WorldWideScience

Sample records for planning methods

  1. Machine learning methods for planning

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  2. A Systematic, Automated Network Planning Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Åge; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case study conducted to evaluate the viability of a systematic, automated network planning method. The motivation for developing the network planning method was that many data networks are planned in an adhoc manner with no assurance of quality of the solution with respect...... structures, that are ready to implement in a real world scenario, are discussed in the end of the paper. These are in the area of ensuring line independence and complexity of the design rules for the planning method....

  3. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, MD; Geneva, Switzerland: CCP and WHO; 2011; and Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception 2011;83:397–404.

  4. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  5. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  6. METHODS AND TOOLS OF STRATEGY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principles and the methods of strategic planning were shown in the article. We have investigated the tools of strategic analysis, strategy development and enterprise strategic plan. In the implementation of the strategic planning process – the strategic development of the company – we use the analysis of internal and external environment: PEST–analysis, five forces model of Michael Porter, administrative examination, analysis of the “value chain” by M. Porter and system management analysis of Mc Kinsey CVP–analysis (Cost – Volume – Profit, SWOT–analysis. On the basis of the analysis of the company’s internal and external environment, as well as the SWOT–analysis, we have proposed a business strategy. Among all the methods of portfolio analysis in strategic planning, the authors identify three of the most famous ones: the method of the Boston Consulting Group (BCG; model of McKinsey; Model of ADL / LC (a concept of life cycle. We have also substantiated a comprehensive strategic plan, as well as its system implementation and management, because the previously developed strategy was a generalized idea of the direction of the organization. The research made by the authors was based on the use of the following groups of methods: target program; economic-mathematical methods (simulation of queuing systems, theory of production functions, dynamic modeling and methods of network planning

  7. METHODICAL APPROACH TO CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Modrak; Ioan Constantin Dima; Mariana Man

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present some methodical aspects of CSF. Corporate Sustainability Planning (CSP) can be defined as “the process of specific strategies and action plan development to help ensure the long-term goals”. In generally, this presents a complex process and task which includes considering the full range of resources and competencies such as financial, political, administrative and managerial.

  8. METHODICAL APPROACH TO CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Modrak; Ioan Constantin Dima; Mariana Man

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present some methodical aspects of CSF. Corporate Sustainability Planning (CSP) can be defined as “the process of specific strategies and action plan development to help ensure the long-term goals”. In generally, this presents a complex process and task which includes considering the full range of resources and competencies such as financial, political, administrative and managerial.

  9. A novel method for robot path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Qiang; LI Hai-sheng; YANG Qin; LI Ji-gang

    2009-01-01

    Path planning is one of the most important problems in the design of a mobile robot. A novel approach called generalized Voronoi diagrams (GVD) may deal with this matter. First, a method was introduced to normalize the obstacles and present efficient techniques for generating GVDs. Then a best path searching algorithm was presented. Examples implemented were given to indicate the availability of the mentioned algorithms. The approaches in this paper can also be used in applications including visualization, spatial data manipulation, etc.

  10. A Method for Automated Planning of FTTH Access Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a method for automated planning of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access networks is proposed. We introduced a systematic approach for planning access network infrastructure. The GIS data and a set of algorithms were employed to make the planning process more automatic. The method explains...

  11. Multi-level Indoor Path Planning Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a

  12. Improving of Business Planning Using the Method of Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kosteteska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Summarize the experience of using modern methods in the business plan with the application of economic and mathematical modeling. Methodology: Theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the basic principles of economic theory, agricultural economics and scientific research of leading home and foreign scholars on the theory of planning. Originality: This further justifies business planning processes in agriculture from the standpoint of raising economic protection of farmers. The methodology for assessing farm income for planned indicators through the application of fuzzy numbers method in business planning is improved.

  13. Planning Under Uncertainty: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    This ambitious projects that would enhance both the optimization tools and modeling, and increasing computing power based on rigorous mathematical analysis, can have far-reaching impact on large-scale optimization and simulation problems of interest to the Air Force such as military logistics and planning.

  14. Some Methods for Scenario Analysis in Defence Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenarios are an important tool in the strategic planning process, and are increasingly used in both the Defence and business world. This paper...illustrated with small examples. We also demonstrate a single, flexible approach to combining these methods using a typical Defence strategic planning problem

  15. A Systematic, Automated Network Planning Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Åge; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    to consistency and long-term characteristics. The developed method gives significant improvements on these parameters. The case study was conducted as a comparison between an existing network where the traffic was known and a proposed network designed by the developed method. It turned out that the proposed...

  16. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  17. Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in Owo,Nigeria. ... Information obtained from the respondents with the aid of the study instrument ... The reasons for getting pregnant were desire to have more children (79%), and ...

  18. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career stages, support gradual transitions from practice

  19. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -49 years in Uganda: a ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a ... methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method.

  20. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    in real-time. A generator can represent a producer of electricity, a consumer of electricity, or possibly both. Examples of generators are heat pumps, electric vehicles, wind turbines, virtual power plants, solar cells, and conventional fuel-fired thermal power plants. Although this thesis is mainly......This thesis concerns methods and algorithms for power production planning in contemporary and future power systems. Power production planning is a task that involves decisions across different time scales and planning horizons. Hours-ahead to days-ahead planning is handled by solving a mixed......-integer linear program for unit commitment and economic dispatch of the system power generators. We focus on a minutes-ahead planning horizon, where unit commitment decisions are fixed. Economic model predictive control (EMPC) is employed to determine an optimal dispatch for a portfolio of power generators...

  1. Planning of operation & maintenance using risk and reliability based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Operation and maintenance (OM) of offshore wind turbines contributes with a substantial part of the total levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The objective of this paper is to present an application of risk- and reliability-based methods for planning of OM. The theoretical basis is presented...... and illustrated by an example, namely for planning of inspections and maintenance of wind turbine blades. A life-cycle approach is used where the total expected cost in the remaining lifetime is minimized. This maintenance plan is continuously updated during the lifetime using information from previous...... inspections and from condition monitoring with time intervals between inspections and maintenance / repair options as the decision parameters....

  2. OSM-ORIENTED METHOD OF MULTIMODAL ROUTE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  3. Novel methods for treatment planning in Ion Beam Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabal Arango, Gonzalo Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in ion beam therapy is the mitigation of the impact of uncertainties in the quality of treatment plans. Some of the strategies used to reduce this impact are based on concepts developed decades ago for photon therapy. In this thesis novel methods and concepts, tailored to the specifi c needs of ion beam therapy, are proposed which reduce the effect of uncertainties on treatment plans. This is done in two steps: First, we revisit the concept of the Planning Target...

  4. An assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfu LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the combination explosion problem and the blind searching problem in assembly sequence planning of complex products, an assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm is proposed. In the composite algorithm, a sufficient number of feasible assembly sequences are generated using formalization reasoning algorithm as the initial population of genetic algorithm. Then fuzzy knowledge of assembly is integrated into the planning process of genetic algorithm and ant algorithm to get the accurate solution. At last, an example is conducted to verify the feasibility of composite algorithm.

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL AND METHODIC SUPPORT TO COMMERCIAL BANK STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Korostyliov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational and methodic support to bank activity strategic planning comprises making prospects for main bank finance activity indices, their correction and examination as well as control over their dynamics. There are specific features of organization of bank strategic planning at present stage of development of Russian economics. Main stages of this process and principles on which this study should be based are discussed. Banking environment information level should be taken into account, feasibility testing of organizational planning systems having to be undertaken in practice.

  6. Sustainable green urban planning: the workbench spatial quality method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Timmermans, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Amersfoort Local Municipality implemented the workbench spatial quality method (referred to as workbench method) to enhance participation in green-planning processes. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy project (made possible by I

  7. Sustainable green urban planning: the workbench spatial quality method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, Derk Jan; Timmermans, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Amersfoort Local Municipality implemented the workbench spatial quality method (referred to as workbench method) to enhance participation in green-planning processes. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban Economy project (made possible by

  8. A Hybrid 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for path planning in 3D spaces. We propose an improvement to a near-optimal 2D off-line algorithm and a flexible normalized on-line fuzzy controller to find shortest paths. Our method, targeted to low altitude domains, is simple and efficient. Our preliminary resu...

  9. Planning eco-industrial parks: An analysis of Dutch planning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.G.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2003-01-01

    In theory, eco-industrial parks can make significant improvements in the environment. In that light, this article analyses six planning methods currently in use in the Netherlands. The most salient findings are that these methods lack an explicit vision of sustainability, they do not give due consid

  10. Planning eco-industrial parks: An analysis of Dutch planning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, M.G.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Glasbergen, P.

    2003-01-01

    In theory, eco-industrial parks can make significant improvements in the environment. In that light, this article analyses six planning methods currently in use in the Netherlands. The most salient findings are that these methods lack an explicit vision of sustainability, they do not give due

  11. A New Method of Global Path Planning for AGV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI En-xiu; HUANG Yu-mei

    2006-01-01

    Path planning is important in the research of a mobile robot (MR). Methods for it have been used in different applications. An automated guided vehicle(AGV), which is a kind of MR, is used in a flexible manufacturing system(FMS). Path planning for it is essential to improve the efficiency of FMS. A new method was proposed with known obstacle space FMS in this paper. FMS is described by the Augmented Pos Matrix of a Machine (APMM) and Relative Pos Matrix of Machines (RPMM), which is smaller. The optimum path can be obtained according to the probability of the path and the maximal probability path. The suggested algorithm of path planning was good performance through simulation result: simplicity, saving time and reliability.

  12. An Agent Interaction Based Method for Nonlinear Process Plan Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qinglu; WU Bo; GUO Guang

    2006-01-01

    This article puts forward a scheduling method for nonlinear process plan shop floor. Task allocation and load balance are realized by bidding mechanism. Though the agent interaction process, the execution of tasks is determined and the coherence of manufacturing decision is verified. The employment of heuristic index can help to optimize the system performance.

  13. Motion Planning for Robots with Topological Dimension Reduction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the realization of robotic motion planning,especially Findpath problem,which is a basic motion planning problem that arises in the development of robotics.Findpat means:Give the initial and desired final configurations of a robotic arm in 3-dimensional space,and give descriptions of the obstacles in the space,determine whether there is a continuous collision-free motion of the robotic arm from one configura tion to the other and find such a motion if it exists.There are several branches of approach in motion planning area,but in reality the important things are feasibility,efficiency and accuracy of the method.In this paper according to the concepts of Configuration Space(C-Space)and Rotation Mapping Graph(RMG) discussed in [1], a topological method named Dimension Reduction Method(DRM)for investigating the connectivity of the RMG(or the topologic structure of the RMG)is presented by using topologic technique.Based on this approach the Findpath problem is thus transformed to that of finding a connected way in a finite Characteristic Network(CN),The method has shown great potentiality in practice.Here a simulation system is designed to embody DRM[1-2] and it is in sight that DRM can be adopted in the first overall planning of real robot system in the near future.

  14. Heuristic methods for shared backup path protection planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    present heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5% was achieved for more than half of the benchmark instances (and a gap of less...

  15. Analysis of construction dynamic plan using fuzzy critical path method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurij Kazimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.

  16. Global path planning methods of UUV in coastal environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Honghan; LIU Xiaofu; YAN Zheping; ZHOU Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    In coastal environment,the motion of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) is influenced signiifcantly by complex current. The operational performance of UUV can be greatly improved when the impact of ocean current is con-sidered. A global path planning method of the static obstacle environmental space is addressed in the paper. Firstly,accord-ing to the typically coastal vortex,a model of ocean current is proposed and the influence to the motion of UUV is analyzed. Secondly,to satisfy the rapid requirement in path planning,a heuristic A*algorithm is used to design global planning path with multiple constraints. Besides,to meet the UUV’s smooth path requirement,Bezier curve theory is applied. Simula-tion experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm in the steady current and vortex environment.

  17. Models and Methods for Urban Power Distribution Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余贻鑫; 王成山; 葛少云; 肖俊; 严雪飞; 黄纯华

    2004-01-01

    The models, methods and their application experiences of a practical GIS(geographic information system)-based computer decision-making support system of urban power distribution network planning with seven subsystems, termed CNP, are described. In each subsystem there is at least one or one set of practical mathematical methobs. Some new models and mathematical methods have been introduced. In the development of GNP the idea of cognitive system engineering has been insisted on, which claims that human and computer intelligence should be combined together to solve the complex engineering problems cooperatively. Practical applications have shown that not only the optimal plan can be automatically reached with many complicated factors considered, but also the computation,analysis and graphic drawing burden can be released considerably.

  18. District nursing workforce planning: a review of the methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bernie; Kane, Kay; Curran, Carol

    2008-11-01

    District nursing services in Northern Ireland face increasing demands and challenges which may be responded to by effective and efficient workforce planning and development. The aim of this paper is to critically analyse district nursing workforce planning and development methods, in an attempt to find a suitable method for Northern Ireland. A systematic analysis of the literature reveals four methods: professional judgement; population-based health needs; caseload analysis and dependency-acuity. Each method has strengths and weaknesses. Professional judgement offers a 'belt and braces' approach but lacks sensitivity to fluctuating patient numbers. Population-based health needs methods develop staffing algorithms that reflect deprivation and geographical spread, but are poorly understood by district nurses. Caseload analysis promotes equitable workloads but poorly performing district nursing localities may continue if benchmarking processes only consider local data. Dependency-acuity methods provide a means of equalizing and prioritizing workload but are prone to district nurses overstating factors in patient dependency or understating carers' capability. In summary a mixed method approach is advocated to evaluate and adjust the size and mix of district nursing teams using empirically determined patient dependency and activity-based variables based on the population's health needs.

  19. Using Multicriteria Methods in Environmental Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdelma, Risto; Salminen, Pekka; Hokkanen, Joonas

    2000-12-01

    In environmental planning and decision processes several alternatives are analyzed in terms of multiple noncommensurate criteria, and many different stakeholders with conflicting preferences are involved. Based on our experience in real-life applications, we discuss how multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) methods can be used successfully in such processes. MCDA methods support these processes by providing a framework for collecting, storing, and processing all relevant information, thus making the decision process traceable and transparent. It is therefore possible to understand and explain why, under several conflicting preferences, a particular decision was made. The MCDA framework also makes the requirements for new information explicit, thus supporting the allocation of resources for the process.

  20. Researching on quantitative project management plan and implementation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ren, Aihua; Liu, Xiangshang

    2017-08-01

    With the practice of high maturity process improvement, more and more attention has been paid to CMMI and other process improvement frameworks. The key to improve the process of high maturity is to quantify the process. At present, the method of improving the software process of high maturity is lack of specific introduction to the corresponding improvement link or process implementation. In this paper, based on the current improvement in the quantitative management of the framework and statistical analysis technical of the high maturity recommended for the enterprise to improve the process of planning and implementation methods. These methods provide quantitative process management for the enterprise, as well as quantitative management of the project to provide a systematic process, and finally evaluate the effectiveness of quantitative management projects. Finally, this method is used to verify the effectiveness of the framework in guiding the enterprise to improve the process of high maturity.

  1. Risky Group Decision-Making Method for Distribution Grid Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.

  2. Adjoint method for the optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; HU Fei; ZHU Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources, which optimizes the economic object without violating environmental constraints, is an important and hard task to be conquered. In this paper, an adjoint method is developed to solve the problem. The penalty function is introduced to deal with the environmental inequality constraints, and Lagrange function is constructed to derive the adjoint equation and the gradient of the object function. In this means, the gradient of the object function can be calculated by solving the adjoint equation, and the information from the gradient is used to make the object function descend and approach to an optimal solution after some iterations. A two-dimensional, simplified model is used for numerical experiments. The theoretical derivations are verified by the results of the experiments. Furthermore, the adjoint method is shown to be of excellent convergence and efficiency, which is adaptive to the fast development of air quality numerical models and super computers.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Richard R.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Nigg, David W.; Gougar, Hans D.; Johnson, Richard W; Terry, William K.; Oh, Chang H.; McEligot, Donald W.; Johnsen, Gary W.; McCreery, Glenn E.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Sterbentz, James W.; Herring, J. Steve; Taiwo, Temitope A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Pointer, William D.; Yang, Won S.; Farmer, Michael T.; Khalil, Hussein S.; Feltus, Madeline A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  7. A Path Planning Method for Robotic Belt Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; YUN Chao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible contact and machining with wide strip are two prominent advantages for the robotic belt grinding system,which can be widely used to improve the surface quality and machining efficiency while finishing the workpieces with sculptured surfaces.There lacks research on grinding path planning with the constraint of curvature.With complicated contact between the contact wheel and the workpiece,the grinding paths for robot can be obtained by the theory of contact kinematics.The grinding process must satisfy the universal demands of the belt grinding technologies,and the most important thing is to make the contact wheel conform to the local geometrical features on the contact area.For the local surfaces with small curvature,the curve length between the neighboring cutting locations becomes longer to ensure processing efficiency.Otherwise,for the local areas with large curvature,the curve length becomes shorter to ensure machining accuracy.A series of planes are created to intersect with the target surface to be ground,and the corresponding sectional profile curves are obtained.For each curve,the curve length between the neighboring cutting points is optimized by inserting a cutter location at the local area with large curvatures.A method of generating the grinding paths including curve length spacing optimization is set up.The validity is completely approved by the off-line simulation,and during the grinding experiments with the method,the quality of surface is improved.The path planning method provides a theoretical support for the smooth and accuracy path of robotic surface grinding.

  8. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-10-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  9. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  10. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-08-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  11. Planning Pharmacies: An Operational Method to Find the Best Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tondelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the spatial distribution of the pharmacies on the territory is closely connected to urban planning and to services supply. In Italy, the regulatory change that took place in 2012, triggered partly by the need to adhere more to a constantly changing economic system, has led to a revision of the existing situation, consisting both on the method to quantify the pharmacies distribution and on the efficiency of the service. If Law 27/2012 has effectively allowed municipalities to increase the number of pharmacies that they can settle on the municipal territory, it has also started a process of rethinking the logic of pharmacies location and of their catchment areas. In this framework, the present paper aims to discuss the merits of a regulatory evolutions that sparked the process of liberalization of locations, integrating the law guidelines and goals with an operating logic process, usable and useful to translate goals into planning actions in a continuous dialogue between law and territory, constraints and opportunities, equity and accessibility of the care services. Following this logic operations, we have investigated the urban context of Castelfranco Emilia, assuming the location of new offices on the basis of pharmaceutical analyzes.

  12. Study on Top-Down Estimation Method of Software Project Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-guang; L(U) Ting-jie; ZHAO Yu-mei

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies a new software project planning method under some actual project data in order to make software project plans more effective. From the perspective of system theory, our new method regards a software project plan as an associative unit for study. During a top-down estimation of a software project, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) method and analogy method are combined to estimate its size, then effort estimation and specific schedules are obtained according to distributions of the phase effort. This allows a set of practical and feasible planning methods to be constructed. Actual data indicate that this set of methods can lead to effective software project planning.

  13. 29 CFR 4281.16 - Benefit valuation methods-plans closing out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit valuation methods-plans closing out. 4281.16... SPONSOR FOLLOWING MASS WITHDRAWAL Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.16 Benefit valuation methods—plans closing out. (a) Applicability. For purposes of the annual valuation required by section...

  14. A hybrid TOPSIS-BSC method for strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For years, tangible assets used to be the most important precious wealth of organizations. However, the recent advances in technology has changed this concept and today, intangible assets such as human resources, customers, processes are playing essential roles on making strategies. In this paper, we present a study to setup appropriate strategies using the implementation of balanced score card in four perspectives of customers, processes, learning and financial. The proposed study of this paper gathers important factors through three different brainstorming sessions and prioritize them using TOPSIS method. Based on the results of MCDM technique, selecting appropriate target market for penetration is the number one priority followed by having good accounting system and preparing for more diversified production. These are the most important items influencing strategic planning. Therefore, the study uses BSC for the first two important strategies and discusses possible actions for productivity improvement.

  15. A gait planning method applied to hexapod biomimetic robot locomotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Fu; Yan Jihong; Zang Xizhe; Zhao Jie

    2009-01-01

    In order to fulfill the goal of autonomous walking on rough terrain, a distributed gait planning method applied to hexapod biomimetic robot locomotion is proposed based on the research effort of gait coordination mechanism of stick insect. The mathematical relation of walking velocity and gait pattern was depicted, a set of local rules operating between adjacent legs were put forward, and a distributed network of local rules for gait control was constructed. With the interaction of adjacent legs, adaptive adjustment of phase sequence fluctuation of walking legs resulting from change of terrain conditions or variety of walking speed was implemented to generate statically stable gait. In the simulation experiments, adaptive adjustment of inter-leg phase sequence and smooth transition of velocity and gait pattern were realized, and static stableness was ensured simultaneously, which provided the hexapod robot with the capability of walking on rough terrain stably and expeditiously.

  16. A New Intelligent Airplane Landing Planning Method in Congested Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dastgerdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays considering many advantages of air traveling, we notice that traffic congestion has significantly increased in airspace of countries, and it is expected that this growth rate, increases even more in the forthcoming years.This growth rate and different limitations posed on developing some airports led to the problem of landing airplanes to become one of the most important issues formed in the field of aviation. In this paper, in the form of a new approach based on CPSO algorithm for intelligent landing planning, determining optimal landing times, optimal allocation of runways, and at last the order of successive landings of planes has been done in a way that appropriately fulfills the main goal of the problem (minimizing the total flights delays; thus helping significantly to controlling air traffic congestion in airports approaches. The simulation results show that compared to the last presented methods, including methods based on genetic algorithms, GLS and Bionomic, has decreased the total amounts of flight delays considerably. Getting zero for total amount of flight delays for the two problems with real data of DFW airport in Texas, United States, confirms the more capability of CPSO algorithm compared to the other intelligent methods for obtaining optimal solutions to the problem.

  17. Development of methods for DSM and distribution automation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P. [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Demand-Side Management (DSM) is usually an utility (or sometimes governmental) activity designed to influence energy demand of customers (both level and load variation). It includes basic options like strategic conservation or load growth, peak clipping. Load shifting and fuel switching. Typical ways to realize DSM are direct load control, innovative tariffs, different types of campaign etc. Restructuring of utility in Finland and increased competition in electricity market have had dramatic influence on the DSM. Traditional ways are impossible due to the conflicting interests of generation, network and supply business and increased competition between different actors in the market. Costs and benefits of DSM are divided to different companies, and different type of utilities are interested only in those activities which are beneficial to them. On the other hand, due to the increased competition the suppliers are diversifying to different types of products and increasing number of customer services partly based on DSM are available. The aim of this project was to develop and assess methods for DSM and distribution automation planning from the utility point of view. The methods were also applied to case studies at utilities

  18. Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources; Metodiske problemstillinger ved Samlet plan for vassdrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowitz, Einar

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the most expensive projects. This report discusses the methods used in this Master Plan to classify the projects. The question whether the assessments of the environmental disadvantages of hydropower development are reasonable is approached in two ways: (1) Compare the environmental costs imbedded in the Plan with direct assessments, and (2) Discuss the appropriateness of the methodology used for environmental evaluations in the Plan. The report concludes that (1) the environmental costs that can be derived from the ranking in the Plan are significantly greater than those following from direct evaluations, (2) the differences are generally so great that one may ask whether the methods used in the Plan overestimate the real environmental costs, (3) it seems to have been difficult to make a unified assessment of the environmental disadvantages, (4) the Plan has considered the economic impact on agriculture and forestry very roughly and indirectly, which may have contributed to overestimated environmental costs of hydropower development. 20 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. SU-E-T-502: Initial Results of a Comparison of Treatment Plans Produced From Automated Prioritized Planning Method and a Commercial Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, P; Chen, Y [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hong, L; Apte, A; Yang, J; Mechalakos, J; Mageras, G; Hunt, M; Deasy, J [Washington University in St. Louis (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose We developed an automated treatment planning system based on a hierarchical goal programming approach. To demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we report the comparison of prostate treatment plans produced from the automated treatment planning system with those produced by a commercial treatment planning system. Methods In our approach, we prioritized the goals of the optimization, and solved one goal at a time. The purpose of prioritization is to ensure that higher priority dose-volume planning goals are not sacrificed to improve lower priority goals. The algorithm has four steps. The first step optimizes dose to the target structures, while sparing key sensitive organs from radiation. In the second step, the algorithm finds the best beamlet weight to reduce toxicity risks to normal tissue while holding the objective function achieved in the first step as a constraint, with a small amount of allowed slip. Likewise, the third and fourth steps introduce lower priority normal tissue goals and beam smoothing. We compared with prostate treatment plans from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center developed using Eclipse, with a prescription dose of 72 Gy. A combination of liear, quadratic, and gEUD objective functions were used with a modified open source solver code (IPOPT). Results Initial plan results on 3 different cases show that the automated planning system is capable of competing or improving on expert-driven eclipse plans. Compared to the Eclipse planning system, the automated system produced up to 26% less mean dose to rectum and 24% less mean dose to bladder while having the same D95 (after matching) to the target. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Pareto optimal treatment plans can be generated automatically without a trial-and-error process. The solver finds an optimal plan for the given patient, as opposed to database-driven approaches that set parameters based on geometry and population modeling.

  20. Planning for Challenging Behaviors: A Method to the Madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Gia S.

    Student behavior problems have been found to be the most significant and frequently addressed concern of rural educators. A model was developed in response to the needs of rural educators in West Virginia for planning, documenting, implementing, and monitoring behavior plans for students with emotional and behavior problems. The first step…

  1. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    use among married vs. engaged/unmarried women (aOR 1.64), multiparous vs. nulliparous (aOR 4.45) and women who ... KEY WORDS: Family planning, contraception, South Africa, microbicides ...... use: a systematic literature review.

  2. 29 CFR 2520.104-4 - Alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension plans. 2520.104-4 Section 2520.104-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... certain successor pension plans. (a) General. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, this section sets forth an alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans in which some...

  3. A dosimetric comparison of four treatment planning methods for high grade glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert W

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade gliomas (HGG are typically treated with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Three dimensional (3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning is still the main stay of treatment for these patients. New treatment planning methods suggest better dose distributions and organ sparing but their clinical benefit is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to compare normal tissue sparing and tumor coverage using four different radiotherapy planning methods in patients with high grade glioma. Methods Three dimensional conformal (3D, sequential boost IMRT, integrated boost (IB IMRT and Tomotherapy (TOMO treatment plans were generated for 20 high grade glioma patients. T1 and T2 MRI abnormalities were used to define GTV and CTV with 2 and 2.5 cm margins to define PTV1 and PTV2 respectively. Results The mean dose to PTV2 but not to PTV1 was less then 95% of the prescribed dose with IB and IMRT plans. The mean doses to the optic chiasm and the ipsilateral globe were highest with 3D plans and least with IB plans. The mean dose to the contralateral globe was highest with TOMO plans. The mean of the integral dose (ID to the brain was least with the IB plan and was lower with IMRT compared to 3D plans. The TOMO plans had the least mean D10 to the normal brain but higher mean D50 and D90 compared to IB and IMRT plans. The mean D10 and D50 but not D90 were significantly lower with the IMRT plans compared to the 3D plans. Conclusion No single treatment planning method was found to be superior to all others and a personalized approach is advised for planning and treating high-grade glioma patients with radiotherapy. Integral dose did not reflect accurately the dose volume histogram (DVH of the normal brain and may not be a good indicator of delayed radiation toxicity.

  4. Probleme und Moeglichkeiten der Planung von Unterrichtsmethoden (Problems and Possibilities in the Planning of Teaching Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Juergen

    1975-01-01

    No single teaching method can solve all problems. This is illustrated with some examples of typical forms of planning, from which are extracted some requisites for a definition of the concept "teaching method," and for the planning of teaching methods. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Method for measuring the alignment between information technology strategic planning and actions of information technology governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Lúcio Melre da; Souza Neto, João

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance...

  6. Method for Measuring the Alignment Between Information Technology Strategic Planning and Actions of Information Technology Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcio Melre da Silva; João Souza Neto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance...

  7. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad

    2016-09-01

    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  8. FIM FRAME: a method for assessing and improving emergency plans for floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lumbroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade Europe has been hit by a number of severe flood events. Reviews of recent large flood events in England and France have indicated that there is room for improvement in the emergency planning for floods. Methods that can be used for the systematic assessment and improvement of emergency plans are extensively documented in readily available literature. However, those that do exist are often limited to appraising the content of the plans rather than the process that the plan should guide. This paper describes research to develop a systematic method for assessing and improving emergency plans, which is called the FIM FRAME method. The development of the method was informed by research carried out with stakeholders in France, the Netherlands and England, as well as an appraisal of available tools that can be used to develop and improve plans, and an analysis of a selection of flood emergency plans from the three countries. One of the fundamental requirements of the FIM FRAME method was that it should be able to be applied by the relevant stakeholders to a range of emergency plans that mainly focus on flooding. The method comprises a series of steps (known as Appraise, Tackle and Implement that can assist stakeholders with assessing and improving emergency plans. The method was piloted in the three countries and then refined following feedback from end users. This paper describes the development of the FIM FRAME method and its application in three case studies affected by different types of floods.

  9. Efficient Kinect Sensor-Based Reactive Path Planning Method for Autonomous Mobile Robots in Dynamic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuvshinjargal, Doopalam; Lee, Deok Jin [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, an efficient dynamic reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in a dynamic environment is proposed. The purpose of the proposed method is to improve the robustness of autonomous robot motion planning capabilities within dynamic, uncertain environments by integrating a virtual plane-based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion-based obstacle detection approach. The dynamic reactive motion planning method assumes a local observer in the virtual plane, which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary ones proving the speed and orientation information between the robot and obstacles. In addition, the sensor fusion-based obstacle detection technique allows the pose estimation of moving obstacles using a Kinect sensor and sonar sensors, thus improving the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles in hostile dynamic environments.

  10. Ontologies and Methods of Qualitative Research in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rabino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research can produce vast amounts of data and uses analytical categories to describe and explain social phenomena; several software packages are designed for qualitative data analysis and enable a complex organization of data. The study tests the capacity of new technology to build a formal ontology from qualitative data, in urban planning.

  11. HISTORICAL PROCEDURES AND G-DSG METHOD BASED MANUFACTURING PLANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Oriented to CAD/CAM seamless integration, this paper presents an idea for synthetically considering the qualitative history model, which represents the whole course of modeling, and the quantitative geometry model, which contains the extended Brep model, CSG and feature pedigree. History model building captures in background the dynamic interactive definition of engineering requirement and then explicitly conveys the original intention to successive application layers, which is conductive to the decision support of manufacturing planning in not only automatic geometry re-constructing but also machining set-up. G-DSG theory as an earlier achievement is applied to generate the topology-independent generalized mid-model as an input to manufacturing planning, which is therefore simplified and its accuracy is simultaneously improved. Manufacturing planning lays emphasis on optimizing the mapping in both geometry and function from part itself to detail machining scheme. Comparatively, process planning pays more attention to the mapping to those items like tool, fixture, etc. Theoretically, such an idea is also beneficial to realizing the parametric NC machining trajectory generation and maintaining its dynamic consistency with the update of the design model.

  12. A code for hadrontherapy treatment planning with the voxelscan method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, S; Bourhaleb, F; Cirio, R; Derkaoui, J; Gallice, B; Hamal, M; Marchetto, F; Rolando, V; Viscomi, S

    2000-11-01

    A code for the implementation of treatment plannings in hadrontherapy with an active scan beam is presented. The package can determine the fluence and energy of the beams for several thousand voxels in a few minutes. The performances of the program have been tested with a full simulation.

  13. Resampling: an optimization method for inverse planning in robotic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikard, Achim; Schlaefer, Alexander; Adler, John R

    2006-11-01

    By design, the range of beam directions in conventional radiosurgery are constrained to an isocentric array. However, the recent introduction of robotic radiosurgery dramatically increases the flexibility of targeting, and as a consequence, beams need be neither coplanar nor isocentric. Such a nonisocentric design permits a large number of distinct beam directions to be used in one single treatment. These major technical differences provide an opportunity to improve upon the well-established principles for treatment planning used with GammaKnife or LINAC radiosurgery. With this objective in mind, our group has developed over the past decade an inverse planning tool for robotic radiosurgery. This system first computes a set of beam directions, and then during an optimization step, weights each individual beam. Optimization begins with a feasibility query, the answer to which is derived through linear programming. This approach offers the advantage of completeness and avoids local optima. Final beam selection is based on heuristics. In this report we present and evaluate a new strategy for utilizing the advantages of linear programming to improve beam selection. Starting from an initial solution, a heuristically determined set of beams is added to the optimization problem, while beams with zero weight are removed. This process is repeated to sample a set of beams much larger compared with typical optimization. Experimental results indicate that the planning approach efficiently finds acceptable plans and that resampling can further improve its efficiency.

  14. Dueling Scorecards: How Two Colleges Utilize the Popular Planning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, Howard; Eckles, Jay

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard is a planning model used extensively in business to provide direction and accountability to an organization. Despite the demonstrated success of the model, it has not been widely used in higher education. This article compares and contrasts the use of the Balanced Scorecard by two small, private colleges. The article…

  15. A hybrid Planning Method for Transmission Network in a Deregulated Enviroment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Dong, Zhaoyang; Poulsen, Kit

    2006-01-01

    The reconstruction of power industries has brought fundamental changes to both power system operation and planning. This paper presents a new planning method using a multi-objective optimization (MOOP) technique, as well as human knowledge, to expand the transmission network in open-access schemes....... The method starts with a candidate pool of feasible expansion plans. Consequent selection of the best candidates is carried out through a MOOP approach, of which multiple objectives are tackled simultaneously, aiming at integrating the market operation and planning as one unified process in context...

  16. Planning and Optimization Methods for Active Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbey, Chad; Baitch, Alex; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    ”. This report assesses the various requirements to facilitate the transition towards active distribution systems (ADSs). Specifically, the report starts from a survey of requirements of planning methodologies and identifies a new framework and methodologies for short, medium and long term models for active...... in the distribution business since the exploitation of existing assets with Advanced Automation and Control may be a valuable alternative to network expansion or reinforcement. Information and communication technology (ICT) cannot be considered as a simple add-on of the power system and simultaneous analysis (co...

  17. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity.

  18. Autonomous guided vehicles methods and models for optimal path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2015-01-01

      This book provides readers with extensive information on path planning optimization for both single and multiple Autonomous Guided Vehicles (AGVs), and discusses practical issues involved in advanced industrial applications of AGVs. After discussing previously published research in the field and highlighting the current gaps, it introduces new models developed by the authors with the goal of reducing costs and increasing productivity and effectiveness in the manufacturing industry. The new models address the increasing complexity of manufacturing networks, due for example to the adoption of flexible manufacturing systems that involve automated material handling systems, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, and automated inspection stations, while also considering the uncertainty and stochastic nature of automated equipment such as AGVs. The book discusses and provides solutions to important issues concerning the use of AGVs in the manufacturing industry, including material flow optimization with A...

  19. Forefoot morphotype study and planning method for forefoot osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Michel; Besse, Jean-Luc; Ragusa, Mathieu; Berthonnaud, Eric

    2003-12-01

    In the reconstruction of the hip, knee, or any other joint, preoperative planning is necessary for avoiding mistakes during surgery. Since 1995, the authors have been doing this before forefoot surgery to increase the accuracy of the surgery. As much as possible, they try to correct only the lesion and to avoid preventive or extensive surgery on adjacent rays, except if the correction leads to a modified dysharmonious new morphotype with high risk of transfer lesion. The tolerance length seems to be 2 mm, particularly on the middle metatarsals (M2 and M3). This surgery should be performed only if the midfoot and backfoot are correct and if the gastrocnemius muscle has been checked on to eliminate a retraction needing stretching exercises before and generally after surgery.

  20. Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Urban and Regional Planning. Exchange Bibliography No. 136.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalle, Nirmala devi

    This bibliography contains works that illustrate and apply multivariate statistical methods in the analysis of empirical data in the field of urban and regional planning. The bibliography has been designed for use by planning students and the professional planner. The first section of the bibliography lists some elementary and intermediate level…

  1. APPLICATION OF METHODS OF NETWORK PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenskaya T. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to searches of the methods of planning of difficult processes which are most productive and promote creation of absolutely new ways of network planning and management. In the 60th of the XX century works on development of network planning started arising in Russia. They began to be applied in construction and scientific development, and further in other areas of a national economy. Network planning and management on modeling of process by means of the network schedule is organized. It is a set of calculation methods of organized and control actions of planning. For the solution of a task it is necessary to carry out quite large number of various works. In our article we want to study methods of application of network planning on the example of field works of the company called "Zarya". To make the plan of works on implementation of the field works consisting of ten separate researches and operations it is necessary to describe it by means of mathematical model. Such means of the description of projects is the network model. In the article the technique of creation of the network plan of crops of winter wheat of Zarya company is offered. The system of calculation of probability of timely performance of work is given

  2. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  3. UAV path planning using artificial potential field method updated by optimal control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-bo; Luo, Guan-chen; Mei, Yue-song; Yu, Jian-qiao; Su, Xiao-long

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning problem is an important assignment in the UAV mission planning. Based on the artificial potential field (APF) UAV path planning method, it is reconstructed into the constrained optimisation problem by introducing an additional control force. The constrained optimisation problem is translated into the unconstrained optimisation problem with the help of slack variables in this paper. The functional optimisation method is applied to reform this problem into an optimal control problem. The whole transformation process is deduced in detail, based on a discrete UAV dynamic model. Then, the path planning problem is solved with the help of the optimal control method. The path following process based on the six degrees of freedom simulation model of the quadrotor helicopters is introduced to verify the practicability of this method. Finally, the simulation results show that the improved method is more effective in planning path. In the planning space, the length of the calculated path is shorter and smoother than that using traditional APF method. In addition, the improved method can solve the dead point problem effectively.

  4. An application of TOPSIS method for ranking different strategic planning methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Esfandiari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is one of the most popular methods for setting up long-term objectives, which normally deals with various criteria. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS is a multi-criteria decision analysis method for ranking different alternatives based on various criteria. The method has been widely used among practitioners in different industries. This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different business development strategies for information technology improvement. The study considers five different strategies including Critical Success Factors Analysis, Business Systems Planning, Porter's forces model, SWOT analysis, Value chain Analysis and MIN and rank them based on TOPSIS technique. The results of the implementation of TOPSIS has indicated that MIN method is ranked first as the most important factor followed by Business Systems Planning, Porter's forces model, Value chain Analysis, SWOT and CSF for development of strategic planning for information technology in municipality organization.

  5. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP. However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.

  6. A Rough Set GA-based Hybrid Method for Robot Path Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Dong Wu; Ying Zhang; Meng-Xin Li; Yong Yue

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method based on rough sets and genetic algorithms, is proposed to improve the speed of robot path planning. Decision rules are obtained using rough set theory. A series of available paths are produced by training obtained minimal decision rules. Path populations are optimised by using genetic algorithms until the best path is obtained. Experiment results show that this hybrid method is capable of improving robot path planning speed.

  7. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Women Attending at Amtullabhai Family Planning Clinic in Dar es salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Mbando, Apaisaria Humphrey

    2011-01-01

    Contraceptive prevalence in Tanzania is low despite high knowledge of contraception. In order to understand the existing barriers, it is important to find out reasons affecting contraceptive method choices. The objective of this study was to assess contraceptive method choice among women attending at Amtullabhai family planning clinic in Dar es Salaam. A cross- sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2010 at Amtullabhai family planning clinic, Ilala District in Dar es Sala...

  8. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) covers a large share of the heat market. In these countries, the best locations for DH systems have already been found. Therefore, the challenge for these countries is to find expansion potentials for existing DH. The expansion to less ideal areas requires...... more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists...... of three parts and assesses the costs of heat production, distribution, and transmission. The model was also applied to an actual case in order to show how it can be used. The model shows many improvements in the method for the assessment of distribution costs and transmission costs. Most notable...

  9. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-08-19

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives.

  10. The search conference as a method in planning community health promotion actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Magnus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives.

  11. REAL-TIME MOTION PLANNING METHOD BASED ON NEURAL NETWORKS FOR MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The motion planning of multiple mobile robots undertaking individual tasks in the same environment is studied. A motion planning method based on neural networks is proposed. By storing fuzzy rules in neural networks the method can fully make use of the association ability and high processing speed of neural networks to make robots avoid collisions with other objects in real time.Compared with rules method,the method can not only avoid building a large and complex rules base but also make robots avoid collisions and conflicts at higher speed and with higher intelligence.

  12. Value of information methods for planning and analyzing clinical studies optimize decision making and research planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Goeree, Ron; Boutis, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    The results of two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of alternatives to casting for certain ankle and wrist fractures. We illustrate the use of value of information (VOI) methods for evaluating the evidence provided by these studies with respect to decision making. Using cost-effectiveness data from these studies, the expected value of sample information (EVSI) of a future RCT can be determined. If the EVSI exceeds the cost of the future trial for any sample size, then the current evidence is considered insufficient for decision making and a future trial is considered worthwhile. If, on the other hand, there is no sample size for which the EVSI exceeds the cost, then the evidence is considered sufficient, and no future trial is required. We found that the evidence from the ankle study was insufficient to support the adoption of the removable device and determined the optimal sample size for a future trial. Conversely, the evidence from the wrist study was sufficient to support the adoption of the removable device. VOI methods provide a decision-analytic alternative to the standard hypothesis testing approach for assessing the evidence provided by cost-effectiveness studies and for determining sample sizes for RCTs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An evolutionary method for synthesizing technological planning and architectural advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bjorn Forstrom

    In the development of systems with ever-increasing performance and/or decreasing drawbacks, there inevitably comes a point where more progress is available by shifting to a new set of principles of use. This shift marks a change in architecture, such as between the piston-driven propeller and the jet engine. The shift also often involves an abandonment of previous competencies that have been developed with great effort, and so a foreknowledge of these shifts can be advantageous. A further motivation for this work is the consideration of the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) project, which aims to develop very small (final graph-based genetic algorithm. This algorithm is then implemented in a design code called Sindri, which leverages a commercial design tool named Pacelab. The first chapters of this thesis provide context and a philosophical background to the studies and research that was conducted. In particular, the idea that technology progresses in a fundamentally gradual way is developed and supported with previous historical research. The import of this is that the future can to some degree be predicted by the past, provided that the appropriate technological antecedents are accounted for in developing the projection. The third chapter of the thesis compiles a series of observations and philosophical considerations into a series of research questions. Some research questions are then answered with further thought, observation, and reading, leading to conjectures on the problem. The remainder require some form of experimentation, and so are used to formulate hypotheses. Falsifiability conditions are then generated from those hypotheses, and used to get the development of experiments to be performed, in this case on a computer upon various conditions of use of a genetic algorithm. The fourth chapter of the thesis walks through the formulation of a method to attack the problem of strategically choosing an architecture. This method is designed to

  14. OPTIMAL MOTION PLANNING FOR A RIGID SPACECRAFT WITH TWO MOMENTUM WHEELS USING QUASI-NEWTON METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Xinsheng; Zhang Qizhi; Chen LiQun

    2006-01-01

    An optimal motion planning scheme based on the quasi-Newton method is proposed for a rigid spacecraft with two momentum wheels. A cost functional is introduced to incorporate the control energy, the final state errors and the constraints on states. The motion planning for determining control inputs to minimize the cost functional is formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Using the control parametrization, one can transform the infinite dimensional optimal control problem to a finite dimensional one that is solved via the quasi-Newton methods for a feasible trajectory which satisfies the nonholonomic constraint. The optimal motion planning scheme was applied to a rigid spacecraft with two momentum wheels. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed optimal motion planning scheme.

  15. A New Method of Transmission Network Flexible Planning Using the Connection Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hua-zheng; CHENG Hao-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Because connection number can express and process synthetic uncertainties caused by various uncertainties in the transmission network planning, a connection number model (CNM) was presented to compare the values of connection number logically. This paper proposed a novel model for transmission network flexible planning with uncertainty. In the proposed planning model both certainty and uncertainty information were included, and the cost-benefit analysis method was used to evaluate the candidate schemes in the objective function. Its good adaptability and flexibility were illustrated through two examples.

  16. Didactical-methodical aspects of planning the educative work at the Macedonian educational system

    OpenAIRE

    Mirascieva, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about one new didactical- methodical approach in the planning of the educational work at the educational institutions in Macedonia which is in function of the professional development of the teaching staff. The paper presents a new practice which is introduced at the educational system in Republic of Macedonia, and which refers on two key questions like integrated planning of the educational work and ecology education at the educational institutions on three levels: pre-school, ...

  17. Method and system for entering data within a flight plan entry field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Michael J. (Inventor); Van Omen, Debi (Inventor); Adams, Michael B. (Inventor); Chase, Karl L. (Inventor); Lewis, Daniel E. (Inventor); McCrobie, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides systems, apparatus and methods for entering data into a flight plan entry field which facilitates the display and editing of aircraft flight-plan data. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for entering multiple waypoint and procedure identifiers at once within a single a flight plan entry field. In another embodiment, the present invention provides for the partial entry of any waypoint or procedure identifiers, and thereafter relating the identifiers with an aircraft's flight management system to anticipate the complete text entry for display. In yet another embodiment, the present invention discloses a method to automatically provide the aircraft operator with selectable prioritized arrival and approach routing identifiers by a single manual selection. In another embodiment, the present invention is a method for providing the aircraft operator with selectable alternate patterns to a new runway.

  18. A method of forest management for the planned introduction of intensive husbandry in virgin forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Dolezal

    1978-01-01

    The method proposed is derived from long experience of intensive management in forest stands of Central Europe and from our proposal for management in virgin Iranian forests of the Caspian Region. The method establishes the need for systematic planning of stand conversion to insure both sustained yield and the harvesting of sufficient timber to sustain economic...

  19. Methods for risk-based planning of O&M of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and gas structures...

  20. Method for Measuring the Alignment Between Information Technology Strategic Planning and Actions of Information Technology Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Melre da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present a method for measuring the degree of alignment between Strategic Planning and Information Technology Management practices and Information Technology Governance. A survey of IT governance maturity at the High Courts and the Supreme Court was carried out in order to reach this aim. The Attribute Table of the COBIT 4.1 was used both as a model for maturity analysis as for the degree of alignment of IT strategic plans of these bodies with the IT Strategic Planning established by the National Judiciary Council (CNJ. It was assessed the maturity of thirty four processes, according to six attributes, in the four COBIT domains. The proposed method, named COMPLAN-GTI, allows the linking of the guidelines of the strategic planning to the COBIT processes. The field research above mentioned shows that the alignment between the planning established by the CNJ and those established by the High Courts and Supreme Court is around 68%, leading to the conclusion that the policies and actions established by the National Council of Justice for the Judiciary are being followed. The application of the method is also used to confirm whether the management practices and the IT Governance are consistent with the strategic plan established by the organization. It was observed in the research carried out in the Courts that the average convergence between PETIs and management practices and Governance lies around 70%, leading to the conclusion that the strategic plans exerted influence on the action planning of these organizations.

  1. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  2. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  3. CA Based Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Enhanced by ant Colony Inspired Mechanis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Akbarimajd

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In path planning of mobile robots dealing with concave obstacles is a major challenge. More specifically in real-time planning where there is no complete representation of the environment, this challenge would be much more problematic. In such cases local minimums and high computations cost are the most important problems. In this paper, in order to reduce computational cost, cellular automata as a distributed computational method with parallel processing properties is employed as tool for path planning purposes. The environment of the robot is modeled as a two dimensional cellular automata with four states. Evolutionary rules of the automata are proposed to perform the planning task. The proposed method is appropriate for single robot systems as well as multi robot systems. The proposed method is afterwards extended to be employed for concave obstacles using a ant colony inspired technique. The most superior advantage of the proposed method is its capability of real-time path planning of mobile robots with no need to prior representation of the environment.

  4. Multi-criteria optimization methods in radiation therapy planning: a review of technologies and directions

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David

    2013-01-01

    We review the field of multi-criteria optimization for radiation therapy treatment planning. Special attention is given to the technique known as Pareto surface navigation, which allows physicians and treatment planners to interactively navigate through treatment planning options to get an understanding of the tradeoffs (dose to the target versus over-dosing of important nearby organs) involved in each patient's plan. We also describe goal programming and prioritized optimization, two other methods designed to handle multiple conflicting objectives. Issues related to nonconvexities, both in terms of dosimetric goals and the fact that the mapping from controllable hardware parameters to patient doses is usually nonconvex, are discussed at length since nonconvexities have a large impact on practical solution techniques for Pareto surface construction and navigation. A general planning strategy is recommended which handles the issue of nonconvexity by first finding an ideal Pareto surface with radiation delivere...

  5. Local Path Planning of Driverless Car Navigation Based on Jump Point Search Method Under Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jump Point Search (JPS algorithm is adopted for local path planning of the driverless car under urban environment, and it is a fast search method applied in path planning. Firstly, a vector Geographic Information System (GIS map, including Global Positioning System (GPS position, direction, and lane information, is built for global path planning. Secondly, the GIS map database is utilized in global path planning for the driverless car. Then, the JPS algorithm is adopted to avoid the front obstacle, and to find an optimal local path for the driverless car in the urban environment. Finally, 125 different simulation experiments in the urban environment demonstrate that JPS can search out the optimal and safety path successfully, and meanwhile, it has a lower time complexity compared with the Vector Field Histogram (VFH, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT, A*, and the Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM algorithms. Furthermore, JPS is validated usefully in the structured urban environment.

  6. The New Method for CNC Trajectory Machining Motion Planning Based on Reference Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yongmin; XU Mingheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to make motion planning fitting practice, many characteristic of CNC trajectory motion are discussed, such as the geometric function, the motion and the time. It is found that the relation between orbit function and motional parameter, so the differential equation about the trajectory motion be set-up by the goal of trajectory motion. The actual motion process is defined as reference time to link planning and practice. Present a new movement planning method based on self-defining time. At rest state, the differential simultaneous equation can be calculated according geometric characteristic analysis, it can be get that simple function consisted of coordinate and reference time variants. At motive state, dynamic parameter can be worked out according practical value of reference time, It is proved by experiment and simulation that it is a good way to control geometry and motion comprehensively, to reduce computation times and to increase the ability of environmental adaptation for path planning

  7. An active view planning method for mobile robots using a trinocular visual sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2003-10-01

    The ability of mobile robots to perceive and recognize environments is essential for autonomous navigation. To improve the performance of autonomous environment perception for mobile robots, it is important to effectively plan the next pose (position and orientation) of the sensor system at a current navigation state. In this paper, we propose a next-view-planning method for autonomous map construction needed for mobile robots with visual range sensor systems. The proposed view-planning method mimics the decision-making method of human beings, and uses the occlusion information reduced from the geometric relationship between the sensor view and objects as an important clue for the next sensor view planning. The proposed view-planning algorithms are developed in the following steps: 1) Given a prior map and range measurements sensed at a current location of the mobile robot, it is determined which parts in the map are interested in a view of solving the map uncertainty. 2) Based on the selected potential regions, some candidate poses of the sensor system for the next environment sensing are carefully generated. 3) The created candidates are evaluated by using a specially designed evaluation parameter, and the best one of them is selected as a next sensor position based on a fuzzy decision-making method. In this work, the principle of the view planning method is described in detail, and a series of experimental tests is performed to show the feasibility of the method for autonomous map building. For sensing the environments, an active trinocular vision sensor using laser structured light is utilized, which is mounted on the pan-tilt mechanism of the mobile robot, which is composed of a laser stripe projector and two cameras.

  8. Utilizing Strategic and Operational Methods for Whole-Community Disaster Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Stevee; Seaton, Ellen

    2017-05-08

    Analysis of response and recovery efforts to disasters over the past 2 decades has identified a consistent gap that plagues the nation in regard to persons with access and functional needs. This gap can be highlighted by Hurricane Katrina, where the majority of those killed were a part of the access and functional needs population. After a disaster, many individuals with access and functional needs require assistance recovering but often have difficulty accessing services and resources. These difficulties are due to a combination of issues, such as health problems and the disruption of community support services. We sought to help bridge this gap by focusing on strategic and operational methods used while planning for the whole community. This article highlights the many partnerships that must be fostered for successful whole-community planning. These partnerships include, but are not limited to, local government departments, health agencies, nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, and other volunteer organizations. We showcase these methods by using a developmental Post-Disaster Canvassing Plan to highlight planning methods that may aid jurisdictions across the United States in disaster planning for the whole community. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 6).

  9. Research on Path Planning Method of Coal Mine Robot to Avoid Obstacle in Gas Distribution Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the explosion-proof safety level of a coal mine robot has not yet reached the level of intrinsic safety “ia” and it cannot work in a dangerous gas distribution area, therefore, path planning methods for coal mine robot to avoid the dangerous area of gas are necessary. In this paper, to avoid a secondary explosion when the coal mine robot passes through gas hazard zones, a path planning method is proposed with consideration of gas concentration distributions. First, with consideration of gas distribution area and obstacles, MAKLINK method is adopted to describe the working environment network diagram of the coal mine robot. Second, the initial working paths for the coal mine robot are obtained based on Dijkstra algorithm, and then the global optimal working path for the coal mine robot is obtained based on ant colony algorithm. Lastly, experiments are conducted in a roadway after an accident, and results by different path planning methods are compared, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed path planning method.

  10. SVC Planning in Large–scale Power Systems via a Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang ya; Majumder, Rajat; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The research on allocation of FACTS devices has attracted quite a lot interests from various aspects. In this paper, a hybrid model is proposed to optimise the number, location as well as the parameter settings of static Var compensator (SVC) deployed in large–scale power systems. The model utili...... a candidate solution pool. Then in the second stage, the candidates are presented to a linear planning model to investigate the system optimal loadability, hence the optimal solution for SVC planning can be achieved. The method is presented to IEEE 300–bus system....... utilises the result of vulnerability assessment for determining the candidate locations. A hybrid optimisation method including two stages is proposed to find out the optimal solution of SVC in large– scale planning problem. In the first stage, a conventional genetic algorithm (GA) is exploited to generate...

  11. The Synthesis Method of Automated System of Operational Planning in Low-Space Communication System Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kovbasiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the decrease of efficiency in low-speed communication systems, satellite communication, which are based on nanoplatform is a high degree of operational planning centralisation. To overcome this problem the method which carries out the distribution of tasks of communications operational planning minimizing the exchange of information between spatially remote sites, and takes into account the computing performance of software and hardware was developed. The technique is based on the use of methods of structural and parametric synthesis, simulation and statistical analysis of the results. Its use allows to obtain the optimal structure of the automated system of operational planning in low-space communication system messaging evaluation of efficiency in terms of fixed communication of information load.

  12. A novel trajectory planning strategy for aircraft emergency landing using Gauss pseudospectral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaohua MENG; Jinwu XIANG; Zhangping LUO; Yiru REN; Nanjian ZHUANG

    2014-01-01

    To improve the survivability during an emergency situation, an algorithm for aircraft forced landing trajectory planning is proposed. The method integrates damaged aircraft modelling and trajectory planning into an optimal control framework. In order to deal with the complex aircraft flight dynamics, a solving strategy based on Gauss pseudospetral method (GPM) is presented. A 3-DOF nonlinear mass-point model taking into account the wind is developed to approximate the aircraft flight dynamics after loss of thrust. The solution minimizes the forced landing duration, with respect to the constraints that translate the changed dynamics, flight envelope limitation and operational safety requirements. The GPM is used to convert the trajectory planning problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP), which is solved by sequential quadratic programming algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can generate the minimum-time forced landing trajectory in event of engine-out with high efficiency and precision.

  13. Planning Approach to Organisational and Methodical Provision of Formation and Functioning of Logistic Systems of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizyeva Tetyana O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors of external and internal environment of enterprises that influence the process of formation of logistic systems and justifies expediency of use of the planning approach to development of the organisational and methodical provision of functioning of logistic systems of enterprises. The article offers to conduct development of organisational and methodical provision of formation of functioning of logistic systems with the use of not one but several methodological approaches: situational, process, functional and planning. The conducted analysis allowed composing a basic project, which could be laid in the foundation of formation of a logistic system by any enterprise for meeting requirements of the planning triangle: content / borders, time, cost, taking into consideration the forth limitation – quality.

  14. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang In Hyuck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is be¬cause the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manu¬ally by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was su¬ggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  15. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Hyuck; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Kun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2014-03-01

    Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is be¬cause the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate) that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manu¬ally by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was su¬ggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  16. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hyuck Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is because the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manually by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was suggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  17. Addressing Wildfire Risk in Forest Management Planning with Multiple Criteria Decision Making Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susete Marques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires impact the outcomes of forest management plans. Addressing that impact is thus critical for effective forest ecosystem management planning. This paper presents research on the use of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methods that integrate wildfire risk in planning contexts characterized by multiple objectives. Specifically, an a posteriori preference modeling approach is developed that adds wildfire criteria to a set of objectives representing ecosystem services supply values. Wildfire risk criteria are derived from stand-level wildfire occurrence and damage models as well as from the characteristics of neighboring stands that may impact wildfire probability and spread. A forested landscape classified into 1976 stands is used for testing purposes. The management planning criteria include the carbon stock, harvest volumes for three forest species, the volume of the ending inventory, and resistance to wildfire risk indicators. Results show the potential of multiple criteria decision making methods to provide information about trade-offs between wildfire risk and the supply of provisioning (timber as well as regulatory (carbon ecosystem services. This information may contribute to the effectiveness of forest ecosystem management planning.

  18. Understanding Succession Planning and Management Efforts at Midwestern University: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateso, Peter E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent triangulation mixed methods study was to understand the status of succession planning and management (SPM) efforts of the subject university as perceived by the fulltime academic and fulltime administrative staff. Four research questions guided this study: (1) how do fulltime academic staff and fulltime…

  19. Understanding Succession Planning and Management Efforts at Midwestern University: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateso, Peter E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent triangulation mixed methods study was to understand the status of succession planning and management (SPM) efforts of the subject university as perceived by the fulltime academic and fulltime administrative staff. Four research questions guided this study: (1) how do fulltime academic staff and fulltime…

  20. Study on State Transition Method Applied to Motion Planning for a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach of motion planning for a humanoid robot using a state transition method. In this method, motion planning is simplified by introducing a state-space to describe the whole motion series. And each state in the state-space corresponds to a contact state specified during the motion. The continuous motion is represented by a sequence of discrete states. The concept of the transition between two neighboring states, that is the state transition, can be realized by using some traditional path planning methods. Considering the dynamical stability of the robot, a state transition method based on search strategy is proposed. Different sets of trajectories are generated by using a variable 5th-order polynomial interpolation method. After quantifying the stabilities of these trajectories, the trajectories with the largest stability margin are selected as the final state transition trajectories. Rising motion process is exemplified to validate the method and the simulation results show the proposed method to be feasible and effective.

  1. Interrogating the Lesson Plan in a Pre-Service Methods Course: Evidence from a University in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simwa, Kefa L.; Modiba, Maropeng

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on research that examined how the content of a History methods course, taught in a university in Kenya, influenced student teachers' lesson planning and pedagogical skills. A lecture on a lesson plan, micro-teaching lesson plan documents and presentations were examined to determine student teachers' preparedness for teaching the…

  2. 29 CFR 2520.104-23 - Alternative method of compliance for pension plans for certain selected employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative method of compliance for pension plans for... pension plans for certain selected employees. (a) Purpose and scope. (1) This section contains an... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 for unfunded or insured pension plans maintained by an...

  3. 29 CFR 2520.104-27 - Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. 2520.104-27 Section 2520.104-27 Labor... Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. (a) Scope. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, a pension benefit plan that meets the...

  4. Knowledge attitude and practices of family planning methods among postnatal mothers-A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Udgiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: All the couple have the basic rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. In developing countries, especially in India where deep rooted belief, customs and superstition regarding pregnancy, child birth, are still widely prevalent and women with poor socioeconomic background are more vulnerable to the health risks associated with child bearing in quick succession. Hence the present study provides excellent opportunities to educate the mother in postnatal ward regarding family planning method and help them to adopt birth spacing in the face of changing circumstances. Objectives: a To assess the knowledge, attitude & practices regarding family planning methods among postnatal mothers. b To educate them to use one of the family planning method. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one month. A total of 162 postnatal mother who were admitted in postnatal general ward of OBG Dept., Shri.BM.Patil medical college constitutes the sample size. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute, the mothers were interviewed after taking verbal consent. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Statistical test like percentage, chi-square test was applied to know the association. Result: In the present study 65.4% of mothers knew about family planning methods. Significant association was found in relation to education (p= 0.000, religion (p= 0.055 and parity (p= 0.01. Conclusion: The literacy level will definitely help to gain the information regarding family planning.

  5. Methodical Approach to Developing a Decision Support System for Well Interventions Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, V. A.; Savelev, A. O.; Isaev, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The paper contains aspects of developing a decision support systems aimed for well interventions planning within the process of oil production engineering. The specific approach described by authors is based on system analysis methods and object model for system design. Declared number of problem-decision principles as follows: the principle of consolidated information area, the principle of integrated control, the principle of development process transparency. Also observed a set of models (class model, object model, attribute interdependence model, component model, coordination model) specified for designing decision support system for well intervention planning.

  6. Behavior-based implicit planning method and its application to robot soccer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Changhong; Chen Weidong; Xi Yugeng

    2005-01-01

    A behavior-based implicit planning method is proposed through the design of a middle-size autonomous robot soccer system (MARSS). With basic goal-driven behaviors, the MARSS reactively selects suitable basic behavior according to different situation. The reactive executions of basic behavior sequences implicitly plan two primary behavior chains. By the robot's dynamical interactions with the environments, interleaving of basic behaviors spontaneously exhibits effective emergent behaviors to deal with some difficult situations. These emergent behaviors make the system simple, robust and competitive.

  7. Methods for risk-based planning of O&M of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and gas structures......, but for offshore wind turbines, the conditions are different and the methods need to be adjusted accordingly. This paper gives an overview of various approaches to solve the decision problem: methods with decision rules based on observed variables, a method with decision rules based on the probability of failure......, a method based on limited memory influence diagrams and a method based on the partially observable Markov decision process. The methods with decision rules based on observed variables are easy to use, but can only take the most recent observation into account, when a decision is made. The other methods can...

  8. A Method of Generating Indoor Map Spatial Data Automatically from Architectural Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Weixin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking architectural plans as data source, we proposed a method which can automatically generate indoor map spatial data. Firstly, referring to the spatial data demands of indoor map, we analyzed the basic characteristics of architectural plans, and introduced concepts of wall segment, adjoining node and adjoining wall segment, based on which basic flow of indoor map spatial data automatic generation was further established. Then, according to the adjoining relation between wall lines at the intersection with column, we constructed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the column. Utilizing the method of gradual expansibility and graphic reasoning to judge wall symbol local feature type at both sides of door or window, through update the enclosing rectangle of door or window, we developed a repair method for wall connectivity in relation to the door or window and a method for transform door or window into indoor map point feature. Finally, on the basis of geometric relation between adjoining wall segment median lines, a wall center-line extraction algorithm was presented. Taking one exhibition hall's architectural plan as example, we performed experiment and results show that the proposed methods have preferable applicability to deal with various complex situations, and realized indoor map spatial data automatic extraction effectively.

  9. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Wu, Liuying; Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Simon X

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

  10. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently.

  11. Three-Dimensional Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Based on Modified Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning is a classic optimization problem which can be solved by many optimization algorithms. The complexity of three-dimensional (3D path planning for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs requires the optimization algorithm to have a quick convergence speed. This work provides a new 3D path planning method for AUV using a modified firefly algorithm. In order to solve the problem of slow convergence of the basic firefly algorithm, an improved method was proposed. In the modified firefly algorithm, the parameters of the algorithm and the random movement steps can be adjusted according to the operating process. At the same time, an autonomous flight strategy is introduced to avoid instances of invalid flight. An excluding operator was used to improve the effect of obstacle avoidance, and a contracting operator was used to enhance the convergence speed and the smoothness of the path. The performance of the modified firefly algorithm and the effectiveness of the 3D path planning method were proved through a varied set of experiments.

  12. A Dynamic Bioinspired Neural Network Based Real-Time Path Planning Method for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Real-time path planning for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a very difficult and challenging task. Bioinspired neural network (BINN) has been used to deal with this problem for its many distinct advantages: that is, no learning process is needed and realization is also easy. However, there are some shortcomings when BINN is applied to AUV path planning in a three-dimensional (3D) unknown environment, including complex computing problem when the environment is very large and repeated path problem when the size of obstacles is bigger than the detection range of sensors. To deal with these problems, an improved dynamic BINN is proposed in this paper. In this proposed method, the AUV is regarded as the core of the BINN and the size of the BINN is based on the detection range of sensors. Then the BINN will move with the AUV and the computing could be reduced. A virtual target is proposed in the path planning method to ensure that the AUV can move to the real target effectively and avoid big-size obstacles automatically. Furthermore, a target attractor concept is introduced to improve the computing efficiency of neural activities. Finally, some experiments are conducted under various 3D underwater environments. The experimental results show that the proposed BINN based method can deal with the real-time path planning problem for AUV efficiently. PMID:28255297

  13. A New Real-Time Path Planning Method Based on the Belief Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach of real-time path planning based on belief space is proposed, which solves the problems of modeling the real-time detecting environment and optimizing in local path planning with the fusing factors. Initially, a double-safe-edges free space is defined for describing the sensor detecting characters, so as to transform the complex environment into some free areas, which can help the robots to reach any positions effectively and safely. Then, based on the uncertainty functions and the transferable belief model (TBM, the basic belief assignment (BBA spaces of each factor are presented and fused in the path optimizing process. So an innovative approach for getting the optimized path has been realized with the fusing the BBA and the decision making by the probability distributing. Simulation results indicate that the new method is beneficial in terms of real-time local path planning.

  14. Water resource systems planning and management an introduction to methods, models, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loucks, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. This revised, updated textbook presents a systems approach to the planning, management, and operation of water resources infrastructure in the environment. Previously published in 2005 by UNESCO and Deltares (Delft Hydraulics at the time), this new edition, written again with contributions from Jery R. Stedinger, Jozef P. M. Dijkman, and Monique T. Villars, is aimed equally at students and professionals. It introduces readers to the concept of viewing issues involving water resources as a system of multiple interacting components and scales. It offers guidelines for initiating and carrying out water resource system planning and management projects. It introduces alternative optimization, simulation, and statistical methods useful for project identification, design, siting, operation and evaluation and for studying post-planning issues. The authors cover both basin-wide and urban water issues and present ways of identifying and evaluating alternatives for ...

  15. Optimal motion planning of an underactuated spacecraft using wavelet approximate method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinsheng; CHEN Liqun; LIU Yanzhu

    2006-01-01

    An optimal motion planning scheme using wavelet approximation is proposed for an underactuated spacecraft. The motion planning of an underactuated spacecraft can be formulated as an optimal control of a drift-free system. A cost functional is used to incorporate the control energy and the final state errors. The motion planning is to determine control inputs to minimize the cost functional.Using the method of wavelet, one can transform an infinite-dimensional optimal control problem to a finite-dimensional one and use GaussNewton algorithm to solve it for a feasible trajectory which satisfies nonholonomic constraints. The proposed scheme has been applied to a rigid spacecraft with two momentum wheels. The numerical simulation results indicate that optimal control with wavelet approximation is an effective approach to steering an underactuated spacecraft system from the initial configuration to the final configuration.

  16. Gap-filling methods for 3D PlanTIS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukiala, A; Tuna, U; Ruotsalainen, U [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 553, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Beer, S [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Jahnke, S, E-mail: uygar.tuna@tut.f [ICG-3 Phytosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-10-21

    The range of positron emitters and their labeled compounds have led to high-resolution PET scanners becoming widely used, not only in clinical and pre-clinical studies but also in plant studies. A high-resolution PET scanner, plant tomographic imaging system (PlanTIS), was designed to study metabolic and physiological functions of plants noninvasively. The gantry of the PlanTIS scanner has detector-free regions. Even when the gantry of the PlanTIS is rotated during the scan, these regions result in missing sinogram bins in the acquired data. Missing data need to be estimated prior to the analytical image reconstructions in order to avoid artifacts in the final reconstructed images. In this study, we propose three gap-filling methods for estimation of the unique gaps existing in the 3D PlanTIS sinogram data. The 3D sinogram data were gap-filled either by linear interpolation in the transaxial planes or by the bicubic interpolation method (proposed for the ECAT high-resolution research tomograph) in the transradial planes or by the inpainting method in the transangular planes. Each gap-filling method independently compensates for slices in one of three orthogonal sinogram planes (transaxial, transradial and transangular planes). A 3D numerical Shepp-Logan phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom were used to evaluate the methods. The gap-filled sinograms were reconstructed using the analytical 3D reprojection (3DRP) method. The NEMA phantom sinograms were also reconstructed by the iterative reconstruction method, ordered subsets maximum a posteriori one step late (OSMAPOSL), to compare the results of gap filling followed by 3DRP with the results of OSMAPOSL reconstruction without gap filling. The three methods were evaluated quantitatively (by mean square error and coefficients of variation) over the selected regions of the 3D numerical Shepp-Logan phantom at eight different Poisson noise levels. Moreover, the NEMA phantom scan data were used in visual assessments

  17. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The

  18. Does Choice of Multicriteria Method Matter? An Experiment in Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Chankong, Vira; Hamadeh, Wael; Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1992-07-01

    Many multiple criteria decision making methods have been proposed and applied to water planning. Their purpose is to provide information on tradeoffs among objectives and to help users articulate value judgments in a systematic, coherent, and documentable manner. The wide variety of available techniques confuses potential users, causing inappropriate matching of methods with problems. Experiments in which water planners apply more than one multicriteria procedure to realistic problems can help dispel this confusion by testing method appropriateness, ease of use, and validity. We summarize one such experiment where U.S. Army Corps of Engineers personnel used several methods to screen urban water supply plans. The methods evaluated include goal programming, ELECTRE I, additive value functions, multiplicative utility functions, and three techniques for choosing weights (direct rating, indifference tradeoff, and the analytical hierarchy process). Among the conclusions we reach are the following. First, experienced planners generally prefer simpler, more transparent methods. Additive value functions are favored. Yet none of the methods are endorsed by a majority of the participants; many preferred to use no formal method at all. Second, there is strong evidence that rating, the most commonly applied weight selection method, is likely to lead to weights that fail to represent the trade-offs that users are willing to make among criteria. Finally, we show that decisions can be as or more sensitive to the method used as to which person applies it. Therefore, if who chooses is important, then so too is how a choice is made.

  19. Curvature-continuous 3D Path-planning Using QPMI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ryong Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to achieve vertex movement and rapid velocity control in aerial robots and aerial vehicles because of momentum from the air. A continuous-curvature path ensures such robots and vehicles can fly with stable and continuous movements. General continuous path-planning methods use spline interpolation, for example B-spline and Bézier curves. However, these methods cannot be directly applied to continuous path planning in a 3D space. These methods use a subset of the waypoints to decide curvature and some waypoints are not included in the planned path. This paper proposes a method for constructing a curvature-continuous path in 3D space that includes every waypoint. The movements in each axis, x, y and z, are separated by the parameter u. Waypoint groups are formed, each with its own continuous path derived using quadratic polynomial interpolation. The membership function then combines each continuous path into one continuous path. The continuity of the path is verified and the curvature-continuous path is produced using the proposed method.

  20. The use of family planning methods in an administrative district of Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, N; Ayhan Ozyildirim, B; Irmak Ozden, Y

    2003-03-01

    In Turkey, the first population and family planning law was accepted by the government in 1965, and this law was revised in 1982. This study was carried out to evaluate the family planning methods of women who applied to rural health centers of Küçükçekmece and were willing to use the health-care service and consultancy about birth control methods. The data of the study were gathered by means of an appropriate inquiry form and face-to-face interview with the women willing to use the family planning service between September 1998 and June 1999 at the health-care centers of Küçükçekmece of Istanbul. There were 699 women participants in the study. The last pregnancy of 27.2% (n = 175) of the women had been undesired; 86.8% of all the women who participated in the study declared that they did not desire any more children, but only 81.3% (n = 568) out of these were using a method to protect from pregnancy. The most frequently known (84.8%) and used (45.9%) method of the participants was an intrauterine device (IUD), and 80.8% of the women using an IUD wanted to continue using that method. A total of 223 women (39.3%) using any method protecting from pregnancy became pregnant. Approximately half (57.8%) of those occurred during the use of withdrawal. According to the findings of this study, the level of knowledge about family planning and the consequent behavior of the women within the fertile age group are better than the average of Turkey, but still not satisfactory.

  1. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  2. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gong, J. H.; Zhu, J.; Ye, L.; Song, Y. Q.; Yue, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  3. Sensor planning method for visual tracking in 3D camera networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anlong Ming; and Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Most sensors or cameras discussed in the sensor net-work community are usual y 3D homogeneous, even though their 2D coverage areas in the ground plane are heterogeneous. Mean-while, observed objects of camera networks are usual y simplified as 2D points in previous literature. However in actual application scenes, not only cameras are always heterogeneous with differ-ent height and action radiuses, but also the observed objects are with 3D features (i.e., height). This paper presents a sensor plan-ning formulation addressing the efficiency enhancement of visual tracking in 3D heterogeneous camera networks that track and de-tect people traversing a region. The problem of sensor planning consists of three issues: (i) how to model the 3D heterogeneous cameras;(i ) how to rank the visibility, which ensures that the object of interest is visible in a camera’s field of view;(i i) how to reconfi-gure the 3D viewing orientations of the cameras. This paper stud-ies the geometric properties of 3D heterogeneous camera net-works and addresses an evaluation formulation to rank the visibility of observed objects. Then a sensor planning method is proposed to improve the efficiency of visual tracking. Final y, the numerical results show that the proposed method can improve the tracking performance of the system compared to the conventional strate-gies.

  4. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States); Huang, Z [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lo, S [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling, automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of brain

  5. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brick, S. [MSB Energy Associates, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Path Planning for Mobile Robots using Iterative Artificial Potential Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Adeli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for solving the path planning problem of mobile robots. The algorithm is based on Artificial Potential Field (APF methods that have been widely used for path planning related problems for more than two decades. While keeping the simplicity of traditional APF methods, our algorithm is built upon new potential functions based on the distances from obstacles, destination point and start point. The algorithm uses the potential field values iteratively to find the optimum points in the workspace in order to form the path from start to destination. The number of iterations depends on the size and shape of the workspace. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested by conducting simulation experiments.

  7. Validity of Standard Measures of Family Planning Service Quality: Findings from the Simulated Client Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Speizer, Ilene S.; Curtis, Sian L.; Pence, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread endorsement within the field of international family planning regarding the importance of quality of care as a reproductive right, the field has yet to develop validated data collection instruments to accurately assess quality in terms of its public health importance. This study, conducted among 19 higher volume public and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya, used the simulated client method to test the validity of three standard data collection instruments included in large-scale facility surveys: provider interviews, client interviews, and observation of client-provider interactions. Results found low specificity and positive predictive values in each of the three instruments for a number of quality indicators, suggesting that quality of care may be overestimated by traditional methods. Revised approaches to measuring family planning service quality may be needed to ensure accurate assessment of programs and to better inform quality improvement interventions. PMID:25469929

  8. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda; Bernd Hellingrath; Tobias Kreuter; Antonio Márcio Tavares Thomé; Marcelo Xavier Seeling; Jan-Hendrick Fischer; Raquel Mello

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany). The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved th...

  9. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  10. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  11. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Andreas Hahn, W.; Griess, Verena C.; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  12. A scalable method for parallelizing sampling-based motion planning algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a scalable method for parallelizing sampling-based motion planning algorithms. It subdivides configuration space (C-space) into (possibly overlapping) regions and independently, in parallel, uses standard (sequential) sampling-based planners to construct roadmaps in each region. Next, in parallel, regional roadmaps in adjacent regions are connected to form a global roadmap. By subdividing the space and restricting the locality of connection attempts, we reduce the work and inter-processor communication associated with nearest neighbor calculation, a critical bottleneck for scalability in existing parallel motion planning methods. We show that our method is general enough to handle a variety of planning schemes, including the widely used Probabilistic Roadmap (PRM) and Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT) algorithms. We compare our approach to two other existing parallel algorithms and demonstrate that our approach achieves better and more scalable performance. Our approach achieves almost linear scalability on a 2400 core LINUX cluster and on a 153,216 core Cray XE6 petascale machine. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. THE THEORY AND METHOD OF OPTIMUM PLANNING OF A MINING AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉浚; 张先尘; 韩可琦

    1991-01-01

    Being aimed at the vital decisive problems to be solved during.making long-term planning and overall planning of the development of coal mining areas of China, this paper presents comprehensive theories and methods for the choice of mining area optimum planning schemes by use of combining technic analysis with system simulation and system optimization.The main contents are as follows: the prediction of technic and economic indexes in the developing process of existing mining areas and new mining area, including computer simulation analysis of maximum possibility of output growth in a working mine, the effect of technic progress on productive development, and grey predictive model of the change of technic and economic indexes; the dynamic simulation model of the mining area system, including five subsystem models; mining area output, investment, economic benefit, number of workers and staff of a mining area, mining area population, and ecologic environmental dynamic change under different schemes;the 0--1 programming, the goal programming and the analytic hierarchy process for contrast analysis optimization of mining area planning schemes.

  14. Ecocity mapping using GIS: introducing a planning method for assessing and improving neighborhood vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Miller, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Assessing neighborhood vitality is important to understanding how to improve quality of life and health outcomes. The ecocity model recognizes that cities are part of natural systems and favors walkable neighborhoods. This article introduces ecocity mapping, an innovative planning method, to the public health literature on community engagement by describing a pilot project with a new affordable housing development in Oakland, California between 2007 and 2009. Although ecocity mapping began as a paper technology, advances in geographic information systems (GIS) moved it forward. This article describes how Ecocity Builders used GIS to conduct ecocity mapping to (1) assess vitality of neighborhoods and urban centers to prioritize community health intervention pilot sites and (2) create scenario maps for use in community health planning. From fall 2007 to summer 2008, Ecocity Builders assessed neighborhood vitality using walking distance from parks, schools, rapid transit stops, grocery stores, and retail outlets. In 2008, ecocity maps were shared with residents to create a neighborhood health and sustainability plan. In 2009, Ecocity Builders developed scenario maps to show how changes to the built environment would improve air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, while increasing access to basic services and natural amenities. Community organizing with GIS was more useful than GIS alone for final site selection. GIS was useful in mapping scenarios after residents shared local neighborhood knowledge and ideas for change. Residents were interested in long-term environmental planning, provided they could meet immediate needs.

  15. A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG ANTENATAL WOMEN OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among Antenatal women attending OPD and to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among them. METHOD: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Andhra Medical College Visakhapatnam which is a tertiary center for three districts Visakhapatnam , Vijayanagaram , and Srika kulam. 499 antenatal women attending the OPD were included in the study. Their knowledge , attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall awareness of permanent methods of family plannin g 96.3% and that of temporary methods is only 62.9% (314. 69.9% of women became aware of contraceptive method , by obtaining information from relatives and friends and 23.2% from media (television. 42.1% are of the opinion that these contraceptive methods are available in the medical shops and only 13% know that they are available in the government hospitals. 99.8% are aware of female sterilization , and 92.8% are aware of vasectomy. But awareness of temporary methods is very poor. CONCLUSION: The study hig hlights that knowledge and awareness doesn’t always lead to the use of contraceptives. There is still a need to educate and motivate the couples and improve family planning services to achieve more effective and appropriate use of contraceptives and to arr est the trend towards increase in population

  16. An objective method for bed capacity planning in a hospital department - a comparison with target ratio methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J M; Six, P; Chaussalet, T; Antonioli, D; Lombrail, P; Le Beux, P

    2007-01-01

    To propose an objective approach in order to determine the number of beds required for a hospital department by considering how recruitment fluctuates over time. To compare this approach with classical bed capacity planning techniques. A simulated data-based evaluation of the impact that the variability in hospital department activity produces upon the performance of methods used for determining the number of beds required. The evaluation criteria included productive efficiency measured by the bed occupancy rate, accessibility measured by the transfer rate of patients due to lack of available beds and a proxy of clinical effectiveness, by the proportion of days during which there is no possibility for unscheduled admission. When the variability of the number of daily patients increases, the Target Occupancy Rate favors productive efficiency at the expense of accessibility and proxy clinical effectiveness. On the contrary, when the variability of the department activity is marginal, the Target Activity Rate penalizes the proxy of clinical effectiveness, and the Target Occupancy Rate underoptimizes productive efficiency. The method we propose led to a superior performance in terms of accessibility and proxy of clinical effectiveness at the expense of productive efficiency. Such a situation is suitable for intensive care units. In the case of other departments, a weighting procedure should be used to improve productive efficiency. This approach could be considered as the first step of a family of methods for quantitative healthcare planning.

  17. Application of neural network method to process planning in ship pipe machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yu-guang; QIU Chang-hua; SHI Dong-yan

    2004-01-01

    Based on artificial neural network for process planning decision in ship pipe manufacturing, a novel method is established by analyzing process characteristics of the ship pipe machining. The process knowledge of pipe machining is shifted from the expression of the external rules to the description of the internal net weight value in order for the net inferring engine to decide the process route of pipe machining rapidly and rightly. Simulation shows that the method can resolve problems of process decision, and overcome the drawbacks of "matching difficulty" and "combination explosion" in traditional intelligent CAPP based on symbol reasoning.

  18. [The method of quality function deployment --QFD-- in nursing services planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, L M; Evora, Y D; Boan, F S

    2000-10-01

    "Focus on the client" is the posture that must be adopted in order to offer quality products. Based on the Total Quality Management approach, the Quality Function Deployment method (QFD) is a tool to achieve this goal. The purpose of this study is to create a proposal for planning the nursing services following the steps and actions of this methodology. The basic procedure was to survey the necessity of 106 hospitalized patients. Data were deployed using the seventeen steps proposed. Results showed that the interaction is more important than the technique according to the clients and also that this method enables the implementation of quality in nursing care.

  19. Optimal Trajectory Planning and Coordinated Tracking Control Method of Tethered Space Robot Based on Velocity Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tethered space robot (TSR is a new concept of space robot which consists of a robot platform, space tether and operation robot. This paper presents a multi-objective optimal trajectory planning and a coordinated tracking control scheme for TSR based on velocity impulse in the approaching phase. Both total velocity impulse and flight time are included in this optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal trajectory Pareto solution using the TSR dynamic model and optimal trajectory planning model. The coordinated tracking control scheme utilizes optimal velocity impulse. Furthermore, the PID controller is designed in order to compensate for the distance measurement errors. The PID control force is optimized and distributed to thrusters and the space tether using a simulated annealing algorithm. The attitude interferential torque of the space tether is compensated a using time-delay algorithm through reaction wheels. The simulation results show that the multi-objective optimal trajectory planning method can reveal the relationships among flight time, fuel consumption, planar view angle and velocity impulse number. This method can provide a series of optimal trajectory according to a number of special tasks. The coordinated control scheme can significantly save thruster fuel for tracking the optimal trajectory, restrain the attitude interferential torque produced by space tether and maintain the relative attitude stability of the operation robot.

  20. Development of advanced methods for planning electric energy distribution systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenen, T.; Foote, B.L.; Thompson, J.C.; Fagan, J.E.

    1979-10-01

    An extensive search was made for the identification and collection of reports published in the open literature which describes distribution planning methods and techniques. In addition, a questionnaire has been prepared and sent to a large number of electric power utility companies. A large number of these companies were visited and/or their distribution planners interviewed for the identification and description of distribution system planning methods and techniques used by these electric power utility companies and other commercial entities. Distribution systems planning models were reviewed and a set of new mixed-integer programming models were developed for the optimal expansion of the distribution systems. The models help the planner to select: (1) optimum substation locations; (2) optimum substation expansions; (3) optimum substation transformer sizes; (4) optimum load transfers between substations; (5) optimum feeder routes and sizes subject to a set of specified constraints. The models permit following existing right-of-ways and avoid areas where feeders and substations cannot be constructed. The results of computer runs were analyzed for adequacy in serving projected loads within regulation limits for both normal and emergency operation.

  1. Computer methods for automating preoperative dental implant planning: implant positioning and size assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Christos C; Sfantsikopoulos, Michael M; Koidis, Petros T; Kafantaris, Nikolaos M; Mpikos, Pavlos G

    2007-04-01

    The paper presents computer-aided methods that allocate a dental implant and suggest its size, during the pre-operative planning stage, in conformance with introduced optimization criteria and established clinical requirements. Based on computed tomography data of the jaw and prosthesis anatomy, single tooth cases are planned for the best-suited implant insertion at a user-defined region. An optimum implantation axis line is produced and cylindrical implants of various candidate sizes are then automatically positioned, while their occlusal end is leveled to bone ridge, and evaluated. Radial safety margins are used for the assessment of the implant safety distance from neighboring anatomical structures and bone quantity and quality are estimated and taken into consideration. A case study demonstrates the concept and allows for its discussion.

  2. Using different ELECTRE methods in strategic planning in the presence of human behavioral resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the multicriteria strategic planning of an organization, management should often be aware of employees' resistance to change before making new decisions; otherwise, a chosen strategy, though technologically acceptable, may not be efficient in the long term. This paper, using a sample case study within an organization, shows how different versions of ELECTRE methods can be used in choosing efficient strategies that account for both human behavioral resistance and technical elements. The effect of resistance from each subsystem of the organization is studied to ensure the reliability of the chosen strategy. The comparison of results from a select number of compensatory and noncompensatory models (ELECTRE I, III, IV, IS; TOPSIS; SAW; MaxMin suggests that when employee resistance is a decision factor in the multicriteria strategic planning problem, the models can yield low-resistance strategies; however, ELECTRE seems to show more reasonable sensitivity.

  3. SU-E-T-628: A Cloud Computing Based Multi-Objective Optimization Method for Inverse Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Y; Suh, T; Xing, L

    2012-06-01

    Multi-objective (MO) plan optimization entails generation of an enormous number of IMRT or VMAT plans constituting the Pareto surface, which presents a computationally challenging task. The purpose of this work is to overcome the hurdle by developing an efficient MO method using emerging cloud computing platform. As a backbone of cloud computing for optimizing inverse treatment planning, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud with a master node (17.1 GB memory, 2 virtual cores, 420 GB instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used. The master node is able to scale seamlessly a number of working group instances, called workers, based on the user-defined setting account for MO functions in clinical setting. Each worker solved the objective function with an efficient sparse decomposition method. The workers are automatically terminated if there are finished tasks. The optimized plans are archived to the master node to generate the Pareto solution set. Three clinical cases have been planned using the developed MO IMRT and VMAT planning tools to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. The target dose coverage and critical structure sparing of plans are comparable obtained using the cloud computing platform are identical to that obtained using desktop PC (Intel Xeon® CPU 2.33GHz, 8GB memory). It is found that the MO planning speeds up the processing of obtaining the Pareto set substantially for both types of plans. The speedup scales approximately linearly with the number of nodes used for computing. With the use of N nodes, the computational time is reduced by the fitting model, 0.2+2.3/N, with r̂2>0.99, on average of the cases making real-time MO planning possible. A cloud computing infrastructure is developed for MO optimization. The algorithm substantially improves the speed of inverse plan optimization. The platform is valuable for both MO planning and future off- or on-line adaptive re-planning. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Methods for Risk-Based Planning of O&M of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Sønderkær Nielsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to make wind energy more competitive, the big expenses for operation and maintenance must be reduced. Consistent decisions that minimize the expected costs can be made based on risk-based methods. Such methods have been implemented for maintenance planning for oil and gas structures, but for offshore wind turbines, the conditions are different and the methods need to be adjusted accordingly. This paper gives an overview of various approaches to solve the decision problem: methods with decision rules based on observed variables, a method with decision rules based on the probability of failure, a method based on limited memory influence diagrams and a method based on the partially observable Markov decision process. The methods with decision rules based on observed variables are easy to use, but can only take the most recent observation into account, when a decision is made. The other methods can take more information into account, and especially, the method based on the Markov decision process is very flexible and accurate. A case study shows that the Markov decision process and decision rules based on the probability of failure are equally good and give lower costs compared to decision rules based on observed variables.

  5. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    impacts occur; 2. Demonstrating that a failure to account for operational flexibility can result in undesirable outcomes for both utility planners and policy analysts; and 3. Extending the state of the art for electric power system models by introducing a tractable method for incorporating unit commitment based operational flexibility at full 876o hourly resolution directly into planning optimization. Together these results encourage and offer a new flexibility-aware approach for capacity planning and accompanying policy design that can enable cleaner, less expensive electric power systems for the future. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  6. Path Planning Method for UUV Homing and Docking in Movement Disorders Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO, inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO, and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC. It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path.

  7. Segmentation Method for Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vargas-Olivares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is a minimally invasive therapy modality in which ultrasound beams are concentrated at a focal region, producing a rise of temperature and selective ablation within the focal volume and leaving surrounding tissues intact. HIFU has been proposed for the safe ablation of both malignant and benign tissues and as an agent for drug delivery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as guidance and monitoring method for the therapy. The identification of regions of interest is a crucial procedure in HIFU therapy planning. This procedure is performed in the MR images. The purpose of the present research work is to implement a time-efficient and functional segmentation scheme, based on the watershed segmentation algorithm, for the MR images used for the HIFU therapy planning. The achievement of a segmentation process with functional results is feasible, but preliminary image processing steps are required in order to define the markers for the segmentation algorithm. Moreover, the segmentation scheme is applied in parallel to an MR image data set through the use of a thread pool, achieving a near real-time execution and making a contribution to solve the time-consuming problem of the HIFU therapy planning.

  8. Practical application of game theory based production flow planning method in virtual manufacturing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    Modern enterprises have to react quickly to dynamic changes in the market, due to changing customer requirements and expectations. One of the key area of production management, that must continuously evolve by searching for new methods and tools for increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems is the area of production flow planning and control. These aspects are closely connected with the ability to implement the concept of Virtual Enterprises (VE) and Virtual Manufacturing Network (VMN) in which integrated infrastructure of flexible resources are created. In the proposed approach, the players role perform the objects associated with the objective functions, allowing to solve the multiobjective production flow planning problems based on the game theory, which is based on the theory of the strategic situation. For defined production system and production order models ways of solving the problem of production route planning in VMN on computational examples for different variants of production flow is presented. Possible decision strategy to use together with an analysis of calculation results is shown.

  9. Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ludwiczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The goal is to increase the level of spatial and information detail of common databases, thus allowing higher accuracy and effectiveness of the analyses needed to achieve the goals of new generation spatial and agriculture planning. Specific in-depth analyses allowed to define techniques useful in order to reduce the increase in survey costs. Moreover, the work reports the main results regarding a multicriteria model for the analysis of the countryside defined by the research. Such model is aimed to assess the various agricultural, environmental and landscape features, vocations, expressions and attitudes, and support the definition and implementation of specific and targeted planning and programming policies.

  10. Improved Test Planning and Analysis Through the Use of Advanced Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Maxwell, Katherine A.; Glass, David E.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Barger, Weston; Cook, Mylan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is, through computational simulations, to provide statistically-based evidence to convince the testing community that a distributed testing approach is superior to a clustered testing approach for most situations. For clustered testing, numerous, repeated test points are acquired at a limited number of test conditions. For distributed testing, only one or a few test points are requested at many different conditions. The statistical techniques of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methods (RSM) are applied to enable distributed test planning, data analysis and test augmentation. The D-Optimal class of DOE is used to plan an optimally efficient single- and multi-factor test. The resulting simulated test data are analyzed via ANOVA and a parametric model is constructed using RSM. Finally, ANOVA can be used to plan a second round of testing to augment the existing data set with new data points. The use of these techniques is demonstrated through several illustrative examples. To date, many thousands of comparisons have been performed and the results strongly support the conclusion that the distributed testing approach outperforms the clustered testing approach.

  11. A model-based production planning and control method supporting delivery of cast-in-place concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Håkan; Jongeling, Rogier

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines model-based design and construction techniques with principles from location based planning methods. Both concepts are applied in a practical study in which a model-based method is developed for the planning and control of cast in place concrete deliveries to the building site. The overall aim of this paper is to show a method that can be used to make the planning and control of the delivery process for cast in place concrete more efficient. The paper shows examples of cha...

  12. 76 FR 36857 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... most FEHB plans that are subject to community rating. Currently, a carrier's rates for its...

  13. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan: Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 1 – Physics and numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This INL plan comprehensively describes the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) on main physics and numerical method of the RELAP-7. The plan also describes the testing-based software verification and validation (SV&V) process—a set of specially designed software models used to test RELAP-7.

  14. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

  15. Use of quality planning methods in optimizing welding wire quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of a product is given by the extent, to which the product meets customer requirements. It is generally accepted that the extent, to which the product meets such customer requirements, and, consequently, the resulting quality of the product itself, substantially depend on the early stages of the product lifecycle, i.e. on the design and development stages. Appropriate means for effective product quality planning can be found among quality management methods and tools. These methods are typically employed in engineering production and automotive industry. This paper focuses on exploring the potential of Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods for use in metallurgical production, an industrial branch where they have not been commonly employed as yet.

  16. Optimization of prostate cancer treatment plans using the adjoint transport method and discrete ordinates codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.; Henderson, D.L. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Thomadsen, B.R. [Dept. of Medical Physics and Dept. of Human Oncology, Madison (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is a type of radiation in which radioactive sources are implanted directly into cancerous tissue. Determination of dose delivered to tissue by photons emitted from implanted seeds is an important step in the treatment plan process. In this paper we will investigate the use of the discrete ordinates method and the adjoint method to calculate absorbed dose in the regions of interest. MIP (mixed-integer programming) is used to determine the optimal seed distribution that conforms the prescribed dose to the tumor and delivers minimal dose to the sensitive structures. The patient treatment procedure consists of three steps: (1) image acquisition with the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and assessing the region of interest, (2) adjoint flux computation with discrete ordinate code for inverse dose calculation, and (3) optimization with the MIP branch-and-bound method.

  17. THE QUADRANTS METHOD TO ESTIMATE QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES IN MANAGEMENT PLANS IN THE AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel da Silva Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the accuracy in estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume per hectare, by the quadrants method applied to an area of 1.000 hectares of rain forest in the Amazon. Samples were simulated by random and systematic process with different sample sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 sampling points. The amounts estimated by the samples were compared with the parametric values recorded in the census. In the analysis we considered as the population all trees with diameter at breast height equal to or greater than 40 cm. The quadrants method did not reach the desired level of accuracy for the variables basal area and commercial volume, overestimating the observed values recorded in the census. However, the accuracy of the estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume was satisfactory for applying the method in forest inventories for management plans in the Amazon.

  18. Method of planning a reference trajectory of a single lane change manoeuver with Bezier curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, D.; Ślaski, G.

    2016-09-01

    For a comprehensive simulation of vehicle steering process it is vital to model the decision process of planning a trajectory shape and process of the selected trajectory. A single lane change manoeuver is only slightly restricted by the road geometry. There are also other requirements of a possible trajectory of movement, such as the continuity of change (derivative) of curvature, maximizing the passenger's comfort measured with appropriate indicators based on variables of motion dynamics or parameters of motion trajectory which influence that dynamic. This article presents a suggested method of automatic generation of trajectory of single lane change manoeuver. The proposed method can be used as an integral part of driver models and is based on a combination of two symmetrical Bezier curves optionally supplemented with a straight lane connector. The method meets the requirements of a trajectory shape, which results from optimizing the value of parameters controlling Bezier curve based on minimizing the curvature and the resulting lateral acceleration while preserving the continuity of curvature derivative of the planned trajectory.

  19. Monthly Monetary Planning for China via Applying Method of Constructing Objective Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jian-hua; YANG Xiao-guang; XU Shan-ying

    2001-01-01

    Many economic problems can be formulated as optimization problems. Econometricians have long devoted their efforts to construct the econometric equation systems, while the corresponding objective functions receive few attentions. In recent twenty years, some techniques to construct the objective functions with economic implications have been developed, which might have a potential in economic decision-making.In the paper we apply the method of constructing objective function to design an optimization model for monthly monetary planning of China. The real monthly data from 1991 to 1999 are used to evaluate the monthly economic situation. Our empirical experiment shows that the model gives a good short-term forecasting.

  20. On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y

    2008-01-01

    The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that "Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials" and "Propose methods for reducing waste" are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, "Low financial incentive" and "Increase in overhead cost" are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, "Use of prefabricated building components" is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method.

  1. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process

  2. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Yates

    Full Text Available Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the

  3. Comparison of single and multiple dwell position methods in MammoSite high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G; Miften, Moyed

    2010-05-28

    The purpose of this study is to dosimetrically compare two plans generated using single dwell position method (SDPM) and multiple dwell position methods (MDPM) in MammoSite high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning for 19 breast cancer patients. In computed tomography (CT) image-based HDR planning, a surface optimization technique was used in both methods. Following dosimetric parameters were compared for fraction 1 plans: %PTV_EVAL (planning target volume for plan evaluation) coverage, dose homogeneity index (DHI), dose con-formal index (COIN), maximum dose to skin and ipsilateral lung, and breast tissue volume receiving 150% (V150[cc]) and 200% (V200[cc]) of the prescribed dose. In addition, a plan was retrospectively generated for each fraction 2-10 to simulate the clinical situation where the fraction 1 plan was used for fractions 2-10 without modification. In order to create nine derived plans for each method and for each of the 19 patients, the catheter location and contours of target and critical structures were defined on the CT images acquired prior to each fraction 2-10, while using the same dwell-time distribution as used for fraction 1 (original plan). Interfraction dose variations were evaluated for 19 patients by comparing the derived nine plans (each for fractions 2-10) with the original plan (fraction 1) using the same dosimetric parameters used for fraction 1 plan comparison. For the fraction 1 plan comparison, the MDPM resulted in slightly increased %PTV_EVAL coverage, COIN, V150[cc] and V200[cc] values by an average of 1.2%, 0.025, 0.5 cc and 0.7cc, respectively, while slightly decreased DHI, maximum skin and ipsilateral lung dose by an average of 0.003, 3.2 cGy and 5.8 cGy, respectively. For the inter-fraction dose variation comparison, the SDPM resulted in slightly smaller variations in %PTV_EVAL coverage, DHI, maximum skin dose and V150[cc] values by an average of 0.4%, 0.0005, 0.5 cGy and 0.2 cc, respectively, while slightly higher average

  4. Comparative Study of the Critical Chain and PERT Planning Methods: No Bad Human Behaviors Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM method has received a lot of attention and hundreds of successful cases have also been reported and all claims that it is possible to rapidly achieve highly reliable on-time delivery (OTD with short project lead time (PLT in multi-project environment. The main reason that CCPM can achieve highly reliable OTD and short PLT in multi-project environment can be contributed to that CCPM makes good use of safety time imbedded in tasks by two changes: logistical change and bad human behaviors change. However, if no bad human behaviors involved, does the mere emphasis on logistical change contributed to the success of project time reduction and OTD improvement? This is the key question still remained. A comparative study of the critical chain and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT planning methods, no bad human behaviors involved, was performed in this study. The simulation results showed that in terms of mean project time, CCPM is no significantly better than PERT. However, in terms of plan reliability, CCPM achieve higher reliable than PERT did and this is the contribution of CCPM logistical change.

  5. A Novel Global Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Based on Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm has been proposed in recent years. It is a new swarm intelligence optimization algorithm simulating the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom. In this paper, a novel global path planning method for mobile robots is presented, which is based on an improved TLBO algorithm called Nonlinear Inertia Weighted Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (NIWTLBO algorithm in our previous work. Firstly, the NIWTLBO algorithm is introduced. Then, a new map model of the path between start-point and goal-point is built by coordinate system transformation. Lastly, utilizing the NIWTLBO algorithm, the objective function of the path is optimized; thus, a global optimal path is obtained. The simulation experiment results show that the proposed method has a faster convergence rate and higher accuracy in searching for the path than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well, and it can effectively solve the optimization problem for mobile robot global path planning.

  6. Advanced treatment planning methods for efficient radiation therapy with laser accelerated proton and ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J

    2010-10-01

    Laser plasma acceleration can potentially replace large and expensive cyclotrons or synchrotrons for radiotherapy with protons and ions. On the way toward a clinical implementation, various challenges such as the maximum obtainable energy still remain to be solved. In any case, laser accelerated particles exhibit differences compared to particles from conventional accelerators. They typically have a wide energy spread and the beam is extremely pulsed (i.e., quantized) due to the pulsed nature of the employed lasers. The energy spread leads to depth dose curves that do not show a pristine Bragg peak but a wide high dose area, making precise radiotherapy impossible without an additional energy selection system. Problems with the beam quantization include the limited repetition rate and the number of accelerated particles per laser shot. This number might be too low, which requires a high repetition rate, or it might be too high, which requires an additional fluence selection system to reduce the number of particles. Trying to use laser accelerated particles in a conventional way such as spot scanning leads to long treatment times and a high amount of secondary radiation produced when blocking unwanted particles. The authors present methods of beam delivery and treatment planning that are specifically adapted to laser accelerated particles. In general, it is not necessary to fully utilize the energy selection system to create monoenergetic beams for the whole treatment plan. Instead, within wide parts of the target volume, beams with broader energy spectra can be used to simultaneously cover multiple axially adjacent spots of a conventional dose delivery grid as applied in intensity modulated particle therapy. If one laser shot produces too many particles, they can be distributed over a wider area with the help of a scattering foil and a multileaf collimator to cover multiple lateral spot positions at the same time. These methods are called axial and lateral

  7. Power Grid De-icing Optimal Plan Based on Fractional Sieve Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangbin; Lin, Meihan; Li, Huaqiang

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the problem that the reliability of system was reduced and the security risk was increased during the DC de-icing period, a decision-making model based on the fractional sieve method was proposed. This model introduced risk assessment theory, and took into account the comprehensive failure probability model of protection action and ice cover. Considering the de-icing condition, a DC de-icing strategy model, which was with the objective function of minimizing the load of shedding and minimizing the operating risk, was proposed. The objective function was optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm and fractional sieve method. The simulative results of IEEE30-bus system indicated that the load loss caused by de-icing and the operational risk of the system could be effectively reduced by the proposed model. It provided a reference for power department to make a de-icing plan.

  8. State Generation Method for Humanoid Motion Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to generate the original motion data for humanoid motion planning is presented in this paper. And a state generator is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which enables users to generate various motion states without using any reference motion data. By specifying various types of constraints such as configuration constraints and contact constraints, the state generator can generate stable states that satisfy the constraint conditions for humanoid robots.To deal with the multiple constraints and inverse kinematics, the state generation is finally simplified as a problem of optimizing and searching. In our method, we introduce a convenient mathematic representation for the constraints involved in the state generator, and solve the optimization problem with the genetic algorithm to acquire a desired state. To demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the method, a number of motion states are generated according to the requirements of the motion.

  9. Continuous-time method and its discretization to inverse problem of intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Ken'ichi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Abou Al-Ola, Omar M.; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for solving box-constrained inverse problems in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning based on the idea of continuous dynamical methods and split-feasibility algorithms. Our method can compute a feasible solution without the second derivative of an objective function, which is required for gradient-based optimization algorithms. We prove theoretically that a double Kullback-Leibler divergence can be used as the Lyapunov function for the IMRT planning system.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  11. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  12. Quantification of Strategic Plans Through the Business Budget: A Practical Application Using Stochastic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the process of estimating the quantitative predictions of the strategic plan through the budget happens as from the deterministic data, together with analysis of factors of internal and external environments. As from the budget data decisions are made, often before the fact, which creates uncertainty as to the assertiveness of forecasts. Combined with the traditional preparation methods of corporate budget forecasts, this study presents an application of stochastic methods where the probabilism is presented as an alternative for the minimization of uncertainties related to the assertiveness of the estimates. It also demonstrates itself, as from a practical application, the use of the Monte Carlo method in the sales forecasting; at the same time it is tested the probability of these sales forecasting be materialized within certain intervals that meet the investors’ expectations, by using the limit central theorem and, finally, by using the absorbing Markov chain, it is demonstrated the overall performance of the system as from the funds input and output. The study was limited to a basic application of stochastic methods as from a hypothetical case which, however, allowed to  conclude that both methods, together or separately, can minimize the effects of uncertainty in budget forecasts.

  13. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin E.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Andrade, Susan E.; Cheetham, T. Craig; Scott, Pamela E.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Dashevsky, Inna; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Dublin, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on medication safety in pregnancy often utilizes health plan and birth certificate records. This study discusses methods used to link mothers with infants, a crucial step in such research. Methods We describe how 8 sites participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program created linkages between deliveries, infants and birth certificates for the 2001–2007 birth cohorts. We describe linkage rates across sites and, for two sites, we compare the characteristics of populations linked using different methods. Results Of 299,260 deliveries, 256,563 (86%; range by site, 74–99%) could be linked to infants using a deterministic algorithm. At two sites, using birth certificate data to augment mother-infant linkage increased the representation of mothers who were Hispanic or non-white, younger, Medicaid recipients, or had low educational level. A total of 236,460 (92%; range by site, 82–100%) deliveries could be linked to a birth certificate. Conclusions Tailored approaches enabled linking most deliveries to infants and to birth certificates, even when data systems differed. The methods used may affect the composition of the population identified. Linkages established with such methods can support sound pharmacoepidemiology studies of maternal drug exposure outside the context of a formal registry. PMID:23596095

  14. Path planning of mobile robot by mixing experience with modified artificial potential field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasong Min

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new method is proposed to help the mobile robot to avoid many kinds of collisions effectively, which combined past experience with modified artificial potential field method. In the process of the actual global obstacle avoidance, system will invoke case-based reasoning algorithm using its past experience to achieve obstacle avoidance when obstacles are recognized as known type; otherwise, it will invoke the modified artificial potential field method to solve the current problem and the new case will also be retained into the case base. In case-based reasoning, we innovatively consider that all the complex obstacles are retrieved by two kinds of basic build-in obstacle models (linear obstacle and angle-type obstacle. Our proposed experience mixing with modified artificial potential field method algorithm has been simulated in MATLAB and implemented on actual mobile robot platform successfully. The result shows that the proposed method is applicable to the dynamic real-time obstacle avoidance under unknown and unstructured environment and greatly improved the performances of robot path planning not only to reduce the time consumption but also to shorten the moving distance.

  15. Quantification of Strategic Plans Through the Business Budget: A Practical Application Using Stochastic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the process of estimating the quantitative predictions of the strategic plan through the budget happens as from the deterministic data, together with analysis of factors of internal and external environments. As from the budget data decisions are made, often before the fact, which creates uncertainty as to the assertiveness of forecasts. Combined with the traditional preparation methods of corporate budget forecasts, this study presents an application of stochastic methods where the probabilism is presented as an alternative for the minimization of uncertainties related to the assertiveness of the estimates. It also demonstrates itself, as from a practical application, the use of the Monte Carlo method in the sales forecasting; at the same time it is tested the probability of these sales forecasting be materialized within certain intervals that meet the investors’ expectations, by using the limit central theorem and, finally, by using the absorbing Markov chain, it is demonstrated the overall performance of the system as from the funds input and output. The study was limited to a basic application of stochastic methods as from a hypothetical case which, however, allowed to  conclude that both methods, together or separately, can minimize the effects of uncertainty in budget forecasts.

  16. 论绿道规划原理与方法%Greenway Planning Theory and Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杰克·艾亨; 周啸

    2011-01-01

    As the natural resource is decreasing while the urbanization is growing rapidly,the threat to the environment is increasing quickly all over the world.Greenway as an important landscape ecological planning method has been continuously catching people's attention these years.It is inevitable for landscape architect to understand greenway.This article is a summary of the Greenway specialist Professor Jack Ahern's greenway theory.It explains the definition,essence and planning strategy of greenway and introduces some greenway planning and design projects.The article also looks into the future of Greenway in China.%在全球自然资源不断减少以及城市不断扩张的背景下,全球生态环境威胁日益增大,绿道作为一种具有重要景观生态学意义的、可以协调人与土地关系的规划手段,在近年来逐渐受到重视。理解绿道知识,对于风景园林设计师有重要的意义。本文是对国际绿道研究专家杰克·艾亨教授关于绿道规划思想的一篇总结,文章介绍了绿道的定义、本质以及绿道规划的几种可行策略,并通过一些经典案例分析讲解了绿道规实践的不同方式,文章还对中国绿道的发展进行了展望。

  17. Are Ubiquitous Technologies the future vehicle for Transportation Planning: An analysis on various methods for Origin Destination

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Saini; S.V.Srikanth; Amritanshu Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Origin Destination has become a crucial aspect in l ong term transportation planning. For Origin- destination estimations, wide variety of methods ca n be used. Conventional methods like home surveys & roadside monitoring are slow & less effective. Blue tooth & CCTV cameras are also feasible methods for doing OD study, but have their own downsides. At pr esent, this information contributes to very less percentage of...

  18. Hybrid Motion Planning Method for Autonomous Robots Using Kinect Based Sensor Fusion and Virtual Plane Approach in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doopalam Tuvshinjargal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in dynamic environments is proposed. The new dynamic motion planning method combines a virtual plane based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion based obstacle detection approach, which results in improving robustness and autonomy of vehicle navigation within unpredictable dynamic environments. The key feature of the new reactive motion planning method is based on a local observer in the virtual plane which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary in the virtual plane. In addition, a sensor fusion based obstacle detection technique provides the pose estimation of moving obstacles by using a Kinect sensor and a sonar sensor, which helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach in uncertain dynamic environments. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles even in hostile environments where conventional method failed.

  19. Comparison of different methods involved in the planning of clinical crown lengthening surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Batistin Zanatta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little material in the literature that compares biological width measurements in periapical and bite-wings radiographs with clinical measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of biological width taken by three different methods which are frequently used for planning periodontal surgery - periapical radiograph, bite-wing radiograph and transperiodontal probing - with the trans-surgical measurements. Thirty-four sites from twenty-one subjects were analyzed. The intra-class correlation coefficients between measurements obtained trans-surgically (gold standard and those obtained by transperiodontal probing, periapical radiography and bite-wing radiography were determined. Average measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon test at a significance level of 0.05. Also, the frequency distribution of differences between test measurements and the gold standard was calculated. The results showed that transperiodontal probing (mean 2.05 mm was the most accurate measurement, as compared to the gold standard (mean 1.97 mm, with no statistically significant difference observed. On the other hand, periapical and bite-wing radiographic mean values (1.56 mm and 1.72 mm, respectively were smaller than the gold standard, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05. It was concluded that transperiodontal probing was the most accurate measurement, as compared to the gold standard, followed by that obtained with the bite-wing radiograph. The clinical relevance of these results could be that planning for crown lengthening surgery should, preferably, include transperiodontal probing.

  20. A surrogate-based metaheuristic global search method for beam angle selection in radiation treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. H.; Gao, S.; Chen, W.; Shi, L.; D'Souza, W. D.; Meyer, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    An important element of radiation treatment planning for cancer therapy is the selection of beam angles (out of all possible coplanar and non-coplanar angles in relation to the patient) in order to maximize the delivery of radiation to the tumor site and minimize radiation damage to nearby organs-at-risk. This category of combinatorial optimization problem is particularly difficult because direct evaluation of the quality of treatment corresponding to any proposed selection of beams requires the solution of a large-scale dose optimization problem involving many thousands of variables that represent doses delivered to volume elements (voxels) in the patient. However, if the quality of angle sets can be accurately estimated without expensive computation, a large number of angle sets can be considered, increasing the likelihood of identifying a very high quality set. Using a computationally efficient surrogate beam set evaluation procedure based on single-beam data extracted from plans employing equally-spaced beams (eplans), we have developed a global search metaheuristic process based on the nested partitions framework for this combinatorial optimization problem. The surrogate scoring mechanism allows us to assess thousands of beam set samples within a clinically acceptable time frame. Tests on difficult clinical cases demonstrate that the beam sets obtained via our method are of superior quality.

  1. Tools and methods for integrated resource planning. Improving energy efficiency and protecting the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.N.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de; Redlinger, R.Y.

    1997-11-01

    This book resulted from our recognition of the need to have systematic teaching and training materials on energy efficiency, end-use analysis, demand-side management (DSM) and integrated resource planning (IRP). This book addresses energy efficiency programs and IRP, exploring their application in the electricity sector. We believe that these methods will provide powerful and practical tools for designing efficient and environmentally-sustainable energy supply and demand-side programs to minimize the economic, environmental and other social costs of electricity conversion and use. Moreover, the principles of IRP can be and already are being applied in other areas such as natural gas, water supply, and even transportation and health services. Public authorities can use IRP principles to design programs to encourage end-use efficiency and environmental protection through environmental charges and incentives, non-utility programs, and utility programs applied to the functions remaining in monopoly concessions such as the distribution wires. Competitive supply firms can use IRP principles to satisfy customer needs for efficiency and low prices, to comply with present and future environmental restrictions, and to optimize supply and demand-side investments and returns, particularly at the distribution level, where local-area IRP is now being actively practiced. Finally, in those countries where a strong planning function remains in place, IRP provides a way to integrate end-use efficiency and environmental protection into energy development. (EG) 181 refs.

  2. Fully Automated Treatment Planning for Head and Neck Radiotherapy using a Voxel-Based Dose Prediction and Dose Mimicking Method

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Chris; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A; Purdie, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present an atlas-based approach which learns a dose prediction model for each patient (atlas) in a training database, and then learns to match novel patients to the most relevant atlases. The method creates a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces any requirement for specifying dose-volume objectives for conveying the goals of treatment planning. A probabilistic dose distribution is inferred from the most relevant atlases, and is scalarized using a conditional random field to determine the most likely spatial distribution of dose to yield a specific dose prior (histogram) for relevant regions of interest. Voxel-based dose mimicking then converts the predicted dose distribution to a deliverable treatment plan dose distribution. In this study, we ...

  3. Planning method and application case of check dams in a small-scale watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Xiaoqing; You, Yong; Zhao, Wanyu

    2017-04-01

    Check dams are transverse structures build across gullies and they are very important engineering measure in soil restoration hazard mitigation. After the Wenchuan earthquake in China, a numerous of flood and debris flow was trigged, some of them caused serious secondary disasters. To solve this problem, a debris-flow prevention method by controlling debris-flow magnitude and avoiding blocking river was proposed, it can effectively prevent secondary disasters and control unconsolidated soil supply and debris-flow movement from upstream to downstream. Based on this method, a series of new types of check dams are proposed, the regulation effect on sediment particle size of slot check dam was qualitative analyzed, and the design parameters of the check dam are deduced, such as deposition slope, deposition length, and dam height. An engineering application case was given in Xiaogangjian Gully, which is in Wenchuan earthquake area, the proposed watershed planning method and a series of check dams with different orifices sizes are used. The engineering application experience may provide a useful way for developing check-dams as restoration tools and hazard mitigation methods at watershed scale.

  4. Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth: A Novel Method Using Virtually Planned 3-dimensional Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Georg D; Schnappauf, Albrecht; Giannis, Katharina; Bertl, Michael H; Moritz, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce an innovative method for autotransplantation of teeth using 3-dimensional (3D) surgical templates for guided osteotomy preparation and donor tooth placement. This report describes autotransplantation of immature premolars as treatment of an 11-year-old boy having suffered severe trauma with avulsion of permanent maxillary incisors. This approach uses modified methods from guided implant surgery by superimposition of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine files and 3D data sets of the jaws in order to predesign 3D printed templates with the aid of a fully digital workflow. The intervention in this complex case could successfully be accomplished by performing preplanned virtual transplantations with guided osteotomies to prevent bone loss and ensure accurate donor teeth placement in new recipient sites. Functional and esthetic restoration could be achieved by modifying methods used in guided implant surgery and prosthodontic rehabilitation. The 1-year follow-up showed vital natural teeth with physiological clinical and radiologic parameters. This innovative approach uses the latest diagnostic methods and techniques of guided implant surgery, enabling the planning and production of 3D printed surgical templates. These accurate virtually predesigned surgical templates could facilitate autotransplantation in the future by full implementation of recommended guidelines, ensuring an atraumatic surgical protocol. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF VARIOUS BURST TIME PLAN GENERATION METHODS IN BROADBAND SATELLITE MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shaodong; Li Guangxia; Feng Qi

    2011-01-01

    The Burst Time Plan (BTP) generation is the key for resource allocation in Broadband Satellite Multimedia (BSM) system.The main purpose of this paper is to minimize the system response time to users' request caused by BTP generation as well as maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) and improve the channel utilization efficiency.Traditionally the BTP is generated periodically in order to simplify the implementation of the resource allocation algorithm.Based on the analysis we find that Periodical BTP Generation (P-BTPG) method cannot guarantee the delay performance,channel utilization efficiency and QoS simultaneously,especially when the capacity requests arrived randomly.The Optimized BTP Generation (O-BTPG) method is given based on the optimal scheduling period and scheduling latency without considering the signaling overhead.Finally,a novel Asynchronous BTP Generation (A-BTPG) method is proposed which is invoked according to users' requests.A BSM system application scenario is simulated.Simulation results show that A-BTPG is a trade-off between the performance and signaling overhead which can improve the system performance insensitive to the traffic pattern.This method can be used in the ATM onboard switching satellite system and further more can be expended to Digital Video Broadcasting-Return Channel Satellite (DVB-RCS) system or IP onboard routing BSM system in the future.

  6. A review of segmentation and deformable registration methods applied to adaptive cervical cancer radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Holloway, Lois; Lim, Karen; Chan, Philip; Veera, Jacqueline; Vinod, Shalini K; Liney, Gary; Greer, Peter B; Dowling, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Manual contouring and registration for radiotherapy treatment planning and online adaptation for cervical cancer radiation therapy in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) are often necessary. However manual intervention is time consuming and may suffer from inter or intra-rater variability. In recent years a number of computer-guided automatic or semi-automatic segmentation and registration methods have been proposed. Segmentation and registration in CT and MRI for this purpose is a challenging task due to soft tissue deformation, inter-patient shape and appearance variation and anatomical changes over the course of treatment. The objective of this work is to provide a state-of-the-art review of computer-aided methods developed for adaptive treatment planning and radiation therapy planning for cervical cancer radiation therapy. Segmentation and registration methods published with the goal of cervical cancer treatment planning and adaptation have been identified from the literature (PubMed and Google Scholar). A comprehensive description of each method is provided. Similarities and differences of these methods are highlighted and the strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed. A discussion about choice of an appropriate method for a given modality is provided. In the reviewed papers a Dice similarity coefficient of around 0.85 along with mean absolute surface distance of 2-4mm for the clinically treated volume were reported for transfer of contours from planning day to the treatment day. Most segmentation and non-rigid registration methods have been primarily designed for adaptive re-planning for the transfer of contours from planning day to the treatment day. The use of shape priors significantly improved segmentation and registration accuracy compared to other models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE RATE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS USAGE OF 15-49 YEARS OLD WOMEN LIVING IN DUZCE PERMANENT RESIDENCES AND THE CAUSES OF PREFERING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the causes of prefer them was applied to women with face to face interview. The rate of 232 married women using effective planning method is 53.4%, traditional methods 24.6%and not using any method 22%. The rate of effective method usage of all 280 women included to the study is 45.7%, traditional 21.1% and not using any method 33.2%. The causes to prefer the methods are 72 women (25.7% ?reliable?, 33 women (11.8% ?side effects are less?, and 19 women (6.4% ?cheap?. All the women who began to use family planing methot by consulting with Health Center has used effective methods. Considering ?cheap? as a cause of prefer the method make us to think that the family planning methods could not be supported to the population unpaid. Using effective methods of all the women who began to use family planing methods by consulting with Health Center puts forward that Health Centers have an effective role in family planning activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(5.000: 265-279

  8. ADVANCED MR IMAGING METHODS FOR PLANNING AND MONITORING RADIATION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH GRADE GLIOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Janine M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    This review explores how the integration of advanced imaging methods with high quality anatomic images significantly improves the characterization, target definition, assessment of response to therapy, and overall management of patients with high-grade glioma. Metrics derived from diffusion, perfusion, and susceptibility weighted MR imaging in conjunction with MR spectroscopic imaging, allows us to characterize regions of edema, hypoxia, increased cellularity, and necrosis within heterogeneous tumor and surrounding brain tissue. Quantification of such measures may provide a more reliable initial representation of tumor delineation and response to therapy than changes in the contrast enhancing or T2 lesion alone and have a significant impact on targeting resection, planning radiation, and assessing treatment effectiveness. In the long-term, implementation of these imaging methodologies can also aid in the identification of recurrent tumor and its differentiation from treatment-related confounds and facilitate the detection of radiation-induced vascular injury in otherwise normal appearing brain tissue. PMID:25219809

  9. A Novel Method for Calculating Demand Not Served for Transmission Expansion Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Neeraj; Kalra, Prem Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring of the power market introduced demand uncertainty in transmission expansion planning (TEP), which in turn also requires an accurate estimation of demand not served (DNS). Unfortunately, the graph theory based minimum-cut maximum-flow (MCMF) approach does not ensure that electrical laws are followed. Nor can it be used for calculating DNS at individual buses. In this letter, we propose a generalized load flow based methodology for calculating DNS. This procedure is able to calculate simultaneously generation not served (GNS) and wheeling loss (WL). Importantly, the procedure is able to incorporate the effect of I2R losses, excluded in MCMF approach. Case study on a 5-bus IEEE system shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach over existing method.

  10. A new optimization method using a compressed sensing inspired solver for real-time LDR-brachytherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthier, C.; Aschenbrenner, K. P.; Buergy, D.; Ehmann, M.; Wenz, F.; Hesser, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    This work discusses a novel strategy for inverse planning in low dose rate brachytherapy. It applies the idea of compressed sensing to the problem of inverse treatment planning and a new solver for this formulation is developed. An inverse planning algorithm was developed incorporating brachytherapy dose calculation methods as recommended by AAPM TG-43. For optimization of the functional a new variant of a matching pursuit type solver is presented. The results are compared with current state-of-the-art inverse treatment planning algorithms by means of real prostate cancer patient data. The novel strategy outperforms the best state-of-the-art methods in speed, while achieving comparable quality. It is able to find solutions with comparable values for the objective function and it achieves these results within a few microseconds, being up to 542 times faster than competing state-of-the-art strategies, allowing real-time treatment planning. The sparse solution of inverse brachytherapy planning achieved with methods from compressed sensing is a new paradigm for optimization in medical physics. Through the sparsity of required needles and seeds identified by this method, the cost of intervention may be reduced.

  11. Technical aspects and evaluation methodology for the application of two automated brain MRI tumor segmentation methods in radiation therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Gloria P; Velthuizen, Robert P; Murtagh, F Reed; Pearlman, James L

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to design the steps necessary to create a tumor volume outline from the results of two automated multispectral magnetic resonance imaging segmentation methods and integrate these contours into radiation therapy treatment planning. Algorithms were developed to create a closed, smooth contour that encompassed the tumor pixels resulting from two automated segmentation methods: k-nearest neighbors and knowledge guided. These included an automatic three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the results to compensate for their undersegmentation and match the extended contouring technique used in practice by radiation oncologists. Each resulting radiation treatment plan generated from the automated segmentation and from the outlining by two radiation oncologists for 11 brain tumor patients was compared against the volume and treatment plan from an expert radiation oncologist who served as the control. As part of this analysis, a quantitative and qualitative evaluation mechanism was developed to aid in this comparison. It was found that the expert physician reference volume was irradiated within the same level of conformity when using the plans generated from the contours of the segmentation methods. In addition, any uncertainty in the identification of the actual gross tumor volume by the segmentation methods, as identified by previous research into this area, had small effects when used to generate 3D radiation therapy treatment planning due to the averaging process in the generation of margins used in defining a planning target volume.

  12. Consistency and reproducibility of the VMAT plan delivery using three independent validation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraraj, Varatharaj; Stathakis, Sotirios; Manickam, Ravikumar; Esquivel, Carlos; Supe, Sanjay S; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2010-11-16

    The complexity of VMAT delivery requires new methods and potentially new tools for the commissioning of these systems. It appears that great consideration is needed for quality assurance (QA) of these treatments since there are limited devices that are dedicated to the QA of rotational delivery. In this present study, we have evaluated the consistency and reproducibility of one prostate and one lung VMAT plans for 31 consecutive days using three different approaches: 1) MLC DynaLog files, 2) in vivo measurements using the multiwire ionization chamber DAVID, and 3) using PTWseven29 2D ARRAY with the OCTAVIUS phantom at our Varian Clinac linear accelerator. Overall, the three methods of testing the reproducibility and consistency of the VMAT delivery were in agreement with each other. All methods showed minimal daily deviations that contributed to clinically insignificant dose variations from day to day. Based on our results, we conclude that the VMAT delivery using a Varian 2100CD linear accelerator equipped with 120 MLC is highly reproducible.

  13. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  14. THE RATE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS USAGE OF 15-49 YEARS OLD WOMEN LIVING IN DUZCE PERMANENT RESIDENCES AND THE CAUSES OF PREFERING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Senih MAYDA; Tugba ARSLAN; Hakan Bahadir BOZKURT; Ilker DEDELI; Meryem Ozlem OZKAN

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the ca...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  16. An Integrated Method for Interval Multi-Objective Planning of a Water Resource System in the Eastern Part of Handan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqin Suo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated solving method is proposed for interval multi-objective planning. The proposed method is based on fuzzy linear programming and an interactive two-step method. It cannot only provide objectively optimal values for multiple objectives at the same time, but also effectively offer a globally optimal interval solution. Meanwhile, the degree of satisfaction related to different objective functions would be obtained. Then, the integrated solving method for interval multi-objective planning is applied to a case study of planning multi-water resources joint scheduling under uncertainty in the eastern part of Handan, China. The solutions obtained are useful for decision makers in easing the contradiction between supply of multi-water resources and demand from different water users. Moreover, it can provide the optimal comprehensive benefits of economy, society, and the environment.

  17. Application of neural networks and geomorphometry method for purposes of urban planning (Kazan, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg; Selivanov, Renat

    2013-04-01

    The landscape structure of a territory imposes serious limitations on the adoption of certain decisions. Differentiation of the relief into separate elementary geomorphological sections yields the basis for most adequate determination of the boundaries of urban geosystems. In paper the results of approbation of relief classification methods based on Artificial Neuron Networks are presented. Approbation of Artificial Neuron Networks (ANN) method (Kohonen's Self-Organizing Maps - SOM) for purposes of automated zoning of a modern city's territory on the example of the city of Kazan. The developed model of the restored landscapes represents the city territory as a system of geomorphologically homogenous terrains. Main research objectives: development of a digital model of relief of the city of Kazan; approbation of relief classification methods based on ANN and expert estimations; creation of a SOM-based map of urban geosystems; verification of the received results of classification, clarification and enlargement of landscape units; determination of the applicability of the method in question for purposes of zoning of big cities' territory, identification of strengths and weaknesses. First stage: analysis and digitalization of the detailed large-scale topographic map of Kazan. Digital model of the relief with a grid size of 10m has been produced. We have used this data for building various analytical maps of certain morphometric characteristics of the relief: height, slope, exposition, profile and plan curvature. Calculated morphometric values were transformed into a data matrix. Software packages use training algorithms without the use of a tutor, whereas weight coefficients are redistributed for each specific operational-territorial unit. After several iterations of the "education" process, neural network leads to gradual clumping of groups of operational-territorial unit with similar sets of morphometric parameters. 81 classes have been distinguished. Such atomism

  18. Patients’ handling of a standardized medication plan: a pilot study and method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botermann L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lea Botermann,1,2 Katrin Krueger,1 Christiane Eickhoff,1 Charlotte Kloft,2 Martin Schulz1–31Department of Medicine, ABDA – Federal Union of German Associations of Pharmacists, Berlin, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, 3Department of Pharmacology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, GermanyPurpose: The Action Plan for Medication Safety by the German Federal Ministry of Health introduced a standardized medication plan (MP, a printable document for the patient. The practical handling needs to be tested before the nationwide implementation in Germany. Therefore, the aims of our study were 1 to develop an instrument to evaluate the usage of the standardized MP, 2 to assess if patients can locate, and 3 understand important information. Moreover, we explored patients’ opinion and suggestions regarding the standardized MP template.Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the practical handling of the standardized MP. We interviewed 40 adult patients in seven community pharmacies in Germany, who took at least five medicines regularly and gave their written informed consent. The interview consisted of questions regarding finding and understanding information provided on a mock-up MP, patients’ opinion and the execution of the information on the MP by filling pill boxes. We eventually developed a new evaluation method to quantify the practical handling of the MP by rating the pill boxes filled by the patients.Results: Overall, the participants rated the MP positively. Thirty-nine (98% participants found important information on a mock-up standardized MP. Patients were questioned to identify if they understood information on medical intake as it relates to meals. In particular, they were questioned about medicine intake “1 hour before a meal”, which 98% (n=39 interpreted correctly, and “during a meal”, which 100% (n=40

  19. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  20. Patients' handling of a standardized medication plan: a pilot study and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botermann, Lea; Krueger, Katrin; Eickhoff, Christiane; Kloft, Charlotte; Schulz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Action Plan for Medication Safety by the German Federal Ministry of Health introduced a standardized medication plan (MP), a printable document for the patient. The practical handling needs to be tested before the nationwide implementation in Germany. Therefore, the aims of our study were 1) to develop an instrument to evaluate the usage of the standardized MP, 2) to assess if patients can locate, and 3) understand important information. Moreover, we explored patients' opinion and suggestions regarding the standardized MP template. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the practical handling of the standardized MP. We interviewed 40 adult patients in seven community pharmacies in Germany, who took at least five medicines regularly and gave their written informed consent. The interview consisted of questions regarding finding and understanding information provided on a mock-up MP, patients' opinion and the execution of the information on the MP by filling pill boxes. We eventually developed a new evaluation method to quantify the practical handling of the MP by rating the pill boxes filled by the patients. Overall, the participants rated the MP positively. Thirty-nine (98%) participants found important information on a mock-up standardized MP. Patients were questioned to identify if they understood information on medical intake as it relates to meals. In particular, they were questioned about medicine intake "1 hour before a meal", which 98% (n=39) interpreted correctly, and "during a meal", which 100% (n=40) interpreted correctly. The less precise advice of "before a meal" was interpreted correctly by 73% (n=29), and only 15% (n=6) correctly interpreted the term "after the meal". The evaluation of the filled pill boxes resulted in the "Evaluation Tool to test the handling of the Medication Plan" (ET-MP) - a weighted scoring system. The standardized MP is clearly arranged, and patients are able to find important information. The findings of this study

  1. Time-optimal path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tong

    2016-01-06

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct time-optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where a set deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty in the predictions. In the operational setting, much about dynamics, topography and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain, and as a result a single path produced by a model simulation has limited utility. To overcome this limitation, we rely on a finitesize ensemble of deterministic forecasts to quantify the impact of variability in the dynamics. The uncertainty of flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the optimal path by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of sampling strategy, and develop insight into extensions dealing with regional or general circulation models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times, and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  2. THE USE OF THE EXPERIMENT PLANNING METHOD TO EVALUATE THE ACCURACY OF FLEXIBLE UNITS IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Yehorov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The identification of rolling stock on the railroads is an integral part of many automation systems as trains in general and cars separately. Various information management systems at sorting yards require the operational information about the object while performing the manufacturing operations. The improvement of the determination accuracy of different parameters characterizing the rolling stock, leads to the immediate quality progress in the traffic volumes management. The aim of the paper is to develop a method to estimate the errors of determination the interaxle distance of the flexible units in the control section using the point path-control transducer for future identification of cars and locomotives. Methodology. To achieve this goal the simulation method and experiment planning were used. The simulation model allowing determining the time intervals between the collisions of wheelset of movable units in point path-control transducer on the control section with variable characteristics of identification devices was developed. The values of the time intervals obtained with using the simulation mode were applied in the method of experiment planning to the final target. Findings. The calculated analytical values of the errors of the interaxle distances do not have the significant differences from values obtained using the simulation model. It makes possible to use the received functional dependence to estimate the possible errors in the identification of rolling stock. The results of this work can be used to identify separate flexible units, and trains in general. Originality. The functional dependence of the error of the interaxle distance error from the fixing point of the wheel path-control transducer, the distance between the sensors and the measured distance was derived using a previously conducted research of the factors influencing the error in determining the interaxle distance of the movable units, and developed

  3. A case method for Sales and Operations Planning: a learning experience from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    Full Text Available Abstract Adequate preparation, learning, and training is required for Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP to aid organizations in achieving the full expected benefits from its implementation. This paper presents a case method for S&OP and the learning experience of its application at the University of Münster (Germany. The “constructive alignment principle” was applied with a “team teaching” approach, involving an executive from the case company. Students improved their knowledge on S&OP and their analytical skills by understanding the conceptual S&OP building blocks and by learning how to deal with them to provide a solution for a case based on a real-life situation. The learning results were evaluated positively during the discipline’s student evaluation of teaching (SET. The applied case method enhanced the student’s motivation and engagement (e.g., higher preparation effort and class attendance, which were considered higher than in other disciplines with the traditional lecture-based education.

  4. A Motion Planning Method for Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Based on the Anisotropic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntao Leng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A more suitable motion planning method for an omni-directional mobile robot (OMR, an improved APF method (iAPF, is proposed in this paper by introducing the revolving factor into the artificial potential field (APF. Accordingly, the motion direction derived from traditional artificial potential field (tAPF is regulated. The maximum velocity, maximum acceleration and energy consumption of the OMR moving in different directions are analyzed, based on the kinematic and dynamic constraints of an OMR, and the anisotropy of OMR is presented in this paper. Then the novel concept of an Anisotropic-Function is proposed to indicate the quality of motion in different directions, which can make a very favorable trade-off between time-optimality, stability and efficacy-optimality. In order to obtain the optimal motion, the path that the robot can take in order to avoid the obstacle safely and reach the goal in a shorter path is deduced. Finally, simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the motion resulting from the iAPF is high-speed, highly stable and highly efficient when compared to the tAPF.

  5. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annet Nanvubya

    Full Text Available Fishing communities (FCs in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP. Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda.Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use.The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8% being females while more than half (58.6% had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688; significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61], among older respondents (25-29 years [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99] compared to younger ones (18-24 years and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688 reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%, fear of side effects (12.2% and partner refusal (5.2%.Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.

  6. Can we manage groundwater? A method to determine the quantitative testability of groundwater management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E. K.; Peterson, T. J.; Costelloe, J.; Western, A. W.; Carrara, E.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest freshwater resource and due to overextraction, levels have declined in many regions causing extensive social and environmental impacts. Groundwater management seeks to balance and mitigate the detrimental impacts of development, with plans commonly used to outline management pathways. Thus, plan efficiency is crucial, but seldom are plans systematically and quantitatively assessed for effectiveness. This study frames groundwater management as a system control problem in order to develop a novel testability assessment rubric to determine if plans meet the requirements of a control loop, and subsequently, whether they can be quantitatively tested. Seven components of a management plan equivalent to basic components of a control loop were determined, and requirements of each component necessary to enable testability were defined. Each component was weighted based upon proposed relative importance, then segmented into rated categories depending on the degree the requirements were met. Component importance varied but, a defined objective or acceptable impact was necessary for plans to be testable. The rubric was developed within the context of the Australian groundwater management industry, and while use of the rubric is not limited to Australia, it was applied to 15 Australian groundwater management plans and approximately 47% were found to be testable. Considering the importance of effective groundwater management, and the central role of plans, our lack of ability to test many plans is concerning.

  7. Building the community voice into planning: 25 years of methods development in social audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Neil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health planners and managers make decisions based on their appreciation of causality. Social audits question the assumptions behind this and try to improve quality of available evidence. The method has its origin in the follow-up of Bhopal survivors in the 1980s, where “cluster cohorts” tracked health events over time. In social audit, a representative panel of sentinel sites are the framework to follow the impact of health programmes or reforms. The epidemiological backbone of social audit tackles causality in a calculated way, balancing computational aspects with appreciation of the limits of the science. Social audits share findings with planners at policy level, health services providers, and users in the household, where final decisions about use of public services rest. Sharing survey results with sample communities and service workers generates a second order of results through structured discussions. Aggregation of these evidence-based community-led solutions across a representative sample provides a rich substrate for decisions. This socialising of evidence for participatory action (SEPA involves a different skill set but quality control and rigour are still important. Early social audits addressed settings without accepted sample frames, the fundamentals of reproducible questionnaires, and the logistics of data turnaround. Feedback of results to stakeholders was at CIET insistence – and at CIET expense. Later social audits included strong SEPA components. Recent and current social audits are institutionalising high level research methods in planning, incorporating randomisation and experimental designs in a rigorous approach to causality. The 25 years have provided a number of lessons. Social audit reduces the arbitrariness of planning decisions, and reduces the wastage of simply allocating resources the way they were in past years. But too much evidence easily exceeds the uptake capacity of decision takers. Political

  8. Application of dose kernel calculation using a simplified Monte Carlo method to treatment plan for scanned proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shohei; Takada, Yoshihisa; Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Tansho, Ryohei; Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Monte Carlo (FMC) calculation of dose distribution has been recognized to have superior accuracy, compared with the pencil beam algorithm (PBA). However, since the FMC methods require long calculation time, it is difficult to apply them to routine treatment planning at present. In order to improve the situation, a simplified Monte Carlo (SMC) method has been introduced to the dose kernel calculation applicable to dose optimization procedure for the proton pencil beam scanning. We have evaluated accuracy of the SMC calculation by comparing a result of the dose kernel calculation using the SMC method with that using the FMC method in an inhomogeneous phantom. The dose distribution obtained by the SMC method was in good agreement with that obtained by the FMC method. To assess the usefulness of SMC calculation in clinical situations, we have compared results of the dose calculation using the SMC with those using the PBA method for three clinical cases of tumor treatment. The dose distributions calculated with the PBA dose kernels appear to be homogeneous in the planning target volumes (PTVs). In practice, the dose distributions calculated with the SMC dose kernels with the spot weights optimized with the PBA method show largely inhomogeneous dose distributions in the PTVs, while those with the spot weights optimized with the SMC method have moderately homogeneous distributions in the PTVs. Calculation using the SMC method is faster than that using the GEANT4 by three orders of magnitude. In addition, the graphic processing unit (GPU) boosts the calculation speed by 13 times for the treatment planning using the SMC method. Thence, the SMC method will be applicable to routine clinical treatment planning for reproduction of the complex dose distribution more accurately than the PBA method in a reasonably short time by use of the GPU-based calculation engine. PACS number(s): 87.55.Gh.

  9. African American Organ Donor Registration: A Mixed Methods Design using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Derek A.; Ivankova, Nataliya; Herby, Ivan; Wynn, Theresa A.; Kohler, Connie; Berry, Beverly; Foushee, Herman; Carson, April; Redden, David T.; Holt, Cheryl; Siminoff, Laura; Fouad, Mona; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context A large racial disparity exists in organ donation. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with becoming a registered organ donor in among African Americans in Alabama. Methods The study utilized a concurrent mixed methods design guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior to analyze African American’s decisions to become a registered organ donor using both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) methods. Results The sample consisted of 22 registered organ donors (ROD) and 65 non-registered participants (NRP) from six focus groups completed in urban (n=3) and rural (n=3) areas. Participants emphasized the importance of the autonomy to make one’s own organ donation decision and have this decision honored posthumously. One novel barrier to becoming a ROD was the perception that organs from African Americans were often unusable due to high prevalence of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Another novel theme discussed as an advantage to becoming a ROD was the subsequent motivation to take responsibility for one’s health. Family and friends were the most common groups of persons identified as approving and disapproving of the decision to become a ROD. The most common facilitator to becoming a ROD was information, while fear and the lack of information were the most common barriers. In contrast, religious beliefs, mistrust and social justice themes were infrequently referenced as barriers to becoming a ROD. Discussion Findings from this study may be useful for prioritizing organ donation community-based educational interventions in campaigns to increase donor registration. PMID:25193729

  10. A Variational Approach to Path Planning in Three Dimensions Using Level Set Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-08

    planning. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automa- tion, 14(1), 1998. [15] L. Kavraki, P. Svestka, J. Latombe, and M. Overmars. Probabilistic roadmaps...for path planning in high dimensional configuration spaces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 12(4), 1996. [16] Ron Kimmel and James A

  11. Research on Route Planning Method Based on Active-Attack Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-yan; HUANG Xian-lin

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at modern high-density, high overlapped and powerful antipersonnel stealthy penetration environment, route planning techniques on active-attack strategy were thoroughly and further studied, in order to get good probability of survival and perfect efficiency of task accomplishment. It provides a new thought for and a new solution to the application of route planning in new era.

  12. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%). However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52%) than females (25%) who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046), or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000), not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000), and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025). Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing family planning

  13. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%. However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52% than females (25% who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046, or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000, not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000, and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025. Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing

  14. Power system modeling and optimization methods vis-a-vis integrated resource planning (IRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsali, Mohammad H.

    1998-12-01

    The state-of-the-art restructuring of power industries is changing the fundamental nature of retail electricity business. As a result, the so-called Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) strategies implemented on electric utilities are also undergoing modifications. Such modifications evolve from the imminent considerations to minimize the revenue requirements and maximize electrical system reliability vis-a-vis capacity-additions (viewed as potential investments). IRP modifications also provide service-design bases to meet the customer needs towards profitability. The purpose of this research as deliberated in this dissertation is to propose procedures for optimal IRP intended to expand generation facilities of a power system over a stretched period of time. Relevant topics addressed in this research towards IRP optimization are as follows: (1) Historical prospective and evolutionary aspects of power system production-costing models and optimization techniques; (2) A survey of major U.S. electric utilities adopting IRP under changing socioeconomic environment; (3) A new technique designated as the Segmentation Method for production-costing via IRP optimization; (4) Construction of a fuzzy relational database of a typical electric power utility system for IRP purposes; (5) A genetic algorithm based approach for IRP optimization using the fuzzy relational database.

  15. RISK ASSESSMENT IN PROJECT PLANNING USING FMEA AND CRITICAL PATH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena CHOLES ARVILLA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based upon the research undertaken for the development of the doctoral thesis “Management of software projects based on object-oriented technology”. The study examines the existing risk management practices commonly used for classic software development. The goal is to integrate the elements of the traditional risk management methodologies to create a new agile risk management methodology. The thesis focuses on techniques that can be easily implemented in extreme programming (XP and SCRUM. This study is motivated by the following research questions: What are the elements of existing quality assurance tools that could meet the principles of agile development? And is it possible to use risk estimation for improving quality in agile projects? The thesis presents a synthesis of the most common risk management techniques, as well as an introduction to agile methods XP and SCRUM. The proposal integrates the concepts of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into the iterative life cycle of an agile software project. The thesis presents a metamodel which integrates the concepts of agile development methodologies: SCRUM and XP with the FMEA concepts for risk quantification. The model was partly implemented into a real development project. Partial results show the improvement in early identification of failures and allowed to reconsider the Sprint plan.

  16. Comparison of different methods involved in the planning of clinical crown lengthening surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Giacomelli, Bruno Rodrigues; Dotto, Patricia Pasquali; Fontanella, Vânia Regina Camargo; Rosing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2010-01-01

    There is little material in the literature that compares biological width measurements in periapical and bite-wings radiographs with clinical measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of biological width taken by three different methods which are frequently used for planning periodontal surgery - periapical radiograph, bite-wing radiograph and transperiodontal probing - with the trans-surgical measurements. Thirty-four sites from twenty-one subjects were analyzed. The intra-class correlation coefficients between measurements obtained trans-surgically (gold standard) and those obtained by transperiodontal probing, periapical radiography and bite-wing radiography were determined. Average measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon test at a significance level of 0.05. Also, the frequency distribution of differences between test measurements and the gold standard was calculated. The results showed that transperiodontal probing (mean 2.05 mm) was the most accurate measurement, as compared to the gold standard (mean 1.97 mm), with no statistically significant difference observed. On the other hand, periapical and bite-wing radiographic mean values (1.56 mm and 1.72 mm, respectively) were smaller than the gold standard, with statistically significant differences (p crown lengthening surgery should, preferably, include transperiodontal probing.

  17. A Method for Applying Fluvial Geomorphology in Support of Catchment-Scale River Restoration Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, D.; Newson, M.; Hill, C.; Branson, J.; Old, J.

    2005-12-01

    Fluvial geomorphology is increasingly used by those responsible for conserving river ecosystems; survey techniques are used to derive conceptual models of the processes and forms that characterise particular systems and locations, with a view to making statements of `condition' or `status' and providing fundamental strategies for rehabilitation/restoration. However, there are important scale-related problems in developing catchments scale restoration plans that inevitably are implemented on a reach- by-reach basis. This paper reports on a watershed scale methodology for setting geomorphological and physical habitat reference conditions based on a science-based conceptual model of cachment:channel function. Using a case study from the River Nar, a gravel-bed groundwater dominated river in the UK with important conservation status, the paper describes the sequences of the methodology; from analysis of available evidence, process of field data capture and development of a conceptual model of catchment-wide fluvial dynamics. Reference conditions were derived from the conceptual model and gathered from the literature for the two main river types found on the river Nar, and compared with the current situation in 76 sub-reaches from source to mouth. Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was used to score the extent of channel departures from `natural' and to suggest the basis for a progressive restoration strategy for the whole river system. MCA is shown to be a flexible method for setting and communicating decisions that are amenable to stakeholder and public consultation.

  18. Optimal Point-to-Point Motion Planning of Flexible Parallel Manipulator with Multi-Interval Radau Pseudospectral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Minxiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal point-to-point motion planning of flexible parallel manipulator was investigated in this paper and the 3RRR parallel manipulator is taken as the object. First, an optimal point-to-point motion planning problem was constructed with the consideration of the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model and actuator dynamics. Then, the multi-interval Legendre–Gauss–Radau (LGR pseudospectral method was introduced to transform the optimal control problem into Nonlinear Programming (NLP problem. At last, the simulation and experiment were carried out on the flexible parallel manipulator. Compared with the line motion of quantic polynomial planning, the proposed method could constrain the flexible displacement amplitude and suppress the residue vibration.

  19. Optimized planning target volume margin in helical tomotherapy for prostate cancer: is there a preferred method?

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yuan Jie; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Jang, Min Sun; Yoon, Won Sup; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-01-01

    To compare the dosimetrical differences between plans generated by helical tomotherapy using 2D or 3D margining technique in in prostate cancer. Ten prostate cancer patients were included in this study. For 2D plans, planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding 5 mm (lateral/anterior-posterior) to clinical target volume (CTV). For 3D plans, 5 mm margin was added not only in lateral/anterior-posterior, but also in superior-inferior to CTV. Various dosimetrical indices, including the prescription isodose to target volume (PITV) ratio, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage index (TCI), modified dose homogeneity index (MHI), conformation number (CN), critical organ scoring index (COSI), and quality factor (QF) were determined to compare the different treatment plans. Differences between 2D and 3D PTV indices were not significant except for CI (p = 0.023). 3D margin plans (11195 MUs) resulted in higher (13.0%) monitor units than 2D margin plans (9728 MUs). There were no significant d...

  20. 77 FR 19522 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... Personnel Management is issuing a final regulation to establish a new rate-setting procedure for most FEHB... published June 29, 2011 that replaced the current rate negotiation process with a requirement that...

  1. Development of a Reality-Based Multimedia Case Study Teaching Method and Its Effect on Students' Planned Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Caitlin M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2017-01-01

    There is opportunity to decrease the frequency of foodborne illnesses by improving food safety competencies and planned behaviors of college students before they begin careers in the food industry. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a multimedia case study teaching method that provides real world context for food science education;…

  2. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  3. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  4. Development of a Reality-Based Multimedia Case Study Teaching Method and Its Effect on Students' Planned Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Caitlin M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2017-01-01

    There is opportunity to decrease the frequency of foodborne illnesses by improving food safety competencies and planned behaviors of college students before they begin careers in the food industry. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a multimedia case study teaching method that provides real world context for food science education;…

  5. Evaluation of the material assignment method used by a Monte Carlo treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, A; Brualla, L; Lefkopoulos, D

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of the conversion process from Hounsfield units (HU) to material composition in computerised tomography (CT) images, employed by the Monte Carlo based treatment planning system ISOgray (DOSIsoft), is presented. A boundary in the HU for the material conversion between "air" and "lung" materials was determined based on a study using 22 patients. The dosimetric consequence of the new boundary was quantitatively evaluated for a lung patient plan.

  6. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Sector Financing in Developing Countries. Volume 8: Health Sector Financing in Developing Countries. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.; And Others

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this eighth of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods series provides a methodology for conducting a study of health sector financing. It presents an…

  7. Analysis Methods for Extracting Knowledge from Large-Scale WiFi Monitoring to Inform Building Facility Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Antonio; Blunck, Henrik; Prentow, Thor Siiger

    2014-01-01

    realistic data to inform facility planning. In this paper, we propose analysis methods to extract knowledge from large sets of network collected WiFi traces to better inform facility management and planning in large building complexes. The analysis methods, which build on a rich set of temporal and spatial...... features, include methods for noise removal, e.g., labeling of beyond building-perimeter devices, and methods for quantification of area densities and flows, e.g., building enter and exit events, and for classifying the behavior of people, e.g., into user roles such as visitor, hospitalized or employee...... noise removal of beyond building perimeter devices. We furthermore present detailed statistics from our analysis regarding people’s presence, movement and roles, and example types of visualizations that both highlight their potential as inspection tools for planners and provide interesting insights...

  8. REGULATORY METHODS OF EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT BASED ON PLANNING OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRONEVYTSKYI S. P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Current state building standard SCN 360-92** «Planning and development of territories of population area» does not perform its primary function of construction management during project construction works, because their development and construction works were carried out during of their development in conditions of administrative-planned system of construction management, implementation of construction works by service of a single customer, the design of residential area of housing construction without private property rights for land area. All this determined the peculiarities of the rationing planning and building of territories, not tied to the land area of a specific construction project. Methodology. To provide the implementation of the national engineering and construction works to the technical standards of the European Union, elimination of corruption schemes in construction management, it is necessary correcting and improving of state construction norms on planning and development of territories of population area with the definition of the limit indicators of construction land area reclamation. Conclusion. The new postulates for the management of construction works to provide sustainable urban development are determined. The need of renewal standard base of territorial planning of construction is determined in countries with economies in transition in accordance with the standards of planning the construction in the countries of the European Union. Originality. The comparative analysis of normative-legal documents of some countries is shown . Practical value. Include proposals for the regulation of construction use of land area for development are proposed .

  9. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  10. An Analysis of the Romanian General Accounting Plan. Opportunities for Adaptation to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Alina Preda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the causes that have led to the improvement of the Romanian general accounting plan according to the Activity- Based Costing (ABC method. We explain the advantages presented by the dissociated organization of management accounting, in contrast with the tabular- statistical form. The article also describes the methodological steps to be taken in the process of recording book entries, according to the Activity-Based Costing (ABC method in Romania.

  11. Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC, Nuwakot district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sushmita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family Planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily to contribute effectively to the social development of a country. CPR of Nuwakot district is less than that of National level. The Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on family planning methods among married women of Kakani VDC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was done with quantitative methods. Likewise, PPS sampling procedure was used and sample size was 109. Structured questionnaires as a tool and Interview technique was used to obtain necessary information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS, and computed mean, standard deviation, tables, cross tabulation and chi – square. Results: The study shows that more than one fifth of the respondents (23.9% were of age group 28-32 years and more than half of the respondents (51.4% had marriage at the age of 15-19 years. Depo-Provera was the device known by all respondents and Implant was the least known device. However, more than half (56.9% MWRAs had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents were currently using FP devices. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning use of FP devices is low. Conclusion: The study population had good knowledge towards FP devices; however the use of FP devices was low. It was mainly due to husband being abroad and side effects of the devices.

  12. Validation of a treatment plan-based calibration method for 2D detectors used for treatment delivery quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olch, Arthur J; Whitaker, Matthew L

    2010-08-01

    Dosimetry using film, CR, electronic portal imaging, or other 2D detectors requires calibration of the raw image data to obtain dose. Typically, a series of known doses are given to the detector, the raw signal for each dose is obtained, and a calibration curve is created. This calibration curve is then applied to the measured raw signals to convert them to dose. With the advent of IMRT, film dosimetry for quality assurance has become a routine and labor intensive part of the physicist's day. The process of calibrating the film or other 2D detector takes time and additional film or images for performing the calibration, and comes with its own source of errors. This article studies a new methodology for the relative dose calibration of 2D imaging detectors especially useful for IMRT QA, which relies on the treatment plan dose image to provide the dose information which is paired with the raw QA image data after registration of the two images (plan-based calibration). Validation of the accuracy and robustness of the method is performed on ten IMRT cases performed using EDR2 film with conventional and plan-based calibration. Also, for each of the ten cases, a 5 mm registration error was introduced and the Gamma analysis was reevaluated. In addition, synthetic image tests were performed to test the limits of the method. The Gamma analysis is used as a measure of dosimetric agreement between plan and film for the clinical cases and a dose difference metric for the synthetic cases. The QA image calibrated by the plan-based method was found to more accurately match the treatment plan doses than the conventionally calibrated films and also to reveal dose errors more effectively when a registration error was introduced. When synthetic acquired images were systematically studied, localized and randomly placed dose errors were correctly identified without excessive falsely passing or falsely failing pixels, unless the errors were concentrated in a majority of pixels in a

  13. The Plate Model: a visual method of teaching meal planning. DAIS Project Group. Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelon, K M; Hådell, K; Jämsén, P T; Ketonen, K J; Kohtamäki, H M; Mäkimatilla, S; Törmälä, M L; Valve, R H

    1998-10-01

    Dietitians from Canada, Finland, France, and Sweden have explored methods of teaching meal planning to persons with diabetes and dyslipidemia in the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study. The Plate Model, a method commonly used in Europe, is a simple alternative to the traditional exchange-based method for teaching meal planning. In this visual method, a dinner plate serves as a pie chart to show proportions of the plate that should be covered by various food groups. Portions of foods and appropriate food choices can be depicted for meals and snacks in assorted forms of the model. Methods of presenting the model range from professional photography to hand-drawn sketches and displays of food replicas. Benefits of the model for adult learners include enhancement of the connection between dietary theory and practice, promotion of memory retention and understanding through visual messages, and experience of a positive approach to nutrition counseling. Various cuisines and festive foods can be incorporated into the model. The Plate Model offers a meal planning approach that is simple and versatile. The effectiveness of the model and its applications to other populations need to be evaluated.

  14. 3D-Route Planning Method to Realize Missile Cruise Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-jie; FAN Chen; ZHU Qun-Min; TANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    In order to increase the aircraft's survival in the flight mission, it is necessary to carry out flight mission planning, which includes TF/TA\\+2(terrain following/terrain avoidance/threat avoidance).An approach to 3D-route planning based on A* heuristic search algorithm was selected to determine the routes of fiber optic guidance missile's cruise segment.The cost function was discussed, which was mainly related to the physical obstacle, threat exposure, and aircraft performance characteristics.The digital map techniques were presented, which included setting "no-go" area according to fiber's safety requirement.The optimal or the sub-optimal route was obtained, while the cost function constraints were satisfied and the stored terrain obtained from a real terrain was digitized.The algorithm is validated through simulation and can fulfill the route planning task which focuses on the cruise segment of fiber optic guidance missile.

  15. The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Henderson; S. Yoo; M. Kowalok; T.R. Mackie; B.R. Thomadsen

    2001-10-30

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-metere from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum.

  16. Application of experimental plans method to formulate a self compacting cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrouki, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-compacting concrete formulation means to elaborate a self-compacting cement paste to which will be injected aggregates. The purpose of this work is to find the composition of this cement paste containing local materials (pozzolanic cement, limestone fillers, superplasticizer and water having self-compacting properties. The use of the experimental plans method shows that it is possible to delimit an experimental field bounded by the volumetric proportions of materials composing the paste. The field was transformed in equations form conditioned by implicit constraints, defining zones of minimal shearing threshold and maximum viscosity; numerical resolution submitted to the optimization criteria permitted to define the volumetric proportions of each mixing parameter contributing to the preparation of an optimal paste. After experimental checking to validate obtained results, conclusions are that, from results given by ternary diagrams and desirability’s functions, a composition of an optimal self-compacting cement pas was obtained.

    En este trabajo se estudia la constitución de una pasta autocompactante a base de materiales locales argelinos (cemento binario de base puzolánica natural de Beni Saf y filler calizo de cantera. La reología de la pasta se estudia en función de las dosificaciones de cemento, caliza, superplastificante y agua. La fluidez de las pastas así formadas se deducen de los ensayos de escurrimiento del mini cono y del tiempo de flujo en el cono de Marsh. Utilizando el diseño estadístico de mezclas, el número de ensayos se ha visto considerablemente reducido, el problema se transformó en ecuaciones y después se resolvió numéricamente. A partir de las curvas de los diagramas ternarios, uniendo las respuestas de escurrimiento y el tiempo de flujo de las pastas en función de las dosificaciones en constituyentes y estudiando las funciones de conveniencia para cada respuesta, se terminará por deducir una

  17. STRATEGIC PLANNING AT THE ENTERPRISE: APPLICATION OF A METHOD OF THE ANALYSIS OF HIERARCHIES FOR THE STRATEGIC ACTIVITY MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya V. Samarin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of application of a method of the analysis of hierarchiesfor the solution of problems of monitoring of activity of the enterprise onadvance to a strategic objective in the course of implementation of thecurrent medium-term plan is presented. Problems of an assessment of astate and situation forecasting to the termination of the current planningperiod are considered. The matrix method which is the return method ofthe analysis of hierarchies, allowing to estimate and predict a situationwith implementation of the plan in all structures of the enterprise andrealizing procedure of strategic monitoring at the enterprise is developed. Statistical and analytical methods of the solution of a problemof forecasting are presented. For the solution of a task the statisticalmethod developed algorithm of the numerical solution of a task and itsflowchart is submitted. An algorithm for solving the problem of determination of the integral strategic risk the implementation of the set ofevents. Shows an example of solving the problem of determination ofthe degree of achievement of the intermediate objectives for the knownvalues of the degree of implementation of all stipulated by a plan ofactions (works for the six-level hierarchical scheme.

  18. Improved Fuzzification Method for Multi-Objective Decision-Making and Its Application in Evaluation of Highway Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秀娟; 史忠科

    2003-01-01

    A new fuzzification method for multi-objective decision-making and selective sorting is proposed on the basis of the fuzzy consistent relation, and the specific algorithm is presented. The method is applied to the evaluation of highway planning of Zhanjiang city. To decrease the subjectivity in the process of decision-making, the LOWA operator is introduced, and a discussion on how to select appropriate weights involved in multi-objective sorting is made. It is concluded that it is feasible to apply the fuzzy consistent relation to multi-objective decision-making analysis, and the improved fuzzication method is workable.

  19. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  20. An applied optimization based method for line planning to minimize travel time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Lusby, Richard Martin

    The line planning problem in rail is to select a number of lines froma potential pool which provides sufficient passenger capacity and meetsoperational requirements, with some objective measure of solution linequality. We model the problem of minimizing the average passenger systemtime, including...

  1. An optimization based method for line planning to minimize travel time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The line planning problem is to select a number of lines from a potential pool which provides sufficient passenger capacity and meets operational requirements, with some objective measure of solution line quality. We model the problem of minimizing the average passenger system time, including...

  2. Development of an Integrated GIS and Land Use Planning Course: Impacts of Hybrid Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an action research undertaken at Queensland University of Technology. It evaluates the effectiveness of the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) within the substantive domains of an existing land use planning course in 2011. Using student performance, learning experience survey, and questionnaire survey data, it…

  3. A new decision support method for local energy planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeck, N.M.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is required for almost any economic activity. Therefore, regions in developing countries that show rapid economic growth experience a substantial increase in energy demand, creating the need for new energy infrastructure. Energy planning is used to match future energy supply with demand. Howe

  4. Optimal Assignment Methods in Three-Form Planned Missing Data Designs for Longitudinal Panel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Schoemann, Alexander; McPherson, Brent; Wu, Wei; Little, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Planned missing designs are becoming increasingly popular, but because there is no consensus on how to implement them in longitudinal research, we simulated longitudinal data to distinguish between strategies of assigning items to forms and of assigning forms to participants across measurement occasions. Using relative efficiency as the criterion,…

  5. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  6. The Marketing Audit as a Method of the Evaluation of the Marketing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňa, Kamil; Černá, Ľubica

    2012-12-01

    The growing complexity of the current market environment needs a more systematic evaluation process of the organizational marketing performance to deal with the dynamic market. This paper deals with marketing audit as a comprehensive assessment of all angles of marketing operation in an organization and also deals with systematic evaluation of plans, objectives, strategies, activities and organizational structure as well as marketing staff.

  7. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  8. Experimental Investigation of Land Mobile Prediction Methods and Modeling of Radio Planning Tool Parameters along Indian Rail Road Rural Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. N. Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication networks in rural zones were not given enough importance and emphasis unlike their urban counter parts due to the unattractive revenues and economic considerations for the cellular operators. In order to identify the suitable prediction methods for Indian rail road rural zones, train-based measurements were conducted in the northern and western rural zones along rail roads. These were carried out by recording the carriers emitted by the trackside base stations inside the moving train. The observed signal levels converted into path losses were compared initially with various conventional prediction methods. The observed results were also compared with the predicted results of radio planning tool utilizing digital terrain data. The constants of the model incorporated in the radio planning tool were tuned separately for north Indian and west Indian base stations based on the observed results. The suitability of the models has been evaluated in terms of standard statistical parameters.

  9. Constraint satisfaction and optimization for space station short-term mission planning based on an iterative conflict-repair method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hui-Jiao; Zhang, Jin; Luo, Ya-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This article studies the optimization of space station short-term mission planning (STMP) problems. The domain knowledge including description and the concept definitions of the STMP problem are presented, an STMP constraint satisfaction model is developed, and then an iterative conflict-repair method with the resolving strategies is proposed to satisfy complicated constraints. A genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to optimize the STMP problem. The proposed approach is evaluated using a test case with 15 missions, 13 devices and three astronauts. The results show that the established STMP constraint satisfaction model is effective, and the iterative conflict-repair method can make the plan satisfy all constraints considered and can effectively improve the optimization performance of the GA.

  10. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calc...

  11. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson Sandra C; Li Jianghong; Nattabi Barbara; Orach Christopher G; Earnest Jaya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interview...

  12. Meeting children's needs: a mixed-methods approach to a regionalized pediatric surge plan-the Los Angeles County experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bridget M; Muller, Valerie M; Wilson, Millicent; Amara, Roel; Fruhwirth, Kay; Stevenson, Kathleen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Children are one of the most vulnerable populations during mass casualty incidents because of their unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes. The objective of this project was to enhance Los Angeles County's (LAC) pediatric surge capabilities. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) determine gaps in pediatric surge capacity and capabilities; (2) double pediatric inpatient capacity; and (3) document a plan to address gaps and meet pediatric inpatient surge. We hypothesized that LAC would be able to meet the identified pediatric surge target by leveraging resources of hospitals within the region. Deliverables included a pediatric surge plan for LAC, pediatric surge training resources, and pediatric supplies for hospitals participating in LAC's Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP). After Institutional Review Board approval, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore gaps in hospital capacity and capabilities in a large urban county. Hospitals were surveyed via Qualtrics® on 38 questions regarding capacity, staffing, availability of pediatric supplies, and existing pediatric surge plans. Publicly available inpatient bed data were collected from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development for the year ending June 2010 and supplemented by hospital survey responses. Population data was used from US Census 2010. This combined dataset was analyzed for capacity, pediatric designations, and capabilities. To supplement this data, three focus groups were conducted between April 2011 and May 2012. Focus group topics included: supplies and training needed for pediatric surge, surge targets, and plan development and functionality. Hospitals varied in pediatric capacity and capability. Forty-six percent of facilities provide inpatient pediatric services. Forty-one hospitals are designated as an Emergency Department Approved for Pediatrics. Identified gaps included: limited pediatric bed capacity, geographic variability, limited

  13. Comparison of two methods of teaching hypertension in under graduate medical students: "planned lecture" versus "cooperative learning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Farokhlagha; Jalili, Mohammad; Nadia Hatmi, Zinat; Olang, Orkideh; Eslami, Khadijeh; Gatmiri, Seyed Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    The direct and indirect negative impacts of hypertension on mortality and morbidity and the deficiencies in physicians' knowledge on its management prompted us to search for new methods of training this item. In this study, 2 methods of teaching-planned lecture and cooperation-were compared in instructing hypertension to medical students. This study was designed to be a prospective analysis of the efficacy of 2 models of cooperation and planned lecture teaching of hypertension. The medical students, in the second term of the 2010 academic year who were introduced to the nephrology ward for their internal medicine course, were randomly assigned to 2 groups to be taught hypertension by 2 models of cooperation and planned lecture to compare their advantages and disadvantages. In their final exam 2 questions concerning the management of hypertension were asked with regard to evaluating the long-term impact of the models on learning. Data were analyzed by paired t-test to compare pre- and post-test in each group, and independent t-test was used to compare the average and standard deviation scores between groups. Fifty-one students participated in the study. The total number of students in the lecture (group 1) and cooperation (group 2) methods was 28 and 23, respectively. By independent t-test, differences in test scores indicated a similar achievement of the 2 methods for the endpoint of basic knowledge (P = 0.253). But, the cooperation method was more successful in transferring abilities, primarily in the areas of workup and treatment (P < 0.05). The study findings show that both methods can set in the optimal training for hypertension to students but that the cooperative method is more effective for deduction analysis.

  14. Widening the Scope of Scenario Planning in Small Communities: a Case Study Use of an Alternative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rawluk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenario planning can be invaluable for empowerment and learning in resource dependent communities. Pre-existing scenario planning methods call for collaboration between community members, but when cultural norms prevented men, women, and youth from coming together in the community of Ukupseni in Panama, the authors and community sought to devise an alternative method. The research objectives were twofold. First, to develop an alternative scenario planning method that would facilitate learning among decision makers about community needs and perspectives, and second, to explore ways to direct desired futures. Instead of forecasting through community-wide collaboration and backcasting with the creation of one vision through consensus, forecasting used individual interviews to create scenarios and backcasting was conducted separately with each of the six community groups (older women, young women with children, young women without children, young men, older men including fishermen and lobster-catchers, and individuals with formal education resulting in several visions. To unify the results, we created an organizational matrix that allowed the visions of different community groups to be compared. The organizational matrix allowed decision makers to observe that women and youth, the most marginalized members of the community, had convergent visions that were very different from men whose perspectives and knowledge are more often included in decision making.

  15. Total Body Irradiation using VMAT (RapidArc: A Planning Study of a novel treatment delivery method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santam Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT using RapidArc to deliver total body irradiation (TBI treatment. Methods: VMAT planning was performed a whole body computed tomography (CT data set using Rapid Arc. The planning target volumes included entire body trimmed to 3 mm below the skin. The organs at risk included the lungs and kidneys. A dose of 12 Gy in 10 fractions was prescribed to the target volume. The VMAT-TBI technique consisted of three isocentres and three overlapping arcs: the head and neck, the chest, and the pelvis. The plans were prescribed to ensure, at a minimum, 95% planning target volume dose coverage with the prescription dose (percentage of volume receiving dose of 12 Gy was 95% and maximum dose of 109.8%. Mean dose to lung was restricted at 8.6Gy. Results: The total body volume in the study was 15469cm3 and the PTV volume was 11322cm3. The mean dose to PTV was 104%. The homogeneity index was 0.09. Sparing of normal tissues with adequate coverage of skeletal bones was shown to be feasible with Rapid Arc. The study demonstrates that VMAT is feasible for TBI treatment. Unlike conventional TBI chest wall boost with electrons was not required. Conclusion: The technique for total body irradiation using RapidArc VMAT was found feasible and is undergoing further studies prior to clinical use.

  16. METHOD OF PLANNING CONTROL AUTOMATED SYSTEM INTEGRITY IN THE OPERATION AND SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Lysunets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of monitoring the integrity of sophisticated banking systems in the accompaniment. The understanding of the level of integrity of the automated system is described using estimates of the integrity level of the planning methodology of testing the automated banking system. Results of the article would be used in courses on Software Engineering and Banking Systems Automation. 

  17. Experimental Plan for the Cold Demonstration (Scoping Tests) of Glass Removal Methods from a DWPF Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.

    2001-09-21

    SRS and WVDP currently do not have the capability to size reduce, decontaminate, classify, and dispose of large, failed, highly contaminated equipment. Tanks Focus Area Task 777 was developed to address this problem. The first activity for Task 777 is to develop and demonstrate techniques suitable for removing the solid HLW glass from HLW melters. This experimental plan describes the work that will be performed for this glass removal demonstration.

  18. Stereolithography: a method for planning the surgical correction of the hypertelorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector Malagon; Romo, Gabriela Wong; Estolano, Roberto Takeo Rivera

    2009-09-01

    Hypertelorism is a deformity characterized by an increase in interorbital distance. The treatment can be orbital mobilization, or if the malformation goes along with occlusal alterations, the indicated treatment is a facial bipartition with hemifacial rotation.The intention of the present study was to describe a surgical planning technique in locating the anatomic points and planes on a stereolithographic model of a patient with 0-14 fissure and its surgical application.

  19. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J; Bodin, M; Grandahl, M; Segeblad, B; Axén, L; Larsson, M; Tydén, T

    2015-05-01

    How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP-a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long-term implementation comprises opportunities, risks and needs. The most common reason for not using the RLP was lack of information. There was general lack of

  20. Disordered and Multiple Destinations Path Planning Methods for Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-feng Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the smart home environment, aiming at the disordered and multiple destinations path planning, the sequencing rule is proposed to determine the order of destinations. Within each branching process, the initial feasible path set is generated according to the law of attractive destination. A sinusoidal adaptive genetic algorithm is adopted. It can calculate the crossover probability and mutation probability adaptively changing with environment at any time. According to the cultural-genetic algorithm, it introduces the concept of reducing turns by parallelogram and reducing length by triangle in the belief space, which can improve the quality of population. And the fallback strategy can help to jump out of the “U” trap effectively. The algorithm analyses the virtual collision in dynamic environment with obstacles. According to the different collision types, different strategies are executed to avoid obstacles. The experimental results show that cultural-genetic algorithm can overcome the problems of premature and convergence of original algorithm effectively. It can avoid getting into the local optimum. And it is more effective for mobile robot path planning. Even in complex environment with static and dynamic obstacles, it can avoid collision safely and plan an optimal path rapidly at the same time.

  1. Treatment planning for internal emitter therapy: Methods, applications and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Treatment planning involves three basic steps: (1) a procedure must be devised that will provide the most relevant information, (2) the procedure must be applied and (3) the resulting information must be translated into a definition of the optimum implementation. There are varying degrees of treatment planning that may be implemented in internal emitter therapy. As in chemotherapy, the information from a Phase 1 study may be used to treat patients based upon body surface area. If treatment planning is included on a patient-specific basis, a pretherapy, trace-labeled, administration of the radiopharmaceutical is generally required. The data collected following the tracer dose may range from time-activity curves of blood and whole-body for use in blood, marrow or total body absorbed dose estimation to patient imaging for three-dimensional internal emitter dosimetry. The most ambitious approach requires a three-dimensional set of images representing radionuclide distribution (SPECT or PET) and a corresponding set of images representing anatomy (CT or MRI). The absorbed dose (or dose-rate) distribution may be obtained by convolution of a point kernel with the radioactivity distribution or by direct Monte Carlo calculation. A critical requirement for both techniques is the development of an overall structure that makes it possible, in a routine manner, to input the images, to identify the structures of interest and to display the results of the dose calculations in a clinically relevant manner. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Multistep Lattice-Voxel method utilizing lattice function for Monte-Carlo treatment planning with pixel based voxel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, H; Saito, K; Nakamura, T; Sakae, T; Sakurai, H; Matsumura, A; Ono, K

    2011-12-01

    Treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy generally utilizes Monte-Carlo methods for calculation of the dose distribution. The new treatment planning system JCDS-FX employs the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo code PHITS to calculate the dose distribution. JCDS-FX allows to build a precise voxel model consisting of pixel based voxel cells in the scale of 0.4×0.4×2.0 mm(3) voxel in order to perform high-accuracy dose estimation, e.g. for the purpose of calculating the dose distribution in a human body. However, the miniaturization of the voxel size increases calculation time considerably. The aim of this study is to investigate sophisticated modeling methods which can perform Monte-Carlo calculations for human geometry efficiently. Thus, we devised a new voxel modeling method "Multistep Lattice-Voxel method," which can configure a voxel model that combines different voxel sizes by utilizing the lattice function over and over. To verify the performance of the calculation with the modeling method, several calculations for human geometry were carried out. The results demonstrated that the Multistep Lattice-Voxel method enabled the precise voxel model to reduce calculation time substantially while keeping the high-accuracy of dose estimation.

  3. Phase space modulation method for EPID-based Monte Carlo dosimetry of IMRT and RapidArc plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Avery; Townson, Reid; Bush, Karl; Zavgorodni, Sergei, E-mail: szavgorodni@bccancer.bc.c

    2010-11-01

    Quality assurance for IMRT and VMAT require 3D evaluation of the dose distributions from the treatment planning system as compared to the distributions reconstructed from signals acquired during the plan delivery. This study presents the results of the dose reconstruction based on a novel method of Monte Carlo (MC) phase space modulation. Typically, in MC dose calculations the linear accelerator (linac) is modelled for each field in the plan and a phase space file (PSF) containing all relevant particle information is written for each field. Particles from the PSFs are then used in the dose calculation. This study investigates a method of omitting the modelling of the linac in cases where the treatment has been measured by an electronic portal imaging device. In this method each portal image is deconvolved using an empirically fit scatter kernel to obtain the primary photon fluence. The Phase Space Modulation (PSM) method consists of simulating the linac just once to create a large PSF for an open field and then modulating it using the delivered primary particle fluence. Reconstructed dose distributions in phantoms were produced using MC and the modulated PSFs. The kernel derived for this method accurately reproduced the dose distributions for 3x3, 10x10, and 15x15 cm{sup 2} field sizes (mean relative dose-difference along the beam central axis is under 1%). The method has been applied to IMRT pre-treatment verification of 10 patients (including one RapidArc{sup TM} case), mean dose in the structures of interest agreed with that calculated by MC directly within 1%, and 95% of the voxels passed 2%/2mm criteria.

  4. Brief introduction of urban planning method%《城市规划方法》简评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽梅; 赵立志

    2014-01-01

    Methods to subject, is a key to the door. This article put forward on the methodology of urban planning, from the background of the subject as a discipline. In view of the complex and diverse of the city, the author introduced a book named“urban planning methods”writ en by the French designer Jean-Paul Lacaze, and given a brief introduction. Five planning methods are summed up, summarized the background, scope of application and the Chinese significance.%方法之于学科,犹如钥匙之于门。文章从城乡规划学设立为一级学科的背景出发,提出要对该学科方法论进行思考。鉴于城市本身的复杂多元,作者引入法国规划师让-保罗·拉卡兹(Jean-Paul Lacaze)《城市规划方法》一书,并对其简要介绍。总结出该书所提出的5种规划方法产生的时代背景、适用范围,并联系当下我国城市所面临的困境,以资参考。

  5. An Agent-based Transportation Route Planning Method for Led Fabricating Line and Its Evaluation Using Lagrangian Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Sotobayashi, Ken; Ando, Masakazu; Konishi, Masami

    In most of Light Emitting Diode (LED) semiconductor fabricating line, AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) are used to transport the products between the facilities in order to ensure dust-free operation in the transportation systems. It has been demanded to realize the route planning system which speedily derives a feasible transportation route so that each AGV does not interfere with other AGVs. In this paper, we applied an agent-based optimization method for the route planning problems with multiple AGVs in LED fabricating bay in which the total transportation time is minimized. In the agent-based method, each AGV agent independently searches its candidate of route. The imitated pheromone is effectively used to generate the route which avoids the collision among AGVs. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the lower bound of the original problem is obtained by using the Lagrangian relaxation technique. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated by using the value of duality gap for a large scale problem. The effectiveness of the agent-based optimization method is demonstrated.

  6. Planning, implementation and analysis of an assessment method of an industrial engineering course grounded on problem based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive market, companies need increasingly skilled human resources, especially when it comes to engineering. Universities, therefore, play an important role in this scenario, while training future professionals of the country. However, in this task, the institutions are faced with the challenge of attracting and working with young people of Generation Y, which have characteristics and needs that are not met by traditional teaching methods. Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an approach evolved in order to study and develop educational alternatives that meet the needs of businesses as well as the new student profile. In addition, actively teaching is not a simple task and becomes more complex when it refers to assess the knowledge gained through this method. Thus, this paper presents the planning, implementation and the assessment method adopted in a course of Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of Itajubá based on PBL. For this study it was adopted the action research method, in which the authors actively participated in all stages of the course, acting as facilitators in the course planning, implementation and monitoring. As a result, it is highlighted in this article, the benefits achieved by all involved through active learning, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the method. Moreover, improvements are proposed for future courses.

  7. Virtual surgical planning for orthognathic surgery using digital data transfer and an intraoral fiducial marker: the charlotte method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Sam; Farrell, Brian; Choi, Chris; Farrell, Bart; Weimer, Katie; Tucker, Myron

    2015-06-01

    We describe an alternative workup protocol for virtual surgical planning of orthognathic surgery using an intraoral fiducial marker, clinical photography, and the digital transfer of occlusal data. We also discuss our initial experience using this protocol in a series of patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive patients who had undergone combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies for the correction of dentofacial deformities at 1 center. These patients underwent treatment planning using the modified virtual surgical planning protocol described in the present report. The primary outcome evaluated was the accuracy of the method, which was determined through superimposition of the surgical plan to the postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. The secondary outcomes included the accuracy of the natural head position readings and the adequacy of the CBCT scanned stone models for the fabrication of occlusal splints. The population included 25 patients. The root mean standard deviation (RMSD) from the preoperative plan to the postoperative scan at the maxillary cephalometric points was 1.2, 1.4, and 2.1 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The RMSD of the superimposed plan to the postoperative scan at the 3 mandibular cephalometric points was 1.2, 0.8, and 0.7 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The average variance from the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes for the natural head position was 0.05, 2.22, and 0.69 mm, respectively. All splints fabricated from the CBCT occlusal data fit the stone models and were used intraoperatively. In the subset of patients whose models were both digitally transferred and laser scanned, the superimposition of the laser scan data to the CBCT scanned data was found to have a maximum variation of 0.2 mm at the occlusal level. The use of an intraoral fiducial marker changed the workflow for the data collection needed for virtual surgical

  8. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-08

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  9. Application of multiple criteria decision methods in space exploration initiative design and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Fellowship activities were directed towards the identification of opportunities for application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) domain. I identified several application possibilities and proposed demonstration application in these three areas: evaluation and ranking of SEI architectures, space mission planning and selection, and space system design. Here, only the first problem is discussed. The most meaningful result of the analysis is the wide separation between the two top ranked architectures, indicating a significant preference difference between them. It must also be noted that the final ranking reflects, to some extent, the biases of the evaluators and their understanding of the architecture.

  10. Advances in integrated and sustainable supply chain planning concepts, methods, tools and solution approaches toward a platform for industrial practice

    CERN Document Server

    Laínez-Aguirre, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Decision making at the enterprise level often encompass not only production operations and  product R&D, but other strategic functions such as financial planning and marketing. With the aim of maximizing growth and a firm’s value, companies often focus on co-ordinating these functional components as well as traditional hierarchical decision levels. Understanding this interplay can enhance enterprise capabilities of adaptation and response to uncertainties arising from internal processes as well as the external environment. This book presents concepts, methods, tools and solutions based on mathematical programming, which provides the quantitative support needed for integrated decision-making and ultimately for improving the allocation of overall corporate resources (e.g., materials, cash and personnel). Through a systems perspective, the integrated planning of the supply chain also promotes activities of reuse, reduction and recycling for achieving more sustainable environmental impacts of production/di...

  11. 智能规划的逻辑编码方式研究%Logical Encoding Methods in Intelligent Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕帅; 刘磊; 魏唯; 高冰冰

    2012-01-01

    逻辑编码方式的设计和实现是基于转换的规划方法有效处理的关键.对几种智能规划方法中的逻辑编码方式予以分析,分别介绍线性编码、基于Graphplan的编码、基于状态的编码、基于动作的编码、基于命题的编码、基于转移的编码、提升的因果编码、基于多值变元的编码、基于有向二元决策图的编码以及基于约束可满足的编码等,并结合国际规划竞赛和相关论文等的实验结论,说明上述编码方式的有效性和可行性,分析该类编码方式在其他领域的应用前景.最后,提出目前智能规划方法中逻辑编码方式研究所面临的挑战、可能的处理方法,以及与之相关的研究热点与趋势.%The design and implementation of logical encoding methods are the key issues of translation based planning methods, which need to translate a given planning problem to a series of other classical solvable problems during planning procedures. All the logical encoding methods need to consider the logical representations and reasonings based on the crossponding propositional logic, first-order logic, multi-value logic, probabilistic logic, modal logic, epistemic logic, or the other adopted non-classical logics. This paper introduces the concrete details of the state-of-the-art logical encoding methods in intelligent planning, which include linear encoding, Graphplan based encoding, state based encoding, action based encoding, proposition based encoding, transition based encoding, lifted casual encoding, multi-value variable based encoding, ordered binary decision diagram based encoding, constraint satisfiabilitiy based encoding and so on. It also introduces the possible needed encoding methods of probabilistics, epistemic properties, modal assumptions, and flexible constraints for planning operations or states of some proposed abstract planning domain problems, whose formal characteristic expressions are still disputed. After

  12. Distinct effects of rectum delineation methods in 3D-confromal vs. IMRT treatment planning of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dose distribution to the rectum, delineated as solid organ, rectal wall and rectal surface, in 3D conformal (3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment (IMRT planning for localized prostate cancer was evaluated. Materials and methods In a retrospective planning study 3-field, 4-field and IMRT treatment plans were analyzed for ten patients with localized prostate cancer. The dose to the rectum was evaluated based on dose-volume histograms of 1 the entire rectal volume (DVH 2 manually delineated rectal wall (DWH 3 rectal wall with 3 mm wall thickness (DWH3 4 and the rectal surface (DSH. The influence of the rectal filling and of the seminal vesicles' anatomy on these dose parameters was investigated. A literature review of the dose-volume relationship for late rectal toxicity was conducted. Results In 3D-CRT (3-field and 4-field the dose parameters differed most in the mid-dose region: the DWH showed significantly lower doses to the rectum (8.7% ± 4.2% compared to the DWH3 and the DSH. In IMRT the differences between dose parameters were larger in comparison with 3D-CRT. Differences were statistically significant between DVH and all other dose parameters and between DWH and DSH. Mean doses were increased by 23.6% ± 8.7% in the DSH compared to the DVH in the mid-dose region. Furthermore, both the rectal filling and the anatomy of the seminal vesicles influenced the relationship between the dose parameters: a significant correlation of the difference between DVH and DWH and the rectal volume was seen in IMRT treatment. Discussion The method of delineating the rectum significantly influenced the dose representation in the dose-volume histogram. This effect was pronounced in IMRT treatment planning compared to 3D-CRT. For integration of dose-volume parameters from the literature into clinical practice these results have to be considered.

  13. Evaluation of Sampling Methods and Development of Sample Plans for Estimating Predator Densities in Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-reliability of five sampling methods (visual search, drop cloth, beat bucket, shake bucket and sweep net) was determined for predatory arthropods on cotton plants. The beat bucket sample method was the most cost-reliable while the visual sample method was the least cost-reliable. The beat ...

  14. Reliability analysis and risk-based methods for planning of operation & maintenance of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    for extreme and fatigue limit states are presented. Operation & Maintenance planning often follows corrective and preventive strategies based on information from condition monitoring and structural health monitoring systems. A reliability- and riskbased approach is presented where a life-cycle approach......Reliability analysis and probabilistic models for wind turbines are considered with special focus on structural components and application for reliability-based calibration of partial safety factors. The main design load cases to be considered in design of wind turbine components are presented...... including the effects of the control system and possible faults due to failure of electrical / mechanical components. Considerations are presented on the target reliability level for wind turbine structural components. Application is shown for reliability-based calibrations of partial safety factors...

  15. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    . This will take time, so both areas must be considered already now, but it will be beneficial to work on reducing the consumption before the sustainable energy supply is fully developed, so that we can avoid expensive over-production. Some 30% of the total energy consumption in Denmark takes place in households...... that the use of this approach produced a better renovation with a larger energy saving. The initial evaluation helped the house owners identify a maintenance backlog, and the use of an independent advisor helped ensure quality throughout the process. Renovations are too often carried out for just one purpose......: maintenance, to update functions or to reduce energy consumption. But a lot can be gained by combining these efforts, which can reduce expenses for planning and execution and avoid doing things twice. Research for this thesis demonstrated this approach by carrying out a renovation based on maintenance...

  16. Use of three-dimensional medical modeling methods for precise planning of orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavili, Mehmet Emin; Canter, Halil Ibrahim; Saglam-Aydinatay, Banu; Kamaci, Soner; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2007-07-01

    Stereolithographic (medical rapid prototyping) biomodeling allows three-dimensional computed tomography to be used to generate solid plastic replicas of anatomic structures. Reports in the literature suggest that such biomodels may have a use in maxillofacial surgery, craniofacial surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, otology, vascular, and nasal research. A prospective trial to assess the usefulness of biomodeling in orthognathic surgery has been performed. In 12 patients with mandibular prognathism and/or maxillary retrusion, in addition to routine preoperative cephalometric analysis, preoperative high-resolution (cutting slice thickness of 1 mm) three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patients was obtained. Raw data obtained from computed tomography scanning was processed with a Mimics 9.22 Software (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System, Belgium). Fabrication of three-dimensional medical models was obtained through a process called powder depositional modeling by use of a Spectrum Z 510 3D Color Printer (Z Corporation, Burlington, MA). Alveolar arches of the maxilla and mandibula of the models were replaced with orthodontic dental cast models. Temporomandibular joints of the models were fixed with Kirschner wire. Maxillary and mandibular bony segments were mobilized according to preoperative orthodontic planning done by analysis of cephalometric plain radiographs. The relation between proximal and distal mandibular segments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies were evaluated on models preoperatively. The same surgeon had a role in both model cutting preoperatively and as an instructor preoperatively. The same bony relation was observed both in preoperative modelsand in the perioperative surgical field in all patients. Condylar malpositioning was not observed in any of the patients. Studying preoperative planned movements of osteotomized bone segments and observing relations of osteotomized segments of mandibula and maxilla in

  17. Log Linear Models for Religious and Social Factors affecting the practice of Family Planning Methods in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.

  18. The Impact of Employer Attitude to Green Commuting Plans on Reducing Car Driving: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing car trips and promoting green commuting modes are generally considered important solutions to reduce the increase of energy consumption and transportation CO2 emissions. One potential solution for alleviating transportation CO2 emissions has been to identify a role for the employer through green commuter programs. This paper offers an approach to assess the effects of employer attitudes towards green commuting plans on commuter mode choice and the intermediary role car ownership plays in the mode choice decision process. A mixed method which extends the traditional discrete choice model by incorporating latent variables and mediating variables with a structure equation model was used to better understand the commuter mode choice behaviour. The empirical data were selected from Washington-Baltimore Regional Household Travel Survey in 2007-2008, including all the trips from home to workplace during the morning hours. The model parameters were estimated using the simultaneous estimation approach and the integrated model turns out to be superior to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model accounting for the impact of employer attitudes towards green commuting. The direct and indirect effects of socio-demographic attributes and employer attitudes towards green commuting were estimated. Through the structural equation modelling with mediating variable, this approach confirmed the intermediary nature of car ownership in the choice process. The results found in this paper provide helpful information for transportation and planning policymakers to test the transportation and planning policies effects and encourage green commuting reducing transportation CO2 emissions.

  19. 项目计划方法可视化研究%Research on Visualized Planning Methods of Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋显广; 方玲玲; 朱黎; 王辉

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve project management level, this paper proposes a planning method to visualize the projects. That is to make the project visualized by using WBS, to make the activity logical relationship of the project tasks visualized by using ADM, to make the activity schedule visualized by using Gantt chart and to make the team responsibility visualized by combining WBS with RBS through RAM. The visualization of project plan-ning can not only intensify the communication level of the project but also improve its quality.%为提高项目管理水平,本文提出了让项目可视的计划编制方法,即利用WBS让项目任务可视,利用ADM将支撑项目任务完成的计划活动逻辑关系可视,利用甘特图让计划活动进度控制可视,利用RAM把WBS和RBS结合起来让组织责任可视。通过致力于项目计划的可视化工作,不仅强化了项目的沟通水平,而且提高了项目的工程质量。

  20. Introduction of a computer-based method for automated planning of reduction paths under consideration of simulated muscular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbaum, Jan; Fremd, Rainer; Pohlemann, Tim; Kristen, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Reduction is a crucial step in the surgical treatment of bone fractures. Finding an optimal path for restoring anatomical alignment is considered technically demanding because collisions as well as high forces caused by surrounding soft tissues can avoid desired reduction movements. The repetition of reduction movements leads to a trial-and-error process which causes a prolonged duration of surgery. By planning an appropriate reduction path-an optimal sequence of target-directed movements-these problems should be overcome. For this purpose, a computer-based method has been developed. Using the example of simple femoral shaft fractures, 3D models are generated out of CT images. A reposition algorithm aligns both fragments by reconstructing their broken edges. According to the criteria of a deduced planning strategy, a modified A*-algorithm searches collision-free route of minimal force from the dislocated into the computed target position. Muscular forces are considered using a musculoskeletal reduction model (OpenSim model), and bone collisions are detected by an appropriate method. Five femoral SYNBONE models were broken into different fracture classification types and were automatically reduced from ten randomly selected displaced positions. Highest mean translational and rotational error for achieving target alignment is [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Mean value and standard deviation of occurring forces are [Formula: see text] for M. tensor fasciae latae and [Formula: see text] for M. semitendinosus over all trials. These pathways are precise, collision-free, required forces are minimized, and thus regarded as optimal paths. A novel method for planning reduction paths under consideration of collisions and muscular forces is introduced. The results deliver additional knowledge for an appropriate tactical reduction procedure and can provide a basis for further navigated or robotic-assisted developments.

  1. Methods for mapping recreational and social values in urban green spaces in the nordic countries and their comparative merits for urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Caspersen, Ole H.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by urban planning is to identify and evaluate recreational and social values of urban and peri-urban green spaces. Over the past 30 years a number of methods for mapping recreational and social values have been developed and implemented in the Nordic countries......, in dialogue between research and urban planning practice. This paper provides a framework for assessment of planning methods and an analysis of the comparative merits of seven Nordic mapping methods and how they address the challenges of identification and evaluation of recreational and social values...

  2. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Planning Landscape Corridors in Ecological Infrastructure Using Least-Cost Path Methods Based on the Value of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung A Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service values have rarely been incorporated in the process of planning ecological infrastructure for urban areas. Urban ecological infrastructure is a network system of natural lands and waters that provides ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to design landscape corridors that maximize the value of ecosystem services in ecological infrastructure planning. We explored the optimal corridors to enhance the connectivity among landscape elements to design an ecological infrastructure for the city of Gwacheon, South Korea, as an example of a small urban area. We calculated the value of ecosystem services using standardized estimation indices based on an intensive review of the relevant literature and employed the least-cost path method to optimize the connectivity of landscape structural elements. The land use type in the city with the highest estimated value of ecosystem services was the riparian zone (i.e., 2011 US$7,312.16/ha. Given areal coverage of all land use types, the estimated value of developed area open spaces was 2011 US$899,803.25, corresponding to the highest contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. Therefore, the optimal configured dispersal corridors for wildlife were found from the riparian zones (source area to the developed area open spaces (destination area in the city. Several challenges remain for improving the estimation of the value of ecosystem services and incorporating these ecosystems in ecological infrastructure planning. Nonetheless, the approaches taken to estimate the value of ecosystem services and design landscape corridors in this study may be of value to future efforts in urban ecological infrastructure planning.

  4. A New Method for Reclamation Planning in Coastal Areas Based on Vulnerability Assessment to Typhoon Storm Surge Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid urban expansion in mega-cities (cities with populations over 10 million) leads to increased land demand and vulnerability to hazards as often significant numbers of people are economically and social disadvantaged. An effective way to create new flat land for further development is land reclamation and this has reached 511.71 km2 in the period of 1990 - 2009 along the Shanghai coast. This, in turn, leads to a potential increase in the vulnerability of the new coastal area to natural hazards. This is typically represented by typhoon storms that have the potential to be the most destructive natural hazard and therefore pose a significant threat to both infrastructure and livelihood in Shanghai. Due to insufficient knowledge of vulnerability of land use to typhoon storms and current planning, the reclaimed land is becoming one of the most vulnerable parts of the coastal low-land. While it is tempting to claim there is an increasing vulnerability to typhoon-inundation in Shanghai, this must be weighed against the socio-political response, where it is likely that city authorities will undertake rational land use planning to protect the reclamation from the inundation, sea level rise, and ground subsidence. Therefore, this research present a new method for reclamation planning based on vulnerability assessment to typhoon- inundation. First, MIKE21 was used to simulate the inundation scenario of two typhoon events in 1997 and 2007 respectively. Then, the vulnerability of 7 land use types with a set of hazard-proxies to these two typhoon inundations was assessed and verified by a new stage-damage curve system. Based on the above vulnerability assessment, this research will provide a planning tool for reclamation along Shanghai coastal area. This work is part of a larger study on the response of vulnerability to land use and land cover change.

  5. Recovery-focused care planning and coordination in England and Wales: a cross-national mixed methods comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Alan; Hannigan, Ben; Coffey, Michael; Barlow, Sally; Cohen, Rachel; Jones, Aled; Všetečková, Jitka; Faulkner, Alison; Thornton, Alexandra; Cartwright, Martin

    2016-05-16

    In the UK, concerns about safety and fragmented community mental health care led to the development of the care programme approach in England and care and treatment planning in Wales. These systems require service users to have a care coordinator, written care plan and regular reviews of their care. Processes are required to be collaborative, recovery-focused and personalised but have rarely been researched. We aimed to obtain the views and experiences of stakeholders involved in community mental health care and identify factors that facilitate or act as barriers to personalised, collaborative, recovery-focused care. We conducted a cross-national comparative study employing a concurrent transformative mixed-methods approach with embedded case studies across six service provider sites in England and Wales. The study included a survey of views on recovery, empowerment and therapeutic relationships in service users (n = 448) and recovery in care coordinators (n = 201); embedded case studies involving interviews with service providers, service users and carers (n = 117) and a review of care plans (n = 33). Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed within and across sites using inferential statistics, correlations and framework method. Significant differences were found across sites for scores on therapeutic relationships. Variation within sites and participant groups was reported in experiences of care planning and understandings of recovery and personalisation. Care plans were described as administratively burdensome and were rarely consulted. Carers reported varying levels of involvement. Risk assessments were central to clinical concerns but were rarely discussed with service users. Service users valued therapeutic relationships with care coordinators and others, and saw these as central to recovery. Administrative elements of care coordination reduce opportunities for recovery-focused and personalised work. There were few common understandings

  6. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calculus.

  7. Berufsbiografie und Familiengründung im methodischen Korsett Occupational Biography and Family Planning in a Methodical Corset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Veil

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In der Studie werden die ambivalenten Beziehungen zwischen Berufsbiografie und Familiengründung bei jungen Erwachsenen mit abgeschlossener beruflicher Ausbildung untersucht. Geschlechtsspezifische Fragestellungen spielen insofern eine Rolle, als zwischen dem Handeln und den Erwartungen von Männern und Frauen unterschieden wird. Vorherrschend sind jedoch methodische Fragen und das Ziel, Typologien zu entwickeln.The study focuses on the ambivalent relationship between occupational biography and family planning for young adults with certified occupational training. Gender-specific modes of inquiry play a role to the extent that the actions and expectations of men and women are differentiated. However, methodical questions and the goal of developing typologies are paramount.

  8. Optimal Method of Capacitated Lot-Sizing Planning in Manufacturing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jian-feng; ZHONG Yue-xian; HAN Zan-dong

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capacitated lot-sizing problem considering an individual machine's production capacity using a two-layer hierarchical method to minimize the sum of the dynamic inventory cost and the overtime penalty cost.The genetic algorithm,the parameter linear programming method,and a heuristic method were used in the developed methOd.The method uses the genetic operator to define the lot-sizing matrix(the first layer),linear prograrnming to determine each machine's schedule(the second layer)according to the lot-sizing matrix,and the heuristic method to verify the feasibility ofthe solutions by adiusting them to meet the constraint requirements.The scheduling of machines in a press shop demonstrates the effectiveness Of the algorithm.The result shows that the algorithm is convergent.

  9. Optimal fractionation and bioassay plans for isolation of synergistic chemicals: The subtractive-combination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, J A

    1992-09-01

    Studies of chemical ecology of an organism are founded on the isolation and identification of a semiochemical, often comprised of two or more synergistic compounds (each Synergist alone has little activity, but presented together they are bioactive). Chromatographie fractionation and bioassay methods of binary splitting, additive combination, and subtractive combination are compared for efficiency in isolating synergists. Formulas are derived for the latter two methods that calculate the expected number of bioassay tests required for isolation of from two to five synergists from biological extracts with any number of compounds, depending on the number of initial (major) Chromatographic fractions. A computer program based on the formulas demonstrates the superiority of the subtractive-combination method. Simulations with the program were used to determine the optimal number of initial fractions for the additive- and subtractive-combination methods when isolating two to five synergists from extracts of from 25 to 1200 compounds. Methods of bioassay, isolation, identification, and field testing of semiochemicals are discussed.

  10. A numerical method to optimise the spatial dose distribution in carbon ion radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, L; Korcyl, M; Olko, P; Waligorski, M P R

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a numerical algorithm to optimise the entrance spectra of a composition of pristine carbon ion beams which delivers a pre-assumed dose-depth profile over a given depth range within the spread-out Bragg peak. The physical beam transport model is based on tabularised data generated using the SHIELD-HIT10A Monte-Carlo code. Depth-dose profile optimisation is achieved by minimising the deviation from the pre-assumed profile evaluated on a regular grid of points over a given depth range. This multi-dimensional minimisation problem is solved using the L-BFGS-B algorithm, with parallel processing support. Another multi-dimensional interpolation algorithm is used to calculate at given beam depths the cumulative energy-fluence spectra for primary and secondary ions in the optimised beam composition. Knowledge of such energy-fluence spectra for each ion is required by the mixed-field calculation of Katz's cellular Track Structure Theory (TST) that predicts the resulting depth-survival profile. The optimisation algorithm and the TST mixed-field calculation are essential tools in the development of a one-dimensional kernel of a carbon ion therapy planning system. All codes used in the work are generally accessible within the libamtrack open source platform.

  11. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegård, Are; Bolstad Hysing, Liv; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid

    2010-09-01

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (±0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  12. Semi-automated segmentation of the sigmoid and descending colon for radiotherapy planning using the fast marching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegård, Are; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid

    2010-09-21

    A fast and accurate segmentation of organs at risk, such as the healthy colon, would be of benefit for planning of radiotherapy, in particular in an adaptive scenario. For the treatment of pelvic tumours, a great challenge is the segmentation of the most adjacent and sensitive parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the sigmoid and descending colon. We propose a semi-automated method to segment these bowel parts using the fast marching (FM) method. Standard 3D computed tomography (CT) image data obtained from routine radiotherapy planning were used. Our pre-processing steps distinguish the intestine, muscles and air from connective tissue. The core part of our method separates the sigmoid and descending colon from the muscles and other segments of the intestine. This is done by utilizing the ability of the FM method to compute a specified minimal energy functional integrated along a path, and thereby extracting the colon centre line between user-defined control points in the sigmoid and descending colon. Further, we reconstruct the tube-shaped geometry of the sigmoid and descending colon by fitting ellipsoids to points on the path and by adding adjacent voxels that are likely voxels belonging to these bowel parts. Our results were compared to manually outlined sigmoid and descending colon, and evaluated using the Dice coefficient (DC). Tests on 11 patients gave an average DC of 0.83 (+/-0.07) with little user interaction. We conclude that the proposed method makes it possible to fast and accurately segment the sigmoid and descending colon from routine CT image data.

  13. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olteanu Valerica; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity...

  15. The method FMEA and its implications in planning a rural micro-enterprise: a case study of Farm Oliveira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César de Medeiros Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of broiler chickens, in despite of the growing market space, it still faces important challenges in production, at basic and industrial level at the same time. In this context, this article summarizes the main conclusions of the application of FMEA in a broiler farm, analyzing also the implications for their planning. This study used descriptive and a case study approach. The results showed that the most frequent problems were characterized, for example as sick chickens and chicken deaths - with the main sources of vaccine shortage and excess in the carrying capacity of the farm. It was observed that the method FMEA was appropriate and contributed for the analyzes, for instance, to the resolution of the structured problems, since, by implementing the method, we could better understand the possible errors and failures that, perhaps, probably can cause these problems, giving the manager security issues and enabling the execution of a plan. So, this research brings the expectative to improve the management of broiler farms and, indirectly, can aid the profitability of poultry farmers, for their awareness of the importance of use quality management tools.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasemian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3. According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2. Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37. Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application.

  17. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  18. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria

  19. The model and the planning method of volume and variety assessment of innovative products in an industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V. G.; Anisimov, E. G.; Saurenko, T. N.; Sonkin, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the long term, the innovative development strategy efficiency is considered as the most crucial condition for assurance of economic system competitiveness in market conditions. It determines the problem relevance of such justification strategies with regard to specific systems features and conditions of their operation. The problem solution for industrial enterprises can be based on mathematical models of supporting the decision-making on the elements of the innovative manufacturing program. An optimization model and the planning method of innovative products volume and variety are suggested. The feature of the suggested model lies in the nonlinear nature of the objective function. It allows taking into consideration the law of diminishing marginal utility. The suggested method of optimization takes into account the system features and enables the effective implementation of manufacturing capabilities in modern conditions of production organization and sales in terms of market saturation.

  20. Personnel planning in general practices: development and testing of a skill mix analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eitzen-Strassel, Juliane; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Derckx, Emmy W C C; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2014-09-18

    General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients' demands with the mix of their practice staff's competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs or practice managers to perform a skill mix analysis which would take into account developments in local demand. The method was designed with a stepwise method using different research strategies. Literature review took place to detect available methods that map, predict, or measure patients' demands or needs and to fill the contents of the skill mix analysis. Focus groups and expert interviews were held both during the design process and in the first test stage. Both secondary data analysis as primary data collection took place to fill the contents of the tool. A pilot study in general practices tested the feasibility of the newly-developed method. The skill mix analysis contains both a quantitative and a qualitative part which includes the following sections: (i) an analysis of the current and the expected future demand; (ii) an analysis of the need to adjust skill mix; (iii) an overview about the functions of different provider disciplines; and (iv) a system to assess the input, assumed or otherwise, of each function concerning the 'catching up demand', the connection between supply and demand, and the introduction of new opportunities. The skill mix analysis shows an acceptable face and content validity and appears feasible in practice. The skill mix analysis method can be used as a basis to analyze and match, systematically, the demand for care and the supply of practice staff.

  1. Integrated resource planning and the environment: A guide to the use of multi-criteria decision methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Meier, P. [IDEA, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report is intended as a guide to the use of multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM) for incorporating environmental factors in electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Application of MCDM is emerging as an alternative and complementary method to explicit economic valuation for weighting environmental effects. We provide a step-by-step guide to the elements that are common to all MCDM applications. The report discusses how environmental attributes should be selected and defined; how options should be selected (and how risk and uncertainty should be accounted for); how environmental impacts should be quantified (with particular attention to the problems of location); how screening should be conducted; the construction and analysis of trade-off curves; dominance analysis, which seeks to identify clearly superior options, and reject clearly inferior options; scaling of impacts, in which we translate social, economic and environmental impacts into value functions; the determination of weights, with particular emphasis on ensuring that the weights reflect the trade-offs that decision-makers are actually willing to make; the amalgamation of attributes into overall plan rankings; and the resolution of differences among methods, and between individuals. There are many MCDM methods available for accomplishing these steps. They can differ in their appropriateness, ease of use, validity, and results. This report also includes an extensive review of past applications, in which we use the step-by-step guide to examine how these applications satisfied the criteria of appropriateness, ease of use, and validity. Case material is drawn from a wide field of utility applications, ranging from project-level environmental impact statements to capacity bidding programs, and from the results of two case studies conducted as part of this research.

  2. Discussion on LTE System Capacity Planning Method%LTE系统容量规划方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2014-01-01

    Compared with 2G/3G network, the LTE network in the physical layer technology, network structure, scheduling algorithm has great changes. It makes the LTE network capacity planning are different from 2G/3G network, LTE network capacity is affected by factors such as network mode, the user business model. It introduces the LTE network capacity planning methods and the various factors influencing the LTE network capacity in detail, gives the specific parameters on LTE network capacity, LTE busi-ness model and the traffic model. Based on the analysis of traffic model and the market prices of LTE, it gives the LTE network capacity planning specific instances, and put forward the hotspots LTE network capacity expansion method (including the user of peculiar to LTE carrier aggregation and multi-antenna technology), which is good for solving the problem on insufficient LTE network planning capacity.%与2G/3G网络相比,LTE网络在物理层技术、网络结构、调度算法等方面都发生了很大变化,使得LTE网络容量规划与2G/3G网络有所不同,LTE网络容量受组网方式、用户业务模型等因素影响。详细介绍了LTE网络容量规划方法及影响LTE网络容量的各种因素,给出了LTE业务模型和话务模型具体参数;在详细分析LTE话务模型和市场资费的基础上,给出了LTE网络容量规划具体实例,并提出了热点地区LTE网络容量扩充方法(包括利用LTE特有的载波聚合和多天线技术),对解决LTE网络规划中容量不足问题非常有利。

  3. Fast and fuzzy multi-objective radiotherapy treatment plan generation for head and neck cancer patients with the lexicographic reference point method (LRPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haveren, Rens; Ogryczak, Włodzimierz; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan

    2017-06-01

    Previously, we have proposed Erasmus-iCycle, an algorithm for fully automated IMRT plan generation based on prioritised (lexicographic) multi-objective optimisation with the 2-phase ɛ-constraint (2pɛc) method. For each patient, the output of Erasmus-iCycle is a clinically favourable, Pareto optimal plan. The 2pɛc method uses a list of objective functions that are consecutively optimised, following a strict, user-defined prioritisation. The novel lexicographic reference point method (LRPM) is capable of solving multi-objective problems in a single optimisation, using a fuzzy prioritisation of the objectives. Trade-offs are made globally, aiming for large favourable gains for lower prioritised objectives at the cost of only slight degradations for higher prioritised objectives, or vice versa. In this study, the LRPM is validated for 15 head and neck cancer patients receiving bilateral neck irradiation. The generated plans using the LRPM are compared with the plans resulting from the 2pɛc method. Both methods were capable of automatically generating clinically relevant treatment plans for all patients. For some patients, the LRPM allowed large favourable gains in some treatment plan objectives at the cost of only small degradations for the others. Moreover, because of the applied single optimisation instead of multiple optimisations, the LRPM reduced the average computation time from 209.2 to 9.5 min, a speed-up factor of 22 relative to the 2pɛc method.

  4. Personnel planning in general practices: development and testing of a skill mix analysis method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzen-Strassel, J. von; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  5. Personnel planning in general practices : Development and testing of a skill mix analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eitzen-Strassel, J.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; de Bakker, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  6. The Q-Sort method: use in landscape assessment research and landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Pitt; Ervin H. Zube

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of visual quality inherently involves the measurement of perceptual response to landscape. The Q-Sort Method is a psychometric technique which produces reliable and valid interval measurements of people's perceptions of landscape visual quality as depicted in photographs. It is readily understood by participants across a wide range of age groups and...

  7. Teens' Survey of Stores in the District of Columbia on Accessibility of Family Planning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Access to and availability of contraceptive methods in stores play an important role in the prevention of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Although teens are generally knowledgable about birth control, many encounter barriers when attempting to obtain contraceptive. Forty-five drug stores and 15 convenience…

  8. The case for increasing returns (2: the methods of planning horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic B. Jennings Jr.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In neoclassical economics, substitution assumptions support equilibrium models in closed systems shunning interdependence. On these grounds an array of frames show outcomes as stable, efficient, unique and determinate. Heterodox economists say equilibrium models sidestep practical knowledge and the rich reality of economic behavior. Rigor or realism, mainstream or radical, ecological, institutional, socio-cultural: economics invites a wide diversity of assumptions, once short-term models of substitution are opened to question. The answers are blurred by applications; there is clarity in a simplicity shielded from mundane detail. This paper addresses the methodological impact of planning horizons, increasing returns and complementarity, and their proper representation in economic constructions. Horizonal economics can be construed as extending orthodox standards into a realm of time, but for its subtler ramifications. Increasing returns make our relations complementary and not substitutional, loosening the tight deductions from mainstream models of choice. The horizonal extension of our received theory of price applies time to cost and demand curves, showing Marshallian scissors (supply and demand cut outward and downward with expanded horizons. Static conceptions appear in horizonal groups, suggesting complete theories of price should specify agents’ horizons, with no further radical impact: the trouble emerges with increasing returns and complementarity. Horizons stem from unbounded causality; if all we do ripples outward forever in nature and society, the relevant field of inquiry for economics is interdependent: this is the case for bounded rationality as an analytical limit to economic conceptions. In turn, interdependence suggests a use of network constructs to frame complex systemic cascades, and networks open a door to complementarity and increasing returns in transport and information exchange. The gaping maw of increasing returns and

  9. Uptake of family planning methods and unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional survey among clients at HIV clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyenze Rhoda K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT, but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but available data has not been disaggregated by HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of family planning and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected people in Uganda. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 1100 HIV-infected individuals, including 441 men and 659 women, from 12 HIV clinics in three districts in Uganda to assess the uptake of family planning services, and unplanned pregnancies, among HIV-infected people. We conducted multivariate analysis for predictors of current use of family planning among women who were married or in consensual union and were not pregnant at the time of the interview. Results One-third (33%, 216 of the women reported being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses and 28% (123 of the men reported their partner being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses. Of these, 43% (105 said these pregnancies were not planned: 53% (80 among women compared with 26% (25 among men. Most respondents (58%; 640 reported that they were currently using family planning methods. Among women who were married or in consensual union and not pregnant, 80% (242 were currently using any family planning method and 68% were currently using modern family planning methods (excluding withdrawal, lactational amenorrhoea and rhythm. At multivariate analysis, women who did not discuss the number of children they wanted with their partners and those who did not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners were less likely to use modern family planning methods (adjusted OR 0.40, range 0.20-0.81, and 0.30, range 0.10-0.85, respectively. Conclusions The uptake of family planning

  10. Improved concepts and methods in analysis and evaluation of the urban climate for optimizing urban planning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, D.; Fehrenbach, U.; Beha, H.-D.; Parlow, E.

    Planning processes are strongly influenced by an increased awareness of environmental issues concerned by projected land-use transformations. A research project was carried out to produce climate maps for the region of Basel/Switzerland to enable planning authorities taking care of the urban climate and its interrelations with urban structures. Main focus was given to develop and implement a methodology meeting not only the regional requirements of Basel. The new approach is not depending on subjective criteria or manual interventions and ensures its applicability for other regions. Three basic concepts were developed or improved in this study. A new definition of `climatopes' was introduced, and methods were developed for their digital determination by objective criteria. This definition of climatopes requires adequate information on land-use, which is provided by introducing the concept of `areal types'. In contrast to `traditional' land-use classes directly derived from satellite images, areal types are complex aggregates reflecting not only different physical surface properties, but also socioeconomic aspects of land-use. `Ventilation classes' are the second component required to delineate climatopes. They summarize the combined influencing factors of terrain features and land-use structures on wind field and urban ventilation. Their determination is based on topographic information and surface properties derived from a digital terrain model and from land-use data. The spatial distribution of climatopes was computed for Basel. Various quality assessment procedures and the application of climatopes for an automated generation of planning guidelines demonstrate the applicability of the concepts. Climate maps containing the results of the analysis and evaluation of the urban climate of Basel were estimated by the involved planners to be a valuable tool meeting their practical requirements to a high degree.

  11. A computational method for planning complex compound distributions under container, liquid handler, and assay constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mark F; Wild, Daniel; Hoffman, Steve; Paulson, James; Neil, William; Nirschl, David S

    2013-10-01

    A systematic method for assembling and solving complex compound distribution problems is presented in detail. The method is based on a model problem that enumerates the mathematical equations and constraints describing a source container, liquid handler, and three types of destination containers involved in a set of compound distributions. One source container and one liquid handler are permitted in any given problem formulation, although any number of compound distributions may be specified. The relative importance of all distributions is expressed by assigning weights, which are factored into the final mathematical problem specification. A computer program was created that automatically assembles and solves a complete compound distribution problem given the parameters that describe the source container, liquid handler, and any number and type of compound distributions. Business rules are accommodated by adjusting weighting factors assigned to each distribution. An example problem, presented and explored in detail, demonstrates complex and nonintuitive solution behavior.

  12. An application of the TODIM method to the evaluation of Broadband Internet plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Duncan Rangel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the evaluation of the various types of access to the Broadband Internet available to a small company, located in Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This small company needs to implement Broadband Internet in its establishment and sought an evaluation of the companies which work providing this type of service. With the aim of carrying out a technical evaluation of the provision of the Broadband Internet service and, considering the diverse points of view and needs of this small company, a Multicriteria Decision Aiding Method, the TODIM method, was used. By means of this research, the power of this Operational Research tool was verified in the search for the solution to the problem of ranking the services offered in the city, according to the criteria chosen by this small company.

  13. Smart Voyage Planning Model Sensitivity Analysis Using Ocean and Atmospheric Models Including Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ATMOSPHERIC MODELS INCLUDING ENSEMBLE METHODS Scott E. Miller Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., University of South Carolina, 2000 B.S...Typical gas turbine fuel consumption curve and relationship to sea state .......51  Figure 16.  DDG 58 speed reduction curves for bow seas...Day Time Group ECDIS-N Electronic Chart Display and Information System – Navy ECMWF European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts EFAS

  14. Comparison of Three Ideal Point-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Methods for Afforestation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Estrella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideal point-based multi-criteria decision methods (MCDM, i.e., iterative ideal point thresholding (IIPT, compromise programming (CP and a newly-proposed CP variant, called balanced compromise programming (BCP, were applied to the Tabacay catchment in Ecuador with the aim of finding a distribution of land use types (LUT that optimizes regional land performance. This performance was expressed in terms of several conflicting on-site ecosystem services (ESS, namely water conservation, soil protection, carbon storage and monetary income. IIPT selects the best performing LUT on a per-land unit basis, that is the assignment of a LUT to a land unit is completely independent with respect to other land units. CP and BCP, on the other hand, aim at optimizing the integrated regional performance. These methods produce a LUT distribution that is as close as possible to the absolute optimal performance that would be achieved when conflict among ESS is not considered. In general, similar results were obtained with CP and BCP. This was not the case when the results produced by these two methods were contrasted with IIPT. For most ESS under consideration, CP and BCP produced balanced results that were closer to the absolute optimal values when compared to IIPT. We conclude from our results that, when optimization of land performance at a regional scale is at stake, CP-derived models emerge as the preferable option over IIPT, especially when balanced solutions are a requirement.

  15. Soil erosion planning using sediment yield index method in the Nun Nadi watershed, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Raja Naqvi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study identifies the extent of soil loss and proposes a method for prioritization of micro-watershed in the Nun Nadi watershed. The study used the Sediment Yield Index (SYI method, based on weighted overlays of soil, topography, rainfall erosivity and land use parameters in 24 micro watersheds. Accordingly the values and thematic layers were integrated as per the SYI model, and minimum and maximum sediment yield values were calculated. The priority ranks as per the sediment yield values were assigned to all micro-watersheds. Then the values were classified into four priority zones according to their composite scores. Almost 14 percent area of three micro-watersheds (SW5b, SW6a and SW7b showed very high priority; approximately 30.57 percent of the study area fell under the high priority zones. These areas require immediate attention. Conservation methods are suggested, and the locations of check dams are proposed after considering drainage, slope and soil loss.

  16. Methods for planning and operating decentralized combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, H.

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, the number of decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP) plants, which are typically located in small communities, has grown rapidly. These relatively small plants are based on Danish energy resources, mainly natural gas, and constitute an increasing part of the total energy production in Denmark. The topic of this thesis is the analysis of DCHP plants, with the purpose to optimize the operation of such plants. This involves the modelling of district heating systems, which are frequently connected to DCHP plants, as well as the use of heat storage for balancing between heat and power production. Furthermore, the accumulated effect from increasing number of DCHP plants on the total power production is considered. Methods for calculating dynamic temperature response in district heating (DH) pipes have been reviewed and analyzed numerically. Furthermore, it has been shown that a tree-structured DH network consisting of about one thousand pipes can be reduced to a simple chain structure of ten equivalent pipes without loosing much accuracy when temperature dynamics are calculated. A computationally efficient optimization method based on stochastic dynamic programming has been designed to find an optimum start-stop strategy for a DCHP plant with a heat storage. The method focuses on how to utilize heat storage in connection with CHP production. A model for the total power production in Eastern Denmark has been applied to the accumulated DCHP production. Probability production simulations have been extended from the traditional power-only analysis to include one or several heat supply areas. (au)

  17. Systematic review of the application of the plan-do-study-act method to improve quality in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael J; McNicholas, Chris; Nicolay, Chris; Darzi, Ara; Bell, Derek; Reed, Julie E

    2014-04-01

    Plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles provide a structure for iterative testing of changes to improve quality of systems. The method is widely accepted in healthcare improvement; however there is little overarching evaluation of how the method is applied. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for assessing the quality of application of PDSA cycles and explores the consistency with which the method has been applied in peer-reviewed literature against this framework. NHS Evidence and Cochrane databases were searched by three independent reviewers. Empirical studies were included that reported application of the PDSA method in healthcare. Application of PDSA cycles was assessed against key features of the method, including documentation characteristics, use of iterative cycles, prediction-based testing of change, initial small-scale testing and use of data over time. 73 of 409 individual articles identified met the inclusion criteria. Of the 73 articles, 47 documented PDSA cycles in sufficient detail for full analysis against the whole framework. Many of these studies reported application of the PDSA method that failed to accord with primary features of the method. Less than 20% (14/73) fully documented the application of a sequence of iterative cycles. Furthermore, a lack of adherence to the notion of small-scale change is apparent and only 15% (7/47) reported the use of quantitative data at monthly or more frequent data intervals to inform progression of cycles. To progress the development of the science of improvement, a greater understanding of the use of improvement methods, including PDSA, is essential to draw reliable conclusions about their effectiveness. This would be supported by the development of systematic and rigorous standards for the application and reporting of PDSAs.

  18. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  19. Clinical implementation of a GPU-based simplified Monte Carlo method for a treatment planning system of proton beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, R; Hotta, K; Nishioka, S; Matsubara, K; Tansho, R; Suzuki, T

    2011-11-21

    We implemented the simplified Monte Carlo (SMC) method on graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture under the computer-unified device architecture platform developed by NVIDIA. The GPU-based SMC was clinically applied for four patients with head and neck, lung, or prostate cancer. The results were compared to those obtained by a traditional CPU-based SMC with respect to the computation time and discrepancy. In the CPU- and GPU-based SMC calculations, the estimated mean statistical errors of the calculated doses in the planning target volume region were within 0.5% rms. The dose distributions calculated by the GPU- and CPU-based SMCs were similar, within statistical errors. The GPU-based SMC showed 12.30-16.00 times faster performance than the CPU-based SMC. The computation time per beam arrangement using the GPU-based SMC for the clinical cases ranged 9-67 s. The results demonstrate the successful application of the GPU-based SMC to a clinical proton treatment planning.

  20. User-fees for family-planning methods: an analysis of payment behaviour among urban contraceptors in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, S; Thwin, A A; Kane, T T; Hel Baqui, A

    2000-09-01

    The study was carried out to review the experience with the existing user-fee (pricing) strategies and examine the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with payment behaviour among contraceptors in urban Bangladesh for selected contraceptive methods, such as injectables, pill, and condom. Data for the study were drawn from a survey of more than 5,000 married women of reproductive age in Zone 3 of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, within the sample frame of the Urban Panel Survey of the ICDDR,B's former Urban MCH-FP Extension Project. The findings of the study showed that most (80%) urban contraceptors have been paying for selected family-planning services. This indicates the existence of a notable demand for contraceptives which suggests that there is scope for improved financial sustainability of the family-planning programme through charging appropriate user-fees for contraceptives with proper analyses of willingness-to-pay among the contraceptors and price elasticities of demand. Higher socioeconomic status of households, marked by higher levels of education and house rent, and location of residence in non-slum areas, is predictive of paying for contraception. Households having 1-3 living child(ren) are also more likely to make payment for the selected contraceptive services.

  1. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  2. Use of modern family planning methods among Saudi women in Taif, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Aref Albezrah

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that the prevalence of contraception use among Saudi women of reproductive age between 15-49 years was 67.7 %. Oral contraception (53.8 % was the most used contraceptive method followed by intrauterine device and injectable hormonal contraception respectively (34.3 % and 8.3 %. A further study is needed on a larger study sample to examine the effect of different demographic, social and economic determinants on the fertility behavior of Saudi women in Taif region. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 990-994

  3. A new iso-scallop height tool path planning method in three-dimensional space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for designing the tool paths in the machining of sculptured surfaces for computer nu- merical controlled end milling. In the proposed method, the tool paths are determined so that the scallop height formed by two adja- cent machining paths is maintained constant across the machined surface. Unlike previous work on iso-scallop height milling, the present work considers the true 3D configuration of the milling procedure and can be used to generate better results, which is shown by examoles.

  4. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  5. Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-03-08

    The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as

  6. Acupuncture and chiropractic care for chronic pain in an integrated health plan: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeBar Lynn L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial recent research examines the efficacy of many types of complementary and alternative (CAM therapies. However, outcomes associated with the "real-world" use of CAM has been largely overlooked, despite calls for CAM therapies to be studied in the manner in which they are practiced. Americans seek CAM treatments far more often for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP than for any other condition. Among CAM treatments for CMP, acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C care are among those with the highest acceptance by physician groups and the best evidence to support their use. Further, recent alarming increases in delivery of opioid treatment and surgical interventions for chronic pain--despite their high costs, potential adverse effects, and modest efficacy--suggests the need to evaluate real world outcomes associated with promising non-pharmacological/non-surgical CAM treatments for CMP, which are often well accepted by patients and increasingly used in the community. Methods/Design This multi-phase, mixed methods study will: (1 conduct a retrospective study using information from electronic medical records (EMRs of a large HMO to identify unique clusters of patients with CMP (e.g., those with differing demographics, histories of pain condition, use of allopathic and CAM health services, and comorbidity profiles that may be associated with different propensities for A/C utilization and/or differential outcomes associated with such care; (2 use qualitative interviews to explore allopathic providers' recommendations for A/C and patients' decisions to pursue and retain CAM care; and (3 prospectively evaluate health services/costs and broader clinical and functional outcomes associated with the receipt of A/C relative to carefully matched comparison participants receiving traditional CMP services. Sensitivity analyses will compare methods relying solely on EMR-derived data versus analyses supplementing EMR data with

  7. Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O' Malley, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar generators differ in their generation characteristics than conventional generators. The variable output and imperfect predictability of these generators face a stochastic approach to plan and operate the power system without fundamentally changing the operation and planning problems. This paper overviews stochastic modeling challenges in operations, generation planning, and transmission planning, with references to current industry and academic work. Different stochastic problem formulations, including approximations, are also discussed.

  8. Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O' Malley, M.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar generators differ in their generation characteristics than conventional generators. The variable output and imperfect predictability of these generators face a stochastic approach to plan and operate the power system without fundamentally changing the operation and planning problems. This paper overviews stochastic modeling challenges in operations, generation planning, and transmission planning, with references to current industry and academic work. Different stochastic problem formulations, including approximations, are also discussed.

  9. Simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning of lumbar corrective surgery: radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Se Jun; Kim, Dong Min; Shin, Seong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at deriving a lordosis predictive equation using the pelvic incidence and to establish a simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning lumbar corrective surgery in Asians. Eighty-six asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The maximal lumbar lordosis (MLL), lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), pelvic incidence (PI), and sacral slope (SS) were measured. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Predictive equations of lumbar lordosis through simple regression analysis of the parameters and simple predictive values of lumbar lordosis using PI were derived. The PI strongly correlated with the SS (r = 0.78), and a strong correlation was found between the SS and LLL (r = 0.89), and between the SS and MLL (r = 0.83). Based on these correlations, the predictive equations of lumbar lordosis were found (SS = 0.80 + 0.74 PI (r = 0.78, R (2) = 0.61), LLL = 5.20 + 0.87 SS (r = 0.89, R (2) = 0.80), MLL = 17.41 + 0.96 SS (r = 0.83, R (2) = 0.68). When PI was between 30° to 35°, 40° to 50° and 55° to 60°, the equations predicted that MLL would be PI + 10°, PI + 5° and PI, and LLL would be PI - 5°, PI - 10° and PI - 15°, respectively. This simple calculation method can provide a more appropriate and simpler prediction of lumbar lordosis for Asian populations. The prediction of lumbar lordosis should be used as a reference for surgeons planning to restore the lumbar lordosis in lumbar corrective surgery.

  10. 一种快速3维无人机航迹规划方法%A Fast 3D Path Planning Method for UAVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李时东; 艾青; 刘嵩

    2012-01-01

    无人机三维航迹规划由于规划约束众多,同时面临在巨大的搜索空间中寻优,往往规划速度慢,规划效率低.结合二维规划和高度规划实现三维规划是一种有效提升规划速度的解决方案,在利用Fast M arching Method(FMM)进行二维规划的基础上,采用SparseA—star(SAS)搜索算法进行高度规划,分阶段考虑航迹规划的各种环境约束和机动约束,从而压缩规划空间.实验表明,该方法航迹规划速度快,所得到的三维航迹具有良好的地形跟随能力和避障能力.%3D path planning is always slow and in efficient for there are many constraints to be considered while planning, meanwhile, the path is produced by searching in huge space. It is an efficient scheme to improve path planning speed by combining 2D path planning and height planning. We proposed a fast 3D path planning method' by planning 2D path with Fast Marching Method (FMM) and making height plan- ning using Sparse A-Star (SAS) searching method, where the environment and maneuverability constraints are processed by stages, thereby, the planning space is reduced. Experiments showed that the proposed method generates path quickly, and the obtained path follows terrain and avoids obstacle well.

  11. SCAMP: Rapid Focused Sonic Boom Waypoint Flight Planning Methods, Execution, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Cliatt, Larry J., II; Delaney, Michael M., Jr.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Maglieri, Domenic J.; Brown, Jacob C.

    2012-01-01

    Successful execution of the flight phase of the Superboom Caustic Analysis and Measurement Project (SCAMP) required accurate placement of focused sonic booms on an array of prepositioned ground sensors. While the array was spread over a 10,000-ft-long area, this is a relatively small region when considering the speed of a supersonic aircraft and sonic boom ray path variability due to shifting atmospheric conditions and aircraft trajectories. Another requirement of the project was to determine the proper position for a microphone-equipped motorized glider to intercept the sonic boom caustic, adding critical timing to the constraints. Variability in several inputs to these calculations caused some shifts of the focus away from the optimal location. Reports of the sonic booms heard by persons positioned amongst the array were used to shift the focus closer to the optimal location for subsequent passes. This paper describes the methods and computations used to place the focused sonic boom on the SCAMP array and gives recommendations for their accurate placement by future quiet supersonic aircraft. For the SCAMP flights, 67% of the foci were placed on the ground array with measured positions within a few thousand feet of computed positions. Among those foci with large caustic elevation angles, 96% of foci were placed on the array, and measured positions were within a few hundred feet of computed positions. The motorized glider captured sonic booms on 59% of the passes when the instrumentation was operating properly.

  12. Critical Path Method application to strategic planning project at Teaching Paediatrics Hospital “José Martí” in Sancti Spíritus province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Hung Varela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Present work was making at Teaching Paediatrics Hospital “José Martí” in Sancti Spíritus province, Sancti Spíritus city. Its main purpose is apply a control and planning system to a strategic planning project at mentioned entity, getting by this way to contribute to efficacy and efficient of planning process, through Critical Path Method. To it, was use tools like classic strategic planning procedure and software like WINQSB. As result, is obtaining the project estimate duration, the necessary information for its control and execution, including critical path, and resources assignment mainly. The project is finishing and has been useful the used method for its execution.

  13. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  14. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  15. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  16. 市场学方法与城市规划研究探讨%Exploration on Marketing Methods and Urban Planning Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季然

    2011-01-01

    市场学是集生产、市场、消费、环境于一体的一门科学.市场学自产生发展至今,应用领域得到横纵的广泛延伸.在城市规划中,市场学方法同样得到广泛应用.以市场学理论和方法为导向的城市规划逐渐成为城市发展的主体.本文作者就城市规划的市场学方法进行研究探讨,分析了城市规划从规划招标、定向发展至规划实施以及规划消费等诸多环节的市场学特性,阐述了市场经济下城市规划的对策.%Marketing is branch of science integrating production, marketing, consumption, and environment.Since its production, applications of marketing received extensive extension.In urban planning, marketing method is also widely used.Urban planning oriented by theory and methods of market has become the subject of urban development.The author discusses on methods of marketing of urban planning, analyzes its marketing characteristics from planning and bid, orientated development and planning implementation, and consumption scheme, describes strategies about urban planning in the market economy.

  17. New insights into urban planning of Caričin Grad: The application of modern sensing and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišević Vujadin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caričin Grad, Justiniana Prima, urban planning, fortification, settlement, aerial photography, geophysical surveys, LiDAR, photogrammetry, excavations, GIS. Thanks to the application of modern non-destructive sensing and detection methods, in recent years a series of new data on urban planning in Caričin Grad was obtained. For the most part, the current research programme studies the Upper Town’s northern plateau, wooded until recently and hence the only previously unexplored unit of the city. In the course of this programme, the classical research method - the excavations started in 2009 - is for the first time combined with the systematic application of airborne and terrestrial sensing and detection techniques. The analysis of historic aerial photographs and topographic plans proved to be very useful as well. Along with them, LiDAR-derived DTMs, photogrammetric DEMs, different geophysical and orthophotographic plans are stored in the GIS database for Caričin Grad and the Leskovac Basin. In this way almost 80 percent of the plateau area was defined, and the obtained plan is hypothetical only to a small extent, which particularly refers to the unexcavated northern rampart of the Upper Town. Each source provided relevant information for the reconstruction of both the rampart and the settlement, which points to the value of a holistic approach to documentation from various dates. The first source to be studied were archival aerial photographs of Caričin Grad from 1938 and 1947 (Figs. 1, 2.1. The latter one was originally processed by Aleksandar Deroko and Svetozar Radojči}, who drew the plan of the town after it, labelling the unexplored Upper Town’s northern plateau as “a probable habitation area”. The route of the northern rampart was aslo rather precisely determined by the authors (Fig. 2.2. Recently, these photographs were rectified and georeferenced in the GIS. The 1938 shot reveals the position of some towers as well, and it is

  18. A novel method for fusion of intra-oral scans and cone-beam computed tomography scans for orthognathic surgery planning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, O. de; Baan, F.; Verhamme, L.M.; Breuning, H.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Maal, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility of a new method to augment the three-dimensional virtual skull model with a detailed surface model of the dentition produced by intra-oral scanning, compared to the conventional triple scan procedure. MATERIALS & METHODS: In four patients who were planned for

  19. A needs analysis method for land-use planning of illegal dumping sites: a case study in Aomori-Iwate, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Nagao, Yukari

    2013-02-01

    Land use at contaminated sites, following remediation, is often needed for regional redevelopment. However, there exist few methods of developing economically and socially feasible land-use plans based on regional needs because of the wide variety of land-use requirements. This study proposes a new needs analysis method for the conceptual land-use planning of contaminated sites and illustrates this method with a case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste. In this method, planning factors consisting of the land-use attributes and related facilities are extracted from the potential needs of the residents through a preliminary questionnaire. Using the extracted attributes of land use and the related facilities, land-use cases are designed for selection-based conjoint analysis. A second questionnaire for respondents to the first one who indicated an interest in participating in the second questionnaire is conducted for the conjoint analysis to determine the utility function and marginal cost of each attribute in order to prioritize the planning factors to develop a quantitative and economically and socially feasible land-use plan. Based on the results, site-specific land-use alternatives are developed and evaluated by the utility function obtained from the conjoint analysis. In this case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste, the uses preferred as part of a conceptual land-use plan following remediation of the site were (1) agricultural land and a biogas plant designed to recover energy from biomass or (2) a park with a welfare facility and an athletic field. Our needs analysis method with conjoint analysis is applicable to the development of conceptual land-use planning for similar sites following remediation, particularly when added value is considered.

  20. Information needs assessment of medical equipment offices based on Critical Success Factors (CSF) and Business System Planning (BSP) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, F; Ahmadi, M; Alizadeh, A; Roozbeh, N; Mohseni, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Given the ever-increasing importance and value of information, providing the management with a reliable information system, which can facilitate decision-making regarding planning, organization and control, is vitally important. This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the information needs of medical equipment offices. Methods: This descriptive applied cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010. The population of the study included the managers of statistic and medical records at the offices of vice-chancellor for treatment in 39 medical universities in Iran. Data were collected by using structured questioners. With regard to different kinds of designing information systems, sampling was done by two methods, BSP (based on processes of job description) and CSF method (based on critical success factors). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16. Results: Our study showed that 41% of information needs were found to be critical success factors of managers of office. The first priority of managers was "the number of bed and bed occupancy in hospitals". Of 29 identified information needs, 62% were initial information needs of managers (from the viewpoints of managers). Of all, 4% of the information needs were obtained through the form, 14% through both the form and database, 11% through the web site, and 71% had no sources (forms, databases, web site). Conclusion: Since 71% of the information needs of medical equipment offices managers had no information sources, the development of information system in these offices seems to be necessary. Despite the important role of users in designing the information systems (identifying 62% of information needs), other scientific methods is also needed to be utilized in designing the information systems.

  1. A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to electric vehicle (EV charging mode, battery swapping mode can realize concentrated and orderly charging. Therefore battery swapping stations (BSS can participate in the demand side management (DSM as an integrated form. In this context, a new method to plan the capacity and location of BSS for EV, considering DSM, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, based on the original charging power of BSS with the rule of “First-In First-Out”, a bi-level optimal configuration model of BSS, in which net profit of BSS is maximized in the upper model and operating cost of Distribution Company is minimized in the lower model, is developed to decide the rated power, number of batteries, contract pricing and dispatched power of BSS for DSM. Then, the optimal locating model of BSS with the objective of minimizing network loss is built. A mesh adaptive direct search algorithm with YALMIP toolbox is applied to optimize the bi-level model. Simulation calculation was carried on IEEE-33 nodes distribution system and the results show that participating in DSM can improve the economic benefits of both BSS and distribution network and promote the consumption of distributed generation, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Solar Energy Validation for Strategic Investment Planning via Comparative Data Mining Methods: An Expanded Example within the Cities of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya H. Yuregir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply together with the data management is one of the key challenges of our century. Specifically, to decrease the climate change effects as energy requirement increases day by day poses a serious dilemma. It can be adequately reconciled with innovative data management in (renewable energy technologies. The new environmental-friendly planning methods and investments that are discussed by researchers, governments, NGOs, and companies will give the basic and most important variables in shaping the future. We use modern data mining methods (SOM and K-Means and official governmental statistics for clustering cities according to their consumption similarities, the level of welfare, and growth rate and compare them with their potential of renewable resources with the help of Rapid Miner 5.1 and MATLAB software. The data mining was chosen to make the possible secret relations visible within the variables that can be unpredictable at first sight. Here, we aim to see the success level of the chosen algorithms in validation process simultaneously with the utilized software. Additionally, we aim to improve innovative approach for decision-makers and stakeholders about which renewable resource is the most suitable for an exact region by taking care of different variables at the same time.

  3. Concept and Method of Asset-Based Community Development Planning: A Case Study on Minlecun Community in Chongqing’s Yuzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.

  4. Monitoring outcomes for the Medicare Advantage program: methods and application of the VR-12 for evaluation of plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Qian, Shirley X; Brazier, John

    2012-01-01

    The Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) is one of the major patient-reported outcomes for ranking the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans in the Health Outcomes Survey (HOS). Approaches for scoring physical and mental health are given using contemporary norms and regression estimators. A new metric approach for the VR-12 called the "VR-6D" is presented with case-mix adjustments for monitoring plans that combine utilities and mortality. Results show that the models for ranking health outcomes of the plans are robust and credible. Future directions include the use of utilities for evaluating and ranking of MA plans.

  5. Users of withdrawal method in the Islamic Republic of Iran: are they intending to use oral contraceptives? Applying the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, P; Hidarnia, A; Shokravi, F A; Kazemnejad, A; Montazeri, A; Najorkolaei, F R; Saburi, A

    2013-09-01

    Many couples in the Islamic Republic of Iran rely on coital withdrawal for contraception. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use the theory of planned behaviour to explore factors that influence withdrawal users' intent to switch to oral contraception (OC). Participants were 336 sexually active, married women, who were current users of withdrawal and were recruited from 5 public family planning clinics in Tehran. A questionnair included measures of the theory of planned behaviour: attitude (behavioural beliefs, outcome evaluations), subjective norms (normative beliefs, motivation to comply), perceived behaviour control, past behaviour and behavioural intention. Linear regression analyses showed that past behaviour, perceived behaviour control, attitude and subjective norms accounted for the highest percentage of total variance observed for intention to use OC (36%). Beliefs-based family planning education and counsellingshould to be designed for users of the withdrawal method.

  6. On planning methods for outdoor advertisements in medium and small cities%中小城市户外广告规划方法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤君

    2016-01-01

    结合漯河市户外广告的类型及规划现状,运用网络规划法和类型重组法,分别从宏观和中观两个层面对中小城市户外广告的规划、数量及位置进行了控制,旨在促进户外广告的健康发展,树立良好的城市形象.%Combining with the outdoor advertisement types and planning in Luohe city,the paper adopts the network planning and type restructu-ring method,and undertakes the planning for the number planning and location for the outdoor advertisement in medium and small cities from the macroscopic and middle scopes,so as to enhance the healthy development for the outdoor advertisements and establish better urban image.

  7. SU-E-T-224: Is Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Method Necessary for Cyberknife Brain Treatment Planning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L; Fourkal, E; Hayes, S; Jin, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the dosimetric difference resulted in using the pencil beam algorithm instead of Monte Carlo (MC) methods for tumors adjacent to the skull. Methods: We retrospectively calculated the dosimetric differences between RT and MC algorithms for brain tumors treated with CyberKnife located adjacent to the skull for 18 patients (total of 27 tumors). The median tumor sizes was 0.53-cc (range 0.018-cc to 26.2-cc). The absolute mean distance from the tumor to the skull was 2.11 mm (range - 17.0 mm to 9.2 mm). The dosimetric variables examined include the mean, maximum, and minimum doses to the target, the target coverage (TC) and conformality index. The MC calculation used the same MUs as the RT dose calculation without further normalization and 1% statistical uncertainty. The differences were analyzed by tumor size and distance from the skull. Results: The TC was generally reduced with the MC calculation (24 out of 27 cases). The average difference in TC between RT and MC was 3.3% (range 0.0% to 23.5%). When the TC was deemed unacceptable, the plans were re-normalized in order to increase the TC to 99%. This resulted in a 6.9% maximum change in the prescription isodose line. The maximum changes in the mean, maximum, and minimum doses were 5.4 %, 7.7%, and 8.4%, respectively, before re-normalization. When the TC was analyzed with regards to target size, it was found that the worst coverage occurred with the smaller targets (0.018-cc). When the TC was analyzed with regards to the distance to the skull, there was no correlation between proximity to the skull and TC between the RT and MC plans. Conclusions: For smaller targets (< 4.0-cc), MC should be used to re-evaluate the dose coverage after RT is used for the initial dose calculation in order to ensure target coverage.

  8. SU-E-T-567: A Three-Field Mono-Isocentric Inverse Treatment Planning Method for the Patients with Larger Breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T; Marina, O; Chen, P; Teahan, M; Liu, Q; Benedetti, L [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a three-field monoisocentric inverse breast treatment planning technique without the use of half-beam block. Methods: Conventional three-field breast treatment with supraclavicular half-beam blocked requires two isocenters when the breast is too large to be contained within half-beam. The inferior border of the supraclavicular field and superior borders of the breast fields are matched on patient's skin with the light field. This method causes a large dose variation in the matching region due to daily setup uncertainties and requires a longer treatment setup time. We developed a three-field mono-isocentric planning method for the treatment of larger breasts. The three fields share the same isocenter located in the breast. Beam matching is achieved by rotating collimator, couch and gantry. Furthermore, we employed a mixed open-IMRT inverse optimization method to improve dose uniformity and coverage. Results: Perfect geometric beam matching was achieved by rotating couch, collimator and gantry together. Treatment setup time was significantly reduced without light-field matching during treatment deliveries. Inverse mixed open-IMRT optimization method achieved better dose uniformity and PTV coverage while keeping sufficient air flash to compensate setup and breast shape changes in daily treatments. Conclusion: By eliminating light field matching, the three-field mono-isocentric treatment method can significantly reduce setup time and uncertainty for large breast patients. Plan quality is further improved by inverse IMRT planning.

  9. Sample-Size Planning for More Accurate Statistical Power: A Method Adjusting Sample Effect Sizes for Publication Bias and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E

    2017-09-01

    The sample size necessary to obtain a desired level of statistical power depends in part on the population value of the effect size, which is, by definition, unknown. A common approach to sample-size planning uses the sample effect size from a prior study as an estimate of the population value of the effect to be detected in the future study. Although this strategy is intuitively appealing, effect-size estimates, taken at face value, are typically not accurate estimates of the population effect size because of publication bias and uncertainty. We show that the use of this approach often results in underpowered studies, sometimes to an alarming degree. We present an alternative approach that adjusts sample effect sizes for bias and uncertainty, and we demonstrate its effectiveness for several experimental designs. Furthermore, we discuss an open-source R package, BUCSS, and user-friendly Web applications that we have made available to researchers so that they can easily implement our suggested methods.

  10. Benchmarking of the dose planning method (DPM) Monte Carlo code using electron beams from a racetrack microtron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Moran, Jean M; McShan, Daniel L; Fraass, Benedick A; Wilderman, Scott J; Bielajew, Alex F

    2002-06-01

    A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for dose calculations from 10 and 50 MeV scanned electron beams produced from a racetrack microtron. Central axis depth dose measurements and a series of profile scans at various depths were acquired in a water phantom using a Scanditronix type RK ion chamber. Source spatial distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber measurements carried out across the two-dimensional beam profile at 100 cm downstream from the source. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have full width at half maximum of 4.7 and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 and 50 MeV beams, respectively. Energy spectra for the 10 and 50 MeV beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. DPM calculations are on average within +/- 2% agreement with measurement for all depth dose and profile comparisons conducted in this study. The accuracy of the DPM code illustrated in this work suggests that DPM may be used as a valuable tool for electron beam dose calculations.

  11. PATH PLANNING OF AN AUTONOMOUS MOBILE MULTI-SENSOR PLATFORM IN A 3D ENVIRONMENT USING NEWTONIAN IMPERIALIST COMPETITIVE OPTIMIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an innovative evolutionary computation approach to 3D path planning of autonomous UAVs in real environment. To solve this Np-hard problem, Newtonian imperialist competitive algorithm (NICA was developed and extended for path planning problem. This paper is related to optimal trajectory-designing before UAV missions. NICA planner provides 3D optimal paths for UAV planning in real topography of north Tehran environment. To simulate UAV path planning, a real DTM is used to algorithm. For real-world applications, final generated paths should be smooth and also physical flyable that made the path planning problems complex and more constrained. The planner progressively presents a smooth 3D path from first position to mission target location. The objective function contains distinctive measures of the problem. Our main goal is minimization of the total mission time. For evaluating of NICA efficiency, it is compared with other three well-known methods, i.e. ICA, GA, and PSO. Then path planning of UAV will done. Finally simulations proved the high capabilities of proposed methodology.

  12. Path Planning of AN Autonomous Mobile Multi-Sensor Platform in a 3d Environment Using Newtonian Imperialist Competitive Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A. A.; Afghan-Toloee, A.; Abbaspour, R. A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses an innovative evolutionary computation approach to 3D path planning of autonomous UAVs in real environment. To solve this Np-hard problem, Newtonian imperialist competitive algorithm (NICA) was developed and extended for path planning problem. This paper is related to optimal trajectory-designing before UAV missions. NICA planner provides 3D optimal paths for UAV planning in real topography of north Tehran environment. To simulate UAV path planning, a real DTM is used to algorithm. For real-world applications, final generated paths should be smooth and also physical flyable that made the path planning problems complex and more constrained. The planner progressively presents a smooth 3D path from first position to mission target location. The objective function contains distinctive measures of the problem. Our main goal is minimization of the total mission time. For evaluating of NICA efficiency, it is compared with other three well-known methods, i.e. ICA, GA, and PSO. Then path planning of UAV will done. Finally simulations proved the high capabilities of proposed methodology.

  13. A radiobiology-based inverse treatment planning method for optimisation of permanent l-125 prostate implants in focal brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Annette; Mears, Christopher; Betts, John M.; Reynolds, Hayley M.; Tack, Guido; Leo, Kevin; Williams, Scott; Ebert, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment plans for ten patients, initially treated with a conventional approach to low dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR, 145 Gy to entire prostate), were compared with plans for the same patients created with an inverse-optimisation planning process utilising a biologically-based objective. The ‘biological optimisation’ considered a non-uniform distribution of tumour cell density through the prostate based on known and expected locations of the tumour. Using dose planning-objectives derived from our previous biological-model validation study, the volume of the urethra receiving 125% of the conventional prescription (145 Gy) was reduced from a median value of 64% to less than 8% whilst maintaining high values of TCP. On average, the number of planned seeds was reduced from 85 to less than 75. The robustness of plans to random seed displacements needs to be carefully considered when using contemporary seed placement techniques. We conclude that an inverse planning approach to LDR treatments, based on a biological objective, has the potential to maintain high rates of tumour control whilst minimising dose to healthy tissue. In future, the radiobiological model will be informed using multi-parametric MRI to provide a personalised medicine approach.

  14. Inadequate birth spacing is perceived as riskier than all family planning methods, except sterilization and abortion, in a qualitative study among urban Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Cobb, Lisa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Odeku, Mojisola

    2017-09-11

    Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four pregnancy related risks. The data were coded in ATLAS.ti 6 and analyzed using the thematic content analysis approach. The ten family planning and pregnancy related items ranked as follows from most to least risky: sterilization, abortion, getting pregnant soon after having a baby (no birth spacing), pill, IUD, injectable, having a birth under 18 years of age (teenage motherhood), condom use, having six children, and fertility awareness methods. Risk of family planning methods was often categorized in terms of side effects and complications. Positive perceptions of teenage motherhood and having many children influenced the low ranking of these items. Inadequate birth spacing was rated as more risky than all contraceptive methods and pregnancy related events except for sterilization and abortion. Some of the participants' risk perceptions of contraceptives and pregnancy related scenarios does not correspond to actual risk of methods and practices. Instead, the items' perceived riskiness largely correspond with prevailing social norms. However, there was a high level of understanding of the risks of inadequate birth spacing. This study is not a randomized control trial so the study has not been registered as such.

  15. 以体验式旅游为导向的景区规划方法探究%The scenic area planning method guided by experiential tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宇

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author from two aspects: scenic area planning method in China and the development trend of China's tourism industry, analyzes the traditional sightseeing tourism type oriented way of traditional scenic area planning, at the same time introduced the experiential tourism oriented to the scenic area planning theory, finally, based on this, explores the experiential tourism oriented method of scenic area planning and how to effectively carry out the planning.%本文中,笔者首先从我国景区规划方法综述和我国旅游业发展趋势两方面,对传统的以观光式旅游为导向的传统景区规划方式进行了探析,同时详细介绍了以体验式旅游为导向进行景区规划的理论依据,最后在此基础上探究了当下以体验式旅游为导向的景区规划方法如何有效地开展。

  16. [Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge : Sentinel plant species field inventory study plan and methods : Summer 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study plan is for the assessment and adaptive management of environmental processes with sentinel plant species at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  17. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Chiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Isono, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed

  18. Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Biranjan

    2013-01-01

    Degree Thesis “Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu” demonstrates structured marketing planning process with the help of case company “Feeniks Koulu”. The central idea of Thesis is to come up with systematic marketing plan following structured process. Thesis employs qualitative research methodology following inductive reasoning approach. Thesis, initiates by outlining theoretical planning methods, which then is materialized into marketing plan with the help of empirical research. Discussion and...

  19. Improvement of Internal Audit Planning Method through Application of Risk Card by the Indices of Value-Based Management System of Joint-Stock Company

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Article deals with issues of improving methods of planning and carrying out internal audit in conditions of risk-oriented approach to audit according to the indices of value-based management system - VBM (Value Based Management) using the risk card (risk matrix). A risk card (risk matrix) method has been disclosed taking into account risk level of each of the key factors influencing joint-stock company value rates. Recommendations have been given and abstract of working document has been ...

  20. Discussion on the six-step method of career planning for nurses%护士“六步法”职业生涯规划探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧元; 史艳莉; 蔡孝恒; 曾娜

    2013-01-01

    To help nurses to adapt to the complex career environment as soon as possible, to grasp the career direction, to improve work enthusiasm and career satisfaction, the six - step method was proposed for the nurses to make their career plan scientifically. The six - step method included clearing goals, self - inspection , route determination, plan designing, action plans and evaluation and modification. The aim of the six - step method career planning is to achieve a goal of nursing career idealization and to promote healthy, stable and sustainable development of nursing profession.%为保证护士尽快适应复杂的职业环境,把握职业方向,提高工作积极性和职业满意度,提出应采取“六步法”来科学制订护理职业生涯规划,包括明确目标、审视自我、确定路线、设计方案、行动计划、评估修正六大步骤,以实现护理职业理想化的目标,推动护理事业的健康、稳定、持续发展.

  1. Research on natural gas vehicle filing station planning method%天然气汽车加气站规划方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文磊; 张增刚; 田贯三; 王国磊

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas vehicle filling station planning is an important part of gas special planning. The natural gas vehicle filling station planning with broad prospects, coordination and a certain depth is helpful to the development of natural gas vehicles and the construction of city gas business. The paper analyzes the status and existing problems of natural gas vehicle filling stations, discusses several technical problems of natural gas vehicle filling station planning in gas special planning, explores the planning method and layout principle of the natural gas vehicle filling station, and gives some correlative advice on natural gas vehicle filling station planning.%天然气汽车加气站规划是燃气专项规划的重要组成部分,具有前瞻性、协调性和一定深度的天然气汽车加气站规划有利于天然气汽车事业的发展和城镇燃气事业的建设.分析了天然气汽车加气站的发展现状及存在问题,探讨了城市燃气专项规划中天然气汽车加气站规划中的几个技术问题;结合实例,研究了天然气汽车加气站规划的编制方法以及天然气汽车加气站选址布局的原则,并给出了天然气汽车加气站规划的相关建议.

  2. Research on Urban Rail Transit Network Planning Evaluation Method%市域轨道交通线网规划方案评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭辉; 王芳

    2011-01-01

    为评价市域轨道交通线网规划方案的可行性,通过研究建立起适合市域轨道交通线网规划方案的评价指标体系,同时构建FAHP—TOPSIS决策模型对备选方案进行优选,以获取最优方案。通过实例验证,该评价方法效果良好,具有一定的应用价值。%To evaluate the feasibility of the urban rail transit network planning, the evaluation index system that is suitable for urban rail transit network planning is established. At the same time, the FAHP - TOPSIS decision- making mode is set up to get the best plan. Through the example, this evaluation method has good effect and application value.

  3. A Method for IT Planning Based on Component Business Model%基于组件化业务模型的IT规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪君生

    2011-01-01

    IT planning becomes more and more important with the information system deeply used in company. In order to make the IT planning more easy and effective, this papar first describes the principal of the Component Business Model which is addressed by IBM, then brings out a method on how to take the IT planning based on Component Business Model.%随着信息系统在企业中应用的深入,IT规划也被越来越多企业所重视,为更有效做好IT规划,本文通过介绍IBM所提出的组件化业务模型的原理,进而探讨了如何基于组件化业务模型进行企业IT规划方法.

  4. Strategies and Methods of the Tax Planning for SMEs%浅谈中小企业税务筹划的策略与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英艳

    2011-01-01

    The tax cost has become an important part of the total cost, so the enterprises pay more attention to the tax planning related to tax-business to reduce tax costs. This article discusses the strategies of tax planning for SMEs, and describes the specific methods of tax planning for SMEs.%税务成本已成为企业总成本中的一个重要部分,企业日益重视对涉税业务进行税务筹划,以降低税务成本.本文论述了中小企业进行税务筹划时的策略,阐述了中小企业进行税务筹划时的采用的具体方法.

  5. Demand for long acting contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Northwest Ethiopia: a health facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalew, Saleamlak Adbaru; Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Teferra, Alemayehu Shimeka

    2015-02-04

    Demand for long acting contraceptive methods is one of the key factors for total fertility rate and reproductive health issues. Increased demand for these methods can decline fertility rate through spacing and limiting family size in turn improving maternal and family health and socioeconomic development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess demand for long acting contraceptives and associated factors among family planning users in Debre-Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2013. Data was collected on 487 current family planning users through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Study participants were selected by systematic sampling method. Data were entered in to Epi Info and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bi-variable and multi-variable regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with demand for long acting contraceptive methods. Odds ratio with 95% CI was used to assess the association between the independent variables and demand for long acting family planning methods. The study showed that, demand for long acting contraceptives was 17%. Only 9.2% of the women were using long acting contraceptive methods (met need). About 7.8% of women were using short acting methods while they actually want to use long acting methods (unmet need). Demand for LACMs was positively associated 3 with being a daily labour (AOR = 3.87, 95% CI = [1.06, 14.20]), being a student (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = [1.27, 5.47]), no future birth intensions (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.12, 4.23]), having five or more children (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = [1.58, 4.83]), deciding together with husbands for using the methods (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI = [1.40, 5.32]) and often having discussion with husband (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = [1.98, 7.65]). Clients treated poorly by the health care providers during taking the services was negatively associated with demand for LACMs (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.24, 0

  6. Process planning method driven by process model%工序模型驱动的工艺设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田富君; 田锡天; 耿俊浩; 张振明

    2011-01-01

    通过分析目前三维环境下工艺设计存在的问题,在工艺设计过程中引入工序模型的概念,并提出了工序模型驱动的工艺设计方法.该方法从零件设计模型到毛坯模型逆向生成零件的加工工序,每规划一道工序,生成一个工序模型,然后基于该工序模型进行下一道工序的规划.在工序模型驱动的工艺设计过程中,加工特征识别、加工元生成以及加工元聚类是影响工艺自动规划的关键,为此,对基于工序模型的混合加工特征识别、基于知识的加工元生成以及基于模糊C-均值的加工元聚类进行了深入的研究.以某型号飞机双面大框零件为例,讨论了所提方法的应用过程,为三维环境下的工艺设计提供了一种新思路.%analyzing the existing problems of process planning based on three-dimensional model, definition of process model was introduced into the process planning, and a process planning method driven by process model was put forward. Contrary to traditional method, this method generated machining process from part design model to blank model, in each designing process, a process model was generated, and then the next process based on this process model was designed until the whole process planning was completed. In the procedures of the method, machining feature recognition, machining element generation and machining element cluster were the key elements to influence the automatic process planning. Therefore, a further study on hybrid interactive feature recognition based on process model, a machining element generation method based on knowledge and a machining element clustering method based on fuzzy C-means were implemented. An example of complicated airplane part was taken to discuss the application procedure of the proposed method, which provided a new theory for the process planning based on three-dimensional model.

  7. Reconstruction of the centers affected by the 2009 earthquake - Contents and methods in the Reconstruction’s Plan development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Continenza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle who guided the policy choices, in the reconstruction process of the damages caused by the earthquake of 2009, was to give priority to the reparation of buildings located outside the historic centres perimeter postponing its reparation to the approval of the Reconstruction plans. This choice was driven from the will to push ahead the more simple interventions implementation postponing the fate of historic centres to further investigations. The paper, as a result of experiences made in developing some reconstruction plans, highlights the cognitive issues needed in order to make this Urban Plan together with the significant differences in selecting its contents, imposed by the need to answer to the specific contextual situations. The case studies examined suggest, indeed, a range of choices ranging from the recovery the memory of a disappeared urban fabric, to the redesign of considerable portions of urban block until the recommendation of accurate restoration operations.

  8. Efficiency of two-phase methods with focus on a planned population-based case-control study on air pollution and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We plan to conduct a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 increases the risk of stroke. In case-control studies, selective participation can lead to bias and loss of efficiency. A two-phase design can reduce bias and improve efficiency by combining information on the non-participating subjects with information from the participating subjects. In our planned study, we will have access to individual disease status and data on NO2 exposure on group (area level for a large population sample of Scania, southern Sweden. A smaller sub-sample will be selected to the second phase for individual-level assessment on exposure and covariables. In this paper, we simulate a case-control study based on our planned study. We develop a two-phase method for this study and compare the performance of our method with the performance of other two-phase methods. Methods A two-phase case-control study was simulated with a varying number of first- and second-phase subjects. Estimation methods: Method 1: Effect estimation with second-phase data only. Method 2: Effect estimation by adjusting the first-phase estimate with the difference between the adjusted and unadjusted second-phase estimate. The first-phase estimate is based on individual disease status and residential address for all study subjects that are linked to register data on NO2-exposure for each geographical area. Method 3: Effect estimation by using the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm without taking area-level register data on exposure into account. Method 4: Effect estimation by using the EM algorithm and incorporating group-level register data on NO2-exposure. Results The simulated scenarios were such that, unbiased or marginally biased ( Conclusion In the setting described here, method 4 had the best performance in order to improve efficiency, while adjusting for varying participation rates across areas.

  9. SU-E-T-24: A Simple Correction-Based Method for Independent Monitor Unit (MU) Verification in Monte Carlo (MC) Lung SBRT Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Estes, C; Kumar, P; Wang, F [UniversityKansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung-SBRT uses hypo-fractionated dose in small non-IMRT fields with tissue-heterogeneity corrected plans. An independent MU verification is mandatory for safe and effective delivery of the treatment plan. This report compares planned MU obtained from iPlan-XVM-Calgorithm against spreadsheet-based hand-calculation using most commonly used simple TMR-based method. Methods: Treatment plans of 15 patients who underwent for MC-based lung-SBRT to 50Gy in 5 fractions for PTV V100%=95% were studied. ITV was delineated on MIP images based on 4D-CT scans. PTVs(ITV+5mm margins) ranged from 10.1- 106.5cc(average=48.6cc). MC-SBRT plans were generated using a combination of non-coplanar conformal arcs/beams using iPlan XVM-Calgorithm (BrainLAB iPlan ver.4.1.2) for Novalis-TX consisting of micro-MLCs and 6MV-SRS (1000MU/min) beam. These plans were re-computed using heterogeneity-corrected Pencil-Beam (PB-hete) algorithm without changing any beam parameters, such as MLCs/MUs. Dose-ratio: PB-hete/MC gave beam-by-beam inhomogeneity-correction-factors (ICFs):Individual Correction. For independent-2nd-check, MC-MUs were verified using TMR-based hand-calculation and obtained an average ICF:Average Correction, whereas TMR-based hand-calculation systematically underestimated MC-MUs by ∼5%. Also, first 10 MC-plans were verified with an ion-chamber measurement using homogenous phantom. Results: For both beams/arcs, mean PB-hete dose was systematically overestimated by 5.5±2.6% and mean hand-calculated MU systematic underestimated by 5.5±2.5% compared to XVMC. With individual correction, mean hand-calculated MUs matched with XVMC by - 0.3±1.4%/0.4±1.4 for beams/arcs, respectively. After average 5% correction, hand-calculated MUs matched with XVMC by 0.5±2.5%/0.6±2.0% for beams/arcs, respectively. Smaller dependence on tumor volume(TV)/field size(FS) was also observed. Ion-chamber measurement was within ±3.0%. Conclusion: PB-hete overestimates dose to lung tumor relative to

  10. An Atlas-Based Electron Density Mapping Method for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone Treatment Planning and Adaptive MRI-Based Prostate Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Jason A., E-mail: jason.dowling@csiro.au [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Lambert, Jonathan [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Parker, Joel [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Salvado, Olivier; Fripp, Jurgen [Australian e-Health Research Center, CSIRO ICT Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre, Queensland (Australia); Capp, Anne; Wratten, Chris; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); University of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Prostate radiation therapy dose planning directly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans would reduce costs and uncertainties due to multimodality image registration. Adaptive planning using a combined MRI-linear accelerator approach will also require dose calculations to be performed using MRI data. The aim of this work was to develop an atlas-based method to map realistic electron densities to MRI scans for dose calculations and digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Methods and Materials: Whole-pelvis MRI and CT scan data were collected from 39 prostate patients. Scans from 2 patients showed significantly different anatomy from that of the remaining patient population, and these patients were excluded. A whole-pelvis MRI atlas was generated based on the manually delineated MRI scans. In addition, a conjugate electron-density atlas was generated from the coregistered computed tomography (CT)-MRI scans. Pseudo-CT scans for each patient were automatically generated by global and nonrigid registration of the MRI atlas to the patient MRI scan, followed by application of the same transformations to the electron-density atlas. Comparisons were made between organ segmentations by using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and point dose calculations for 26 patients on planning CT and pseudo-CT scans. Results: The agreement between pseudo-CT and planning CT was quantified by differences in the point dose at isocenter and distance to agreement in corresponding voxels. Dose differences were found to be less than 2%. Chi-squared values indicated that the planning CT and pseudo-CT dose distributions were equivalent. No significant differences (p > 0.9) were found between CT and pseudo-CT Hounsfield units for organs of interest. Mean {+-} standard deviation DSC scores for the atlas-based segmentation of the pelvic bones were 0.79 {+-} 0.12, 0.70 {+-} 0.14 for the prostate, 0.64 {+-} 0.16 for the bladder, and 0.63 {+-} 0.16 for the rectum

  11. Research on Urban Planning Method from Big Data Perspective%大数据视角的城市规划编制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许剑; 党安荣; 李涛

    2016-01-01

    With the the big data era, some new methods and techniques for urban planning have been approached to obtain the real time and dynamic information of urban residents and their behavior characteristic, and evaluate and forecast the urban planning results accurately and quickly. Based on this situation, firstly, the paper summarized the changes of the thinking way in urban planning, and then, discussed and analyzed the big date research method and technology, at last pointed out the problems existing in the current urban planning compilation and explored the challenge of big data development.%大数据时代的来临,为城市规划编制方法带来新的突破契机,为实时动态获取城市居民生活和行为特征信息,评估和预测城市规划编制成果提供方法和技术支持。本文从大数据视角的城市规划思维方式出发,梳理了城市规划编制各阶段采用的大数据研究方法和技术,最后指出当前城市规划编制中存在的问题,以期促进大数据助推城市精准规划。

  12. Probabilistic Analysis for Capacity Planning in Smart Grid at Residential Low Voltage Level by Monte-Carlo Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, W.

    2011-01-01

    Smart Grid integrates sustainable energy sources and allows mutual communications between electricity distribution operators and electricity consumers. Electricity demand and supply becomes more complex in Smart Grid. It is more challenging for DNOs in grid asset capacity planning, especially at low

  13. 76 FR 38282 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... ensure the Government and Federal employees are receiving a fair market rate and a good value for their.... Instead of the SSSG comparison, there will be a separate settlement with OPM after the end of the plan... (b)(5) as follows: Sec. 1652.216-70 Accounting and price adjustment. * * * * * (b) * * * (2)...

  14. An empirical machine learning method for predicting potential fire control locations for pre-fire planning and operational fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. O' Connor; David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    During active fire incidents, decisions regarding where and how to safely and effectively deploy resources to meet management objectives are often made under rapidly evolving conditions, with limited time to assess management strategies or for development of backup plans if initial efforts prove unsuccessful. Under all but the most extreme fire weather conditions,...

  15. 电网网架规划智能优化方法的研究与应用%Application of intelligent optimization methods in power network planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立新; 易欣; 孙进

    2013-01-01

    Power network planning has a significant impact for the security,high-quality and economic operation of the power system,and its foundation is scientific planning programs.This paper describes the traditional methods of planning and its inadequacies.Uses of three intelligent algorithms were designed for the planning schemes of IEEE-6 node system and IEEE-18 node system,and modeling and simulation the programs,the results verify that artificial fish swarm algorithm scheme has good adaptability and global optimization features on grid planning,and its investment costs also is the lowest.This algorithm has broad application prospects and obvious economic effects,and it can effectively improve the level of grid planning.%电网网架规划对于电力系统的安全、优质、经济运行有着重大影响,而科学的规划方案则是其基础所在.介绍了传统的规划方法及其不足之处,运用三种智能算法分别设计IEEE-6节点和18节点系统的规划方案并对方案进行建模和仿真,对比结果表明了在电网规划中人工鱼群算法方案具有全局优化功能和良好的适应性,且投资费用最低.具有较广阔的应用前景和明显的经济效果,并能切实提高电网规划水平.

  16. [To develop the family planning work deeply through following the working method of "taking three as the keys"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-29

    In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates.

  17. An Innovative Study of Career Planning Based on LAC Experiential Teaching Method%基于LAC法的职业生涯规划教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官千红

    2013-01-01

    Although distinct from the traditional didactic teaching,the experiential teaching method is now still in the introduction stage of theoretical knowledge in China and is rarely touched upon in the teaching research in universities and colleges,so the study on its application in the career planning of col-lege students needs to be further enhanced along with the demand for reforms in career planning curricu-lum at colleges and universities.As LAC method is a clinical psychological method,its tentative use,as an experiential method,in the instruction of college students’career planning is an innovative study of a new experiential teaching mode for career planning.%体验式教学作为一种区别于传统说教的教学方法,目前在中国尚处于理论知识引进阶段,在高校教学研究中涉及极少,尤其是在大学生职业生涯规划课程的教学与研究中涉及甚微。 LAC法是心理学范畴的一种临床心理学的心理咨询方法,将其作为一种体验式教学方式尝试于大学生职业生涯规划的教学,开创一种新型的体验式职业生涯规划教学模式是一种有益的探索。

  18. Multiple parts process planning in serial–parallel flexible flow lines: part II—solution method based on genetic algorithms with fixed- and variable-length chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Musharavati, Farayi; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem

    2015-01-01

    Multiple parts process planning (MPPP) is a hard optimization problem that requires the rigor and intensity of metaheuristic-based algorithms such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. In this paper, a solution method for this problem is developed based on genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms solve problems by exploring a given search space. To do this, a landscape over which the search traverses is constructed based on a number of algorithm choices. Key algorithm choices include (...

  19. Improve of the adequacy and reliability of no standardized processing model datasets in studies of educational systems method of experiment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Alexeev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the questions of improvement of the accuracy of statistical mathematical models, used to investigate the effectiveness of the educational process. The authors suggest changing standard approaches to information processing large datasets, using the method of experiment planning. This takes into account features of data sets characteristic of pedagogical processes. Using these proposals one can improve the accuracy of the model and the value processing, and hence the accuracy of machining.

  20. Method and Software for Planning and Designing of Microgrid%微网规划设计方法与软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖峻; 白临泉; 王成山; 于建成

    2012-01-01

    为解决微网示范工程的规划设计问题,开发了一套微网规划设计软件(planning and designing of microgrid,PDMG).该软件适用于微网的多种应用场景,实现了间歇性数据分析、分布式电源规划设计、储能系统规划设计等功能.介绍了PDMG的系统模型、原理方法以及软件功能.与国外软件HOMER和Hybrid2进行了对比,结果表明,PDMG具有以下优势:在规划方法上更先进,提出并实现了基于3阶巴特沃兹低通滤波器、计及储能外特性与详细损耗的储能容量优化方法,其最优性明显好于HOMER和Hybrid2的方案组合方式;在功能上更完整,具有按场景自动生成目标曲线、逆变器结构设计、混合储能设计等新功能.通过天津生态城某微网示范工程验证了软件的有效性.%To solve the problem of planning and designing of microgrid demonstration projects, a software named planning and designing of microgrid (PDMG) was developed. The software can be applied to different application scenarios and realize intermittent data analysis, distributed generation planning and designing, energy storage systems planning and designing. This paper introduces system models, principles and methods and software functions of PDMG. PDMG was compared to HOMER and Hybrid2 and the results show it has the following advantages. PDMG is advanced in planning method. A new method of energy storage capacity optimization was proposed and integrated into the software. Based on third-order Butterworth low-pass filter model, the method considers the external characteristics and system losses. The optimality is better than HOMER and Hybrid2, which optimize the capacity through selecting a relative optimal capacity from several certain schemes set by users. PDMG has more comprehensive functions, including generating target curves automatically, converter design, and hybrid energy storage design. The microgrid demonstration project in Tianjin eco-city demonstrates

  1. 旅游项目规划的理论与方法研究进展%Review on the Theory and Method of the Tourism Project Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琴

    2011-01-01

    旅游项目是旅游业发展的核心.国内时旅游项目规划过程的研究包括前期的策划和后期的规划,且侧重前者;国外则没有严格的策划与规划之分,但规划内容中也都包含了策划研究.旅游项目策划的基本理论为旅游心理学、可拓策划学、价值工程学、循环经济理论、体验经济理论等;方法有比较法、逆向思维法、调查研究法等.规划的方法有公众参与法、SWOT分析法、情景规划法、外部因素分析法、地理信息系统法、可持续法等.综述表明,旅游项目作用已得到共识,规划研究也越来越受到重视.区别在于国外旅游项目规划方法更注重公众参与、可持续,并注重将这些方法落实到具体实践上;而国内目前还停留在理论认识上,还处于实践的初步实行阶段.%Tourism project is important to the development of the tourism industry. In China, study of the procedure of the planning of a tourism project includes tourism plotting and tourism planning, and focuses on the tourism plotting. Although there is no strict difference between tourism plotting and tourism planning in oversea, it has the main contents of the tourism plotting. The fundamental theories of tourism project planning are the tourism psychology, extension strategy-tactics-planning, value engineering, circulation economy, experience economy theory and etc. The methods of tourism plotting include comparative method, backward thinking method, survey research and etc. The methods of the planning are ,the public participation,analysis of the SWOT,tourism situational planning,analysis of the extemal factors ,geographical information system and the sustainable development. It is known that the tourism project is very useful and put emphasis on it. The difference is that the method of the tourism project planning overseas is more specific, and lays more emphasis on public participation and sustainability.However,the research of the

  2. Evaluation of mathematical methods and linear programming for optimization of the planning in radiotherapy; Avaliacao de metodos matematicos e programacao linear para otimizacao do planejamento em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: mfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Fernandes, David M.; Florentino, Helenice O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias

    2010-07-01

    The work detaches the importance of the use of mathematical tools and computer systems for optimization of the planning in radiotherapy, seeking to the distribution of dose of appropriate radiation in the white volume that provides an ideal therapeutic rate between the tumor cells and the adjacent healthy tissues, extolled in the radiotherapy protocols. Examples of target volumes mathematically modeled are analyzed with the technique of linear programming, comparing the obtained results using the Simplex algorithm with those using the algorithm of Interior Points. The System Genesis II was used for obtaining of the isodose curves for the outline and geometry of fields idealized in the computer simulations, considering the parameters of a 10 MV photons beams. Both programming methods (Simplex and Interior Points) they resulted in a distribution of integral dose in the tumor volume and allow the adaptation of the dose in the critical organs inside of the restriction limits extolled. The choice of an or other method should take into account the facility and the need of limiting the programming time. The isodose curves, obtained with the Genesis II System, illustrate that the adjacent healthy tissues to the tumor receives larger doses than those reached in the computer simulations. More coincident values can be obtained altering the weights and some factors of minimization of the objective function. The prohibitive costs of the computer planning systems, at present available for radiotherapy, it motivates the researches to look for the implementation of simpler and so effective methods for optimization of the treatment plan. (author)

  3. A method for the quantitative analysis of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification with radiographic film and polymer gel dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Matthew Roy

    The clinical implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy has necessitated the development of sophisticated quality assurance techniques to ensure that the radiation dose distribution calculated by the computerized radiotherapy treatment planning system is reproduced with an acceptable degree of fidelity during treatment delivery. The index of agreement is introduced as a quantitative quality assurance tool capable of comparing the planned dose distribution with the dose distribution measured with a radiation dosimeter. The index of agreement method begins with solving a constrained optimization problem for each pixel (or voxel) of the planned dose distribution. Each pixel (or voxel) of the planned distribution is then assigned a score based upon the solution of the constrained optimization problem. The index of agreement is then calculated by dividing the number of pixels (or voxels) that are clinically relevant and for which the score function is equal to zero by the total number of clinically relevant pixels (or voxels). Data acquired with radiographic film and polymer gel indicate that the index of agreement is a stable quality assurance parameter.

  4. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  5. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  6. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Testing Methods to Reduce 235 Uranium Enrichment in Tank 43H Supernatant Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-10-24

    In July of 1997, the 2H-Evaporator was shutdown due to the inability to lift material from the vessel. Inspections of the gravity drain line (GDL) showed a scale deposit coating the inside of the line. A Sample of the material was obtained and analyses performed. Plans are to chemically clean the evaporator pot by dissolving the solids in a 1.5M nitric acid solution containing depleted uranium.

  7. Design method of the occupational pension plan%企业年金方案设计的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华; 欧家祥

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear, professional and important point of establishing the occupational pension system is design of occupational pen- sion plan. The design of occupational pension plan effects the plan legitimacy, the realization of enterprise strategy, the efficiency and profit of occupational pension management and management cost of the occupational pension, which finally influences the welfare of the enterprise and employees.%企业建立企业年金制度是一个核心的、专业的、重要的工作是企业年金方案设计。企业年金方案设计影响企业年金方案的合法性,影响企业战略目标的实现,影响企业年金管理的效率和效益,影响企业年金的管理成本,最终影响企业和职工的福利。

  8. Planning to Plan-Integrating Control Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In many planning situations, computation itself becomes a resource to be planned and scheduled. We model such computational resources as conventional resources which are used by control-flow actions, e.g., to direct the planning process. Control-flow actions and conventional actions are planned/scheduled in an integrated way and can interact with each other. Control-flow actions are then executed by the planning engine itself. The approach is illustrated by examples, e.g., for hierarchical planning, in which tasks that are temporally still far away impose only rough constraints on the current schedule, and control-flow tasks ensure that these tasks are refined as they approach the current time. Using the same mechanism, anytime algorithms can change appropriate search methods or parameters over time, and problems like scheduling critical time-outs for garbage collection can be made part of the planning itself.

  9. Gender, sexuality and communication issues that constitute barriers to the use of natural family planning and other fertility awareness-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M

    1997-01-01

    Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning are rarely offered through reproductive health services in Latin America, despite evidence that many women use them. Providers state that clients do not want these methods, but provider-bias is evident. Providers overestimate the difficulty of learning and using fertility awareness-based methods, and they underestimate their efficacy. Both providers and clients have difficulty dealing with sexuality (which is central to fertility awareness-based methods). Many providers lack gender sensitivity, 'worsening' the unequal relationship between providers and clients. Experience has shown that when fertility awareness-based methods are well provided, they can have a positive effect on sexuality, self-understanding, and equality in the couple's relationship.

  10. SU-E-P-38: Comparison of Capri Applicator HDR Planning Methods to Meet the NCCN Uterine Neoplasm 2.2015 Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klash, S; Steinman, J [Radphys Oncology Services, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stanley, T [CCS Oncology Center, Kenmore, NY (United States); Kim, D; Yi, S [CCS Oncology, Williamsville, NY (United States); Yap, J [CCS Oncology, Williamsville, New York (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a systematic planning approach for Capri intravaginal multichannel balloon applicators that meet updated Version 2.2015 NCCN guidelines for uterine neoplasms, which dictate delivery of 400 to 600 cGy in 2 to 3 fractions prescribed to the vaginal mucosa for HDR combined with EBRT as well as a regimen of 600 cGy x 5 (to the vaginal mucosa) for HDR brachytherapy alone. Methods: Studies have shown three different channel configurations of the Capri applicator are optimal for dosimetric conformity: central channel combined with the six inner ring channels (R12), all inner and outer ring channels (R23), or all thirteen channels (R123). To minimize the dose to the vaginal mucosa, a traditional 0.5cm expansion contour from the Capri surface was created. Optimization limits were set to push 600 cGy to 100% of the Capri volume, while simultaneously restricting dose to the expansion contour. Results: Plans were created using all three configurations (R12, R23, R123) and evaluated to determine which was best for delivering 600 cGy to the vaginal mucosa. Our criteria was: Capri V100 > 98%, Vaginal Mucosa Dmax < 125%, Bladder Dmax < 100%, Rectum Dmax < 100%. All configurations show Capri V100 values greater than 98.5%, with differences between plans varying by less than 1%. Vaginal mucosal Dmax values showed differences of roughly 5% of prescription. The R12 configuration proved the lowest vaginal mucosa Dmax, on average. The OAR Dmax values showed an average dose difference of roughly 2% of prescription, with the R23 configuration having the best results. Conclusion: The R12 channel configuration optimally fits our planning criteria and NCCN guidelines for 600 cGy prescribed to the vaginal mucosa. On average, it produced the highest Capri V100, the lowest vaginal mucosal Dmax, and a marginally higher OAR Dmax doses compared to the R23 and R123 plans.

  11. SU-E-T-547: A Method to Correlate Treatment Planning Issue with Clinical Analysis for Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K; Jung, E; Newton, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Lanham, MD (United States); John R Marsh Cancer Center, Hagerstown, MD (United States); Cornell, D [John R Marsh Cancer Center, Hagerstown, MD (United States); Able, A [Associates In Medical Physics, Lanham, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, the algorithms and calculation setting effect and contribution weighing on prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) based SBRT were evaluated for clinical analysis. Methods: A low risk prostate patient under SBRT was selected for the treatment planning evaluation. The treatment target was divided into low dose prescription target volume (PTV) and high Dose PTV. Normal tissue constraints include urethra and femur head, and rectum was separated into anterior, lateral and posterior parts. By varying the constraint limit of treatment plan calculation setting and algorithms, the effect on dose coverage and normal tissue dose constraint parameter carried effective comparison for the nominal prescription and constraint. For each setting, their percentage differences to the nominal value were calculated with geometric mean and harmonic mean. Results: In the arbitrary prostate SBRT case, 14 variables were selected for this evaluation by using nominal prescription and constraint. Six VMAT planning settings were anisotropic analytic algorithm stereotactic beam with and without couch structure in grid size of 1mm and 2mm, non stereotactic beam, Acuros algorithm . Their geometry means of the variable sets for these plans were 112.3%, 111.9%, 112.09%, 111.75%, 111.28%, and 112.05%. And the corresponding harmonic means were 2.02%, 2.16%, 3.15%, 4.74%, 5.47% and 5.55%. Conclusions: In this study, the algorithm difference shows relatively larger harmonic mean between prostate SBRT VMAT plans. This study provides a methodology to find sensitive combined variables related to clinical analysis, and similar approach could be applied to the whole treatment procedure from simulation to treatment in radiotherapy for big clinical data analysis.

  12. A STUDY OF AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF POSTNATAL AND POST ABORTAL WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND THEIR USE, AT RURAL TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, 55 million unintended pregnancies occur every year to women not using contraceptive method; another 25 million occur as a result of incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. Family planning programme have met with only marginal success, because people of India have different demographic profile. OBJECTIVE: To study KAP regarding various contraceptive methods and factors affecting its use. DESIGN: Observational, Cross sectional study. SETTING: S.S. Medical College & Associated G.M. Hospital, Rewa. PARTICIPANTS: 500 women of age 15 to 45 years. METHODS: Women were interviewed using pre-structured questionnaire, counseled regarding correct usage and explained the truth and myths to correct their attitude. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Univariate and bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test and percentage by SPSS20.RESULTS: Knowledge of contraception was maximum for sterilization 99%, abstinence 98%, barrier 97.4%; and less for OCPs, safe period and LAM. Para1 and 2 had better knowledge of OCPs, IUCDs and DMPA than multipara who know more about permanent methods(100%. 54.4% obtained information from mass media. 68% obtained family planning services from government facility. Majority (60.8% had positive attitude. 22.4% women discussed contraception with their husband. 55.6% women used some method of contraception, barrier (66.1% being most common. 71.8% women had myths or other barriers to use contraceptives.

  13. 大城市公交枢纽布局规划实用方法%Development of Practical Location Planning Method for Urban Transfer Centers in Metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振报; 韩东; 陈艳艳

    2011-01-01

    In order to enable trip modes cooperate efficiently and improve the transportation system efficiency,this paper presents a two-step planning method and it consists of macroscopic location planning and microscopic location planning.Macroscopic location planning is based on the analysis of area importance indicator,and this indicator mainly takes into account space distance and OD volume between traffic analysis areas.Microscopic location planning is based on the analysis of node importance indicator,and this indicator is calculated according to network topological structure indicators.Feasible aggregate of transfer center comprises nodes that meet the demand of land use for construction.On the basis of the result of the two-step planning analysis,transfer center location planning scheme is put forward.A case study is given to introduce the cocation procedure for the urban trasfer centers.%为了使多种交通方式之间有效衔接,提高整个城市公共交通系统的运行效率,提出了宏观布局规划和微观布局规划相结合的两阶段公交枢纽布局规划方法.枢纽宏观布局规划以区位重要度分析为基础,主要考虑各分区至其他分区的空间距离和分区之间的客流强度两种因素;枢纽微观布局规划考虑在有限满足枢纽建设用地要求的枢纽备选集合中,以网络拓扑结构指标计算备选集合中各枢纽节点重要度,根据其结果确定枢纽布局方案.通过实例介绍了公交枢纽布局规划流程.

  14. 企业系统规划法的重塑分析%Remodeling and Application of Business Systems Planning Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎强; 何军; 费翔

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the high failure rate of enterprise informatization and the consistency’s analysis between system planning methods and business system planning objectives, it is illustrated that information system planning with business system planning (BSP) is more suitable for the mature enterprise’s informatization development. In other words, the utilization of management information system to solve the structure problem is an effective method to improve the success rate of information. A series of methods of enterprise products abstract, the analysis of key resources and the key process definition are summarized in this paper. The BSP method is remodeled by the extension and reconstruction of the BSP method’s key resources process matrix, proposing the concepts and methods of the resource property model. The authors also use examples to explain the method’s effectiveness and operability in the analysis of the actual object. Through the detailed description of the method with examples, it is elaborated the remodeling and practical application process of BSP method.%通过对企业信息化失败率较高和系统规划方法与企业系统规划目标一致性分析,阐明了用企业系统规划法(BSP)进行信息系统规划比较适合成熟企业的信息化,即采用管理信息系统解决结构化问题是提高信息化成功率的一种有效方法。通过探索归纳出抽象企业产品,以及解析关键资源、定义关键过程的一套方法,对 BSP 方法的关键资源过程矩阵进行扩充和改造,提出了资源属性模型概念和方法,实现了 BSP 法的重塑。通过实例,阐释了该方法在对实际对象进行分析时的有效性和可操作性。

  15. Multiple methods for multiple futures: Integrating qualitative scenario planning and quantitative simulation modeling for natural resource decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Scenario planning helps managers incorporate climate change into their natural resource decision making through a structured “what-if” process of identifying key uncertainties and potential impacts and responses. Although qualitative scenarios, in which ecosystem responses to climate change are derived via expert opinion, often suffice for managers to begin addressing climate change in their planning, this approach may face limits in resolving the responses of complex systems to altered climate conditions. In addition, this approach may fall short of the scientific credibility managers often require to take actions that differ from current practice. Quantitative simulation modeling of ecosystem response to climate conditions and management actions can provide this credibility, but its utility is limited unless the modeling addresses the most impactful and management-relevant uncertainties and incorporates realistic management actions. We use a case study to compare and contrast management implications derived from qualitative scenario narratives and from scenarios supported by quantitative simulations. We then describe an analytical framework that refines the case study’s integrated approach in order to improve applicability of results to management decisions. The case study illustrates the value of an integrated approach for identifying counterintuitive system dynamics, refining understanding of complex relationships, clarifying the magnitude and timing of changes, identifying and checking the validity of assumptions about resource responses to climate, and refining management directions. Our proposed analytical framework retains qualitative scenario planning as a core element because its participatory approach builds understanding for both managers and scientists, lays the groundwork to focus quantitative simulations on key system dynamics, and clarifies the challenges that subsequent decision making must address.

  16. 市场营销策划教学方法初探%An Approach to the Teaching Methods of Marketing Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万卫

    2013-01-01

      指出了目前高校市场营销策划教学过程中存在着一定问题,提出了加强小组团队策划项目训练、分小组分行业为专题收集实际策划案例,资源共享,应用案例教学等教学解决方法,达到课程教学目标的目的。%This paper points out that there exist some problems in the teaching process of college marketing planning. And there are strengthening team work training of planning, collecting the actu-al case based on the industry in team work, case teaching method. It achieves teaching goals.

  17. Developing effective written communication and advocacy skills in entry-level health educators through writing-intensive program planning methods courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galer-Unti, Regina A; Tappe, Marlene K

    2006-01-01

    Written communication is a requisite skill for practitioners in the field of health education. Advocacy skills are now considered to be both a professional competency and an ethical responsibility. Given that many advocacy strategies involve written communication, it makes sense that the skills of writing and advocacy be developed concomitantly and within a writing-intensive class. The purposes of this article are twofold: (a) to describe the role of writing-intensive program planning methods courses in the development of written communication and advocacy skills in entry-level health educators and (b) to suggest strategies for planning, implementing, and assessing writing-intensive assignments and instructional activities designed to develop students' written communication and advocacy skills. Multiple examples of writing assignments are presented that can be used in helping students in developing their critical thinking, writing, and advocacy skills.

  18. An improvement of a beam search method for warehouse storage allocation planning problems minimizing the number of operations and the aggregated number of products for each customer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tatsushi; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Konishi, Masami

    The storage allocation planning problem in warehouse management is to determine the allocation of products to the storage space and intermediate operations for retrieving products so as to minimize the number of operations, and maximize the collected number of products for each customer when the sequence of requests for inlet and retrieval operations are given. In this paper, we propose an efficient beam search method for generating a near optimal solution with a reasonable computation time. A heuristic procedure is also proposed in order to reduce a search space in the beam search method by using the information of subsequent inlet and retrieving requests. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by comparing the results with the optimal solution derived by solving an MILP problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by solving an actual large-sized problem consisting of more than 3000 operations.

  19. Intentions of science teachers to use investigative teaching methods: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E., III

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of the theory of planned behavior for predicting the behavioral intentions of teachers enrolled in the Institute in Physical Science, an EESA, Title II program funded by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. In particular, the study investigated three determinants of teachers' behavioral intentions (BI) set forth in the theory of planned behavior, namely, attitude toward the behavior (AB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The behavior of interest in this study was the intention of teachers in grades 5/6 or 9/10 who were enrolled in the Institute to use 50% of the activities and investigations completed in the program with students they would teach during the next school year. Data were collected from 50 elementary and secondary teachers. Simple and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the relative contributions of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (and their interactions) to the prediction of behavioral intention. Results of this study indicated that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control made significant contributions to the prediction of behavioral intention. Examination of the data blocked on external variables revealed attitude toward the behavior to be the single most important predictor of behavioral intention. Intent to perform the behavior appears to be totally under the control of most teachers, with little need for social support and with ample resources and sufficient opportunities available to perform the behavior.

  20. [Differences in the use of family planning methods by adolescent females according to the education model utilized during pregnancy. Monterrey, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Alanís Alanís, María de Jesús; Alanís Salazar, Jorge; Salinas Martínez, Ana María; Garza Elizondo, M E; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to compare the use of family planning methods during the immediate postpartum period and two years following childbirth among the adolescent females who had followed two different intervention programs during their pregnancies. A quasi-experimental study was designed. A total of 62 pregnant adolescents were selected to comprised two intervention groups, the PRECEDE model and the Health Belief model (MCS) groups. Non-parametric statistical tests were employed and 95% confidence intervals estimated. The average starting knowledge in the MCS groups was 69.12 points (95% CI 63.27-74.97) and ending 89.71 points (95% CI 86.24-93.17), while the starting knowledge for the PRECEDE group was 49.39 points (95% Cl 42.24-56.54) and ending 75.25 points (95% CI 71.12-79.38). IN the immediate postpartum, 93% (95% CI 83.5-100) of the adolescents in the PRECED group accepted the use of a family planning method similar to that employed by the MCS group, of 94.2 (95% CI 86.3-100). As regards the continued use of the method, that is, two years later, the PRECEDE strategy had a greater effect that the MCS strategy, respectively 92% (95% Cl 82-100) and 72% (95% CI 56.9-87.1). A difference was found to exist between models as regards the use of family planning methods 2 years following childbirth. The PRECEDE program is proposed as the education strategy for preventing a second pregnancy among adolescent females.

  1. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  2. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  3. Codified Risk Based Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simplified methods are described for reliability- and risk-based inspection planning of steel structures. The methods simplify the practical aspects of identifying inspection plans complying both with specific requirements to the maximum acceptable annual probability of structural collapse...

  4. Local path planning method of the self-propelled model based on reinforcement learning in complex conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Pang, Yongjie; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Rubo

    2014-09-01

    Conducting hydrodynamic and physical motion simulation tests using a large-scale self-propelled model under actual wave conditions is an important means for researching environmental adaptability of ships. During the navigation test of the self-propelled model, the complex environment including various port facilities, navigation facilities, and the ships nearby must be considered carefully, because in this dense environment the impact of sea waves and winds on the model is particularly significant. In order to improve the security of the self-propelled model, this paper introduces the Q learning based on reinforcement learning combined with chaotic ideas for the model's collision avoidance, in order to improve the reliability of the local path planning. Simulation and sea test results show that this algorithm is a better solution for collision avoidance of the self navigation model under the interference of sea winds and waves with good adaptability.

  5. 微电网规划设计方法探讨%Discussion on design method of micro grid planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜

    2015-01-01

    微电网的特点是能够产生多种分布式的电源,具有较多的负荷,因此在不同的时间段内,微电网能够具有不同的发电性能和用电性能。本文将阐述有关微电网的电力规划问题,通过相应的分析说明微电网规划的设计方案。%Micro grid is characterized by a variety of distributed power supply,with more load,so in different time periods,the micro grid can have different power generation performance and power performance.In this paper,we will elaborate the power planning problem of microgrid,and analyze the design scheme of microgrid.

  6. Local Path Planning Method of the Self-propelled Model Based on Reinforcement Learning in Complex Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Yongjie Pang; Hongwei Li; Rubo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conducting hydrodynamic and physical motion simulation tests using a large-scale self-propelled model under actual wave conditions is an important means for researching environmental adaptability of ships. During the navigation test of the self-propelled model, the complex environment including various port facilities, navigation facilities, and the ships nearby must be considered carefully, because in this dense environment the impact of sea waves and winds on the model is particularly significant. In order to improve the security of the self-propelled model, this paper introduces the Q learning based on reinforcement learning combined with chaotic ideas for the model’s collision avoidance, in order to improve the reliability of the local path planning. Simulation and sea test results show that this algorithm is a better solution for collision avoidance of the self navigation model under the interference of sea winds and waves with good adaptability.

  7. Engineering Strategies and Methods for Avoiding Air-Quality Externalities: Dispersion Modeling, Home Energy Conservation, and Scenario Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Andrew James

    Energy conservation can improve air quality by reducing emissions from fuel combustion. The human health value retained through better air quality can then offset the cost of energy conservation. Through this thesis' innovative yet widely-accessible combination of air pollution dispersion modeling and atmospheric chemistry, it is estimated that the health value retained by avoiding emissions from Ontario's former coal-fired generating stations is 5.74/MWh (using an upper-bound value of 265,000 per year of life lost). This value is combined with energy modeling of homes in the first-ever assessment of the air-quality health benefits of low-energy buildings. It is shown that avoided health damages can equal 7% of additional construction costs of energy efficient buildings in Ontario. At 7%, health savings are a significant item in the cost analysis of efficient buildings. Looking to energy efficiency in the context of likely future low-resource natural gas scenarios, building efficient buildings today is shown to be more economically efficient than any building retrofit option. Considering future natural gas scarcity in the context of Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan reveals that Ontario may be forced to return to coal-fired electricity. Projected coal use would result in externalities greater than $600 million/year; 80% more than air-quality externalities from Ontario's electricity in 1985. Radically aggressive investment in electricity conservation (75% reduction per capita by 2075) is one promising path forward that keeps air-quality externalities below 1985 levels. Non-health externalities are an additional concern, the quantification, and ultimately monetization, of which could be practical using emerging air pollution monitoring technologies. Energy, conservation, energy planning, and energy's externalities form a complex situation in which today's decisions are critical to a successful future. It is clear that reducing the demand for energy is essential and

  8. 企业员工职业生涯规划管理对策探究%Studies on Management Methods of Enterprises Staff' s Career Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马咏梅

    2012-01-01

    With the more attention paid to the theory and practice of human recourses management, career planning has become a widely adopted HR management method. In order to promote the scientific and sustainable development of staff's career planning, enterprises should acknowledge their shortcomings in awareness, management, motivate system, approval degree of working, scientific method and etc. , and analyze the real reasons behind these problems, then take some countermeasures, such as enhancing their awareness and theory study, improving management and training, strengthening professional faculty construction and applying more scientific and effective management methods%随着对人力资源管理理论和实践应用的重视,职业生涯规划已成为广泛采用的人力资源管理方法。企业理应正视存在的意识缺失、管理缺失、激励点缺失、认可度缺失、科学方法缺失等问题,深刻分析存在问题的原因,强化意识和理论研究。强化管理和培训,强化专业队伍建设,强化科学有效的指导方法,促进员工职业生涯规划工作的科学、持续地发展。

  9. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  10. 融合出租车驾驶经验的层次路径规划方法%Hierarchical Path Planning Method Based on Taxi Driver Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继华; 黄泽; 邓俊; 谢海莹

    2013-01-01

    The route choice behaviors of taxi drivers are usually representative because they are more familiar with urban road status. This makes it possible to use the taxi drivers' experience to support the path planning. To make the guidance result meet the drivers' expectations well, this study presents a hierarchical path planning method using the taxi driver experiences. The method consists of three steps; first, routes are recovered from the taxi trajectories; second, all roads are redefined and categorized according to the track data and the road network is classified into different experience grades using travel frequency for road segments; third, with the Dijkstra algorithm, a hierarchical path planning method is proposed. Finally, taking Guangzhou city as an example, this paper compares the paths generated by the proposed approach with the conventional algorithm's results. The experimental result shows that travel time of the paths planned by the proposed method has been effectively reduced.%出租车驾驶员对城市道路交通状况较为熟悉,他们选择的路径具有代表性,因此将出租车驾驶员路径选择经验融合到路径规划算法中,对提高出行效率具有重要的意义.本文提出一种融合出租车驾驶经验的层次路径规划方法,主要包括三部分:首先,从出租车GPS数据中提取出出租车载客行驶轨迹;然后,根据各路段出租车行驶频率高低对路网进行分层,构建基于出租车经验路径的分层路网;在此基础上,使用Dijkstra算法实现层次路径规划.最后,本文以广州市为研究区域,将该方法得到的规划路径与经典路径规划算法的结果进行比较.结果表明,融合出租车驾驶经验的路径规划方法所得路径在行程时间上占有一定的优势.

  11. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olteanu Valerica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using

  13. WE-D-18A-01: Evaluation of Three Commercial Metal Artifact Reduction Methods for CT Simulations in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J; Kerns, J; Nute, J; Liu, X; Stingo, F; Followill, D; Mirkovic, D; Howell, R; Kry, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three commercial metal artifact reduction methods (MAR) in the context of radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: Three MAR strategies were evaluated: Philips O-MAR, monochromatic imaging using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) dual energy CT, and monochromatic imaging with metal artifact reduction software (GSIMARs). The Gammex RMI 467 tissue characterization phantom with several metal rods and two anthropomorphic phantoms (pelvic phantom with hip prosthesis and head phantom with dental fillings), were scanned with and without (baseline) metals. Each MAR method was evaluated based on CT number accuracy, metal size accuracy, and reduction in the severity of streak artifacts. CT number difference maps between the baseline and metal scan images were calculated, and the severity of streak artifacts was quantified using the percentage of pixels with >40 HU error (“bad pixels”). Results: Philips O-MAR generally reduced HU errors in the RMI phantom. However, increased errors and induced artifacts were observed for lung materials. GSI monochromatic 70keV images generally showed similar HU errors as 120kVp imaging, while 140keV images reduced errors. GSI-MARs systematically reduced errors compared to GSI monochromatic imaging. All imaging techniques preserved the diameter of a stainless steel rod to within ±1.6mm (2 pixels). For the hip prosthesis, O-MAR reduced the average % bad pixels from 47% to 32%. For GSI 140keV imaging, the percent of bad pixels was reduced from 37% to 29% compared to 120kVp imaging, while GSI-MARs further reduced it to 12%. For the head phantom, none of the MAR methods were particularly successful. Conclusion: The three MAR methods all improve CT images for treatment planning to some degree, but none of them are globally effective for all conditions. The MAR methods were successful for large metal implants in a homogeneous environment (hip prosthesis) but were not successful for the more complicated case of dental

  14. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  15. Implementation of the Harvard Case Method through a Plan-Do-Check-Act Framework in a University Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Lyu, Jr Jung; Cheng, Yun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the Harvard Business School began to promote the Harvard case method (HCM) within the Asian region. Because of differences in classroom culture between Asian and Western countries, Asian participants' reaction to the HCM implementation is of interest. This study explores how the western initiated method was implemented in one of the Asian…

  16. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(2)-1 - Valuation of plan assets; reasonable actuarial valuation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determined under paragraph (b)(7) of this section. Assuming the numerical data of Example 6, the application... the funding standard account based on the retroactive application of its new method as of the first... valuation methods. 1.412(c)(2)-1 Section 1.412(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  17. Demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among family planning service users, Batu town, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Anley; Fantahun, Mesganaw

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests a high unsatisfied demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited knowledge on demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess demand for long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factors among women of age group 18-49 years in Batu town, East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six service delivery points from March to April 2009 on 398 women of age 18-49 years old. Thirteen (3%) were using long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and 89 (22.4%) wanted no more child in the future making the total demand of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods 24.4%. Older age group, multiparty, that the provider asked about reproductive intention, and the provider explained side effects of method selected were significantly associated with using LA and MPs (P contraceptive methods indicating that multi-dimensional measures are needed to improve the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods.

  18. Teachers' Instructional Planning for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Macro-Scripts as a Pedagogical Method to Facilitate Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Raija; Hakkinen, Paivi

    2010-01-01

    Technological tools challenge teachers' pedagogical activities. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education should help teachers integrate new pedagogical methods into their work. This study explores macro-level computer-supported collaborative learning scripts as a pedagogical method to facilitate collaboration.…

  19. A method to obtain correct standard uptake values in Pinnacle treatment planning system for target volume delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Salehzahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardized uptake value (SUV is an advanced tool for quantitative tumor identification and metabolic target volume delineation (TVD in diagnostic and therapeutic settings. It is thus important to establish a quality assured process to maintain the traceability of data correctly by positron emission tomography (PET systems. Patient administration of 18 fluoro-deoxy-glucose is increasingly delivered by automated infusion systems (AISs. Whenever AIS is used, its accuracy and traceability measurement need verification. In addition, it was observed that the unreproducible SUV displayed in PET and the treatment planning system (TPS may cause grave concerns for radiation oncologists for TVD. This concern may complicate the correlation of TVD on PET and TPS and their clinical reporting. The SUV traceability was established from the PET system to AIS. Its accuracy was verified by cross-referencing to the reference dose calibrator traceable to a primary standard. The SUV values were converted in TPS using the in-house "clinical tool" to be identical as in PET, to allow radiation oncologists to use SUV confidently. The outcome of this study enables the clinical groups to rely on the correct SUV values displayed on the TPS and to improve the quality of care for patients in clinical procedures.

  20. A method to obtain correct standard uptake values in Pinnacle treatment planning system for target volume delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzahi, Farshid; Tse, Jason; Lee, Jonathan; Selvaraj, Jothybasu

    2016-01-01

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) is an advanced tool for quantitative tumor identification and metabolic target volume delineation (TVD) in diagnostic and therapeutic settings. It is thus important to establish a quality assured process to maintain the traceability of data correctly by positron emission tomography (PET) systems. Patient administration of (18)fluoro-deoxy-glucose is increasingly delivered by automated infusion systems (AISs). Whenever AIS is used, its accuracy and traceability measurement need verification. In addition, it was observed that the unreproducible SUV displayed in PET and the treatment planning system (TPS) may cause grave concerns for radiation oncologists for TVD. This concern may complicate the correlation of TVD on PET and TPS and their clinical reporting. The SUV traceability was established from the PET system to AIS. Its accuracy was verified by cross-referencing to the reference dose calibrator traceable to a primary standard. The SUV values were converted in TPS using the in-house "clinical tool" to be identical as in PET, to allow radiation oncologists to use SUV confidently. The outcome of this study enables the clinical groups to rely on the correct SUV values displayed on the TPS and to improve the quality of care for patients in clinical procedures.

  1. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  2. A pass planning method for multi-hit stretching of heavy forgings by integration of a semi-analytical technique and degrees-reduced finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenshan; Chen, Wen; Sui, Dashan; Liu, Juan

    2013-05-01

    A pass planning method for multi-pass and multi-hit stretching of heavy forgings is proposed, which composes of a semi-analytical procedure and a degrees-reduced finite element code. The semi-analytical procedure is based on a kinematically admissible velocity and Markov variational principle, and can be applied to roughly calculate the deformed shape and working force for stretch forging process for work-piece which has vertical and lateral symmetrical lines in cross-section. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the distributions of metal flow, temperature, strain and stress in detail, a degrees-reduced thermo-mechanical coupled rigid finite element code is developed. In this code, the instantaneous deformation zone is specially extracted from the total domain and simulated for metal flow, while the total domain is used to simulate the evolution of thermal field. Taking the semi-analytical method as a solver, the pass planning procedure for stretch forging is developed, and the degrees-reduced finite element code is used as a supplement to check the rationality of the planed pass schedule. An example is implemented to demonstrate the application of the proposed technique.

  3. Planning Method of Eco-environment Restoration Based on Enlarging Terrace and De-farming in Loess Hilly Region——A Case Study of Yangou Catchment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan; DANG; Yong; XU

    2013-01-01

    After expatiating the guiding ideology,contents,standards and principles of eco-environment restoration based on enlarging terrace and de-farming,this paper discussed the planning method and technical flow of enlarging terrace and garden plot in a small catchment of loess hilly region by means of GIS spatial analysis technology,and then the planning method was applied in Yangou catchment.The result showed that it is practicabl,and the areas of newly-built terrace and garden plot in Yangou catchment are at least 295.06 and 4.61 hm2,so that the areas of basic farmland and garden plot reach 359.23 and 622.69 hm2.After the land use structure is regulated,the forest coverage is 48.87%,and the permanent vegetation coverage is about 75% in Yangou catchment,while sediment reduction benefit is above 80% in slope land.In agricultural development,Yangou catchment can yield 1 645.13 tons of food supplies,above 9 340 tons of apples,and can feed 7 500 sheep every year.

  4. Accessibility of long-term family planning methods: a comparison study between Output Based Approach (OBA) clients verses non-OBA clients in the voucher supported facilities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyugi, Boniface; Kioko, Urbanus; Kaboro, Stephen Mbugua; Gikonyo, Shadrack; Okumu, Clarice; Ogola-Munene, Sarah; Kalsi, Shaminder; Thiani, Simon; Korir, Julius; Odundo, Paul; Baltazaar, Billy; Ranji, Moses; Muraguri, Nicholas; Nzioka, Charles

    2017-03-27

    The study seeks to evaluate the difference in access of long-term family planning (LTFP) methods among the output based approach (OBA) and non-OBA clients within the OBA facility. The study utilises a quasi experimental design. A two tailed unpaired t-test with unequal variance is used to test for the significance variation in the mean access. The difference in difference (DiD) estimates of program effect on long term family planning methods is done to estimate the causal effect by exploiting the group level difference on two or more dimensions. The study also uses a linear regression model to evaluate the predictors of choice of long-term family planning methods. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. All the methods (Bilateral tubal ligation-BTL, Vasectomy, intrauterine contraceptive device -IUCD, Implants, and Total or combined long-term family planning methods -LTFP) showed a statistical significant difference in the mean utilization between OBA versus non-OBA clients. The difference in difference estimates reveal that the difference in access between OBA and non OBA clients can significantly be attributed to the implementation of the OBA program for intrauterine contraceptive device (p = 0.002), Implants (p = 0.004), and total or combined long-term family planning methods (p = 0.001). The county of residence is a significant determinant of access to all long-term family planning methods except vasectomy and the year of registration is a significant determinant of access especially for implants and total or combined long-term family planning methods. The management level and facility type does not play a role in determining the type of long-term family planning method preferred; however, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) as management level influences the choice of all methods (Bilateral tubal ligation, intrauterine contraceptive device, Implants, and combined methods) except vasectomy. The adjusted R(2) value, representing the percentage of

  5. Rearrangement of the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector using the Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alexsandro Turati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct physical layout is relevant to the operational efficiency of the company. This study proposes rearranging the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector, which is located in Araras/SP, aiming to improve the production workflow. The Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP was used, with the field research divided into steps: obtaining detailed information about the process and the product; meetings with stakeholders; determining inter-related activities; analyzing space requirements; developing a new layout. The new layout has space allocated for the purchasing of new machinery, the existing machinery has been redistributed by specialty, and the unloading of raw materials has been transferred to the shed, maximizing the use of overhead cranes and keeping the stock close to the warehouse. In addition, forklift traffic flow has decreased; new movement corridors were demarcated; and painting areas were isolated. In conclusion, the SLP method proved efficient in creating a layout.

  6. A New Method for Time-Jerk Optimal Trajectory Planning Under Kino-dynamic Constraint of Robot Manipulators in Pick-and-Place Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendali Nadir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for time-jerk optimal planning under Kino-dynamic constraints of robot manipulators in pick-and-place operations is described in this paper. In order to ensure that the resulting trajectory is smooth enough, a cost function containing a term proportional to the integral of the squared jerk (defined as the derivative of the acceleration along the trajectory is considered. Moreover, a second term, proportional to the total execution time, is added to the expression of the cost function. A Cubic Spline functions are then used to compose overall trajectory. This method makes it possible to deal with the kinematic constraints as well as the dynamic constraints imposed on the robot manipulator. The algorithm has been tested in simulation yielding good results.

  7. Methods development for measuring and classifying flammability/combustibility of refrigerants. Interim report, task 2 - test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, E.W.; Tapscott, R.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Regulations on alternative refrigerants and concerns for the environment are forcing the refrigeration industry to consider the use of potentially flammable fluids to replace CFC fluids currently in use. The objectives of this program are to establish the conditions under which refrigerants and refrigerant blends exhibit flammability and to develop appropriate methods to measure flammability.

  8. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the health care context, have caused the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to look more closely... infectious diseases. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend that health care workers wear medical... examination and by a water leak test method, using 1,000 milliliters (ml) of water. (i) Units examined....

  9. Effect of a Micro-Level, Three-Tiered Positive Behavior Support Plan for Absenteeism: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Student absentee rates remain a problem in spite of increased attention to absenteeism since the passing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. High rates of absenteeism correlate to low academic achievement, early drop out, and increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and criminal activity. This mixed method research design incorporated…

  10. Musically Planned Creativity and Flexibility--Elementary Classroom: Implications for Orff-Schulwerk, the Kodaly Method and Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheimer, Laura

    1976-01-01

    The goals and activities of the Orff-Schulwerk Approach and the Kodaly Method of music therapy are described; and the usefulness of each approach to develop creativity, social development, and cognitive ability in normal, gifted, and handicapped elementary level students is discussed. (SBH)

  11. Development of direct multi-hazard susceptibility assessment method for post-earthquake reconstruction planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Olga; Rana, Sohel; van Westen, Cees; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2017-04-01

    After the devastating 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, reconstruction activities have been delayed considerably, due to many reasons, of a political, organizational and technical nature. Due to the widespread occurrence of co-seismic landslides, and the expectation that these may be aggravated or re-activated in future years during the intense monsoon periods, there is a need to evaluate for thousands of sites whether these are suited for reconstruction. In this evaluation multi-hazards, such as rockfall, landslides, debris flow, and flashfloods should be taken into account. The application of indirect knowledge-based, data-driven or physically-based approaches is not suitable due to several reasons. Physically-based models generally require a large number of parameters, for which data is not available. Data-driven, statistical methods, depend on historical information, which is less useful after the occurrence of a major event, such as an earthquake. Besides, they would lead to unacceptable levels of generalization, as the analysis is done based on rather general causal factor maps. The same holds for indirect knowledge-driven methods. However, location-specific hazards analysis is required using a simple method that can be used by many people at the local level. In this research, a direct scientific method was developed where local level technical people can easily and quickly assess the post-earthquake multi hazards following a decision tree approach, using an app on a smartphone or tablet. The methods assumes that a central organization, such as the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management, generates spatial information beforehand that is used in the direct assessment at a certain location. Pre-earthquake, co-seismic and post-seismic landslide inventories are generated through the interpretation of Google Earth multi-temporal images, using anaglyph methods. Spatial data, such as Digital Elevation Models, land cover maps, and geological maps are

  12. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Beverage Choices in Adolescents and Their Parents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebl, Shaun K; MacDougall, Carly; Hill, Catelyn; Estabrooks, Paul A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Savla, Jyoti; Frisard, Madlyn I; Dietrich, Andrea M; Davy, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Background Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ~16% of their total calories from added sugars with ~40% of these calories coming from SSB. Youth’s food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake can be influenced by parents. Objective To evaluate the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) effectiveness in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine if and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices. Design Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to a SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire. Results The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSB to less than one cup per day. Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35, p=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57, p=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=−37, p=0.026, b=−49, p=0.003). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R2=0.38) than adolescents (R2=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSB and encouraging of non-SSB. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSB and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (p=0.021). Conclusions The TPB explained a small, but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in

  13. Beverage Choices of Adolescents and Their Parents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebl, Shaun K; MacDougal, Carly; Hill, Catelyn; Estabrooks, Paul A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Savla, Jyoti; Frisard, Madlyn I; Dietrich, Andrea M; Davy, Brenda M

    2016-02-01

    Added sugar intake in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been considered a contributor to weight gain and cardiometabolic dysfunction in adults and youth. Adolescents are some of the highest consumers of added sugars, taking in ∼16% of their total calories from added sugars with ∼40% of these calories coming from SSBs. Food preferences and self-regulation of dietary intake by youth can be influenced by parents. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in understanding and predicting adolescents' SSB consumption, identify which constructs are the most important when evaluating SSB consumption in adolescents, and determine whether and how adolescents' beverage choices are influenced by parents' reactions to their beverage choices. Measurements for this cross-sectional study included four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls and responses to an SSB-specific TPB questionnaire from 100 adolescents. Consenting parents completed a beverage intake questionnaire, a TPB questionnaire, and the Parent Response to Beverage Choice Questionnaire. The TPB explained 34% of the variance in adolescents' and parents' intention to limit SSBs to Parents' perceived behavioral control (b=1.35; P=0.002) and adolescents' subjective norms (b=0.57; P=0.001) were the strongest predictors of intention, and intention was the strongest predictor of SSB consumption in both adolescents and parents (b=-37 [P=0.026] and b=-49 [P=0.003], respectively). The TPB explained more variance in parent SSB consumption (R(2)=0.38) than adolescents (R(2)=0.22). Parents did more discouraging of SSBs and encouraging of non-SSBs. Adolescents' intention to limit SSB consumption moderated the relationship between parents' reactions encouraging SSBs and adolescents' predicted SSB consumption (P=0.021). The TPB explained a small but significant amount of variance in adolescents' SSB consumption. When addressing adolescent SSB intake, people in addition to parents may

  14. Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iribarren Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD, Bilingual (BIL, and English-dominant (ED Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter, 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs, health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression, computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only. The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat Conclusion There are important differences among Latinos of different English language proficiency with regard to education, income, health status, health behaviors, IT access, and health education modality preferences that ought to be considered when planning and implementing health programs for this

  15. Application of probabilistic and decision analysis methods to structural mechanics and materials sciences problems. Volume 1. Planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.J.; Tagart, S.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1984-08-01

    Volume I presents an overview of the EPRI structural reliability research program. First, perspectives on the probabilistic treatment of uncertainty are presented. A brief explanation is given of why decision analysis methods are part of EPRI's structural reliability project, and how the use of such methods to handle uncertainty can improve decision-making in this area. A more detailed discussion of one approach for dealing with uncertainty about event probabilities is also presented. Next, review of probabilistic risk analysis is presented. This review includes a brief history of its development and application, an overview of the methodology involved, the role of structural reliability assessment in providing input to PRAs, and the treatment of uncertainties in that input. A brief discussion of the relationship between PRA and safety goals is also included.

  16. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  17. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  18. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  19. High-density dental implants and radiotherapy planning: evaluation of effects on dose distribution using pencil beam convolution algorithm and Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatli, Serap

    2015-09-08

    High atomic number and density of dental implants leads to major problems at providing an accurate dose distribution in radiotherapy and contouring tumors and organs caused by the artifact in head and neck tumors. The limits and deficiencies of the algorithms using in the treatment planning systems can lead to large errors in dose calculation, and this may adversely affect the patient's treatment. In the present study, four commercial dental implants were used: pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), amalgam, and crown. The effects of dental implants on dose distribution are determined with two methods: pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm and Monte Carlo code for 6 MV photon beam. The central axis depth doses were calculated on the phantom for a source-skin distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a 10 × 10 cm2 field using both of algorithms. The results of Monte Carlo method and Eclipse TPS were compared to each other and to those previously reported. In the present study, dose increases in tissue at a distance of 2 mm in front of the dental implants were seen due to the backscatter of electrons for dental implants at 6 MV using the Monte Carlo method. The Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) couldn't precisely account for the backscatter radiation caused by the dental prostheses. TPS underestimated the back scatter dose and overestimated the dose after the dental implants. The large errors found for TPS in this study are due to the limits and deficiencies of the algorithms. The accuracy of the PBC algorithm of Eclipse TPS was evaluated in comparison to Monte Carlo calculations in consideration of the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 65. From the comparisons of the TPS and Monte Carlo calculations, it is verified that the Monte Carlo simulation is a good approach to derive the dose distribution in heterogeneous media.

  20. High-density dental implants and radiotherapy planning: evaluation of effects on dose distribution using pencil beam convolution algorithm and Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatli, Serap

    2015-09-01

    High atomic number and density of dental implants leads to major problems at providing an accurate dose distribution in radiotherapy and contouring tumors and organs caused by the artifact in head and neck tumors. The limits and deficiencies of the algorithms using in the treatment planning systems can lead to large errors in dose calculation, and this may adversely affect the patient's treatment. In the present study, four commercial dental implants were used: pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), amalgam, and crown. The effects of dental implants on dose distribution are determined with two methods: pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm and Monte Carlo code for 6 MV photon beam. The central axis depth doses were calculated on the phantom for a source-skin distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a 10×10 cm2 field using both of algorithms. The results of Monte Carlo method and Eclipse TPS were compared to each other and to those previously reported. In the present study, dose increases in tissue at a distance of 2 mm in front of the dental implants were seen due to the backscatter of electrons for dental implants at 6 MV using the Monte Carlo method. The Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) couldn't precisely account for the backscatter radiation caused by the dental prostheses. TPS underestimated the back scatter dose and overestimated the dose after the dental implants. The large errors found for TPS in this study are due to the limits and deficiencies of the algorithms. The accuracy of the PBC algorithm of Eclipse TPS was evaluated in comparison to Monte Carlo calculations in consideration of the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 65. From the comparisons of the TPS and Monte Carlo calculations, it is verified that the Monte Carlo simulation is a good approach to derive the dose distribution in heterogeneous media. PACS numbers: 87.55.K.

  1. Reflector modelization in neutronic and optimization methods applied to fuel loading pattern; Modelisation du reflecteur en neutronique et methodes d`optimisation appliquees aux plans de rechargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    I Physical description of P.W.R nuclear core can be handled by multigroup neutronic diffusion model. We are interested in two problems, using the same approach for the optimization aspect. To deal with some differences between calculations and measurements, the question of their reduction is then introduced. A reflector parameters identification from core measurements is then purposed, the reflector being at the present time the less known part of core diffusion model. This approach conducts to study the reflector model, in particular by an analysis of its transport origin. It leads finally to a new model of reflector described by boundary operators using an integral formulation on the core/reflector interface. That is on this new model that a parameter identification formulation of calculations-measurements differences reduction is given, using an adjoint state formulation to minimize errors by a gradient method. Furthermore, nuclear fuel reload of P.W.R core needs an optimal distribution of fuel assemblies, namely a loading pattern. This combinatorial optimization problem is then expressed as a cost function minimization, the cost function describing the power spatial distribution. Various methods (linear programming, simulated annealing,...), used to solve this problem, are detailed, given in particular a practical search example. A new approach is then proposed, using the gradient of the cost function to direct the search in the patterns discrete space. Final results of complete patterns search trials are presented, and compared to those obtained by other methods. In particular the results are obtained very quickly. (author). 81 refs., 55 figs., 5 appends.

  2. A Plan Recognition Technique Based On Critical Path Method%基于统筹法的规划识别技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱月梅

    2012-01-01

      To identify a agent’s plan swiftly is a tough work. Each different kinds of relation between the actions which happened or happening wil lead to another conclusion and, it is keep changing from the begging to the end. Here is a new approach to recognize this changing plan which based on the thinking of the Critical path method and, the introduction of temporal relation is the key to this solution. The optimal arranging of job in the real word is a basic rule of Critical path method, with this ideal we can proposed this method into the Keyhole plan recognition, continuing optimize the solution space, then we can obtain a instant answer swiftly. At the end, we use ontology technology constructed a model which can represent the temporal relations between the actions and prescribed the process procedure in an algorithm.%  通常快速地确定一个Agent的规划是很困难的,Agent的不同行为之间由于时态关系的不同而将导致的结果也是复杂多变的。这里提出一种新的基于统筹法的规划识别方法,引入时态关系,结合统筹法思想中对事件发生次序的优化安排原则,对锁眼型规划识别中的目标Agent的行为进行规划预测,并及时对预测空间状态进行调整,从而达到快速规划的目的。在这种识别方法的实现过程中给合本体技术,构建了一种关系模型,将时态与事件相结合,最后通过算法对其识别过程进行描述。

  3. Progress and Challenges in Mainstreaming Climate Change in Federal Water Resources and Environmental Planning: Data Selection, Technical Methods, Decision Paradigms, and Climate Change Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Elsner, M. M.; Broman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is a federal agency tasked with developing and managing water supply and hydropower projects throughout the Western U.S. Over the past decade, Reclamation and other federal agencies have adopted new guidelines, directives, and mandates that require consideration of climate change in water resources and environmental planning and decision making. The scientific community has developed a vast number of climate projections, along with an array of models and methods to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on hydrology and water resources. However, water resources engineers, planners, and decision makers continue to face challenges regarding how best to use the available data and tools to support major water resources decisions, including decisions regarding major infrastructure investments and long-term operating criteria. These decisions may affect local communities, national agricultural and energy economies, and critical environmental resources. Examples of challenges include: How to choose between the large number of available climate projection datasets? How to consider uncertainties in future climate while constraining the number of projections or scenarios analyzed to accommodate modeling resource limitations? How to communicate climate change information and uncertainties to decision makers, stakeholders, and the public? And, How to select a decision making framework when design or operating alternatives may differ between climate change scenarios. This presentation will discuss recent progress and ongoing challenges to integrating climate change information into water resources and environmental planning. Discussion will focus on the intersection between technical challenges and decision making paradigms through the lens of this federal water management agency.

  4. Calculation of Lung Cancer Volume of Target Based on Thorax Computed Tomography Images using Active Contour Segmentation Method for Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur

    2017-06-01

    In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.

  5. 多品种小批量生产计划管理方法的研究%Management Methods of Varieties and Small Batch Production Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温友良; 韩刘侠; 王海恒

    2011-01-01

    生产计划管理是生产管理中最重要和最核心的部分,尤其是资源冲突问题.本文结合实际工作,详细分析研究生产计划编排的核心问题,重点研究资源冲突的分析方法和协同机制,为重点设备任务的管理提供决策依据和支撑保障作用,保证生产任务的顺畅高效地执行.%Production planning management is the most important and most central part of the problem of production management, especially is the resource conflict.This paper combines the practical work, analyzed the core issues of the production planning and arrangement in detail, focuses on studying the analyzing methods and coordination mechanism of resource conflict, to provide decision-making basis and support for the management of key equipment task and ensure the smooth and efficient implementation of production tasks.

  6. O planejamento da manufatura: práticas industriais e métodos de otimização Manufacturing planning: industrial practices and optimization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Carvalho

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão das metodologias mais utilizadas como ferramentas de apoio ao planejamento da produção de sistemas de manufatura. Dentre elas destacam-se as práticas industriais conhecidas como técnicas avaliativas de soluções e os métodos de otimização conhecidos como técnicas gerativas de solução. Procura-se discutir como estas técnicas trabalham e analisar as vantagens e desvantagens de cada uma delas. Na conclusão a otimização é apresentada como uma ferramenta complementar para superar certas deficiências encontradas durante a aplicação das práticas industriais, tornando-se assim essencial ao planejamento da produção.This paper presents a review of the most common methodologies used as tools for supporting the production planning process of manufacturing systems. The industrial practices, known as evaluative techniques, and the optimization methods, known as generative techniques are highlighted. The way these techniques work is discussed, and their advantages and drawbacks are analyzed. It is concluded that optimization is a complementary tool for overcoming certain deficiencies found during the application of industrial practices and is essential for production planning.

  7. 城市园林景观规划的艺术性设计方法%The Artistic Design Method of Urban Landscape Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英桦

    2013-01-01

    Landscape is a synthetic form of man-made natural environment, which bases on the transformation requirements of regional activities to compile a set of complete landscape plan. After site construction, a relatively perfect landscape area has formed. This article introduces the ecological value of urb-an landscape, and puts forward the artistic design method of urban landscape planning, hope to be helpful to the further re-search.%园林景观是人造自然环境的表现形式,其根据地区活动场所的改造要求,编制了一套完整的园林景观方案。经现场施工后,形成了相对完善的景观区域。本文介绍了城市园林的生态价值,并提出了城市园林景观规划的艺术性设计方法,希望对后续研究有所帮助。

  8. Elementary teachers' ideas about, planning for and implementation of learner-directed and teacher-directed inquiry: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy Sue

    Using a framework for variations of classroom inquiry (National Research Council [NRC], 2000, p. 29), this study explored 40 inservice elementary teachers' planning, modification, and enactment of kit-based science curriculum materials. As part of the study, a new observation protocol was modified from an existing protocol (Practices of Science Observation Protocol [P-SOP]) to measure the amount of teacher direction in science inquiry lessons (Practices of Science Observation Protocol + Directedness [P-SOPd]). An embedded mixed methods design was employed to investigate four questions: 1. How valid and reliable is the P-SOPd? 2. In what ways do inservice elementary teachers adapt existing elementary science curriculum materials across the inquiry continuum? 3. What is the relationship between the overall quality of inquiry and variations of inquiry in elementary teachers' enacted science instruction? 4. How do inservice elementary teachers' ideas about the inquiry continuum influence their adaptation of elementary science curriculum materials? Each teacher chose three lessons from a science unit for video-recorded observation, and submitted lesson plans for the three lessons. Lesson plans and videos were scored using the P-SOPd. The scores were also compared between the two protocols to determine if a correlation existed between the level of inquiry (measured on the P-SOP) and the amount of teacher direction (measured on the P-SOPd). Findings indicated no significant differences between planned and enacted lessons for the amount of teacher direction, but a correlation existed between the level of inquiry and the amount of teacher direction. In effect, the elementary teachers taught their science curriculum materials with a high level of fidelity for both the features of inquiry and the amount of teacher direction. A smaller group of three case study teachers were followed for the school year to give a more in-depth explanation of the quantitative findings. Case

  9. Application of the Extension Taguchi Method to Optimal Capability Planning of a Stand-alone Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An Extension Taguchi Method (ETM is proposed on the optimized allocation of equipment capacity for solar cell power generation, wind power generation, full cells, electrolyzer and hydrogen tanks. The ETM is based on the domain knowledge containing the product specifications and allocation levels provided by suppliers and design factors since most of the renewable energy equipment available in the market comes with a specific capacity. A proper orthogonal array is used to collect 18 sets of simulation responses. The extension theory is introduced to determine the correlation function, and factor effects are used to identify the optimized capacity allocation. The hours of power shortage are simulated using Matlab for all capacity allocations at the lowest establishment cost and the optimized capacity allocation of loss of load probability (LOLP. Finally, the extension theory, extension AHP theory, ETM and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP are used to determine the optimized capacity allocation of the system. Results are compared for the above four optimization simulation methods and verify that the proposed ETM surpasses the others on achieving the optimized capacity allocation.

  10. Adapting the Quebecois method for assessing implementation to the French National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012: lessons for gerontological services integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Somme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many countries face ageing-related demographic and epidemiological challenges, notably neurodegenerative disorders, due to the multiple care services they require, thereby pleading for a more integrated system of care. The integrated Quebecois method issued from the Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy inspired a French pilot experiment and the National Alzheimer Plan 2008–2012. Programme of Research to Integrate Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy method implementation was rated with an evaluation grid adapted to assess its successive degrees of completion.Discussion: The approaching end of the president's term led to the method's institutionalization (2011–2012, before the implementation study ended. When the government changed, the study was interrupted. The results extracted from that ‘lost’ study (presented herein have, nonetheless, ‘found’ some key lessons.Key lessons/conclusion: It was possible to implement a Quebecois integrated-care method in France. We describe the lessons and pitfalls encountered in adapting this evaluation tool. This process is necessarily multidisciplinary and requires a test phase. A simple tool for quantitative assessment of integration was obtained. The first assessment of the tool was unsatisfactory but requires further studies. In the meantime, we recommend using mixed methodologies to assess the services integration level.

  11. Distinct element modelling of fracture plan control in continuum and jointed rock mass in presplitting method of surface mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharafisafa Mansour; Aliabadian Zeinab; Alizadeh Rezvan; Mortazavi Ali

    2014-01-01

    Controlled blasting techniques are used to control overbreak and to aid in the stability of the remaining rock formation. Presplitting is one of the most common methods which is used in many open pit mining and surface blast design. The purpose of presplitting is to form a fracture plane across which the radial cracks from the production blast cannot travel. The purpose of this study is to investigate of effect of pre-splitting on the generation of a smooth wall in continuum and jointed rock mass. The 2D distinct element code was used to simulate the presplitting in a rock slope. The blast load history as a function of time was applied to the inner wall of each blasthole. Important parameters that were considered in the analysis were stress tensor and fracturing pattern. The blast loading magnitude and blasthole spacing and jointing pattern were found to be very significant in the final results.

  12. Path Planning for Mobile Objects in Four-Dimension Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method with Penalty Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present one algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO with penalty function to determine the conflict-free path for mobile objects in four-dimension (three spatial and one-time dimensions with obstacles. The shortest path of the mobile object is set as goal function, which is constrained by conflict-free criterion, path smoothness, and velocity and acceleration requirements. This problem is formulated as a calculus of variation problem (CVP. With parametrization method, the CVP is converted to a time-varying nonlinear programming problem (TNLPP. Constraints of TNLPP are transformed to general TNLPP without any constraints through penalty functions. Then, by using a little calculations and applying the algorithm PSO, the solution of the CVP is consequently obtained. Approach efficiency is confirmed by numerical examples.

  13. Analysis on landscape planning and design method of modern neighborhood%现代住宅小区景观规划设计方法浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2011-01-01

    Taking landscape planning and design scheme of a residential district for example,following the "people-oriented" design principle,combining with the local city special features,from the design goal,positioning,design idea and method,this paper systematic%以某住宅小区景观规划设计方案为例,遵循"以人为本"的设计原则,结合当地的城市特色,从设计目标、定位、设计思路以及方法出发,系统阐述了住宅小区的景观规划设计思路,为今后同类居住区景观设计提供了宝贵经验。

  14. The instruments of financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Durnov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes financial planning efficiency for enterprise management improvement. The author describes the system of financial tools and considers in detail financial planning methods, their strengths and weaknesses

  15. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  18. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  19. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  20. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  1. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  2. SWOT analysis: The analytical method in the process of planning and its application in the development of orthopaedic hospital department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. SWOT analysis is a managerial tool used to evaluate internal and external environment through strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Objective. The aim was to demonstrate the application of the SWOT analysis on the example of the Department for Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology at the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery 'Banjica' in Belgrade. Methods. Qualitative research was conducted during December 2008 at the Department for Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology of the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery 'Banjica' by applying the focus group technique. Participants were members of the medical staff and patients. In the first phase of the focus group brainstorming was applied to collect the factors of internal and external environment, and to identify strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, respectively. In the second phase the nominal group technique was applied in order to reduce the list of factors. The factors were assessed according to their influence on the Department. Factors ranked by the three point Likert scale from 3 (highest impact to 1 (lowest impact. Results. The most important strengths of the Department are competent and skilled staff, high quality of services, average hospital bed utilization, the Department providing the educational basis of the School of Medicine, satisfied patients, pleasant setting, and additional working hours. The weaknesses are: poor spatial organization, personnel unmotivated to refresh knowledge, lack of specifically trained personnel, inadequate sanitary facilities, and uncovered services by the Insurance Fund, long average hospital stay, and low economic status of patients. The opportunities are: legislative regulations, formed paediatric traumatology service at the City level, good regional position of the Institute, and extension of referral areas. The threats are: absent Department autonomy in the personnel policy of the Institute, competitions within

  3. The effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical gynecology skills of midwifery students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Barangard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical skills of midwifery students in Iran. In this clinical trial, 36 midwifery students in their 4th year of education in 2015 were enrolled and divided into 6 groups, 3 groups for teacher-centered education and 3 groups for the SNAPPS method, with each group spending 10 days in the outpatient gynecology clinic. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to gather data. An independent t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Ability to gain the trust of the patient, verbal and nonverbal communication skills, history taking, preparation of the patient for gynecological examination, and diagnosis and treatment of common diseases were significantly better in the SNAPPS group compared to the teacher-centered education group (P<0.05. The SNAPPS education method can significantly improve the clinical skills of midwifery students in gynecology, in particular history taking, differential diagnosis, and treatment of common diseases.

  4. The effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select) method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical gynecology skills of midwifery students in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select) method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical skills of midwifery students in Iran. In this clinical trial, 36 midwifery students in their 4th year of education in 2015 were enrolled and divided into 6 groups, 3 groups for teacher-centered education and 3 groups for the SNAPPS method, with each group spending 10 days in the outpatient gynecology clinic. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to gather data. An independent t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Ability to gain the trust of the patient, verbal and nonverbal communication skills, history taking, preparation of the patient for gynecological examination, and diagnosis and treatment of common diseases were significantly better in the SNAPPS group compared to the teacher-centered education group (P<0.05). The SNAPPS education method can significantly improve the clinical skills of midwifery students in gynecology, in particular history taking, differential diagnosis, and treatment of common diseases. PMID:27894183

  5. PATH PLANNING OF FREE FLOATING SPACE ROBOT USING LEGENDRE PSEUDOSPECTRAL METHOD%自由漂浮空间机器人路径优化的Legendre伪谱法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈新生; 陈凯捷

    2016-01-01

    基于Legendre伪谱法研究自由漂浮空间机器人非完整路径规划的最优控制问题。自由漂浮是空间机器人执行任务常用的工作模式,其路径优化是空间机器人完成复杂空间任务的基础。由于空间机器人不具有固定基座,机械臂和载体之间存在非完整约束,使得自由漂浮空间机器人路径规划完全不同于地面机器人而变得具有挑战性。本文提出自由漂浮空间机器人路径规划的最优控制伪谱方法。首先,利用多体动力学理论建立自由漂浮空间机器人动力学模型,给定系统的初始和目标位形,选取机械臂关节耗散能最小为性能指标,并考虑实际控制输入受限,建立其路径规划的 Bolza 问题。然后,应用 Legendre 伪谱法,将状态和控制变量在Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL)点上离散,并构造 Lagrange 插值多项式逼近系统状态和控制变量,将连续路径优化问题离散化为非线性规划问题求解。最后通过数值仿真表明,应用Legendre伪谱法求解自由漂浮空间机器人非完整路径规划问题,得到的机械臂和载体最优运动轨迹,较好地满足各种约束条件,且计算精度高、速度快,并具有良好的实时性。%Based on the Legendre pseudospectral method, the optimal control of free floating space robots path planning problems are studied. Free floating is the working status for the space robots in task and path planning is the foundation for them to fulfil a complex space task. Because the space robots have no fixed pedestal and there are nonholonomic constraints between the manipulator and the carrier, and it makes the path planning for free floating space robots different from those on the ground. In this paper, the Legendre pseudospectral method which can realize the optimal control of free floating space robots path planning problem is presented. Firstly, a dynamic model of free floating space robots is estab

  6. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  7. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  8. 水切割机器人路径规划方法%Path planning method of water-jet cutting robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玫; 孟正大

    2012-01-01

    以汽车内饰件切割路径优化为研究对象,提出了一种改进禁忌表蚁群算法,实现优化排序.根据水切割过程特点和工艺要求,进行了水切割路径规划问题分析与建模,设计了改进的禁忌表,利用分层思想将禁忌表划分为3段:内部小环段、内部大环段和外部轮廓段,各段的优先级依次降低,并确定了与此相应的禁忌表的更新规则.在此基础上,给出了基于改进禁忌表蚁群算法的水切割路径优化排序方法,对轮廓切割顺序和各轮廓起始点选择同时进行优化.仿真与实验结果表明,改进禁忌表蚁群算法是可行、有效的,可大大缩短水切割机器人的示教编程时间,显著提高水切割作业的效率和质量.%Taking the optimization of path planning of cutting automotive interior ornament as the research object, an improved tabu list based ant colony algorithm is presented to achieve cutting sequence optimization. According to the characteristics and technology demands of the water-jet cutting process, water-jet cutting path planning problem was analyzed and modeled. Taking advantage of the hierarchy principle, an improved tabu list was designed, which was divided into three sections : interior small loop, interior large loop, exterior outline section, and their priority reduces successively. Corresponding updating rules of the tabu list were proposed. The water-jet cutting path planning method based on the improved ant colony algorithm was proposed with which the cutting sequence of outlines and selection of starting point for cutting every outline are optimized simultaneously. Simulation and experimental results show that the improved tabu list based ant colony algorithm is feasible and effective. The teaching programming time of water-jet cutting robots can be shorten greatly, efficiency and quality of water-jet cutting jobs can be raised evidently.

  9. Upland Management Plan [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Upland Management Plan provides guidelines for the methods and tools to manage uplands on the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge to provide quality cover and...

  10. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant; Hansen, Christian R; Bertelsen, Anders; Eriksen, Jesper G; Johansen, Jørgen; Brink, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also provide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose to healthy tissues. Auto-Planning was able to produce clinically acceptable treatment plans in all 26 cases. Target coverages in the two types of plans were similar, but automatically generated plans had less irradiation of healthy tissue. In 94% of the evaluations, the autoplans scored at least as high as the previously delivered clinical plans. For all patients, the Auto-Planning tool produced clinically acceptable head and neck treatment plans without any manual intervention, except for the initial target and OAR delineations. The main benefit of the method is the likely improvement in the overall treatment quality since consistent, high-quality plans are generated which even can be further optimized, if necessary. This makes it possible for the dosimetrist to focus more time on difficult dose planning goals and to spend less time on the more tedious parts of the planning process.

  11. SU-E-T-288: Dose Volume Population Histogram (DVPH): A New Method to Evaluate Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans With Geometrical Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T; Mai, N [University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, B [Prowess Inc, Concord, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In Proton therapy, especially intensity modulated proton therapy(IMPT), the dose distribution shape is very sensitive to errors due to sharp dose gradients at the Bragg peaks. The concept of the conventional margin is based on the assumption that dose distribution is shifted rather than deformed due to geometrical uncertainties. The goal of this study is to access the validity of the margin concept as well as propose a new approach using Dose Volume Population Histogram (DVPH) in evaluating IMPT plans. Methods: For a prostate case, an intensity modulated proton therapy is optimized based on the conventional PTV based objective function. The plan is evaluated based on the PTV DVH and CTV DVPH (dose volume population histogram) which explicitly taking into account geometric uncertainties. The DVPH is calculated based on 2197 dose distributions at different CTV possible positions for both random and systematic errors. The DVPH with a 90% confidence level is used for the comparison. Results: The minimum dose of the CTV DVPH with a 90% confidence level is only about 18% of the prescribed dose, while the minimum dose of the PTV is 95%. For bladder DVHs, the D50 and D35 is 26% and 30%, compared to 65% and 70% of the prescribed dose from the bladder DVPH with 90% confidence level. Conclusion: The results showed that the PTV concept for ensuring the prescribed dose actually delivered to the CTV is invalid in proton therapy. The good PTV DVH might Result in an underdose to the target and should not be used for IMPT optimization. For OARs, the conventional evaluation approach underestimates dose volume end points. The new concept DVPH has been proved to provide a more accurate DVH evaluation in proton therapy.

  12. 概念设计方案生成的可计算方法%Computational Method for Conceptual Design Plan Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李添益; 宋轩; 刘志娟; 罗成对

    2011-01-01

    The set-up and application of hierarchy-mapping process models for conceptual design can significantly enhance the divergence and creativity of the function inference and solving process. However, it makes the conceptual solutions hard to be generated because of the lack of a computational methodology. The paper adopted the correlation matrix to describe the design information and presented conceptual design plan generation algorithm based on Junctioneffect-principle modle. The method firstly employs matrix-based algorithm to optimize the solution space to obtain nesting matrix, then search nesting matrix to generate candidate conceptual design plan. The design of " nail gun" is used to verify the proposed algorithm.%概念设计阶段分层映射过程模型的建立与应用增强了功能推理与求解过程的发散性与创新性,但却给生成候选概念设计方案带来了困难,概念设计方案的生成缺乏有效的可计算方法.文章采用相关矩阵描述概念设计过程的信息进化过程,并由此提出基于功能—效应—原理模型的概念设计方案生成算法,该算法通过矩阵运算对解空间进行优化,获得嵌套矩阵,对嵌套矩阵进行搜索从而生成候选概念设计方案.以手提式钉枪的概念设计为例对算法进行了验证.

  13. Developing new extension of GafChromic RTQA2 film to patient quality assurance field using a plan-based calibration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiayuan; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiazhou; Xie, Jiang; Chen, Junchao; Hu, Weigang

    2015-10-07

    GafChromic RTQA2 film is a type of radiochromic film designed for light field and radiation field alignment. The aim of this study is to extend the application of RTQA2 film to the measurement of patient specific quality assurance (QA) fields as a 2D relative dosimeter.Pre-irradiated and post-irradiated RTQA2 films were scanned in reflection mode using a flatbed scanner. A plan-based calibration (PBC) method utilized the mapping information of the calculated dose image and film grayscale image to create a dose versus pixel value calibration model. This model was used to calibrate the film grayscale image to the film relative dose image. The dose agreement between calculated and film dose images were analyzed by gamma analysis. To evaluate the feasibility of this method, eight clinically approved RapidArc cases (one abdomen cancer and seven head-and-neck cancer patients) were tested using this method. Moreover, three MLC gap errors and two MLC transmission errors were introduced to eight Rapidarc cases respectively to test the robustness of this method.The PBC method could overcome the film lot and post-exposure time variations of RTQA2 film to get a good 2D relative dose calibration result. The mean gamma passing rate of eight patients was 97.90%  ±  1.7%, which showed good dose consistency between calculated and film dose images. In the error test, the PBC method could over-calibrate the film, which means some dose error in the film would be falsely corrected to keep the dose in film consistent with the dose in the calculated dose image. This would then lead to a false negative result in the gamma analysis. In these cases, the derivative curve of the dose calibration curve would be non-monotonic which would expose the dose abnormality.By using the PBC method, we extended the application of more economical RTQA2 film to patient specific QA. The robustness of the PBC method has been improved by analyzing the monotonicity of the derivative of the calibration

  14. Determinants of non-use of family planning methods by young married women (15-24 years living in urban slums of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no

  15. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Tissue Segmentation-Based MR Electron Density Mapping Method for MR-Only Radiation Treatment Planning of Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lee, Y [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ruschin, M [Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Karam, I [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Automatically derive electron density of tissues using MR images and generate a pseudo-CT for MR-only treatment planning of brain tumours. Methods: 20 stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) patients’ T1-weighted MR images and CT images were retrospectively acquired. First, a semi-automated tissue segmentation algorithm was developed to differentiate tissues with similar MR intensities and large differences in electron densities. The method started with approximately 12 slices of manually contoured spatial regions containing sinuses and airways, then air, bone, brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and eyes were automatically segmented using edge detection and anatomical information including location, shape, tissue uniformity and relative intensity distribution. Next, soft tissues - muscle and fat were segmented based on their relative intensity histogram. Finally, intensities of voxels in each segmented tissue were mapped into their electron density range to generate pseudo-CT by linearly fitting their relative intensity histograms. Co-registered CT was used as a ground truth. The bone segmentations of pseudo-CT were compared with those of co-registered CT obtained by using a 300HU threshold. The average distances between voxels on external edges of the skull of pseudo-CT and CT in three axial, coronal and sagittal slices with the largest width of skull were calculated. The mean absolute electron density (in Hounsfield unit) difference of voxels in each segmented tissues was calculated. Results: The average of distances between voxels on external skull from pseudo-CT and CT were 0.6±1.1mm (mean±1SD). The mean absolute electron density differences for bone, brain, CSF, muscle and fat are 78±114 HU, and 21±8 HU, 14±29 HU, 57±37 HU, and 31±63 HU, respectively. Conclusion: The semi-automated MR electron density mapping technique was developed using T1-weighted MR images. The generated pseudo-CT is comparable to that of CT in terms of anatomical position of

  16. Increasing the uptake of long-acting and permanent methods of family planning: A qualitative study with village midwives in East Java and Nusa Tenggara Barat Provinces, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Wijayanti, Ratna U; Damayanti, Rita; Setiawan, Agus Dwi; Dadun; Dachlia, Dini; Siagian, Ferdinand; Suparno, Heru; Saputri, Dwi Astuti Yunita; Harlan, Sarah; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storey, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    this analysis aims to explore midwives' insights into the provision of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) in the selected areas of East Java and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) Provinces, Indonesia. a qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with 12 village midwives from 12 villages, to explore their perceptions and experiences in delivering family planning services. the study was carried out in May-June 2013, as part of the baseline assessment in the Improving Contraceptive Method Mix (ICMM) study. We interviewed 12 village midwives working in 12 villages in six study districts: Tuban, Kediri, and Lumajang Districts in East Java Province; and Lombok Barat, Lombok Timur, and Sumbawa Districts in NTB Province. an interview guideline was used in all interviews. It covered several topics, such as community perceptions of LAPMs, availability of contraception and related equipment, availability of human resources, and midwives' efforts to improve LAPM coverage. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Content and thematic analyses were carried out by grouping and coding the information based on the identified themes and topics. according to village midwives interviewed in this study, community-level acceptance of LAPMs has increased over time; however, some still prefer using short-acting methods for a long period. The reasons include lack of awareness about the benefits and side effects of LAPMs, fear of surgical procedures, rumored consequences (for example, that LAPMs would limit women's ability to perform hard physical labor), and religious beliefs. There were several challenges reported by village midwives in delivering LAPM services, such as confusion about midwives' eligibility to provide LAPM services, lack of Contraceptive Technology Update (CTU) and counseling trainings, and shortage of supporting equipment (such as exam tables and IUD and implant insertion kits). There were several strategies implemented by village

  17. 计划行为理论相关变量测量研究%Study on the Method of Variables Measurement in the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the methods of literature review,this paper makes a deep analysis on the perspective of measuring correlated variables in the Theory of Planned Behavior,structure of the dimensions and measurement scale.It can be concluded that emotion and cognitive beliefs are important dimensions of measuring attitude to behavior and also choosing reference groups and detailing regulatory variables are the main methods of measuring subjective norms.Finally,Perceived Behavioral Control can be divided into two dimensions: self-efficacy and facilitating conditions.%基于文献综述法,对计划行为理论相关变量测量的视角、维度构成及测量量表进行深入分析,研究发现:情感与认知信念是行为态度测量的重要维度;选择参考群体及细化规范变量是主观规范进行测量的主要方法;行为控制认知测量可划分为自我效能与便利条件两个测量维度。

  18. a New Multimodal Multi-Criteria Route Planning Model by Integrating a Fuzzy-Ahp Weighting Method and a Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, F.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal multi-criteria route planning (MMRP) system provides an optimal multimodal route from an origin point to a destination point considering two or more criteria in a way this route can be a combination of public and private transportation modes. In this paper, the simulate annealing (SA) and the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) were combined in order to find this route. In this regard, firstly, the effective criteria that are significant for users in their trip were determined. Then the weight of each criterion was calculated using the fuzzy AHP weighting method. The most important characteristic of this weighting method is the use of fuzzy numbers that aids the users to consider their uncertainty in pairwise comparison of criteria. After determining the criteria weights, the proposed SA algorithm were used for determining an optimal route from an origin to a destination. One of the most important problems in a meta-heuristic algorithm is trapping in local minima. In this study, five transportation modes, including subway, bus rapid transit (BRT), taxi, walking, and bus were considered for moving between nodes. Also, the fare, the time, the user's bother, and the length of the path were considered as effective criteria for solving the problem. The proposed model was implemented in an area in centre of Tehran in a GUI MATLAB programming language. The results showed a high efficiency and speed of the proposed algorithm that support our analyses.

  19. Automatic planning of head and neck treatment plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazell, Irene; Bzdusek, Karl; Kumar, Prashant;

    2016-01-01

    treatment plans were reoptimized with the Auto-Planning module. Comparison of the two types of treatment plans were performed using DVH metrics and a blinded clinical evaluation by two senior radiation oncologists using a scale from one to six. Both evaluations investigated dose coverage of target and dose......Treatment planning is time-consuming and the outcome depends on the person performing the optimization. A system that automates treatment planning could potentially reduce the manual time required for optimization and could also pro-vide a method to reduce the variation between persons performing...... radiation dose planning (dosimetrist) and potentially improve the overall plan quality. This study evaluates the performance of the Auto-Planning module that has recently become clinically available in the Pinnacle3 radiation therapy treatment planning system. Twenty-six clinically delivered head and neck...

  20. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Power Distribution Network Planning Project Based on Improved IAHP and Multi-Level Extension Assessment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Chenyang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Reasonable distribution network planning is an essential prerequisite of the economics and security of the future power grid. The comprehensive benefit evaluation of a distribution network planning project can make significant contributions towards guiding decisions during the planning scheme, the optimization of the distribution network structure, and the rational use of resources. In this paper, in light of the characteristics of the power distribution network, the comprehensive benefit eva...