Performing rurality. But who?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymitrow Mirek


    Full Text Available Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.

  4. Culture and rural health. (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Marley, Julia V; Reid, John; Bracksley, Stacey; Johnson, Nicole


    This paper considers the role of culture in rural health, suggesting that the concept and its impacts are insufficiently understood and studied. It reviews some of the ways that culture has been considered in (rural) health, and states that culture is either used ambiguously and broadly - for example, suggesting that there is a rural culture, or narrowly - indeed perhaps interchangeably with ethnicity, for example Aboriginal culture as a unity. The paper notes that, although culture is a dynamic social concept, it has been adopted into a biomedical research paradigm as though it is fixed. Culture is often treated as though it is something that can be addressed simplistically, for example, through cultural sensitivity education. Authors suggest that culture is an unaddressed 'elephant in the room' in rural health, and that exploring cultural differences and beliefs and facing up to cultural differences are vital in understanding and addressing rural health and health system challenges. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma (United States)

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul


    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  6. The influence of loan repayment on rural healthcare provider recruitment and retention in Colorado. (United States)

    Renner, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Wilroy, Lou Ann; Ginde, Adit A


    There is an ongoing shortage of rural healthcare providers relative to urban healthcare providers worldwide. Many strategies have been implemented to increase the distribution of rural healthcare providers, and financial incentives such as loan repayment programs have become popular means to both recruit and retain healthcare providers in rural communities. Studies detailing the effects of such programs on rural provider recruitment and retention are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of loan repayment and other factors on the recruitment and retention of healthcare providers in rural Colorado, USA, and to compare the motivations and attitudes of these rural providers with their urban counterparts. A survey was sent to 122 healthcare providers who had participated in one of three loan repayment programs in Colorado between the years of 1992 and 2007: the Colorado Health Professional Loan Repayment Program; the Colorado Rural Outreach Program; and the Dental Loan Repayment Program of Colorado. Differentiation between rural and urban communities was accomplished by using the Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes developed by the University of Washington's Rural Health Research Center and Economic Research Service. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA from StataCorp. Of the 93 respondents included in the study, 57 worked in rural communities and 36 worked in urban communities during their programs. Of the rural participants, 74% were already working in or intending to work in an eligible community when they were made aware of the loan repayment program. Of those planning to work in a rural community regardless of any loan repayment option, 42% reported that the loan repayment program had an important influence on the specific community in which they chose to practice. Of the rural participants already working in a rural community, 38% reported loan repayment as being an important factor in their retention. The most important factors

  7. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities


    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina


    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  8. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN


    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  9. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School. (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka


    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  10. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren


    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  11. Rural Health Information Hub (United States)

    ... U.S. (2011-2015): Individual-level & Placed-based Disparities Source: Southwest Rural Health Research Center Online Library » Resource and Referral Service Need help finding information? RHIhub can provide free assistance customized to your ...

  12. Development in Rural Uganda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /or single among .... labour supply, consumer demand, pcr capita income, productivity, etc. ..... The respondents were asked to state the reasons for their status in the social ..... purehase grains from the market for consumption, rural dwellers are.

  13. Rural Wellness and Prevention (United States)

    ... they are a captive audience. To create healthier work environments, governors in recent years have banned smoking in ... alerts also available FEATURED MODEL Faith, Activity, and Nutrition view details RELATED TOPICS Chronic Disease in Rural ...

  14. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  15. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  16. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements (United States)

    Leist, Jay


    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  18. Health information technology workforce needs of rural primary care practices. (United States)

    Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J


    This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)



    Elena, SIMA


    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  1. producto turismo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca García Henche


    Full Text Available El turismo rural lleva un largo periodo establecido en Europa, pero en los últimos años crece su importancia ya que supone un nuevo producto turístico y una fuente de ingresos para la economía rural. Actualmente, los turistas buscan experiencias distintas al tradicional turismo de sol y playa, prefieren un turismo más individualizado y flexible, buscan nuevas formas de alojamiento y muestran un interés creciente por el contacto con la naturaleza. La oferta turística rural ha de adaptarse a las exigencias de esta demanda, lo que implica más flexibilidad y alojamientos y pueblos adaptados a las necesidades emergentes. Se ha de definir el turismo rural como una alternativa de adaptación a los cambios en las necesidades de los consumidores. El presente documento muestra los componentes del turismo rural. Los recursos turísticos son la materia prima, a la que se ha de añadir los servicios. Estos servicios pueden ser básicos o complementarios. Además de los servicios hay que añadir las actividades complementarias e infraestructuras No hay duda de que el turismo rural puede beneficiarse de la aplicación del marketing. El marketing implica entender qué es lo que los consumidores desean y crear productos para satisfacer sus necesidades, además de comercializar el producto correctamente.

  2. Planning and Organizing Programmes in Adult Education. (United States)

    Durston, Berry H., Ed.

    These papers cover planning, organization, and administration of programs conducted by the Department of University Extension of the University of New England (New South Wales); they are concerned primarily with rural extension. The first paper reviews elements of program planning and program implementation in general. The second evaluates an…

  3. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syfujjaman Tarafder


    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  4. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location

  5. Rural women caregivers in Canada. (United States)

    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly


    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to

  6. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal... (United States)


    ... Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY: Office of the... Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning and Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW... Rural Housing and Economic Development program was authorized by the Department of Veterans Affairs...

  7. Back to the future; new functions for rural areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van J.; Klundert, van de A.F.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.


    As part of the project Rural Areas and Europe of the Netherlands Spatial Planning Department a study was carried out in which integrated rural development was one of the answers to the economic and environmental problems of agriculture. The study focused on four possible new functions: water

  8. Towards a sustainable knowledge management and development perspective approach: The sustainable rural community development portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J


    Full Text Available development. The philosophy and thinking behind the rural community planning portal is that it will act as a seed for the generation of an inclusive and dynamic rural development agenda that is sensitive and relevant to contemporary issues and challenges...

  9. Do Mothers in Rural China Practice Gender Equality in Educational Aspirations for Their Children? (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily


    In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…

  10. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia. (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H


    restraining effect on average fertility. Both traditional and modern sector jobs have a negative association with fertility. Those jobs which take a woman away from the home were the most forceful in their association with lower fertility. Also noticed was what might be an overriding direct effect of the government's family planning program on the compatibility of agricultural occupations with childbearing, through its promotion of birth control. When stratified, the data yield variations in urban and rural fertility behavior which speak of change occurring in the traditional rural society.

  11. Pedagogy for rural health. (United States)

    Reid, Stephen J


    As the body of literature on rural health has grown, the need to develop a unifying theoretical framework has become more apparent. There are many different ways of seeing the same phenomenon, depending on the assumptions we make and the perspective we choose. A conceptual and theoretical basis for the education of health professionals in rural health has not yet been described. This paper examines a number of theoretical frameworks that have been used in the rural health discourse and aims to identify relevant theory that originates from an educational paradigm. The experience of students in rural health is described phenomenologically in terms of two complementary perspectives, using a geographic basis on the one hand, and a developmental viewpoint on the other. The educational features and implications of these perspectives are drawn out. The concept of a 'pedagogy of place' recognizes the importance of the context of learning and allows the uniqueness of a local community to integrate learning at all levels. The theory of critical pedagogy is also found relevant to education for rural health, which would ideally produce 'transformative' graduates who understand the privilege of their position, and who are capable of and committed to engaging in the struggles for equity and justice, both within their practices as well as in the wider society. It is proposed that a 'critical pedagogy of place,' which gives due acknowledgement to local peculiarities and strengths, while situating this within a wider framework of the political, social and economic disparities that impact on the health of rural people, is an appropriate theoretical basis for a distinct rural pedagogy in the health sciences.

  12. Overview of rural building energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bao-jie; Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; Mou, Ben; Zhou, Yanan


    Over the past three decades, people's living standard in China has been greatly improved, accompanied by the rapid increasing building energy consumption. Rural building energy consumption has become one of the most important parts of the total energy consumption in China, which deserves to be paid much attention. It is of vital importance to promote building energy efficiency for the New Socialist Countryside and energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper provides an overview of building energy consumption in the countryside, which figures out the situation and challenges in energy-saving work. The government has worked for years on rural building code system aimed at narrowing the energy gap between urban areas, but it is in the beginning phase. This paper has analyzed the only special issues about rural building energy efficiency and the mandatory standards for urban buildings, which can facilitate the development of rural building energy efficiency. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations regarding the improvement of rural building energy efficiency are given. - Highlights: • Situation of rural energy consumption in China. • Challenges in rural building energy-saving work. • Design standard, special plan and some pilot projects are analyzed. • Effects of existing energy policies for urban buildings. • Some recommendations are given

  13. Analytic Hierarchy Process, Tourism Attractions, Rural Tourism, East Azarbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh kazemiyeh


    Full Text Available Rural non-farm economy is seriously considered for using the full capacity of rural economy in developing countries. Rural tourism is a part of the tourism industry; it can play an important role in rural development, diversification of the national economy and national development through the potential identification. The main purpose of this study was investigation and evaluation of rural tourism attractions. In order to prevent from generalization as well as to achieve exact and applicable results, villages with tourist attractions in East Azarbaijan has been chosen as the area of study. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to prioritize the rural areas. This technique is based on a comparison of test and reviews the various options to managers and planners. The population of the study was experts who have knowledge and experience in the field of rural tourism. The findings of this study indicated that studied villages are three levels of development priorities, the levels can be considered as a basis for planning and decision-making of managers in East Azarbaijan Province.

  14. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  15. The old age health security in rural China: where to go? (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen


    The huge number of rural elders and the deepening health problems (e.g. growing threats of infectious diseases and chronic diseases etc.) place enormous pressure on old age health security in rural China. This study aims to provide information for policy-makers to develop effective measures for promoting rural elders' health care service access by examining the current developments and challenges confronted by the old age health security in rural China. Search resources are electronic databases, web pages of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China on the internet, China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook, China Civil Affairs' Statistical Yearbook and China Health Statistics Yearbooks etc. Articles were identified from Elsevier, Wiley, EBSCO, EMBASE, PubMed, SCI Expanded, ProQuest, and National Knowledge Infrastructure of China (CNKI) which is the most informative database in Chinese. Search terms were "rural", "China", "health security", "cooperative medical scheme", "social medical assistance", "medical insurance" or "community based medical insurance", "old", or "elder", "elderly", or "aged", "aging". Google scholar was searched with the same combination of keywords. The results showed that old age health security in rural China had expanded to all rural elders and substantially improved health care service utilization among rural elders. Increasing chronic disease prevalence rates, pressing public health issues, inefficient rural health care service provision system and lack of sufficient financing challenged the old age health security in rural China. Increasing funds from the central and regional governments for old age health security in rural China will contribute to reducing urban-rural disparities in provision of old age health security and increasing health equity among rural elders between different regions. Meanwhile, initiating provider payment reform may contribute to

  16. Case studies in rural recycling. Public service report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, S.D.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.


    Due to state planning requirements and federal landfill regulations, solid waste management in rural areas (particularly recycling) has received much attention in recent years. The growth of recycling during the 1980s occurred mainly in urban and suburban areas. Therefore, rural recycling is still a relatively new enterprise. This report presents several rural recycling case studies from Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada to provide examples of successes and problems. This report also discusses the current issues of cooperative marketing of recyclables and municipal solid waste flow control. With respect to recycling, a rural region does not have ready access to markets for collected materials and has difficulty in generating easily marketable quantities of recyclables. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.)

  17. Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in South-West Nigeria. ... of the facilities enjoyed community participation in planning and management. There ... None of the facilities had a functional 2-way referral system in place.

  18. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix B, qualitative interviews and focus groups (United States)


    This report documents results from surveys which were conducted for qualitatively assessing the use of traveler information services in rural areas. The focus of the surveys was to identify those factors which influence travel planning and thus impro...

  19. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  20. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas (United States)

    ... challenges for rural communities: Behavioral health and detoxification (detox) services are not as readily available in rural ... the supplemental services necessary for positive outcomes. Detoxification (detox) services, for example, provide the initial treatment for ...

  1. Rural energetic troubles in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, A


    The present work presents a general situation of Ecuador, its demand of Energy, programs of electrification rural, energy requirements in the hydroelectric rural sector, central sector built in Ecuador and the priorities of energy use

  2. The WAMI Rural Hospital Project. Part 3: Building health care leadership in rural communities. (United States)

    Elder, W G; Amundson, B A


    The WAMI Rural Hospital Project (RHP) intervention combined aspects of community development, strategic planning and organizational development to address the leadership issues in six Northwest rural hospitals. Hospitals and physicians, other community health care providers and local townspeople were involved in this intervention, which was accomplished in three phases. In the first phase, extensive information about organizational effectiveness was collected at each site. Phase two consisted of 30 hours of education for the physician, board, and hospital administrator community representatives covering management, hospital board governance, and scope of service planning. In the third phase, each community worked with a facilitator to complete a strategic plan and to resolve conflicts addressed in the management analyses. The results of the evaluation demonstrated that the greatest change noted among RHP hospitals was improvement in the effectiveness of their governing boards. All boards adopted some or all of the project's model governance plan and had successfully completed considerable portions of their strategic plans by 1989. Teamwork among the management triad (hospital, board, and medical staff) was also substantially improved. Other improvements included the development of marketing plans for the three hospitals that did not initially have them and more effective use of outside consultants. The project had less impact on improving the functioning of the medical chief of staff, although this was not a primary target of the intervention. There was also relatively less community interest in joining regional health care associations. The authors conclude that an intervention program tailored to address specific community needs and clearly identified leadership deficiencies can have a positive effect on rural health care systems.

  3. Bioenergy: a sustainable resource for rural population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlawat, J.K.


    Bio energy is a renewable resource. It is a product of the abundant solar energy. The plant kingdom collects solar energy by photosynthesis and stores it as biomass. This is a big source of energy that sustains the mankind in many ways-food, fuel, fibre and several others. The non-food biomass like agro-waste and forest residues already constitute a large component of the traditional energy sources of most rural population the world over. A scientific study and proper planning are required for an optimum use of this abundant renewable bio energy (biomass). This paper discusses various options to evolve workable technologies for an efficient use of biomass as a sustainable energy resource for rural areas where it is mostly produced. An integrated strategy is proposed. (author)

  4. Urban/rural interface: Governing the chaos (United States)

    Ferreira, António


    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. An important issue in what concerns urban sprawl is the interface between the urban and the rural territories. Being an extremely dynamic landscape, and assuring some quality of life and buffering some of the pervasive negative impacts of urban areas in terms of disrupting the function of the natural ecosystems, in limit situations this interface can act as a conveyor belt of catastrophic events originated in the rural world, into the urban space. The Coimbra 2005 wildfire is a fine example of how a poorly managed urban/rural interface can put populations in danger, by allowing the fire to spread towards the urban green infrastructure, burning houses in the process. Major river flows that flood urban areas are also good examples of the lack of management and planning can result in the loss of assets and even put in danger human lives. This presentation reviews the impact of extreme events and the transmission from the urban to the rural worlds, but also from the rural to the urban territories, and establishes the need to govern risk at various levels and using the full range of governance tools.

  5. Scottish urban versus rural trauma outcome study. (United States)

    McGuffie, A Crawford; Graham, Colin A; Beard, Diana; Henry, Jennifer M; Fitzpatrick, Michael O; Wilkie, Stewart C; Kerr, Gary W; Parke, Timothy R J


    Outcome following trauma and health care access are important components of health care planning. Resources are limited and quality information is required. We set the objective of comparing the outcomes for patients suffering significant trauma in urban and rural environments in Scotland. The study was designed as a 2 year prospective observational study set in the west of Scotland, which has a population of 2.58 million persons. Primary outcome measures were defined as the total number of inpatient days, total number of intensive care unit days, and mortality. The participants were patients suffering moderate (ISS 9-15) and major (ISS>15) trauma within the region. The statistical analysis consisted of chi square test for categorical data and Mann Whitney U test for comparison of medians. There were 3,962 urban (85%) and 674 rural patients (15%). Urban patients were older (50 versus 46 years, p = 0.02), were largely male (62% versus 57%, p = 0.02), and suffered more penetrating traumas (9.9% versus 1.9%, p rural patients (p rural major trauma group (p = 0.002). There were more serious head injuries in the urban group (p = 0.04), and also a higher proportion of urban patients with head injuries transferred to the regional neurosurgical unit (p = 0.037). There were no differences in length of total inpatient stay (median 8 days, p = 0.7), total length of stay in the intensive care unit (median two days, p = 0.4), or mortality (324 deaths, moderate trauma, p = 0.13; major trauma, p = 0.8). Long prehospital times in the rural environment were not associated with differences in mortality or length of stay in moderately and severely injured patients in the west of Scotland. This may lend support to a policy of rationalization of trauma services in Scotland.

  6. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    In this article I will review the historical, cultural and social formation of rural development policies in Denmark and situate these in a Scandinavian context. The review is based on a reading of commission reports, law documents and texts produced by the planners and scholars involved...... paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  7. Rural women's health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly


    ... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...

  8. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  9. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.


    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina TSYBULYAK


    Full Text Available The article discusses current approaches to the process of assessing rural development governance, reveals its advantages and disadvantages. The article as well presents performance system indicators of governance process by means of two elements of dynamics assessment, rural development (economic, financial, and social sphere, ecology and population health and management process (assessment of strategic plan (concept of development, program of socioeconomic development of rural areas, current activity of local authorities, in particular. More over, it is suggested to use typology of approaches (objective (evolutionary, command and control, economic (infrastructural, complex, and qualitative to definition of process essence of rural development governance and correlation of traditional functions, performed by the subjects of the governance process of rural development (state authorities institutions, local authorities institutions, economic entities, and community. Adjusting traditional functions, performed by governance subjects of local development, their supplementing with new ones, relevant to the present-to-date model of «shared governance» is an important element of analysis of assessment tools for effectiveness of rural development governance. In addition, the author defines functioning of two forms of rural population involvement into the process of rural development governance: active and passive. Active one suggests that rural population participate in making and implementing governance decisions (public meetings, organization of social discussions, and development of territory community self-governance; passive one suggests that the emphasis is placed only on information distribution among population (meetings with parliament members, direct phone lines with territory governors, publication of normative and legal acts and reports on budget execution

  12. Social Welfare in Rural Europe. (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others


    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  13. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.


    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  14. Energy for sustainable rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.; Hulscher, W.S.; Hommes, E.W.; Hommes, E.W.


    Rural energy in developing countries is discussed with a view to sustainable development. The project-oriented approach in rural energy which has often dominated in the past, is contrasted with an overall strategy for sustainable rural energy demand and supply. An outline for a demand-oriented

  15. Rural Youth: The Policy Agenda. (United States)

    Dey, Ian; Jentsch, Birgit

    With the advent of a Scottish Parliament and a Minister and Parliamentary Committee for Rural Affairs, there is now a broad consensus that policies are needed to generate "quality jobs" for young people in rural Scotland. This agenda is politically appealing, since it addresses various rural problems, including retention of young people…

  16. Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in Northern Ghana


    Sakeah, Evelyn; Doctor, Henry V; McCloskey, Lois; Bernstein, Judith; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Mills, Samuel


    Background The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as mi...

  17. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J.


    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an

  18. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon? (United States)

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin


    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  19. Bringing the Net Effect to 700 million Rural Indians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Kiosk Owner/Operator · Kiosk: Bouquet of Services (besides telephony) · Slide 26 · E-government services at a Village · The Dream · Rural Micro-Enterprises are the Wealth Creators · Operations Project Summary & Plans · Technologies & people behind n-Logue · Technologies in Use · corDECT Wireless in Local Loop.

  20. Community : a powerful label? Connecting wind energy to rural Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, B.M.


    Much of the research on the social sustainability of renewable technologies has focused on local acceptance issues, community benefits from exogenous developments, and matters related to the planning and development process. Grassroots-initiated wind energy schemes as a form of rural enterprise have

  1. Higher Prices, Fewer Choices: Shopping for Food in Rural America. (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath

    The Food Stamp Program is the U.S. government's primary program to prevent the rural poor from going hungry. Food stamp allotments are set each year based on the cost of the "Thrifty Food Plan" (TFP), a minimally adequate diet defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets costs by examining average food prices in urban…

  2. Can Peru's Rural Schools Be Agents for Quechua Language Maintenance? (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.


    Draws on sociolinguistic literature and on an ethnographic study of language use and bilingual education in Quechua-speaking rural communities of Puno. Consider the roles of both language planning and the schools in achieving language maintenance for Quechua. (35 references) (Author/CB)

  3. Husband and Wife Interaction and Family Regulation in Rural Uruguay. (United States)

    De Winter, A. M.

    Decision-making and family planning were studied in the rural city of Durazno, Uruguay, by means of answers to questions by both husbands and wives. A sample size of 268 couples in which at least one partner was between 21 and 50 years of age was used. Data were collected by means of a pretested and precoded interview schedule. Major conclusions…

  4. Rural Satellite Services--Getting the Mixture Right. (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna


    This discussion of satellite services for education and rural development in less developed countries emphasizes the importance of adequate telephone systems to support development programs. Programs in Peru, Indonesia, and the West Indies are highlighted, and current and future problems in planning satellite systems are reviewed. (LRW)

  5. Rural electrification in Bangladesh: management, engineering, and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverick, B.; Gellerson, M.; Stovall, J.; Shelton, R.


    This report represents the partial findings of a five-member, multidisciplinary team requested by USAID to assess the progress of the Rural Electrification Program in Bangladesh. Four areas are assessed in this report: the effectiveness of the management system; the system planning and engineering capabilities; RE tariffs and energy sector pricing policies; and the effectiveness of technical assistance.

  6. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  7. Health care in rural areas. (United States)

    Nath, L M


    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.

  8. The forecast scenario of rural territories infrastructure development (on the example of the Volga federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Nikolaevich Zekin


    Full Text Available The authors’ point of view at the forecast of rural territories infrastructure development in Permskiy krai, Udmurtia and Kirovskaya Oblast by considering of innovative technology implementation is given in this paper. The improvement of rural people life conditions has been planned on the basis of this research. The indexes for life quality of rural people assessment were determined. The main ways for their increasing were defined. An important role in this process belongs to the small innovative enterprises, which develop new technologies and forward them to rural enterprises. It reduces risks because of their implementation and promotes the sustainable development of rural territories. It is planned that on the basis of the authors’ method of innovations application, the subsidized regions using their potential will sell their products on the external market of countries accessed to WTO and thereby will provide population with employment and increase its standard of living.

  9. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman


    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  10. Teachers as Rural Educators (United States)

    Kristiansen, Andrew


    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  11. Reluctant Rural Regionalists (United States)

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela


    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  12. Encountering Rural Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm


    . The presence of “The controlled ruin at the church” in the rural village catalyzed an exchange of memories of the place among the local inhabitants. Furthermore, the subsequent decay process showed a positive influence on the local attitude towards the implemented strategy. Bringing in surveyed examples...

  13. Dismantling Rural Stereotypes (United States)

    Bryant, James A., Jr.


    The natural beauty that surrounds many rural schools hides the troubling realities that students in these schools frequently live in poverty and the schools struggle to give these students the education they need. James A. Bryant believes that one source of the problem is the fact that so many school reforms are designed with urban schools in…

  14. Problems Facing Rural Schools. (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  15. Information and Rural Development. (United States)

    Storm, Bonnie L.


    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  16. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel


    to organize rural health care is more regulatory and distanced in its emphasis on nudging patients and doctors towards the right decisions through economic incentives. This bureaucratic approach to organizing health individually offers a sharp contrast to the religious collectivities that form around health...

  17. Plan well, plan often (United States)

    Bill Block


    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  18. Language Planning: Corpus Planning. (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.


    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  19. Diseño de un plan de marketing de servicios para Bio Hostal Mindo Cloud Forest ubicado en la parroquia rural de Mindo-contón San Miguel de los Bancos.


    Gordillo Barreno, Diana Stephania


    La Hostería Mindo Cloud Forest es un establecimiento de alojamiento y recreación turístico ubicado en la parroquia de Mindo, con un promedio de vida de tres años, ha tenido un desarrollo limitado, con bajos niveles de ocupación que no han logrado ubicar a la empresa entre las empresas de infraestructura más representativas de la zona, este trabajo de investigación está orientado a proponer una plan de marketing que le permita a la Hostal mejorar su situación competitiva a través de una mayor ...

  20. Role Of Gram Panchayat In Rural Development A Study Of Mathura District Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumari


    Full Text Available The Panchayats are expected to play an important role in rural development in India particularly after independence. Plan documents of both the central and state governments and various committees have emphasized the importance of these bodies in the policy. Sustainable and inclusive growth of overall rural development of Panchayat Raj Institutions. Empowering rural population to participate in rural development programs for improving their quality of life. Providing rural infrastructure and socio-economic growth opportunities for the poor people in rural areas. Accountable and efficient functions of Panchayat Raj Institutions. Providing opportunity for rural livelihood. Development of rural areas has a bearing on improved agricultural production and related economic activities availability of natural and financial resources and their development improvement of service delivery - paving way for improved human development. The department is striving hard to improve the livelihood of the rural populace and to inculcate awareness in the economic social and political spheres through effective implementation of decentralized administration and implementation of programmes decided particularly by the rural populace.

  1. Adolescent health: a rural community's approach. (United States)

    Groft, Jean N; Hagen, Brad; Miller, Nancy K; Cooper, Natalie; Brown, Sharon


    drugs. Participants indicated awareness of other health-compromising behaviours, including unsafe driving habits and high stress levels, and acknowledged several steps they wanted to take to improve their health, as well as the barriers to taking those steps. Students identified improved nutrition, stress reduction, and increased levels of physical activity as particular important health goals. Students also recommended ways in which information and support could be provided within the school environment to enable them to achieve their health-related goals. Several activities developed in collaboration with students have incorporated the recommendations, and have spawned other activities in response to the ongoing identification of new concerns. The process of including the rural community in the identification of health assets and needs from the perspective of students -- as well as the planning and implementation of appropriate strategies to address those needs -- demonstrates the strengths inherent within a small rural population. Community members' awareness of the need to create a healthy environment for youth is reflected in their willingness to participate in activities leading to improved health. Greater awareness of the health needs of rural adolescents, and of the influence of gender in some aspects of health behaviors, will help researchers to explore ways in which the unique culture of rural communities can be harnessed to help shape health-focused interventions.

  2. A guide to understanding the variation in premiums in rural health insurance marketplaces. (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith


    Key Findings. (1) State-level decisions in implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) have led to significant state variation in the design of Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) rating areas. In some designs, rural counties are grouped together, while in others, rural and urban counties have been deliberately mixed. (2) Urban counties have, on average, approximately one more firm participating in the marketplaces, representing about 11 more plan offerings, than rural counties have. (3) The highest-valued "platinum" plan types are less likely to be available in rural areas. Thus, the overall mix of plan types should be factored into the reporting of average premiums. (4) Levels of competition are likely to have a greater impact on the decisions of firms considering whether to operate in higher-cost areas or not, as those firms must determine how they can pass such costs on to consumers, conditional on the market share they are likely to control.

  3. Systematic Review of Palliative Care in the Rural Setting. (United States)

    Bakitas, Marie A; Elk, Ronit; Astin, Meka; Ceronsky, Lyn; Clifford, Kathleen N; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Emanuel, Linda L; Fink, Regina M; Kvale, Elizabeth; Levkoff, Sue; Ritchie, Christine; Smith, Thomas


    Many of the world's population live in rural areas. However, access and dissemination of the advances taking place in the field of palliative care to patients living in rural areas have been limited. We searched 2 large databases of the medical literature and found 248 relevant articles; we also identified another 59 articles through networking and a hand search of reference lists. Of those 307 articles, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were grouped into the following subcategories: intervention (n = 4), needs assessment (n = 2), program planning (n = 3), program evaluation (n = 4), education (n = 7), financial (n = 8), and comprehensive/systematic literature reviews (n = 11). We synthesized the current state of rural palliative care research and practice to identify important gaps for future research. Studies were conducted in the United States, Australia, Canada, Africa, Sweden, and India. Two randomized control trials were identified, both of which used telehealth approaches and had positive survival outcomes. One study demonstrated positive patient quality of life and depression outcomes. Research to guide rural palliative care practice is sparse. Approaches to telehealth, community- academic partnerships, and training rural health care professionals show promise, but more research is needed to determine best practices for providing palliative care to patients living in rural settings.

  4. Possibilities of rural development in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalević Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Rural territories are specific and complex economic, social, ecological and spatial areas which in the most of the countries occupy over 70 % of national territory and on which live near 50% of the population. Characteristics of the major part of the rural space in our country are: rare settlement, depopulation with distinct trend of demographic extinction, as well as high old age of the population, considerable presence of daily migrations of non-agricultural and young population, and also slight equipment with traffic, utility and objects of living standards, domination of agriculture and slight diversification of the rest productive and unproductive activities and similar. Neglect of the country settlements, as well as intolerant relation toward rural space in general, have initiated increase of worry about their planning in Serbia which has manifested intensively only in last decade of the past century. That worry is encouraged also by European regional politics which dedicate significant attention to rural area and its development, agriculture and its alternative activities. Condition in which Serbian rural area is and exploration of possibilities for his overcoming presents sufficient motive for production of this work. The purpose of work is to show goals and measures of rural development with special retrospect on undeveloped territories, because those are the ones with the largest percentage of country and agricultural population and ecological they belong to the healthiest area of Republic of Serbia.

  5. Developing better casemix education for rural New South Wales. (United States)

    Bridges, J F; Mazevska, D; Haas, M


    Casemix is now an important mechanism for the planning, evaluation and funding of health services in Australia. In New South Wales (NSW) it was believed that while staff from most hospitals in metropolitan Sydney had become both literate and vocal about casemix, staff from rural areas were less familiar and much less likely to participate in casemix initiatives. In conjunction with the NSW Casemix Clinical Committee (NCCC), NSW Health considered a special program of casemix education for rural NSW. Before an education program was attempted, NSW Health inquired into the specific needs for casemix education in rural NSW. Qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used. Results of the quantitative analysis indicate that the understanding of casemix classifications is highest among managers. Of concern were the relatively low proportion of Allied Health staff who had more than a vague understanding of the Sub- and Non-Acute Patient (SNAP) classification; the lack of any knowledge of the Mental Health Costing And Service Classification (MH-CASC) by nursing staff; and the lack of any knowledge of the emergency department classification: Urgency, Disposition and Age-related Groups (UDAG), either by clinical or nursing staff. The results of the qualitative analysis show that casemix education for rural areas needs to differ from metropolitan education programs. The analysis also highlights the perception of casemix in rural areas and the special circumstances in rural hospitals that place limits on the ability to use casemix more fully.

  6. Institucionalidad y desarrollo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Ruiz Camargo


    Full Text Available La institucionalidad entendida como el conjunto de normas y reg las formales e informales que regulan una comunidad determinada puede influir al impulsar y acrecentar el desarrollo rural o también frenarlo, permitiendo o no la participación o también obstaculizando la organización y la expresión de las comunidades rurales; lo cual puede reflejarse en carencias de sentido económico, social y cultural. Estas temáticas han sido exploradas en el presente trabajo, mediante el contacto directo con las comunidades rura les del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá y complementado con la revisión teórica a nivel bibliográfica sobre los temas de la institucionalidad y el desarrollo rural sustentable. Dada la importancia de las familias campesinas asentadas en estos territorios de minifundios y economía campesina, en la reproducción de su propia subsistencia y el aporte a la producción de bienes para la alimentación de la población urbana y suministro de mano de obra necesaria en la prestación de servicios y la industria nacional, se encontró que las carencias de tipo económico y social por parte de la población se reflejan en índices de pobreza elevada, debido a la poca capacidad de consumo y acumulación, pues la propiedad privada sustentada en el minifundio utilizado en actividades agropecuarias no genera ingresos suficientes para financiar la alimentación, la educación, la salud, la vivienda, la recreación y tampoco posibilita el ahorro. Por otra parte, la producción de bienes y servicios de origen rural es vendida o intercambiada en el mercado a precios por debajo de los costos de producción, con lo cual se transfiere la riqueza producida en el campo hacia la ciudad, reproduciéndose el circulo de la pobreza rural donde la institucionalidad practicada y existente no permite la participación de los habitantes rurales en la toma de decisiones; entre otras cosas, porque carecen de organización y liderazgo y porque tradicionalmente la

  7. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghvi, A.P.


    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Alexandrovna Amirova


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of application of the comparative sociological study of rural and urban schools. The characteristic of a social portrait of the rural teacher. The basic social problems, an assessment of social well-being of rural and urban teachers. Purpose. The authors aimed to identify specific problems of the rural school for making sound management decisions in the field of social educational policy. Methodology. A comparative type of applied sociological research is realized by applying such methodological approaches as structural and functional analysis and its variety – typological analysis [2; 3; 5]. Results. In summary, the social portrait of a rural educator is characterized by the following social characteristics. He lives mostly in his own house. One member of his family has, mainly, 12-18 or more square meters of living space. Entrepreneurship and tutoring are poorly distributed in rural areas. In comparison with urban teachers, rural teachers are more oriented to vocational training, rather than to the formation of spiritual and intellectual culture of students. This is the practicality of the rural educator. Employment in the subsidiary farm is also the reason for the greater practicality of the rural teacher and his relatively low spiritual activity. In rural educational institutions the level of collectivism is higher, but the desire for individual achievements is lower. Practical implications. The management of social processes at the level of a rural school can be implemented in the form of social planning, drawing up of social programs, social projects aimed at solving social problems of a rural teacher and optimizing the development of a rural school.

  9. Feasibility of a rural palliative supportive service. (United States)

    Pesut, B; Hooper, B P; Robinson, C A; Bottorff, J L; Sawatzky, R; Dalhuisen, M


    Healthcare models for the delivery of palliative care to rural populations encounter common challenges: service gaps, the cost of the service in relation to the population, sustainability, and difficulty in demonstrating improvements in outcomes. Although it is widely agreed that a community capacity-building approach to rural palliative care is essential, how that approach can be achieved, evaluated and sustained remains in question. The purpose of this community-based research project is to test the feasibility and identify potential outcomes of implementing a rural palliative supportive service (RPaSS) for older adults living with life-limiting chronic illness and their family caregiver in the community. This paper reports on the feasibility aspects of the study. RPaSS is being conducted in two co-located rural communities with populations of approximately 10 000 and no specialized palliative services. Participants living with life-limiting chronic illness and their family caregivers are visited bi-weekly in the home by a nurse coordinator who facilitates symptom management, teaching, referrals, psychosocial and spiritual support, advance care planning, community support for practical tasks, and telephone-based support for individuals who must commute outside of the rural community for care. Mixed-method collection strategies are used to collect data on visit patterns; healthcare utilization; family caregiver needs; and participant needs, functional performance and quality of life. A community-based advisory committee worked with the investigative team over a 1-year period to plan RPaSS, negotiating the best fit between research methods and the needs of the community. Recruitment took longer than anticipated with service capacity being reached at 8 months. Estimated service capacity of one nurse coordinator, based on bi-weekly visits, is 25 participants and their family caregivers. A total of 393 in-person visits and 53 telephone visits were conducted between

  10. La violencia rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Bejarano


    Full Text Available Dossier Comunicación y Drogas. En la Colombia rural, el narcotráfico, la guerrilla y la delincuencia común son factores de inseguridad y violencia. A pesar de la incertidumbre social que generan, gran parte de los medios de comunicación de ese país solo se limitan a describir los hechos en forma superficial. ¡Las amenazas a los periodistas son reales!

  11. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, K.


    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.




  13. Urban–rural inequalities in suicide mortality: a comparison of urbanicity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helbich


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban–rural disparities in suicide mortality have received considerable attention. Varying conceptualizations of urbanity may contribute to the conflicting findings. This ecological study on Germany assessed how and to what extent urban–rural suicide associations are affected by 14 different urban–rural indicators. Methods Indicators were based on continuous or k-means classified population data, land-use data, planning typologies, or represented population-based accessibility indicators. Agreements between indicators were tested with correlation analyses. Spatial Bayesian Poisson regressions were estimated to examine urban–rural suicide associations while adjusting for risk and protective factors. Results Urban–rural differences in suicide rates per 100,000 persons were found irrespective of the indicator. Strong and significant correlation was observed between different urban–rural indicators. Although the effect sign consistently referred to a reduced risk in urban areas, statistical significance was not universally confirmed by all regressions. Goodness-of-fit statistics suggested that the population potential score performs best, and that population density is the second best indicator of urbanicity. Numerical indicators are favored over classified ones. Regional planning typologies are not supported. Conclusions The strength of suicide urban–rural associations varies with respect to the applied indicator of urbanicity. Future studies that put urban–rural inequalities central are recommended to apply either unclassified population potentials or population density indicators, but sensitivity analyses are advised.

  14. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.


    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... Aiding (MCDA) technique "Group Analytic Hierarchy Process" (GAHP). The validity of this MC-SDSS was tested on three rural municipalities of Apulia Region (Southern Italy). In particular, a GIS was used to detect the rural resources and existing linear elements, which were used to perform overlay mapping...

  15. A Legacy of Leadership and Lessons Learned: Results from the Rural Systemic Initiatives for Improving Mathematics and Science Education (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.; Smith, Keith


    This report pays tribute to the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Rural Systemic Initiatives (RSIs), an investment of more than $140 million to improve mathematics and science education in some of rural America's most impoverished communities. The report illustrates the impact of NSF's RSI program on a national scale. Each RSI planned a project…

  16. Is [Rural] Property Tax Relevant?


    Villaveces-Niño, Marta-Juanita


    The present document presents the general notions and the definition of property taxation and, as part of it, the working definition of rural property taxation emphasizing that property taxation is a matter of “property” and rural property taxation is linked with rural property, specifically with land ownership. In addition, the document presents some facts about the performance of property taxation based on a secondary source of cross-country analysis. In order to giv...

  17. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel


    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation....

  18. Popular video for rural development in Peru. (United States)

    Calvelo Rios, J M


    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.

  19. Family planning education. (United States)

    Hamburg, M V


    17 days were spent devoted to the effort of learning about China's educational approach to family planning in the hope of discovering how they are achieving their remarkable success in reducing population growth. As a member of the 1981 New York University/SIECUS Colloquim in China, it was necessary to rely on the translation provided by the excellent guides. Discussions were focused on questions prepared in advance about the topics that concerned the group. These observations, based on a short and limited exposure, cover the following areas: marriage and family planning policies; the family planning program; school programs; adult education; family planning workers; and unique aspects of the program. China has an official position on marriage and family planning that continues to undergo revisions. The new marriage law sets the minimum ages of marriage at 22 for men and 20 for women. Almost everyone marries, and an unmarried person over age 28 is a rarity. The family planning program in China is carried out by an extensive organizational network at national, provincial, and local government levels. Officials termed it a "propaganda campaign." Hospitals, clinics, and factories invariably displayed posters; a popular set of four presents the advantages of the 1 child family as follows: late marriage is best, for it allows more time to work and study; 1 child is best for the health of the mother; one gets free medical care for his/her child if a family has only 1 child; and there is more time to teach 1 child. The state operated television regularly explains the 1 child policy utilizing special films. According to 1 family planning official, "before marriage there is little sex." There are few abortions for unmarried women. Education about sex is for adults, for those persons who are about to be married. There is little if any sex education in schools. Sexual teaching is not generally acceptable, especially in the rural areas. By contrast, in Shanghai the physiology

  20. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  1. Work of female rural doctors. (United States)

    Wainer, Jo


    To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are

  2. Rural electrification or village energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D V


    Decentralized power generation using renewable energy resources is more appropriate to the energy needs of the rural Third World. These countries often look to the rural electrification programs of the US and Soviet Union as the answer to their problem even though studies consistently show this to be inefficient and frequently ineffective, often reinforcing existing social and economic inequities. When the uses of energy in rural villages are examined in detail, the only approach which will supply energy to the rural poor must be based on a local and regional match of need to indigenous energy sources and to the development of local talent and enthusiasm. 29 references. (DCK)

  3. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand. (United States)

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan


    Birth in primary midwife-led maternity units has been demonstrated to be a safe choice for well women anticipating a normal birth. The incidence of serious perinatal outcomes for these women is comparable to similarly low risk women, who choose to birth in hospital. New Zealand women have a choice of Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) and birthplace; home, primary birthing unit, or a base hospital, though not all women may have all these choices available locally. Women in rural and rural remote areas can also choose to birth in their rural primary maternity unit. A percentage of these women (approx. 15-17%) will require transfer during labour, an event which can cause distress and often loss of midwifery continuity of care. To explore retrospectively the choice of birth place decisions and the labour and birth experiences of a sample of women resident in remotely zoned, rural areas of the lower South Island of New Zealand. A purposive sample of women living in remote rural areas, recruited by advertising in local newspapers and flyers. Individual semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded using a pragmatic interpretive approach. The data (transcripts and field notes) were analysed using thematic and content analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health and Disability Ethics Committee (HEDC) MEC/06/05/045. Thirteen women consented to participate. Each was resident in a remote rural area having given birth in the previous 18 months. The women had been well during their pregnancies and at the onset of labour had anticipated a spontaneous vaginal birth. Rural remote zoned areas in Otago and Southland in the South Island of New Zealand FINDINGS: Five women planned to birth in a regional hospital and eight chose their nearest rural primary maternity unit. All of the women were aware of the possibility of transfer and had made their decision about their birthplace based on their perception of their personal safety, and in consideration of their distance from

  4. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Clement Abah


    Full Text Available The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution of the rural settlements were analysed using the nearest neighbour statistical analysis while descriptive statistics such as graphs and tables were used to present data. Rural settlements in Otukpo are randomly distributed and may be tending towards clustering. This is indicated by an Rn index value of 0.96 from the nearest neighbour analysis. Most of the settlements (59% have a distance of two to three kilometres between them. There is an inadequacy of functional facilities and poor access to services in the rural settlements in Otukpo. Respondents in rural settlements in Otukpo are faced with the risk of agricultural occupational loss (22%, water shortages (42%, flooding (29%, land based conflicts (16%, health hazards (12%, erosion (26%, and migration (57%. With evidence of climate change ascertained globally including Nigeria, the study concludes that rural settlements in Otukpo and elsewhere are vulnerable to the effects of climate change which is evident in literature. Government should plan appropriately to optimize standard of living and provide basic functional facilities and services for rural settlements.

  5. Rural Vocational and Transition Assessment Practices for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: What Do Educators Really Know? (United States)

    Brendle, Janna; Tucker, Kathryn J.; Lock, Robin H.


    Transition planning requires quality vocational and transition assessment tailored to the student's needs, strengths, preferences and interests. Limited research is currently available that addresses assessment types and use of results that rural practitioners utilize to aid in transition planning for students with intellectual disabilities (ID).…

  6. India: an annotated bibliography on rural regional development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    References contained in this bibliography focus on rural regional development in India during the past fifteen years. They include works on administration, administrative law, agriculture, business, community development, decision making, demography, development indicators, development planning, economic development, economic policy, education, employment and labor utilization, energy, family planning, finance and taxation, geography, health, housing, human settlements, income distribution, industry, institutional development, intergovernmental relations, land reform, location and space economy, migration, models, national planning, plan implementation, planning and programming techniques, politics and government, popular participation, population policy, poverty, project and program evaluation, public works, reference works, regional analysis, regional development, regional planning, rural development, science and technology, social communication, social development, social integration and welfare, social policy, socioeconomic diagnosis, subregional planning, systems approach, tourism and recreation, training techniques, and utilities. The information sources are primarilly Indian, but a few significant documents of foreign imprints have also been included. All documents referred to are in English and include reference works, government publications, scholarly works (monographs), conference proceedings, and periodical articles.

  7. The price of 'free'. Quantifying the costs incurred by rural residents attending publically funded outpatient clinics in rural and base hospitals. (United States)

    Fearnley, David; Kerse, Ngaire; Nixon, Garry


    INTRODUCTION Rural living is associated with increased costs in many areas, including health care. However, there is very little local data to quantify these costs, and their unknown quantity means that costs are not always taken into account in health service planning and delivery. AIM The aim of this study was to calculate the average time and travel costs of attending rural and base hospital outpatient clinics for rural Central Otago residents. METHODS A survey of 51 people attending rural hospital outpatient clinics. Individual costs in terms of travel and time were quantified and an average cost of both rural and base hospital attendance was calculated. RESULTS The average travel and lost time cost of attending a rural outpatient clinic was NZ$182 and 61% of respondents reported this cost had a significant effect on their weekly budget. The average cost incurred by residents associated with a base hospital attendance in Dunedin was NZ$732. DISCUSSION This study data show that costs are substantial and probably higher than most people might expect for both rural and base hospital attendances. It seems likely that these costs are a potential barrier to service access. However, the full implications of the personal costs incurred by rural residents in accessing health services are largely unstudied and therefore remain unknown in New Zealand.

  8. Human transportation needs in rural Oklahoma. (United States)


    Mobility is extremely important, especially in rural areas, which have dispersed populations and locations. : This study was conducted among rural minority populations to evaluate human transportation needs of the : underserved rural population in Ok...

  9. Violence and Abuse in Rural America (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  10. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan


    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  11. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...

  12. A plan for transmission access and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldak, M.


    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) believes that while access to the interconnected transmission system (grid) is necessary to provide the most efficient and economical development and use of the bulk power supply system, the grid cannot be unconditionally opened. Additionally, access should be provided only under reasonable terms, conditions, and cost-based compensation, within a framework of joint planning and coordinated operations. NRECA describes here its transmission policy, a coordinated planning and utilization model (CPU)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč


    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  14. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu


    Full Text Available Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements.

  15. Rural entrepreneurship: Between place and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    for a better use of rural resource-bases as well as for sustainable economic development. On the basis of an exploration of the spatial dynamics of rural entrepreneurship we develop propositions concerning rural entrepreneurship as a distinct form of entrepreneurial activity, emphasising bricolage, mixed......This paper proposes a distinction between rural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in the rural. While the latter is incidentally located in a rural area, the former engages with the localised resources of the rural area. We argue that rural entrepreneurship in this form holds promise...

  16. Rural hospital wages (United States)

    Hendricks, Ann M.


    Average fiscal year 1982 wages from 2,302 rural American hospitals were used to test for a gradient descending from hospitals in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas to those not adjacent. Considerable variation in the ratios of adjacent to nonadjacent averages existed. No statistically significant difference was found, however. Of greater importance in explaining relative wages within States were occupational mix, mix of part-time and full-time workers, case mix, presence of medical residencies, and location in a high-rent county within the State. Medicare already adjusts payments for only two of these variables. PMID:10313454

  17. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina


    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  18. Agricultura y desarrollo rural en Colombia 2011-2013: una aproximación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Inés Cárdenas Pinzón


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión bibliográfica del concepto de desarrollo rural y del papel de la agricultura y el desarrollo rural en la actividad económica, así como determinar el comportamiento que ha tenido el sector agropecuario en Colombia en el periodo 2011-2013, de acuerdo con las estrategias propuestas para el sector en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2010-2014. Se concluyó, en términos generales, que la política agraria en Colombia debe ser abordada bajo la nueva visón del desarrollo rural, la cual debe incluir actividades que se desarrollen en el área rural, y el gran reto debe ser replantear el hecho de que el sector rural solamente se limita al sector productivo.

  19. The development of a caseload midwifery service in rural Australia. (United States)

    Tran, Tara; Longman, Jo; Kornelsen, Jude; Barclay, Lesley


    The past two decades have seen progressive decline in the number of rural birthing services across Australia. Despite health system pressures on small birthing units to close there have been examples of resistance and survival. This descriptive study explored the evolution of a rural birthing service in a small town to offer insight into the process of transition which may be helpful to other small healthcare services in rural Australia. Quantitative data derived from birth registers on number and types of birth from 1993-2011 were analysed. Interviews were conducted between January and August 2012 with nine participants (GP obstetricians, midwives, a health service manager and a consumer representative). This rural maternity service developed gradually from a GP obstetrician-led service to a collaborative care team approach with midwifery leadership. This development was in response to a changing rural medical workforce, midwifery capacity and the needs and wants of women in the local community. Four major themes were developed from interview data: (1) development of the service (2) drivers of change (3) outcomes and (4) collaborative care and inter-professional practice. The success of this transition was reported to rest on strategic planning and implementation and respectful inter-professional practice and alignment of birth philosophy across the team. This team created a unified, progressive community-focused birthing service. The development of collaborative care models that embrace and build on established inter-professional relationships can maximise existing rural workforce potential and create a sustainable rural service into the future. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita


    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  1. Community participation in rural health: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Amanda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for

  2. Wonsuom--a rural communication project in Ghana. (United States)

    Boafo, S T


    The urban bias of the communication infrastructure in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has comprised a major obstacle to the participation of the rural population in development decsion making. This article describes the Wonsuom rural communication pilot project in Ghana, aimed at providing communication technologies at the grassroots level to enhance the contribution of communication in rural development. When fully operational, the project will use a combination of a rural newspaper published in the local Fante language, rural radio broadcasts, radio listening clubs, and slide projectors to carry development-oriented information to rural communities and mobilize people for development programs. The project, which is carried out by the School of Journalism and Communication of the University of Ghana, covers 22 rural communities with a population of 150,000. The radio programs, started in 1983, include local and national news; discussions involving local community leaders, farmers, fishermen, and extension agents on problems facing the community and on issues such as primary health care and family planning; and features on the achievements of individual community members and development activities. Radio listening clubs meet on a regular basis to listen to the broadcasts, discuss issues highlighted, and deliberate on ways to generate development projects in their community. The discussions are recorded for subsequent broadcast on the program, creating a 2-way communication process. The listening clubs also serve as the focus of social and cultural life in the communities. Publication of the newspaper has been delayed by problems stemming from Ghana's socioeconomic crisis, but newspaper reading clubs are also projected.

  3. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.


    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  4. Development of Sustainable Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kantar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.



    Spio, Kojo; Groenewald, Jan A.


    The paper seeks to present an in depth overview of rural financial markets in developing countries. Attention is given to the role of financial markets in the development process, approaches to rural finance in developing countries, and formal and informal financial markets. The pro and cons of the various financial markets were also considered.

  6. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  7. Rural poverty in transition countries


    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo


    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  8. Going Digital in Rural America. (United States)

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and…

  9. Portrait of Rural Virtual Schooling (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.


    Over the past two decades, distance education has become a reality of rural schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador. In this article, I provide historical background into the challenges facing rural schools in the province and how distance education was introduced to address that challenge. I also describe how that system of distance education…

  10. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.


    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  11. The rural utility response to Colorado's electricity mandates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, Sean


    When Colorado voters passed Amendment 37 in 2004, it became the first state to pass a renewable portfolio standard at the ballet box, suggesting broad appeal to harness and pay for renewable energy. While large urban utilities are prepared to make this transition, smaller cities and rural areas, for various financial and scale issues are severely disadvantaged in trying to incorporate more renewable energy sources into their electricity mix. This was evident by the state's support for Amendment 37, which was passed due to strong support in the Denver metro area-representing nearly half of the state's population. Support for the bill was poor in the rest of the state. Nevertheless, in 2007, the state expanded up Amendment 37 by forcing the utilities in rural communities to diversify their electricity mix. This study surveyed the managers at the state's various rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in an effort to gage their attitudes concerning: carbon legislation, conservation and efficiency programs, and their plans for making the transition away from fossil fuel generation. - Highlights: → Communities served by rural utilities opposed Colorado's state-wide RPS, but were forced to adhere anyway. → Most rural utilities are very concerned about the economic impacts of trying to diversify their energy portfolios. → Many of these unregulated utilities were already pushing DSM programs to promote conservation and improve efficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In carrying out the paper: “Strategic model for attenuating rural inequities in South-Muntenia Region”, I had like primary goals the accomplishment of two kinds of objectives: general objectives and specific objectives. For the general objectives, I followed: developing the approach theoretical mode for combating rural inequities; the development of strategic plans for approaching the rural inequities combat and identifying strategic socio-economic measures dedicated for promoting necessary measures for combating social inequities. And the specific objectives had like goals the SWOT analysis and the development of strategic plans in local profile, based on clusters. The analysis of rural area in South-Muntenia Region has been made at the level of local administrative-territorial units, the smallest territorial level from which is collecting and after the statistic information is published. Utilizing this kind of territorial level is a positive premise for obtaining results with a high accurate degree.

  13. Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  14. Importance of education and training local population in process of development rural tourism in Serbia


    Vuković, Predrag; Subić, Jonel; Cvijanović, Drago


    Since the mid-nineties of the twentieth century begins a rapid expansion of rural tourism in Serbia. In the first initial phase, the development has taken place without a clear plan and program. The first achieved positive results, influenced that Serbian Government since 2008 started with appropriate funding with aim to improve rural tourism development. Also, until 2008 there was no system of education and training sessions of the local population. Farmers were not educated and trained t...

  15. L’approccio endogeno allo sviluppo rurale: radici teoriche e sviluppi dottrinali


    Sortino, Antonio


    The modernization of agriculture has a well-established theoretical basis from Capitalist, Marxist and Keynesian approaches. These approaches have different bases of departure: market mechanisms and state planning. But these different approaches require an identical exogenous path of development for rural areas based on 'modern' processes of specialization, concentration and integration. Instead, the endogenous approach to rural development did not initially have a solid theoretical basis...

  16. L’approccio endogeno allo sviluppo rurale: radici teoriche e sviluppi dottrinali


    Sortino, Antonio


    The modernization of agriculture has a well-established theoretical basis from Capitalist, Marxist and Keynesian approaches. These approaches have different bases of departure: market mechanisms and state planning. But these different approaches require an identical exogenous path of development for rural areas based on 'modern' processes of specialization, concentration and integration. Instead, the endogenous approach to rural development did not initially have a solid theoretical basis. It...

  17. 7 CFR 23.13 - Plan of Work. (United States)


    ... statement including identification of high priority knowledge, skill, and organization needs for rural..., which in turn support State development strategies. (3) A concise statement of the organization structure for planning and conducting the program funded under section 503(b)(2). (4) A plan for evaluating...

  18. 7 CFR 22.304 - Multiyear planning and programming. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiyear planning and programming. 22.304 Section 22.304 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.304 Multiyear planning and programming. State and multicounty...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements of...

  20. Red Rural, Blue Rural: The Geography of Presidential Voting in Rural America (United States)

    Scala, Dante J.; Johnson, Kenneth M.


    Political commentators routinely treat rural America as an undifferentiated bastion of strength for Republicans. In fact, rural America is a deceptively simple term describing a remarkably diverse collection of places encompassing nearly 75 percent of the U.S. land area and 50 million people. Voting trends in this vast area are far from…

  1. Lo spazio rurale come risorsa strategica in Paesaggi coltivati, paesaggio da coltivare di Alessandra Cazzola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maino


    Full Text Available A. Cazzola emphasizes on a new culture of open areas, where the rural space is understood as a strategic resources to landscape redevelopment. In the book ‘Paesaggi coltivati, paesaggio da coltivare. Lo spazio agricolo dell’area romana tra campagna, territorio urbanizzato e produzione’ are outlined methodological criteria and address for a lecture and a planning of rural landscape that can offer either sustainable food or non-commercial products, addressed to protection and environmental compensation, to social building, to safeguard of cultural identities and rural landscape revitalization. Everything through actions calibrated on local landscape specificity, either traditional identity signs or new elements, sometimes dissonant and lacerating.

  2. Connecting transport, agriculture and rural development: Experiences from Mhlontlo local municipality integrated infrastructure atlas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J


    Full Text Available school and clinic established by the company. The project generated many connections with small local enterprises during the construction and operational phases. • Future plans include expanding production on a new site, for which a community... for the majority of the rural poor • Source of livelihood for an estimated 86 percent of rural people • Provides jobs for 1.3 billion small holders and landless workers • Foundation for viable rural communities • Of the developing World’s 5.5 billion...

  3. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China]. (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing


    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  4. Forward planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.


    By definition, forward planning is a process where input consists of conditions on beam configurations and parameters and output consists of dose distributions on target and critical structures, in contrast to inverse planning, where the opposite is true. For forward planning IMRT, criteria are as follows: (i) Plans created as an extension of standard 3D conformational planning; (ii) No significant increase in the complexity of the treatment planning or treatment delivery process; (3) Treatment verification using standard QA procedures; and process consists of the following steps: (i) Create a standard 3D conformational treatment plan; (ii) Copy one of the existing beams; (iii) Create control points: design new beam segments, blocking high dose areas; (iv) Repeat for all beams; (v) Re-compute dose; and (vi) Adjust control points weights to achieve desired dose distribution. A detailed exposition, with many clinical examples, is given for the breast, lung, and brain (P.A.)

  5. Computer supported reconnaissance planning : implementing a planning methodology with geographical information system in Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweg, R.


    One of the themes of the research at the Department of Physical Planning and Rural Development in Wageningen Agricultural University is the planning within the field of tension between sustainability and flexibility. This research has resulted


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchnudee Chaisatit


    Full Text Available Resumen: Abillal es una comunidad rural, ubicada en el municipio de Manzanillo, Estado de Colima. Cuenta con riquezas tanto naturales como culturales donde los pobladores están realizando la actividad turística rural pero no está dando buen resultado por la falta de conocimiento y asesoría del plan estratégica para un óptimo manejo integral del turismo. Objetivo: Mejorar el plan estratégico comercial para impulsar el turismo rural en la comunidad del Abillal. La investigación se desarrolló con la metodología deductiva a través del trabajo de campo y análisis de  los indicadores para conocer los factores de la demanda turística. Resultado Mediante un análisis para identificar las fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas (FODA le logro realizar un plan de acción con estrategias que permitieran el impulso turístico de la comunidad de Abillal entre las acciones implementadas se realizó el levantamiento del inventario turístico rural en la comunidad del Abillal, se incluyó e involucro a los ejidatarios en las actividades turísticas y se realizaron los primeros recorridos a la comunidad rural obteniendo muy buenos resultados y propiciando de esta manera la derrama económica  en la comunidad. Palabras Clave: Turismo Rural. Estrategia. Abillal. Mexico

  7. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg


    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  8. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique. (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; du Toit, Lilo; Couper, Ian


    South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44) to 64% in the final round (n=34). The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH), governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  9. Rural male suicide in Australia. (United States)

    Alston, Margaret


    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The rural areas are rich in their ecological and cultural diversity. The dimension and complexity of the rural communities make difficult a generalization regarding their problems or values, even if some common characteristics exist. For a long time in their existence, the rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But, in the 20th century, the great technological, political and economical changes have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, and other renewable industrial resources, fact which led the rural communities to a dependency towards these. Although these changes occurred, many reasons for optimism still exist. Involvement of new households in offering touristic services constitutes a new dimension of the development of the rural areas, and on a secondary plane the touristic activity in the rural environment registers new ways of manifestation. Even more, we are able to appreciate the dimensions and evolution of one of the most spectacular social – economic phenomena; the rural tourism.

  11. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana. (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M


    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  12. Rural specialists: The nature of their work and professional satisfaction by geographical location of work. (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda; McGrail, Matthew; Russell, Deborah


    Systematically describe the characteristics of rural specialists, their work and job satisfaction by geographical location of work. Cross-sectional. Three thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine medical specialists participating in the 2014 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors. Location of practice, whether metropolitan, large (>50 000 population) or small regional centres (Rural specialists had more on-call requirements and poorer professional development opportunities. However, satisfaction with work hours, remuneration, variety of work, level of responsibility, opportunities to use abilities and overall satisfaction did not differ. Specialists in general medicine and general surgery were significantly more likely to work rurally compared with anaesthetists, particularly in small regional centres, whereas a range of other relevant specialists had lower than the average rural distribution and paediatricians and endocrinologists were significantly less likely to work in large regional centres. Rural specialists are just as satisfied as metropolitan counterparts reporting equivalent variety and responsibility at work. Better support for on-call demands and access to professional development could attract more specialists to rural practice. Increased rural training opportunities and regional workforce planning is needed to develop and recruit relevant specialties. Specifically, targeted support is warranted for training and development of specialists in general medicine and general surgery and overseas-trained specialists, who provide essential services in smaller regional centres. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Analysis of Sustainability of New Rural Housing (Case of ole Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyran Chamcham


    Full Text Available Modernization of rural housing based on the principles of sustainability is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable development in rural areas. This can only be achieved by knowing the exact status of rural housing and its range of stability. And rural planning is not possible without it. On the other hand, survey of the stability of the different aspects of rural housing will have a decisive role in decisions related to how to promote this project aimed at sustainable rural development. Therefore, this study we have investigated and compared the economic, Social, environmental, technical and physical aspects of new rural housing with sustainability approach, quantitative paradigm and the case study method. The statistical population in the study were all the people of Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village from which a number were selected who had reconstructed their homes. The results are shown in 4 dimensions of new housing's economic, social, environmental, technical and physical aspects in the Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village although they have very little inclination towards sustainability. Despite this, the hybrid economic index for reconstruction of rural housing turned out to be more stable than other metrics.

  14. Defining and Describing Rural: Implications for Rural Special Education Research and Policy (United States)

    Hawley, Leslie R.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Bovaird, James A.; McCormick, Carina M.; Welch, Greg W.; Arthur, Ann M.; Bash, Kirstie


    A critical aspect of rural research is carefully defining and describing the rural context. This is particularly important in rural special education research because different definitions of rural may influence resource allocation, grant funding eligibility, and/or research findings. In order to highlight the importance of operationalizing rural,…

  15. Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam: Trends and Determinants


    Nguyen , Trung Hung


    This dissertation aims to investigate the Trends and Determinants of the Rural Non-Farm Sector and Labor Market in Rural Vietnam since the global economic crisis occurred in 2007 with the focus on the household's diversification; the involvement of rural individuals in Rural Non-Farm Employment; Rural Labor Market development; and assessment of a specific labor market policy.

  16. Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian


    Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

  17. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.


    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females).

  18. Rural Pennsylvanians--A Troubled People. (United States)

    Hillman, Arnold

    This report presents the problems of rural Pennsylvania and proposes solutions to those problems. Because the news media does not systematically report on rural situations, the public lacks awareness concerning the problems in rural Pennsylvania. Rural problems include high unemployment rates, high welfare expenditures, out migration, low…

  19. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara


    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  20. India's misconceived family plan. (United States)

    Jacobson, J L


    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  1. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal. (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet


    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  2. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  3. El emprendedurismo femenino rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Guadalupe Chong-González


    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra la participación económica de las mujeres en el espacio rural y se confirma que se involucran principalmente en la gestión emprendedora, realizando actividades por cuenta propia, la mayoría de ellas inicia su entrada en el mercado en condiciones de irregularidad e inestabilidad. La actividad emprendedora de las mujeres es diversa y abarca casi todos los sectores económicos. Esta investigación se realizó con base en un trabajo de campo llevado a cabo en 2014 en el municipio de Coatepec Harinas, Estado de México y con base en los censos del INEGI.

  4. The Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD): a new dimension in rural development. (United States)

    Viravaidya, M


    The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) promotes family planning (FP) throughout Thailand through a community-based approach. The Thai government actively supports rural development. In 1986, 80% of Thailand's people who lived below the poverty line were in rural areas. The poverty line in rural areas is an annual per capita income of 3823 baht, or US $153; in urban areas, it is more. Since 1984, Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by more than 50%. Per capita GDP has risen dramatically, also, with the success of FP efforts. This economic achievement, however, has not been shared by most of the Thai population. Incomes in the agriculture sector are far below those in the nonagricultural sector. The government and the nonprofit organizations, however, do not have skills. The corporate sector does have these skills. The Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) helps companies sponsor villages and aids them in developing business skills, whereupon income levels and local living standards are improved. Companies thus help in the employment transfer from agriculture to nonagriculture. There is a "one-company-one- village" formula. Company employees have the skills needed in the villages. They are directly involved. Since 1988, PDA has been working with companies in Thailand to help villages develop business skills. In Saraburi province, PDA and Volvo Swedish Motors have been aiding villagers to grow saplings and sell them to golf course and housing developers. In Ayutthaya Province, PDA and the same company are helping the residents with needlepoint and embroidery to supply a wedding dress manufacturing operation. These programs have succeeded. PDA wants to expand the program by September 1990, to include 50 companies. It is hoped that once the companies are comfortable with their relationship to the village, they will start associations with additional villages. PDA has established the "Ten Steps to Adopt a Village."

  5. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli


    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  6. Mixed embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in rural areas. Some studies have shown that in-migrants and returnees are overrepresented among rural entrepreneurs, and that their entrepreneurship might be more important for local development than the efforts of local entrepreneurs, at least...... in terms of economic value creation. Other studies have shown that local embeddedness is a significant source of opportunities for rural entrepreneurs, yet at the same time, over-embeddedness can inhibit entrepreneurial activities. These contrasting studies suggest that some form of mixed embeddedness...

  7. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  8. Develop of the rural electrification; Desarrollo de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tancredi, R [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas, UTE, Montevideo (Uruguay)


    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power.

  9. Renewable energy policy for Rural Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldach, R.; Bates, J.; Derrick, A.; Syngellakis, K.; Gantulga, D.; Hasnie, S.; Enebish, N.


    This paper presents a project, supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), which aims in part to strengthen renewable energy policy in Mongolia. The project activities focusing on policy development include compilation and summary of renewable energy projects carried out in Mongolia up to the present day, examination of experience of renewable energy power supply for remote areas in other countries, and how this can be applied to the situation in Mongolia, study of energy-related laws in Mongolia as well as in other countries and collaboration and discussions with the main stakeholders in renewable energy in Mongolia, including the Ministry of Infrastructure, the Fuel and Energy Authority, the Energy Regulatory Authority, and the Renewable Energy Corporation. The project will also carry out a workshop with national and international experts to discuss the key issues for the development of renewable energy for rural areas. A key result of the project will be the formulation of a Renewable Energy Action Plan for rural areas, based on the results of the foregoing research and the policy workshop. (authors)

  10. Rural Communatcation: legitimizing digital inclusion in rural field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Correa Bernardes


    Full Text Available Through contemporary analysis, it was noted that the countryside of São Paulo experienced drastic transformation and demanded rural family farmers to adapt themselves to technological innovations, where the most striking is the use of the internet in search of information to the sustainable development of rural property.  The research adopted a methodological way of exploratory, through the case study, which analyzed the general objective the dissemination and usability of information and communication technologies in rural areas in the interior of forms-based applied to farmers in the family farms belonging to theAssociation of banana growers of Tupã. In seeking to achieve this goal, reflected on the use of internet in rural areas and measured-factors that enhance digital communication barriers in rural addressing the digital divide becomes a limiting factor to access. In this sense, the rural communication emerges as relational link mediating solutions and incorporating the diffusion of innovations in the pursuit of digital literacy of farmers contributing to the democratization of society in the information age.

  11. Computational optimization techniques applied to microgrids planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.


    Microgrids are expected to become part of the next electric power system evolution, not only in rural and remote areas but also in urban communities. Since microgrids are expected to coexist with traditional power grids (such as district heating does with traditional heating systems......), their planning process must be addressed to economic feasibility, as a long-term stability guarantee. Planning a microgrid is a complex process due to existing alternatives, goals, constraints and uncertainties. Usually planning goals conflict each other and, as a consequence, different optimization problems...... appear along the planning process. In this context, technical literature about optimization techniques applied to microgrid planning have been reviewed and the guidelines for innovative planning methodologies focused on economic feasibility can be defined. Finally, some trending techniques and new...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Barbu


    Full Text Available In this paper we try to show as well the main factors of the emergence and development of rural tourism in order to establish priorities in the joint action of local people, entrepreneurs, tourists and local and national administrations. In many countries, the tourism industry fall within government priority. Tourism has been identified as one of the primary industries with potential to support local communities in developing economic diversity. Rural tourism has developed due to revenue growth (it is mostly discretionary income, due to increased leisure life and diversification motivations and desires of tourists. Tourism development is favored by improving infrastructure, historical monuments and architectural restoration and promotion of environmental conservation. Rural areas have a special attraction for tourists because of the distinct characteristics associated with mystical, cultural, historical, ethnic and geographical. For progress together with profit for those involved, it requires several components: attractions, investment, appropriate infrastructure, services and diversified hospitality promotion. To run this set of factors need to join entrepreneurs and public administrations. From the literature we can draw a number of necessary conditions for the development of rural tourism and a number of motivations for its support. The public sector is responsible for policy formulation, research and planning, development of basic infrastructure, the development of certain landmarks, establishment and management of service delivery standards, establishing management measures and recovery planning and environmental protection, setting standards for training and improve employment, maintaining public health and safety. The private sector is responsible for the development of accommodation services, travel agency operations, the activity of commercial tourist enterprises, development of landmarks and advertising through specific marketing

  13. Inspection planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.; Levstek, M.F.


    Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) division of nuclear and radiological safety inspection has developed systematic approach to their inspections. To be efficient in their efforts regarding regular and other types of inspections, in past years, the inspection plan has been developed. It is yearly based and organized on a such systematic way, that all areas of nuclear safety important activities of the licensee are covered. The inspection plan assures appropriate preparation for conducting the inspections, allows the overview of the progress regarding the areas to be covered during the year. Depending on the licensee activities and nature of facility (nuclear power plant, research reactor, radioactive waste storage, others), the plan has different levels of intensity of inspections and also their frequency. One of the basic approaches of the plan is to cover all nuclear and radiological important activities on such way, that all regulatory requests are fulfilled. In addition, the inspection plan is a good tool to improve inspection effectiveness based on previous experience and allows to have the oversight of the current status of fulfillment of planned inspections. Future improvement of the plan is necessary in the light of newest achievements on this field in the nuclear world, that means, new types of inspections are planned and will be incorporated into plan in next year.(author)

  14. Financial Performance of Rural Medicare ACOs. (United States)

    Nattinger, Matthew C; Mueller, Keith; Ullrich, Fred; Zhu, Xi


    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has facilitated the development of Medicare accountable care organizations (ACOs), mostly through the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP). To inform the operation of the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation's (CMMI) ACO programs, we assess the financial performance of rural ACOs based on different levels of rural presence. We used the 2014 performance data for Medicare ACOs to examine the financial performance of rural ACOs with different levels of rural presence: exclusively rural, mostly rural, and mixed rural/metropolitan. Of the ACOs reporting performance data, we identified 97 ACOs with a measurable rural presence. We found that successful rural ACO financial performance is associated with the ACO's organizational type (eg, physician-based) and that 8 of the 11 rural ACOs participating in the Advanced Payment Program (APP) garnered savings for Medicare. Unlike previous work, we did not find an association between ACO size or experience and rural ACO financial performance. Our findings suggest that rural ACO financial success is likely associated with factors unique to rural environments. Given the emphasis CMS has placed on rural ACO development, further research to identify these factors is warranted. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  16. Rural Veterans by State (2015) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  17. Rural Veterans by State (2014) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  18. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper


      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  19. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...

  20. Develop of the rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredi, R.


    The present document about the develop the evolution of the rural electrification in the Uruguay from the decade of the 60 as well this country is considered with the most of populations 95% with electric power

  1. Comparative Research on Human Settlements in Asian Rural Areas Based on Collaborative Construction Mechanism (United States)

    Xin, Sui; Chaoyang, Sun; Mo, Li


    Rural planning is perceived as a spatial planning centered on the human settlements and there are many activities for rural reconstruction and researches conducted from the perspective of active intervention, with fewer studies regarding the village as the main body for the establishment of self-built system. And the other-organization built by the rural areas is strongly oriented. In Asian countries like China, South Korea and Japan, there are farming traditions, in which the familial and small-scale farmland holding and agricultural production mode are deep-rooted. Traditional agriculture and rural areas are not fundamentally changed by industrialization and modernization process. And the small-scale peasant in the East is marked by the decentralized possession of farmland and management in the rural areas and a large number of farmers to be remained. But the rural population keeps decreasing. After analyzing the status quo of human settlements in China, Korea and Japan, the paper makes an analysis from the different ways of thinking and professional perspective and focuses on putting forward the solutions to the problems on macro level, with the feasibility of the practical significance and the landing researches still staying in the testing stage. In the context of increasingly missing regional and contextual features, the launching and researches of “co-constructed community” as the folk protection way to emerging rural heritage are just started, and the researches on rural construction in Northeast China from the perspective of catalyst are absent. The contact agent with the catalytic action mechanism of seeing big things through small ones fits the rural areas marked by vast territory and diversified aspect, which is applicable to the bottom-up operation mechanism autonomously built by the villagers.

  2. Mitigation Efforts in Rural Communities after Extreme Weather Events - New Insights for Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic


    Full Text Available Global climate changes are undoubtedly course of the increasing frequency of extreme whether events all over the world. Rural communities belong to the “group of victims” which is greatly jeopardized by consequences of the extreme weather events. Having in mind limited capacities for the preparedness, response and recovery after any kind of emergency it is clear that the rural community mostly needs external help. That is the point of this paper: to make new insights about this important issue, and to discuss: “how to provide adequate help in the rural communities and build adequate adaptive and response capacities”. In many countries agriculture and rural tourism are main economic activities in the rural area and its interruption could be the obstacle for implementation of sustainable development. Various stakeholders omit to be aware of this issue. Emergency agencies and many others have to make the comprehensive plan for rural communities (having in mind all its limitations. In the Republic of Serbia rural communities do not have enough capacity for recovery and usually it takes many years after an event. A minimum of an economic recovery standard has to be created for the rural community. It also has to be a specific contingency plan in the future reorganizations of emergency services in Serbia and at the Western Balkan region. It should be one of the priority issues for stakeholders in the near future in disaster risk reduction. Providing equal access to resources to population in the rural community after the extreme weather event has to be the priority task for policy makers and all actors in emergency management.

  3. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education (United States)

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.


    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  4. Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    currently married women reported ever using a method of contraception; 4.4% used a modern method and 2.9% used a traditional method. ... compared to MMR estimates for the southern .... to unmarried young women since religious and.

  5. Family Planning Practices of Rural Community Dwellers in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 28, 2017 ... Convenience sampling method was used. The women were ...... in most household matters, including health matters. Women are often not able ... uptake among young women in Kenya: A qualitative study. BMC. Public Health ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU


    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  7. Conference Planning. (United States)

    Carter, Richard


    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  8. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  9. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena


    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  10. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  11. Women's experiences with family planning. (United States)

    Gupte, M


    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family

  12. Comic books carry health messages to rural children in Honduras. (United States)

    Vigano, O


    This article reports on the use of children as message carriers in a rural water and sanitation project in western Honduras. The Honduran Water and Sanitation Project represents the 1st such effort to have a specific health education component. It was decided to direct the education component toward children because of their important role in providing and handling drinking water and caring for younger members of the family. Rural primary schools surfaced as a potential channel of communication. The comic book format was selected because it is simple enough to be used in the schools without much training, economical to produce (US$0.30/copy), effective and attractive to children, and consistent with the Project's philosophy that dialogue and participation are essential components of health education. Each comic book contains a single-concept message, e.g., 1 cause of water contamination or a method of water purification. The 1st module was pretested in 3 rural schools. Following classroom study of the comic book, correct answers on 5 questions related to the comic book story increased from 59% to 80%. 95% of the children indicated that they liked the characters, and teachers expressed satisfaction with the materials. 1200 copies of the 1st module have been distributed to 30 rural schools, and production plans include 11 additional modules on topics such as prevention of water-related sickness and personal hygiene.

  13. Identification of rural landscape classes through a GIS clustering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Diti


    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology aimed at supporting the rural planning process. The analysis of the state of the art of local and regional policies focused on rural and suburban areas, and the study of the scientific literature in the field of spatial analysis methodologies, have allowed the definition of the basic concept of the research. The proposed method, developed in a GIS, is based on spatial metrics selected and defined to cover various agricultural, environmental, and socio-economic components. The specific goal of the proposed methodology is to identify homogeneous extra-urban areas through their objective characterization at different scales. Once areas with intermediate urban-rural characters have been identified, the analysis is then focused on the more detailed definition of periurban agricultural areas. The synthesis of the results of the analysis of the various landscape components is achieved through an original interpretative key which aims to quantify the potential impacts of rural areas on the urban system. This paper presents the general framework of the methodology and some of the main results of its first implementation through an Italian case study.

  14. Singing about family planning. (United States)

    Emah, E


    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large.

  15. A Heritage Interpretation-Based Itinerary to Enhance Tourist Use of Traditional Rural Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola M. Leanza


    Full Text Available The study describes the planning strategy for a tourist itinerary in rural areas located in South-Eastern Sicily which aimed at promoting cultural rural heritage and diversifying the tourist offer. The planning of the tourist itinerary occurred within an appropriate heritage interpretation strategy as a working method which could facilitate the understanding and social use of the heritage sites located along the itinerary. The tourist itinerary combined significant territory potential such as traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy. It included a starting point; which is a heritage site and an already well known “tourist attraction”, and several other tourist resources selected on the basis of the information derived from the analysis of the profile of the average visitor to the area. An interpretation center, which was located at the heritage site, and several interpretation media placed at each stopping point included in the itinerary supported the tourists during their trip. By promoting traditional rural buildings and enogastronomy, the tourist itinerary represents a significant opportunity for rural diversification and, therefore, can contribute to achieving sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas.

  16. An Appraisal of the Institutional Structure of Rural Tourism in Malaysia: A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Ee GAN


    Full Text Available This conceptual paper seeks to examine the institutional obstacles that affect rural tourism in Malaysia. Identifying the government institutions involved in the planning and development of rural tourism is itself problematic. The jurisdictions of federal agencies and state agencies may overlap, thus resulting in haphazard planning and mismatched objectives. Studies on this area are limited and have become outmoded due to the shifting governmental landscape in the country. The jurisdictional boundaries of various institutions continue to change, thus causing a gap in the identification of responsible government agencies and their corresponding portfolios. An institutional appraisal of rural tourism in Malaysia is therefore necessary. In this regard, the effectiveness of governmental institutions should be evaluated in terms of (a the promotion of environmentally sustainable rural tourism; (b the protection of host community interests; and (c facilitating the effective enforcement of laws and regulations pertaining to rural tourism. The conceptual framework facilitates the development of a responsible rural tourism institutional framework at local, state and national levels.

  17. Leadership development for rural health. (United States)

    Size, Tim


    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  18. Marketing plan


    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika


    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  19. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan


    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  20. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. [Mintec Inc. (US)


    The paper presents a state-of-the-art mine planning program that facilitates data storage and provides easy access to essential mine information. MineSight from Mintec, Inc., and the addition MineSight 3D provide a powerful tool used by major coal companies worldwide, offering modelling of different deposit types and complete planning tools including advanced surface/surface and solid/surface intersection routines. The new MineSight Operations addition helps to streamline the planning process and store raw blasthole data (in acQuire) and essential cut attribute information. 12 figs.

  1. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel


    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  2. The Influence of Family on Educational and Occupational Achievement of Adolescents in Rural Low-Income Areas: An Ecological Perspective. (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee

    Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…

  3. Models of rural disperse electrification by means of renewable energies in Latin America: an alternative proposal based on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, M.; Fuentes, M.; Alvarez, M.


    This paper discusses the overdue change in the processes of rural electrification by means of renewable energies. The actors involve in these processes have failed to contemplate every dimension of this issue: Social, Institutional, Technological, Economical, Financial and Political. We will account for the reason why the concept of sustainability must be closely related to that of local socioeconomic development. Rural electrification must be a vector for social development. It is in this context that it cannot depend exclusively on the market and its actors, but it must be immersed within rural development planning. For this new paradigm to work properly, donor agencies -mainly- should understand the dynamics of socioeconomic development, contemplating the different local characteristics of small rural communities; they should provide genuine financial support within an adequate regulatory framework and active participation should be encouraged, both of the local community and of local enterprises. The sustainability of these initiatives is determined not only by the consideration of the dimensions above but also by the creation of labour possibilities or lack thereof. (authors)

  4. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph


    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  5. Creation of a mobile rural workforce following undergraduate longitudinal rural immersion. (United States)

    Playford, Denese E; Ng, Wen Qi; Burkitt, Tessa


    This study followed the workforce choices of 10-years of graduates from a longitudinal rural immersion programme, which involved living for one academic year in a rural location as a medical student. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia is a whole-of-state Rural Clinical School partnership involving two medical schools and fourteen rural/remote towns. For this longitudinal cohort study, all consenting graduates were contacted annually after graduation, with the outcome measure being rural work location (defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification -Remoteness Area) of any duration. There were 417 consenting graduates. Between 16 and 50% of contacted alumni worked rurally for a period of each post-graduate year. Aggregated over time, the majority took up to 30% of their postgraduate training rurally. There was considerable movement in and out of rural work. About 17% of contacted and practicing graduates were working full time rurally at the 2013 contact point. The majority remained in their state of training. The majority identified with GP and other rural-related colleges, and College-affiliation predicted amount of rural training time. Entry into rural work was equivalent for urban-origin and rural origin alumni, suggesting one year of RCS is sufficient to convert commitment to rural work. Undergraduate rural immersion is sufficient to create a graduate rural workforce that is far more mobile that was previously appreciated.

  6. The Importance of Broadband for Socio-Economic Development: A Perspective from Rural Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Freeman


    Full Text Available Advanced connectivity offers rural communities prospects for socio-economic development. Despite Australia’s national broadband infrastructure plans, inferior availability and quality of rural Internet connections remain persistent issues. This article examines the impact of limited connectivity on rural socio-economic opportunities, drawing from the views of twelve citizens from the Boorowa local government area in New South Wales. The available fixed wireless and satellite connections in Boorowa are slow and unreliable, and remote regions in the municipality are still without any Internet access. Participants identified four key areas in their everyday lives that are impacted by insufficient connectivity: business development, education, emergency communication, and health. Rural citizens often already face challenges in these areas, and infrastructure advancements in urban spaces can exacerbate rural-urban disparities. Participants’ comments demonstrated apprehension that failure to improve connectivity would result in adverse long-term consequences for the municipality. This article suggests that current broadband policy frameworks require strategic adaptations to account for the socio-economic and geographic contexts of rural communities. In order to narrow Australia’s rural-urban digital divide, infrastructure developments should be prioritised in the most underserved regions.

  7. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey. (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy


    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  8. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural areas in DRC. (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu Fidèle; Ndongo, Gahungu Parfait; Messina, Lauren J; Bertrand, Jane T


    Recent research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has shown that over a quarter of women have an unmet need for family planning and that modern contraceptive use is three times higher among urban than rural women. This study focuses on the reasons behind the choices of married men and women to use contraception or not. What are the barriers that have led to low levels of modern contraceptive use among women and men in DRC rural areas? The research team conducted 24 focus groups among women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods and users of modern methods) and husbands (of non-users or users of traditional methods) in six health zones of three geographically dispersed provinces. The key barriers that emerged were poor spousal communication, sociocultural norms (especially the husband's role as primary decision-maker and the desire for a large family), fear of side-effects and a lack of knowledge. Despite these barriers, many women in the study indicated that they were open to adopting a modern family planning method in the future. These findings imply that programming must address mutual comprehension and decision-making among rural men and women alike in order to trigger positive changes in behaviour and perceptions relating to contraceptive use.

  9. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU


    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  10. Mobilization and Adaptation of a Rural Cradle-to-Career Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Zuckerman


    Full Text Available This case study explored the development of a rural cradle-to-career network with a dual focus on the initial mobilization of network members and subsequent adaptations made to maintain mobilization, while meeting local needs. Data sources included interviews with network members, observations of meetings, and documentary evidence. Network-based social capital facilitated mobilization. Where networks were absent and where distrust and different values were evident, mobilization faltered. Three network adaptations were discovered: Special rural community organizing strategies, district-level action planning, and a theory of action focused on out-of-school factors. All three were attributable to the composition of mobilized stakeholders and this network’s rural social geography. These findings illuminate the importance of social geography in the development and advancement of rural cradle-to-career networks.

  11. Developing performance excellence guidance for rural tourism (case study: wangun lestari village, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia) (United States)

    Yopy, Maulana; Sitinjak, M. F.


    In response to Indonesian Ministry of Tourism objective to develop and improve the performance of tourism destination, specifically on rural tourism, Where there is no well-prepared implementation yet by the local government due to constrained human resources and lack of management knowledge and stakeholders. This research aims to develop an integrated rural tourism concept at Wangun Lestari Tourism Village. The Guideline of Rural Tourism Development of Ministry of Tourism, Malcolm Baldrige’s Performance Excellence, SWOT Analysis, and Value Proposition Analysis will be used to help to design the Rural Tourism program. The result of this research is a comprehensive concept of Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer Management System, Knowledge Management, Workforce Engagement, Operation Focus and also Evaluation Metric for Wangun Lestari Tourism Village.

  12. Probleme strategice de dezvoltare în mediul rural din Transilvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel STĂNICĂ


    Full Text Available The importance of the development of the rural space from Romania is closely linked to the high level of rurality of the country, which gives relevance to the problem of development and acknowledges the importance of the rural space as a source of competitive advantage. Currently, the development of the rural space is confronted with specific problems and it ranges from governmental interventions financed from EU money to development led by the local communities. The article strives to analyze the strategic problems encountered by the author during the strategic planning process of more than 20 communes from Transylvania. It also strives to highlight the role of local public administration and of local communities in the process of local development.

  13. Planning Meals (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  14. rurales en Yehualtepec, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Marcial Romero


    Full Text Available Estudios recientes consideran aspectos objetivos y subjetivos para medir la calidad de vida. En el presente estudio el objetivo es cuantificar la calidad de vida de hogares en cuatro localidades de alta marginación en Yehualtepec, Puebla, considerando elementos objetivos y subjetivos, lo que permite identificar factores de riesgo que deben formar parte de la agenda municipal. La metodología aplicada consistió en talleres participativos y una encuesta estructurada en 72 hogares, con ello se construyó un indicador sintético de Calidad de vida. Entre los principales resultados, se encontro que 40% de los hogares sobreviven en condiciones de baja calidad de vida; los factores que explican esa situacion se ubican en las dimensiones subjetiva y objetiva, es decir, material, humana y de seguridad alimentaria. Limitaciones: el trabajo realizado en la región sur del estado de Puebla, aborda la situación de las familias en varias localidades de un municipio rural, con características específicas, representativo de esta zona del estado. Difícilmente resulta pertinente para intentar explicar la situación de todos los municipios con características similares. Quizá esa sea una limitación del estudio, no obstante, es superada por la propuesta metodológica, para medir esa situación, explicarla y atenderla, rescatando lo valioso del documento. Como conclusion se identifican factores objetivos en la diversidad dietética, y la percepcion subjetiva y salud, como factores asociados con calidad de vida en el hogar.

  15. Education plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.


    There is pressing need for education of fusion people and those in the radiation effects community on the role of radiation hardening in radiation diagnostic. There is no plan at present to do this. The plan is to be proposed and developed. The education methods should include distribution of a primer, the proceedings of this workshop, and updated data compilations and talks by experts at the fusion labs, universities, and meetings

  16. business plan


    Luzan, Dmitrij


    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  17. Libyan intuitive for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.


    One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)

  18. Disparities in the Utilization of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon Cancer in Rural Nebraska: A Call for Placement and Training of Rural General Surgeons. (United States)

    Gruber, Kelli; Soliman, Amr S; Schmid, Kendra; Rettig, Bryan; Ryan, June; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu


    Advances in medical technology are changing surgical standards for colon cancer treatment. The laparoscopic colectomy is equivalent to the standard open colectomy while providing additional benefits. It is currently unknown what factors influence utilization of laparoscopic surgery in rural areas and if treatment disparities exist. The objectives of this study were to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with receiving laparoscopic colectomy and to examine the differences between rural and urban patients who received either procedure. This study utilized a linked data set of Nebraska Cancer Registry and hospital discharge data on colon cancer patients diagnosed and treated in the entire state of Nebraska from 2008 to 2011 (N = 1,062). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of receiving the laparoscopic treatment. Rural colon cancer patients were 40% less likely to receive laparoscopic colectomy compared to urban patients. Independent predictors of receiving laparoscopic colectomy were younger age (colon cancer and important disparities exist for rural cancer patients in accessing the specialized treatment. As cancer treatment becomes more specialized, the importance of training and placement of general surgeons in rural communities must be a priority for health care planning and professional training institutions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Community participation to design rural primary healthcare services. (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Nimegeer, Amy


    This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008-10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions.

  20. Population planning broadcasts in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Ali, S A


    Bangladesh's growth rate of 2.36%/year is one of the highest in the world and, if present population trends continue, Bangladesh will have 153 million people by the year 2000. The Government adopted a comprehensive population policy in 1976 and seeks to reduce the population growth rate to 0 by 1992. Bangladesh's population control program further aims to raise the contraceptive acceptance rate from the current level of 14% of eligible couples to 38% by 1985, to raise the number of current contraceptive users from 2.4 to 7.3 million couples, and to achieve a sterilization level of 3.4 million people. Radio Bangladesh, which has been broadcasting programs on family planning since 1965, is playing an important motivational role in this effort. A Population Planning Cell was established within Radio Bangladesh in 1975 and 5 subcells located throughout the country broadcast independent programs on family planning 6 days/week. Evaluative surveys have confirmed the belief that radio is the most popular form of mass communication in rural areas. 47% of respondents in 1 survey identified radio as their main source of information about family planning, although only 12% reported contraceptive usage. An important task for radio in Bangladesh is to convince listeners that family planning practice is not incompatible with Islamic ideals and to overcome other superstitions and misconceptions about contraception.

  1. Scenario planning. (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander


    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  2. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Tizta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  3. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  4. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei


    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  5. Population dynamics and rural poverty. (United States)

    Fong, M S


    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  6. Integrated rural industrialization through biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Role of biogas in rural industrialization in India is explained. The Khadi and Village Industries Commission has installed over 2 lakhs (0.2 million) biogas plants during the last 30 years. A 15 cu.m. capacity plant costs Rs. 35,000/-. It produces 65 tons bio-manure worth Rs. 13,000/- in a year and fuel gas equivalent to 3,285 litres of kerosene worth Rs. 9855/-. It provides employment to 300 man days. In addition to serving as a source of energy and manure, it reduces deforestation, solves rural sanitation problem and maintain environmental equilibrium. Industrial activities suitable for rural areas and which can use biogas as a source of power are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  7. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen


    , identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance...... at the regional level while at the pan-European level there is clearly a need for more policy attention to be given to urban-rural linkages....

  8. NRHM - the panacea for rural health in India: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Bajpai


    Full Text Available There has been news of the Central Government’s flag ship rural health care scheme - National Rural Health Mission (NRHM being given an extension till 2015; albeit there is little talk of what we have learned from the experiences of NRHM till now so as to remove the bottle necks in its implementation. After seven years of implementation NRHM has failed to achieve its stated objectives. This calls for a scrutiny of this failure. This article analyzes fundamental conceptual dilemmas inherent to the Mission to draw lessons for future. The most important lesson that ought to be learnt is that ‘the health of the people is not a standalone phenomenon that can be improved through healthcare alone. It requires a comprehensive action plan encompassing food security, employment and poverty alleviation as well

  9. Pedagogy of the Rural: Implications of Size on Conceptualisations of Rural (United States)

    Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Ludecke, Michelle; Kline, Jodie


    This paper proposes a concept of Pedagogy of the Rural that draws together current rural education theory and practice to illustrate the complexities of rural space and place often overlooked in teacher education more broadly. We firstly examine notions of size, and then we explore how this impacts on the ways in which teachers in rural locations…

  10. Rural Cultural Houses (A New Approach to Rural Youth Work in Iran). (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Cyrus

    Based on field work in rural areas of Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1973-74, an examination of the nature of rural cultural houses in Iran was undertaken. Set up by royal decree in 1968, the rural cultural houses have had as their objective to assist peasantry in general and rural youth in particular to achieve a socially enriched…

  11. Connecting College Learners with Rural Entrepreneurship Opportunities: The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit (United States)

    Frazier, Barbara J.; Niehm, Linda S.; Stoel, Leslie


    The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit (RETU) is designed to acquaint university retailing and hospitality majors with rural entrepreneurship opportunities. The unit is an outcome of a federal grant focused on the contribution of the local retail sector to rural community resilience. The RETU integrates knowledge regarding rural development,…

  12. Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away (United States)

    Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan


    This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

  13. The End of Rural Society and the Future of Rural Sociology. (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    Rural sociology confronts a continuing crisis of identity because of its failure to develop a sociology of agriculture. Historically, despite an initial focus on agriculture, rural sociology became deflected to the analysis of rurality. Recent emphasis of rural sociologists on the turnaround phenomenon is symptomatic, but fails to deal with the…

  14. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia (United States)

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana


    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  15. The role of rural libraries in the attainment of rural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the role that rural libraries could play in the attainment of rural development with a view to accelerate growth in all areas of human endeavors in rural areas of Nigeria. The study took cognizance of inherent problems that undermine the establishment of rural libraries such as funding, illiteracy, clientele ...

  16. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov


    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  17. Energy planning and management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration's final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program

  18. Rural tourism: the content, features and types


    Yuriy Onoyko


    Despite the active development of rural tourism in Ukraine, this phenomenon is still under scientific study nowadays, which has been manifested by the uncertainty of the key terms; by the lack of clear boundaries, which can separate this type of tourism from other types of tourism activities; by debates about the essence and types of rural tourism. After analyzing the available information the author offers own generalized definition of rural tourism. Rural tourism is a specific entertaining ...

  19. Paradigms of rural tourism in Serbia in the function of village revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Medojevic


    Full Text Available Rural regions in Serbia differ considerably in social, economic and demographic characteristics. Basic problems and trends almost all the rural regions share are migrations, poor diversification of economic activities, extensive agriculture, high level of unemployment, lack of employment possibilities, poor and underdeveloped infrastructure, low GDP per capita in comparison to the urban regions and unpolluted environment faced with potential threats . The subject of this paper is to point to the potentials of the rural tourism in Serbia with the aim of village revitalization, as well as its prevention from dying out. Also, the aim of the paper is to stress the fact that the rural tourism is a sustainable model of development and preservation of Serbian village and Serbian peasant from more aspects: economic, tourist, sociological, the spatial planning and ecological ones. Finally, the aim of the paper is to emphasize that it is possible to save village identity by its transformation into ethno village adopting the idea of European ethno villages. Rural tourism in Serbia must become `main` industry` and a generator of sleeping national economy. The main benefits belong to the rural households. Tourist agencies must be engaged in enabling a dialogue between their employees and local representatives. Clients must not only be observers but also critics in the spirit of trust and transparency. A full and true comprehension of the rural tourism role is realized through revealing habits of the host, traditional values rooted in the existing culture, establishment of relations amongst population at the local level. Serbia has favourable conditions for developing rural tourism. It has, in the first place, preserved nature, mild climate, clean air, unpolluted rivers and lakes, rich flora and fauna. At the moment, 11 regional centres (comprising 10-15 municipal offices are engaged in collecting and spreading relevant information for respective target

  20. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility (United States)

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.


    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…