WorldWideScience

Sample records for planning including interconnected

  1. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M; Yokoyama, R; Yasuda, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. DER Certification Laboratory Pilot, Accreditation Plan, and Interconnection Agreement Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the first steps toward creating the organization, procedures, plans and tools for distributed energy resources (DER) equipment certification, test laboratory accreditation, and interconnection agreements. It covers the activities and accomplishments during the first period of a multiyear effort. It summarizes steps taken to outline a certification plan to assist in the future development of an interim plan for certification and accreditation activities. It also summarizes work toward a draft plan for certification, a beta Web site to support communications and materials, and preliminary draft certification criteria.

  3. Operational Plan Ontology Model for Interconnection and Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, F.; Sun, Y. K.; Shi, H. Q.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the assistant decision-making system’s bottleneck of processing the operational plan data and information, this paper starts from the analysis of the problem of traditional expression and the technical advantage of ontology, and then it defines the elements of the operational plan ontology model and determines the basis of construction. Later, it builds up a semi-knowledge-level operational plan ontology model. Finally, it probes into the operational plan expression based on the operational plan ontology model and the usage of the application software. Thus, this paper has the theoretical significance and application value in the improvement of interconnection and interoperability of the operational plan among assistant decision-making systems.

  4. Planning and design of the Gulf States interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Alawi, J.; Sud, S.; McGillis, D.

    1994-01-01

    On May 25, 1981, the six Arab state of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) formally ratified the charter of the organization named Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. This has become more popularly known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). In the mid 1980s, the integration of the electric systems study in the GCC was initiated, and several possible interconnection schemes to provide for reserve sharing and generally more economic and flexible operation of the networks were proposed. The GCC subsequently asked for an update of this study and a recommended interconnection scheme. this update study was completed in 1990, and a definite scheme was proposed, which met with the approval of all GCC members. This presentation describes the proposed interconnection, the studies that led to its selection, and the associated management structure required for its implementation. the population of the GCC states, and their load, generating capacity, and the transmission systems are shown

  5. An optimization framework for the integrated planning of generation and transmission expansion in interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Omar J.; Tejada, Diego A.; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems is proposed. • The framework integrates generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. • Reserve and emission constraints are included. • Business as usual and CO_2 mitigation policy scenarios are evaluated. • Reconfiguration of existing power generation technologies is the most cost-effective option for CO_2 emissions mitigation. - Abstract: Energy, and particularly electricity, has played and will continue to play a very important role in the development of human society. Electricity, which is the most flexible and manageable energy form, is currently used in a variety of activities and applications. For instance, electricity is used for heating, cooling, lighting, and for operating electronic appliances and electric vehicles. Nowadays, given the rapid development and commercialization of technologies and devices that rely on electricity, electricity demand is increasing faster than overall primary energy supply. Consequently, the design and planning of power systems is becoming a progressively more important issue in order to provide affordable, reliable and sustainable energy in timely fashion, not only in developed countries but particularly in developing economies where electricity demand is increasing even faster. Power systems are networks of electrical devices, such as power plants, transformers, and transmission lines, used to produce, transmit, and supply electricity. The design and planning of such systems require the selection of generation technologies, along with the capacity, location, and timing of generation and transmission capacity expansions to meet electricity demand over a long-term horizon. This manuscript presents a comprehensive optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems, including the integration of generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. The proposed

  6. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  7. What to include in your birth plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during ... things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn about ...

  8. Water supply as a constraint on transmission expansion planning in the Western interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Bailey, Michael; Zemlick, Katie M.; Moreland, Barbara D.

    2016-12-01

    Consideration of water supply in transmission expansion planning (TEP) provides a valuable means of managing impacts of thermoelectric generation on limited water resources. Toward this opportunity, thermoelectric water intensity factors and water supply availability (fresh and non-fresh sources) were incorporated into a recent TEP exercise conducted for the electric interconnection in the Western United States. The goal was to inform the placement of new thermoelectric generation so as to minimize issues related to water availability. Although freshwater availability is limited in the West, few instances across five TEP planning scenarios were encountered where water availability impacted the development of new generation. This unexpected result was related to planning decisions that favored the development of low water use generation that was geographically dispersed across the West. These planning decisions were not made because of their favorable influence on thermoelectric water demand; rather, on the basis of assumed future fuel and technology costs, policy drivers and the topology of electricity demand. Results also projected that interconnection-wide thermoelectric water consumption would increase by 31% under the business-as-usual case, while consumption would decrease by 42% under a scenario assuming a low-carbon future. Except in a few instances, new thermoelectric water consumption could be accommodated with less than 10% of the local available water supply; however, limited freshwater supplies and state-level policies could increase use of non-fresh water sources for new thermoelectric generation. Results could have been considerably different if scenarios favoring higher-intensity water use generation technology or potential impacts of climate change had been explored. Conduct of this exercise highlighted the importance of integrating water into all phases of TEP, particularly joint management of decisions that are both directly (e.g., water

  9. A Vision of China-Arab Interconnection Transmission Network Planning with UHVDC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yujun; Yin, Hongyuan; Xu, Qingshan; Xu, Xiaohui; Ding, Maosheng

    2017-05-01

    Developments in ultra-high-voltage (UHV) power systems and clean energy technologies are paving the way towards unprecedented energy market globalization. In accordance with the international community’s enthusiasm for building up the Global Energy Internet, this paper focuses on the feasibility of transmitting large-size electricity from northwest China to Arab world through a long-distance transnational power interconnection. The complete investigations on the grids of both the sending-end and receiving-end is firstly presented. Then system configuration of the transmission scheme and corridor route planning is proposed with UHVDC technology. Based on transmission costs’ investigation about similar transmission projects worldwide, the costs of the proposed transmission scheme are estimated through adjustment factors which represent differences in latitude, topography and economy. The proposed China-Arab transmission line sheds light on the prospects of power cooperation and resource sharing between China and Arab states, and appeals for more emphasis on green energy concentrated power interconnections from a global perspective.

  10. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  11. Long-term exports and use of interconnections: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The orientations, objectives, and strategies proposed for long-term exports of electricity from Quebec are presented, as well as the use of interconnections between Hydro-Quebec and northeastern US utilities. A recent historical overview shows that after a period of exporting large amounts of surplus energy in the late 1980s, most export sales are of firm power and energy. Export commitments signed for 1993-2000 amount to total exports of 11-14 TWh per year with revenues generated to be at least $4 billion. Hydro-Quebec originally had an export strategy with a target of 3,500 MW of firm power and energy exports by the year 2000. An economic recession, lower demand for power in the USA, new planning policies at US utilities emphasizing maximum flexibility, and competition from other electricity providers have revised this estimate downward. Over the short and medium term, neighboring US utilities will experience surpluses in both capacity and energy, and additional requirements indicated by their demand forecasts only appear after the year 2000. The situation is similar for neighboring Canadian utilities. In the long term, Hydro-Quebec's objective is to meet 15-20% of new requirements on neighboring US systems. New agreements could represent 1,500 MW by the year 2004, or ca 8.5 TWh/y. Hydro-Quebec also wants to be recognized as an active partner in the market for short-term transactions and to maximize use of its generation and interconnection facilities. The utility will examine transactions such as guaranteeing reserve capacity, energy banking, wheeling service, and pooling of generating capacities in order to offer the products best suited to customer needs. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  13. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  14. Suboptimal Regulation of a Class of Bilinear Interconnected Systems with Finite-Time Sliding Planning Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the suboptimization of a class of multivariable discrete-time bilinear systems consisting of interconnected bilinear subsystems with respect to a linear quadratic optimal regulation criterion which involves the use of state weighting terms only. Conditions which ensure the controllability of the overall system are given as a previous requirement for optimization. Three transformations of variables are made on the system equations in order to implement the scheme on an equivalent linear system. This leads to an equivalent representation of the used quadratic performance index that involves the appearance of quadratic weighting terms related to both transformed input and state variables. In this way, a Riccati-matrix sequence, allowing the synthesis of a standard feedback control law, is obtained. Finally, the proposed control scheme is tested on realistic examples.

  15. Transurban interconnectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the interpretation of the revolutionary situations of 1848 in light of recent debates on interconnectivity in history. The concept of transurban interconnectivities is proposed as the most precise concept to capture the nature of interconnectivity in 1848. It is argued....... It is argued that circulating political communication accounts for similarities with respect to political agenda, organisational form and political repertoire evident in urban settings across Europe. This argument is supported by a series of examples of local organisation and local appropriations of liberalism...

  16. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  17. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  18. Including the Consumer and Environment in Occupational Therapy Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catana; Bowen, Robin E.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational therapists (n=29) completed treatment plans based on case study data. Analysis indicated they often identified goals not addressed by the consumer/client. They significantly selected more simulated than real activities and more activities designed to change the person rather than the environment. (SK)

  19. HOW TO INCLUDE KEY COMPETENCES IN THE COURSE PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito García Peinado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In our school we have decided to develop the teaching approaches to key competences through an organizational model that could be called "the model of the educational basic training". When suggesting new planning, we think that we must offer some solutions which start from the classroom routines and help us to choose the best aspects of these methods to improve them.

  20. HOW TO INCLUDE KEY COMPETENCES IN THE COURSE PLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Benito García Peinado

    2009-01-01

    In our school we have decided to develop the teaching approaches to key competences through an organizational model that could be called "the model of the educational basic training". When suggesting new planning, we think that we must offer some solutions which start from the classroom routines and help us to choose the best aspects of these methods to improve them.

  1. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures.

  2. Optimality of profit-including prices under ideal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, P A

    1973-07-01

    Although prices calculated by a constant percentage markup on all costs (nonlabor as well as direct-labor) are usually admitted to be more realistic for a competitive capitalistic model, the view is often expressed that, for optimal planning purposes, the "values" model of Marx's Capital, Volume I, is to be preferred. It is shown here that an optimal-control model that maximizes discounted social utility of consumption per capita and that ultimately approaches a steady state must ultimately have optimal pricing that involves equal rates of steady-state profit in all industries; and such optimal pricing will necessarily deviate from Marx's model of equal rates of surplus value (markups on direct-labor only) in all industries.

  3. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  4. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements.... The plan must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14590 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Waste Management Plan § 62.14590 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or... use of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and the...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2630 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.2630 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation... of recyclable materials. The plan must identify any additional waste management measures, and the...

  7. 12 CFR 563b.105 - What information must I include in my business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information must I include in my business plan? (a) Prior to filing an application for conversion, you must adopt a business plan reflecting your intended plans for deployment of the proposed conversion proceeds. Your business plan is required, under § 563b.150, to be included in your conversion application. At a...

  8. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  9. 30 CFR 250.110 - What must I include in my welding plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my welding plan? 250.110... must I include in my welding plan? You must include all of the following in the Welding Plan that you... qualified personnel weld; (c) Practices and procedures for safe welding that address: (1) Welding in...

  10. 12 CFR 516.20 - What information must I include in my draft business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business plan? 516.20 Section 516.20 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What information must I include in my draft business plan? If you must submit a draft business plan... described in the savings association's draft business plan; and (d) Demonstrate how applicable requirements...

  11. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  12. 40 CFR 60.2901 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Analysis Waste Management Plan § 60.2901 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream elements such as... must identify any additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source...

  13. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal management...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2065 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Plan § 60.2065 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must... additional waste management measures and implement those measures the source considers practical and feasible, considering the effectiveness of waste management measures already in place, the costs of additional measures...

  15. Low power interconnect design

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses.  It provides an in depth description of the problem of signal delay and extra power consumption, possible solutions for delay and glitch removal, while considering the power reduction of the total system.  Coverage focuses on use of the Schmitt Trigger as an alternative approach to buffer insertion for delay and power reduction in VLSI interconnects. In the last section of the book, various bus coding techniques are discussed to minimize delay and power in address and data buses.   ·         Provides practical solutions for delay and power reduction for on-chip interconnects and buses; ·         Focuses on Deep Sub micron technology devices and interconnects; ·         Offers in depth analysis of delay, including details regarding crosstalk and parasitics;  ·         Describes use of the Schmitt Trigger as a versatile alternative approach to buffer insertion for del...

  16. Universal Interconnection Technology Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheaffer, P.; Lemar, P.; Honton, E. J.; Kime, E.; Friedman, N. R.; Kroposki, B.; Galdo, J.

    2002-10-01

    The Universal Interconnection Technology (UIT) Workshop - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability (DEER) Program, and Distribution and Interconnection R&D - was held July 25-26, 2002, in Chicago, Ill., to: (1) Examine the need for a modular universal interconnection technology; (2) Identify UIT functional and technical requirements; (3) Assess the feasibility of and potential roadblocks to UIT; (4) Create an action plan for UIT development. These proceedings begin with an overview of the workshop. The body of the proceedings provides a series of industry representative-prepared papers on UIT functions and features, present interconnection technology, approaches to modularization and expandability, and technical issues in UIT development as well as detailed summaries of group discussions. Presentations, a list of participants, a copy of the agenda, and contact information are provided in the appendices of this document.

  17. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Social and economic development planning to identify transportation improvements or needs to accommodate... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN...

  18. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.150 - What must a State legislature include in the plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... set forth in Appendix B of this part. It may also include in the plan other provisions not inconsistent with the purposes of title 40 of the United States Code and the requirements of this part. [67 FR...

  20. Interconnectivity: Benefits and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Access to affordable and reliable electricity supplies is a basic prerequisite for economic and social development, prosperity, health, education and all other aspects of modern society. Electricity can be generated both near and far from the consumption areas as transmission lines, grid interconnections and distribution systems can transport it to the final consumer. In the vast majority of countries, the electricity sector used to be owned and run by the state. The wave of privatisation and market introduction in a number of countries and regions which started in the late 1980's has in many cases involved unbundling of generation from transmission and distribution (T and D). This has nearly everywhere exposed transmission bottlenecks limiting the development of well-functioning markets. Transmission on average accounts for about 10-15% of total final kWh cost paid by the end-user but it is becoming a key issue for effective operation of liberalised markets and for their further development. An integrated and adequate transmission infrastructure is of utmost importance for ensuring the delivery of the most competitively priced electricity, including externalities, to customers, both near and far from the power generating facilities. In this report, the role of interconnectivity in the development of energy systems is examined with the associated socio-economic, environmental, financial and regulatory aspects that must be taken into account for successful interconnection projects.

  1. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables

  2. Microfluidic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  3. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  4. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  5. Teacher Attitudes on Including Students with Behavior Intervention Plans in a High-School Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thurman D.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined attitudes to determine factors influencing teachers' attitudes toward including students with behavior intervention plans in inclusive high-school classrooms. For Research Question 1 one-way ANOVAs analyzed quantitative data with no significant differences found and qualitative data discovered common patterns that BIPs are…

  6. 34 CFR 364.42 - What objectives and information must be included in the State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What objectives and information must be included in the State plan? 364.42 Section 364.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE...

  7. The NASA competitive placement plan for positions GS-15 and below (including trades and labor positions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This plan provides the framework for selection based on merit from among the best qualified candidates available. Selections will be made without regard to political, religious, or labor organization affiliation or nonaffiliation, marital status, race, color, sex, national origin, nondisqualifying disability, or age. This plan does not guarantee promotion but rather ensures that all qualified available candidates receive fair and equitable consideration for positions filled under these competitive procedures. Announcing a vacancy under this plan is only one method of locating applicants for a position and can be used in conjunction with other methods. Subject to applicable law and regulation, selection of an individual to fill a position is the decision of management, as is the decision as to the method(s) to be used in identifying candidates. This plan is applicable to all NASA Installations. It covers all positions in the competitive service at (and below) the GS/GM-15 level (including all trades and labor positions), except positions in the Office of the Inspector General. The requirements herein are not intended to, nor should they be construed to limit in any way, the independent personnel authority of the Inspector General under the Inspector General Act, as Amended.

  8. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  9. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  10. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  11. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...... of the passive routing circuits and their thermal tuning. Finally, we discuss the performance of a wavelength selective detector....

  12. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... appropriate, a management plan that includes a proposed multiyear workplan. (b) At a minimum, this workplan...

  13. Energetic diversification in the interconnected electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.; Beltran M, H.; Serrano G, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In the interconnected electric system of Mexico the demanded electricity in different timetable periods it is synthesized in the annual curve of load duration, which is characterized by three regions. The energy in every period is quantified according to the under curve areas in each region, which depend of the number of hours in that the power demand exceeds the minimum and the intermediate demands respectively that are certain percentages of the yearly maximum demand. In that context, the generating power stations are dispatched according to the marginal costs of the produced electricity and the electric power to be generated every year by each type of central it is located in some of the regions of the curve of load duration, as they are their marginal costs and their operation characteristic techniques. By strategic reasons it is desirable to diversify the primary energy sources that are used in the national interconnected system to generate the electricity that demand the millions of consumers that there are in Mexico. On one hand, when intensifying the use of renewable sources and of nucleo electric centrals its decrease the import volumes of natural gas, which has very volatile prices and it is a fuel when burning in the power stations produces hothouse gases that are emitted to the atmosphere. On the other hand, when diversifying the installed capacity of the different central types in the interconnected system, a better adaptation of the produced electricity volumes is achieved by each type to the timetable variation, daily, weekly and seasonal of the electric demand, as one manifests this in the curve of load duration. To exemplify a possible diversification plan of the installed capacity in the national interconnected system that includes nucleo electric centrals and those that use renewable energy, charts are presented that project of 2005 at 2015 the capacity, energy and ost of the electricity of different central types, located in each one of the

  14. Interconnected national system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Jose Renato

    2000-01-01

    The paper is about the panorama of Colombia with relationship to the electric system, which is compound for hydroelectric and thermal systems; it also includes other topics on their development like expansion plan to year 2010

  15. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  16. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  17. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  18. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  19. Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, S E; Albertini, F; Lomax, A J; Thomas, S J

    2015-01-01

    We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties. (paper)

  20. Defining robustness protocols: a method to include and evaluate robustness in clinical plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, S. E.; Albertini, F.; Thomas, S. J.; Lomax, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    We aim to define a site-specific robustness protocol to be used during the clinical plan evaluation process. Plan robustness of 16 skull base IMPT plans to systematic range and random set-up errors have been retrospectively and systematically analysed. This was determined by calculating the error-bar dose distribution (ebDD) for all the plans and by defining some metrics used to define protocols aiding the plan assessment. Additionally, an example of how to clinically use the defined robustness database is given whereby a plan with sub-optimal brainstem robustness was identified. The advantage of using different beam arrangements to improve the plan robustness was analysed. Using the ebDD it was found range errors had a smaller effect on dose distribution than the corresponding set-up error in a single fraction, and that organs at risk were most robust to the range errors, whereas the target was more robust to set-up errors. A database was created to aid planners in terms of plan robustness aims in these volumes. This resulted in the definition of site-specific robustness protocols. The use of robustness constraints allowed for the identification of a specific patient that may have benefited from a treatment of greater individuality. A new beam arrangement showed to be preferential when balancing conformality and robustness for this case. The ebDD and error-bar volume histogram proved effective in analysing plan robustness. The process of retrospective analysis could be used to establish site-specific robustness planning protocols in proton therapy. These protocols allow the planner to determine plans that, although delivering a dosimetrically adequate dose distribution, have resulted in sub-optimal robustness to these uncertainties. For these cases the use of different beam start conditions may improve the plan robustness to set-up and range uncertainties.

  1. 40 CFR 262.105 - What must be included in the laboratory environmental management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance, waste minimization, risk reduction and continual improvement of the environmental management... its compliance with the Environmental Management Plan and applicable federal and state hazardous waste... laboratory environmental management plan? 262.105 Section 262.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. Weaving Together Science and English: An Interconnected Model of Language Development for Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…

  3. Interconnection issues in Ontario : a status check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbronner, V.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed wind and renewable energy interconnection issues in Ontario. The province's Green Energy Act established a feed-in tariff (FIT) program and provided priority connection access to the electricity system for renewable energy generation facilities that meet regulatory requirements. As a result of the province's initiatives, Hydro One has identified 20 priority transmission expansion projects and is focusing on servicing renewable resource clusters. As of October 2010, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) has received 1469 MW of FIT contracts executed for wind projects. A further 5953 MW of wind projects are awaiting approval. A Korean consortium is now planning to develop 2500 MW of renewable energy projects in the province. The OPA has also been asked to develop an updated transmission expansion plan. Transmission/distribution availability tests (TAT/DAT) have been established to determine if there is sufficient connection availability for FIT application projects. Economic connection tests (ECTs) are conducted to assess whether grid upgrade costs to enable additional FIT capacity are justifiable. When projects pass the ECT, grid upgrades needed for the connection included in grid expansion plans. Ontario's long term energy plan was also reviewed. tabs., figs.

  4. 29 CFR 778.214 - Benefit plans; including profit-sharing plans or trusts providing similar benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fide plan for providing old age, retirement, life, accident, or health insurance or similar benefits... employee on account of severance of employment (or for any other reason) would not result in any increase... mechanics performing contract work subject to the Davis-Bacon Act and related statutes, the provisions of...

  5. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  6. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  7. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  8. 42 CFR 417.155 - How the HMO option must be included in the health benefits plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... printed materials that meet the requirements of § 417.124(b). (ii) Access may not be more restrictive or... benefits plan. 417.155 Section 417.155 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Organizations in Employee Health Benefits Plans § 417.155 How the HMO option must be included in the health...

  9. Making connections: Case studies of interconnection barriers and their impact on distributed power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderfer, B.; Eldridge, M.; Starrs, T.

    2000-07-25

    Distributed power is modular electric generation or storage located close to the point of use. Based on interviews of distributed generation project proponents, this report reviews the barriers that distributed generators of electricity are encountering when attempting to interconnect to the electrical grid. Descriptions of 26 of 65 case studies are included in the report. The survey found and the report describes a wide range of technical, business-practice, and regulatory barriers to interconnection. An action plan for reducing the impact of these barriers is also included.

  10. Interconnecting with VIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Interconnectedness changes lives. It can even save lives. Recently the author got to witness and be part of something in his role as a teacher of primary science that has changed lives: it may even have saved lives. It involved primary science teaching--and the climate. Robert Collins describes how it is all interconnected. The "Toilet…

  11. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  12. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  13. Crosstalk in modern on-chip interconnects a FDTD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, B K; Patnaik, Amalendu

    2016-01-01

    The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the ...

  14. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  15. Interconnecting Urban Planning with Multi-Scale Urban Quality : Review of Macro Scale Urban Redevelopment Project on Micro Scale Urban Quality in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Shenzhen planning system has been effective in promoting economic growth through the prodigious urbanization of land. It has given priority to the ‘macro-level’ planning goals of economic growth through physical development. Questions can be raised about the physical and social outcomes from the

  16. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnet mechanical interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Niemann, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Ramstein, W.L.; Reynolds, M.P.; Engler, N.H.

    1989-03-01

    Installation of superconducting accelerator dipole and quadrupole magnets and spool pieces in the SSC tunnel requires the interconnection of the cryostats. The connections are both of an electrical and mechanical nature. The details of the mechanical connections are presented. The connections include piping, thermal shields and insulation. There are seven piping systems to be connected. These systems must carry cryogenic fluids at various pressures or maintain vacuum and must be consistently leak tight. The interconnection region must be able to expand and contract as magnets change in length while cooling and warming. The heat leak characteristics of the interconnection region must be comparable to that of the body of the magnet. Rapid assembly and disassembly is required. The magnet cryostat development program is discussed. Results of quality control testing are reported. Results of making full scale interconnections under magnet test situations are reviewed. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks covers optical networks and how they can provide high bandwidth, energy efficient interconnects with increased communication bandwidth. This volume, with contributions from leading researchers in the field, presents an integrated view of the expected future requirements of data centers and serves as a reference for some of the most advanced and promising solutions proposed by researchers from leading universities, research labs, and companies. The work also includes several novel architectures, each demonstrating different technologies such as optical circuits, optical switching, MIMO optical OFDM, and others. Additionally, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks provides invaluable insights into the benefits and advantages of optical interconnects and how they can be a promising alternative for future data center networks.

  18. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  19. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  20. 76 FR 39870 - PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, LLC; Notice of Date...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    .... EL11-20-001] PJM Interconnection, LLC; PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, LLC; Notice of... Sell Offers for Planned Generation Capacity Resources submitted into PJM's Reliability Pricing Model... presents an opportunity to exercise buyer market power; (2) whether the Fixed Resource Requirement (FRR...

  1. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  2. Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Swinger Platt, Heather Anne

    2017-05-09

    Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnect systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device comprises a thin film stack of layers deposited upon a substrate, wherein the thin film stack layers are subdivided into a plurality of sub-cells interconnected in series by a plurality of electrical interconnection structures; and wherein the plurality of electrical interconnection structures each comprise no more than two scribes that penetrate into the thin film stack layers.

  3. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  4. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... description of the employment opportunities available, in both the public and private sector, within and near... eligibility criteria the Tribe has established, which includes a definition of “needy family,” including income and resource limits and the Tribe's definition of “Tribal member family” or “Indian family.” (2) A...

  5. Opportunities and Benefits for Increasing Transmission Capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Acevedo, Armando L.

    Historically, the primary justification for building wide-area transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on reliability and economic criteria. Today, the influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, transmission needs, load diversity, and grid flexibility requirements drives interest in high capacity wide-area transmission. By making use of an optimization model to perform long-term (15 years) co-optimized generation and transmission expansion planning, this work explored the benefits of increasing transmission capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections under different policy and futures assumptions. The model assessed tradeoffs between investments in cross-interconnection HVDC transmission, AC transmission needs within each interconnection, generation investment costs, and operational costs, while satisfying different policy compliance constraints. Operational costs were broken down into the following market products: energy, up-/down regulation reserve, and contingency reserve. In addition, the system operating flexibility requirements were modeled as a function of net-load variability so that the flexibility of the non-wind/non-solar resources increases with increased wind and solar investment. In addition, planning reserve constraints are imposed under the condition that they be deliverable to the load. Thus, the model allows existing and candidate generation resources for both operating reserves and deliverable planning reserves to be shared throughout the interconnections, a feature which significantly drives identification of least-cost investments. This model is used with a 169-bus representation of the North American power grid to design four different high-capacity wide-area transmission infrastructures. Results from this analysis suggest that, under policy that imposes a high-renewable future, the benefits of high capacity transmission between the Eastern and

  6. Interconnection policy: a theoretical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the theoretical foundations of interconnection policy. The requirement of an interconnection policy should not be taken for granted in all circumstances, even considering the issue of network externalities. On the other hand, when it is required, an encompassing interconnection policy is usually justified. We provide an overview of the theory on interconnection pricing that results in several different prescriptions depending on which problem the regulator aims to address. We also present a survey on the literature on two-way interconnection.

  7. Interconnected Power Systems Mexico-Guatemala financed by BID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the plans for the interconnection of the electric power systems of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico within the project Plan Pueba Panama. The objective of the interconnection is to create an electric market in the region that contributes to reduce costs and prices. The project will receive a financing of $37.5 millions of US dollars from the Banco Intrameramericano de Desarrollo (BID)

  8. Cave Buttes Dam Master Plan, Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    New River Dam (including May 1982 New River to Skunk Creek) Part 4--Skunk Creek and New and July 1984 Agua Fria Rivers below the Arizona Canal...Groundwater is a potential source, as existing wells in the area provided potable water for homes. D. WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM The type and extent of

  9. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components of solid waste from the health care waste stream in order to reduce the amount of toxic emissions... the facility and need not include new waste management goals for every waste stream. When you develop... American Hospital Association (AHA) Service, Inc., Post Office Box 92683, Chicago, Illinois 60675-2683. ...

  10. From A Climate Action Plan (CAP to a Microgrid: The SEEU Sustainability Concept Including Social Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alajdin Abazi

    2011-07-01

    The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  11. LHC beampipe interconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Particle beams circulate for around 10 hours in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions of the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system. The beams must travel in a pipe which is emptied of air, to avoid collisions between the particles and air molecules (which are considerably bigger than protons). The beam pipes are pumped down to an air pressure similar to that on the surface of the moon. Much of the LHC runs at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero. When material is cooled, it contracts. The interconnections must absorb this contraction whilst maintaining electrical connectivity.

  12. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  13. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  14. Policy issues in interconnecting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Barry M.

    1989-01-01

    To support the activities of the Federal Research Coordinating Committee (FRICC) in creating an interconnected set of networks to serve the research community, two workshops were held to address the technical support of policy issues that arise when interconnecting such networks. The workshops addressed the required and feasible technologies and architectures that could be used to satisfy the desired policies for interconnection. The results of the workshop are documented.

  15. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  16. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debaprasad

    2014-01-01

    "The book, Caron Nanotube and Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects, authored by Drs. Debapraad Das and Hafizur Rahaman serves as a good source of material on CNT and GNR interconnects for readers who wish to get into this area and also for practicing engineers who would like to be updated in advances of this field."-Prof. Ashok Srivastava, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA"Mathematical analysis included in each and every chapter is the main strength of the materials. ... The book is very precise and useful for those who are working in this area. ... highly focused, very compact, and easy to apply. ... This book depicts a detailed analysis and modelling of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects. The book also covers the electrical circuit modelling of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons."-Prof. Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

  17. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  18. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  19. Nominate an Organization | Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative | NREL Nominate an Organization Nominate an Organization Do you know of an organization doing high-quality, innovative work on the interconnection of distributed generation? Want to practices by nominating an organization to be profiled in an online case study! Please include your

  20. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  1. Precision IORT - Image guided intraoperative radiation therapy (igIORT) using online treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Bludau, Frederic; Clausen, Sven; Fleckenstein, Jens; Obertacke, Udo; Wenz, Frederik

    2017-05-01

    To the present date, IORT has been eye and hand guided without treatment planning and tissue heterogeneity correction. This limits the precision of the application and the precise documentation of the location and the deposited dose in the tissue. Here we present a set-up where we use image guidance by intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for precise online Monte Carlo treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction. An IORT was performed during balloon kyphoplasty using a dedicated Needle Applicator. An intraoperative CBCT was registered with a pre-op CT. Treatment planning was performed in Radiance using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm simulating dose in homogeneous (MCwater) and heterogeneous medium (MChet). Dose distributions on CBCT and pre-op CT were compared with each other. Spinal cord and the metastasis doses were evaluated. The MCwater calculations showed a spherical dose distribution as expected. The minimum target dose for the MChet simulations on pre-op CT was increased by 40% while the maximum spinal cord dose was decreased by 35%. Due to the artefacts on the CBCT the comparison between MChet simulations on CBCT and pre-op CT showed differences up to 50% in dose. igIORT and online treatment planning improves the accuracy of IORT. However, the current set-up is limited by CT artefacts. Fusing an intraoperative CBCT with a pre-op CT allows the combination of an accurate dose calculation with the knowledge of the correct source/applicator position. This method can be also used for pre-operative treatment planning followed by image guided surgery. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualizing interconnections among climate risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yokohata, T.; Nishina, K.; Takahashi, K.; Emori, S.; Kiguchi, M.; Iseri, Y.; Honda, Y.; Okada, M.; Masaki, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Yoshimori, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Ito, A.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Lim, W. H.; Miyazaki, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    It is now widely recognized that climate change is affecting various sectors of the world. Climate change impact on one sector may spread out to other sectors including those seemingly remote, which we call "interconnections of climate risks". While a number of climate risks have been identified in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), there has been no attempt to explore their interconnections comprehensively. Here we present a first and most exhaustive visualization of climate risks drawn based on a systematic literature survey. Our risk network diagrams depict that changes in the climate system impact natural capitals (terrestrial water, crop, and agricultural land) as well as social infrastructures, influencing the socio-economic system and ultimately our access to food, water, and energy. Our findings suggest the importance of incorporating climate risk interconnections into impact and vulnerability assessments and call into question the widely used damage function approaches, which address a limited number of climate change impacts in isolation. Furthermore, the diagram is useful to educate decision makers, stakeholders, and general public about cascading risks that can be triggered by the climate change. Socio-economic activities today are becoming increasingly more inter-dependent because of the rapid technological progress, urbanization, and the globalization among others. Equally complex is the ecosystem that is susceptible to climate change, which comprises interwoven processes affecting one another. In the context of climate change, a number of climate risks have been identified and classified according to regions and sectors. These reports, however, did not fully address the inter-relations among risks because of the complexity inherent in this issue. Climate risks may ripple through sectors in the present inter-dependent world, posing a challenge ahead of us to maintain the resilience of the system. It is

  3. Area array interconnection handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Totta, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging has been recognized as an important "enabler" for the solid­ state revolution in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors. The basic design which was chosen for SLT (Solid Logic Technology) in the 1960s was easily extended to integrated circuits in the '70s and VLSI in the '80s and '90s. Three I/O bumps have grown to 3000 with even more anticipated for the future. The package families have evolved from thick-film (SLT) to thin-film (metallized ceramic) to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. A later famil...

  4. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul Dlpm; Frith, Peter A; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja W

    2017-08-04

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease. Exacerbation action plans are considered to be a key component of COPD self-management interventions. Studies assessing these interventions show contradictory results. In this Cochrane Review, we compared the effectiveness of COPD self-management interventions that include action plans for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) with usual care. To evaluate the efficacy of COPD-specific self-management interventions that include an action plan for exacerbations of COPD compared with usual care in terms of health-related quality of life, respiratory-related hospital admissions and other health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies to May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating a self-management intervention for people with COPD published since 1995. To be eligible for inclusion, the self-management intervention included a written action plan for AECOPD and an iterative process between participant and healthcare provider(s) in which feedback was provided. We excluded disease management programmes classified as pulmonary rehabilitation or exercise classes offered in a hospital, at a rehabilitation centre, or in a community-based setting to avoid overlap with pulmonary rehabilitation as much as possible. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by reaching consensus or by involving a third review author. Study authors were contacted to obtain additional information and missing outcome data where possible. When appropriate, study results were pooled using a random-effects modelling meta-analysis. The primary

  5. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  6. A one-semester course in modeling of VSLI interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of the parasitic capacitances and inductances, and the resultant propagation delays and crosstalk phenomena associated with the metallic interconnections on the very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits has become extremely important for the optimum design of the state-of-the-art integrated circuits. More than 65 percent of the delays on the integrated circuit chip occur in the interconnections and not in the transistors on the chip. Mathematical techniques to model the parasitic capacitances, inductances, propagation delays, crosstalk noise, and electromigration-induced failure associated with the interconnections in the realistic high-density environment on a chip will be discussed. A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VLSI Interconnections also includes an overview of the future interconnection technologies for the nanotechnology circuits.

  7. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  8. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... the existing network to include two thematic networks on food security and rural ... Woman conquering male business in Yemen : Waleya's micro-enterprise.

  9. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  10. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1PV Deployment Analysis for New York City we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2. A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3. Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City summarizes common concerns of utility engineers and network experts about interconnecting PV systems to secondary networks. This section also contains detailed descriptions of nine solutions, including advantages and disadvantages, potential impacts, and road maps for deployment. Section 4. Utility Application Process Reviewlooks at utility interconnection application processes across the country and identifies administrative best practices for efficient PV interconnection.

  11. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Including Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography for Tumor Localization and Therapy Planning in Malignant Hilar Obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess image quality and overall accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two magnetic cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) techniques, for the diagnostics and preoperative work-up of malignant hilar obstructions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with malignant hilar obstructions (hilar cholangiocarcinoma, n=30; hepatocellular carcinoma, n=1) received MRCP by two techniques (single-shot thick-slab and multisection thin-slice MRCP) and unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced MRI. MR assessment included the evaluation of image quality and visualization of bile ducts (5-point scale), and the classification of tumor status. MR results were subsequently correlated with the results from surgery and pathology. RESULTS: The maximum intensity projections of multisection thin-slice MRCP had significantly more artifacts compared to MRCP in the single-shot thick-slab technique, and overall image quality of single-shot thick-slab MRCP was rated significantly superior compared to multisection thin-slice MRCP (4.4 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.9, respectively). Moreover, ductal visualization of different parts of the biliary system was rated superior with single-shot thick-slab MRCP. In contrast, the original data from multisection thin slice MRCP facilitated visualization of periductal lesions and adjacent structures. Overall MR accuracy for the assessment of tumor status, periductal infiltration, and lymph node metastases was 90%, 87%, and 66%, respectively. CONCLUSION: For evaluation of malignant hilar obstructions, MRCP by the single-shot thick-slab technique had superior image quality and fewer artifacts; in contrast, besides sole biliary visualization, multisection MRCP depicted complementary adjacent parenchymal and periductal structures. We therefore recommend MRI, with a combination of both MRCP techniques, for the diagnostic work-up and therapy planning of malignant hilar obstructions

  13. Optics vs copper: from the perspective of "Thunderbolt" interconnect technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hengju; Krause, Christine; Ko, Jamyuen; Gao, Miaobin; Liu, Guobin; Wu, Huichin; Qi, Mike; Lam, Chun-Chit

    2013-02-01

    Interconnect technology has been progressed at a very fast pace for the past decade. The signaling rates have steadily increased from 100:Mb/s to 25Gb/s. In every generation of interconnect technology evolution, optics always seems to take over at first, however, at the end, the cost advantage of copper wins over. Because of this, optical interconnects are limited to longer distance links where the attenuation in copper cable is too large for the integrated circuits to compensate. Optical interconnect has long been viewed as the premier solution in compared with copper interconnect. With the release of Thunderbolt technology, we are entering a new era in consumer electronics that runs at 10Gb/s line rate (20Gb/s throughput per connector interface). Thunderbolt interconnect technology includes both active copper cables and active optical cables as the transmission media which have very different physical characteristics. In order for optics to succeed in consumer electronics, several technology hurdles need to be cleared. For example, the optical cable needs to handle the consumer abuses such as pinch and bend. Also, the optical engine used in the active optical cable needs to be physically very small so that we don't change the looks and feels of the cable/connector. Most importantly, the cost of optics needs to come down significantly to effectively compete with the copper solution. Two interconnect technologies are compared and discussed on the relative cost, power consumption, form factor, density, and future scalability.

  14. A metallic buried interconnect process for through-wafer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Herrault, Florian; Allen, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication process and experimental results of electroplated metal interconnects buried at the bottom of deep silicon trenches with vertical sidewalls. A manual spray-coating process along with a unique trench-formation process has been developed for the electroplating of a metal interconnection structure at the bottom surface of the deep trenches. The silicon etch process combines the isotropic dry etch process and conventional Bosch process to fabricate a deep trench with angled top-side edges and vertical sidewalls. The resulting trench structure, in contrast to the trenches fabricated by wet anisotropic etching, enables spray-coated photoresist patterning with good sidewall and top-side edge coverage while maintaining the ability to form a high-density array of deep trenches without excessive widening of the trench opening. A photoresist spray-coating process was developed and optimized for the formation of electroplating mold at the bottom of 300 µm deep trenches having vertical sidewalls. A diluted positive tone photoresist with relatively high solid content and multiple coating with baking between coating steps has been experimentally proven to provide high quality sidewall and edge coverage. To validate the buried interconnect approach, a three-dimensional daisy chain structure having a buried interconnect as the bottom connector and traces on the wafer surface as the top conductor has been designed and fabricated

  15. Management and use of electric interconnections in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    Major progress was made throughout 2008 in border congestion management and market integration. A number of projects were carried out, including the creation of a single auction platform for the Central-West region (CASC-CWE) and the first centre for regional coordination (Coreso SA) to better control real-time flow, thus laying the foundations for future network management on a regional scale. Such progress encourages more improvements still, which should take effect some time in 2009 and should constitute an important stage in creating an integrated European electricity market. The more significant expected advances notably include the implementation of a single, harmonised set of bidding rules covering the entire Central-West region, which would include introducing the principle of automatic resale of capacity (use-it-or-sell-it); the launch of the second phase of the BALIT project for reciprocal adjusting exchanges between France and England; the introduction of a compensation scheme for curtailments of capacity based on the differences in pricing at Power Exchanges over the France-Spain interconnection; and finally the elaboration of the very first regional reports by regulators on the management and use of interconnections. The launch of the market coupling in the Central-West region, planned for March 2010, will unquestionably be a key event in market integration. In addition to substantially improving the use of the region's interconnections, it will offer significant new perspectives in market organisation (such as the future role and status of organised markets as regards day-ahead activity). The work of network operators on the flow-based aspect of the project will also enable improvements in transparency and coordination when calculating interconnection capacities, and could, in the long-run, open debates on changing the market design. However, of the issues raised in CRE's second report on management and use of interconnections, several have

  16. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  17. Local Network Wideband Interconnection Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    signal. 3.2.2 Limitations Although satellites offer the advantages of insensitivity to distance, point-to-multipoint communication capability and...Russell, the CATV franchisee for the town of Bedford, has not yit set rates for leasing channels on their network. If this network were interconnected

  18. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  19. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  20. Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

    2002-11-01

    This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

  1. Modeling the individual plants for the planning of the energetic operation of the national interconnected power system; Uma modelagem a usinas individualizadas para o planejamento da operacao energetica do sistema interligado nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, T.C.; Cruz Junior, G.; Vinhal, C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: thyago@eeec.ufg.br, gcruz@eeec.ufg.br, vinhal@eeec.ufg.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an operational policy for the mid term hydrothermal scheduling of the Brazilian Interconnected Power System (BIPS) based on the individual representation of the hydro and thermo power plants, the detailed representation of the plants' features and the indirect representation of the inflow stochasticity through a forecasting model. These characteristics differs the operational policy which is in use nowadays in BIPS, which is based on four interconnected subsystems represented by composite reservoirs. Several case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the operational policy, from the simple case with a single hydro plant system to the complete case of the whole BIPS under real conditions. For this last case an operational adjustment procedure was implemented to assure the market attendance considering interchange constraints between the subsystems. (author)

  2. Family planning as part of reproductive health, including the HIV / AIDS aspects, in Zimbabwe and Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyl, Douwe Arie Anne

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the demand for family planning (FP) in the region and demonstrates that just at the time that demand takes off the brain drain and economic situation make it unlikely that the required services will be provided. This, increasingly, results in unsafe abortions. FP in Zimbabwe is

  3. 47 CFR 90.477 - Interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... part and medical emergency systems in the 450-470 MHz band, interconnection will be permitted only... operating on frequencies in the bands below 800 MHz are not subject to the interconnection provisions of...

  4. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, I; Elwenspoek, M C

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing shows that the bond strength is large enough for most applications of fluidic interconnects. The bond strength for 525 µm thick silicon, with glass tubes having an outer diameter of 6 mm and with a wall thickness of 2 mm, is more than 60 bars after annealing at a temperature of 800 °C

  5. System interconnection studies using WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Y [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corp., Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Optical Interconnection Via Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Zhou, Shaomin

    1995-01-01

    Method of free-space optical interconnection developed for data-processing applications like parallel optical computing, neural-network computing, and switching in optical communication networks. In method, multiple optical connections between multiple sources of light in one array and multiple photodetectors in another array made via computer-generated holograms in electrically addressed spatial light modulators (ESLMs). Offers potential advantages of massive parallelism, high space-bandwidth product, high time-bandwidth product, low power consumption, low cross talk, and low time skew. Also offers advantage of programmability with flexibility of reconfiguration, including variation of strengths of optical connections in real time.

  7. Driving Interconnected Networks to Supercriticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Networks in the real world do not exist as isolated entities, but they are often part of more complicated structures composed of many interconnected network layers. Recent studies have shown that such mutual dependence makes real networked systems potentially exposed to atypical structural and dynamical behaviors, and thus there is an urgent necessity to better understand the mechanisms at the basis of these anomalies. Previous research has mainly focused on the emergence of atypical properties in relation to the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions. In this paper, we show that an additional ingredient plays a fundamental role for the possible scenario that an interconnected network can face: the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees. For sufficiently high amounts of correlation, an interconnected network can be tuned, by varying the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions, in distinct topological and dynamical regimes. When instead the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees is lower than a critical value, the system enters in a supercritical regime where dynamical and topological phases are no longer distinguishable.

  8. 18 CFR 292.306 - Interconnection costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interconnection costs... § 292.306 Interconnection costs. (a) Obligation to pay. Each qualifying facility shall be obligated to pay any interconnection costs which the State regulatory authority (with respect to any electric...

  9. Strategic Environmental Assessment: a case study of interconnected 500 kV Italy-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Ceccariglia, M.; Rivabene, N.; Motawi, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the new interconnected power transmission line Italy-France is applied the Strategic Environmental Assessment procedure for the purpose of integration planning electric and railway lines of the new base tunnel Lyon Turin Ferroviaire Frejus [it

  10. Program plan for environmental qualification of mechanical and dynamic (including seismic) qualification of mechanical and electrical equipment program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1986-06-01

    The equipment qualification program described in this plan is intended to provide the technical basis for resolving uncertainties in existing equipment qualification standards. In addition, research results are contributing to the resolution of safety issues GI-23, GI-87, USI-A44, titled, ''Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Failure,'' ''Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation,'' and ''Station Blackout,'' respectively. Also, research effort is being directed at providing information on the behavior of containment isolation valves under severe accident environments. Although the results of the latter research will not contribute to resolving uncertainties in qualification standards, it has proven cost effective to obtain this information under this program

  11. Quality assessment of delineation and dose planning of early breast cancer patients included in the randomized Skagen Trial 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette S; Yates, Esben S

    2017-01-01

    , Dmax, D98%, D95% and D2%) from randomly selected dose plans were assessed. Target volume delineation according to ESTRO guidelines was obtained through atlas based automated segmentation and centrally approved as gold standard (GS). Dice similarity scores (DSC) with original delineations were measured....... No deviations in the dosimetric outcome were found in 76% of the patients, 82% and 95% of the patients had successful coverage of breast/chestwall and CTVn_L2-4-interpectoral. Dosimetric outcomes of original delineation and GS were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: QA showed high protocol compliance and adequate dose...... coverage in most patients. Inter-observer variability in contouring was low. Dose parameters were in harmony with protocol regardless original or GS segmentation....

  12. Epidemic spreading on interconnected networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell-Mendiola, Anna; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-08-01

    Many real networks are not isolated from each other but form networks of networks, often interrelated in nontrivial ways. Here, we analyze an epidemic spreading process taking place on top of two interconnected complex networks. We develop a heterogeneous mean-field approach that allows us to calculate the conditions for the emergence of an endemic state. Interestingly, a global endemic state may arise in the coupled system even though the epidemics is not able to propagate on each network separately and even when the number of coupling connections is small. Our analytic results are successfully confronted against large-scale numerical simulations.

  13. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  14. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  15. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  16. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The results of comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, and (2) the unambiguous--ie., quantitative--interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field.

  17. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  18. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  19. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V.; Kuiper, J.; Hlava, K.; Orr, A.; Rollins, K.; Brunner, D.; Green, H.; Makar, J.; Ayers, A.; Holm, M.; Simunich, K.; Wang, J.; Augustine, C.; Heimiller, D.; Hurlbut, D. J.; Milbrandt, A.; Schneider, T. R.; et al.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In June 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory published Funding Opportunity Announcement FOA-0000068, which invited applications for interconnection-level analysis and planning. In December 2009, the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) and the EISPC were selected as two award recipients for the Eastern Interconnection. Subsequently, in 2010, DOE issued Research Call RC-BM-2010 to DOE’s Federal Laboratories to provide research support and assistance to FOA-0000068 awardees on a variety of key subjects. Argonne was selected as the lead laboratory to provide support to EISPC in developing a methodology and a mapping tool for identifying potential clean energy zones in the Eastern Interconnection. In developing the EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool (EZ Mapping Tool), Argonne, NREL, and ORNL closely collaborated with the EISPC Energy Zones Work Group which coordinated the work on the Energy Zones Study. The main product of the Energy Zones Study is the EZ Mapping Tool, which is a web-based decision support system that allows users to locate areas with high suitability for clean power generation in the U.S. portion of the Eastern Interconnection. The mapping tool includes 9 clean (low- or no-carbon) energy resource categories and 29 types of clean energy technologies. The EZ Mapping Tool contains an extensive geographic information system database and allows the user to apply a flexible modeling approach for the identification and analysis of potential energy zones

  20. All-zigzag graphene nanoribbons for planar interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-An; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Chou

    2017-07-01

    A feasible "lightning-shaped" zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) structure for planar interconnects is proposed. Based on the density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function, the electron transport properties are evaluated. The lightning-shaped structure increases significantly the conductance of the graphene interconnect with an odd number of zigzag chains. This proposed technique can effectively utilize the linear I-V characteristic of asymmetric ZGNRs for interconnect application. Variability study accounting for width/length variation and the edge effect is also included. The transmission spectra, transmission eigenstates, and transmission pathways are analyzed to gain the physical insights. This lightning-shaped ZGNR enables all 2D material-based devices and circuits on flexible and transparent substrates.

  1. Supplemental Information for New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narang, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    This document is intended to aid in the understanding and application of the New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements (SIR) and Application Process for New Distributed Generators 5 MW or Less Connected in Parallel with Utility Distribution Systems, and it aims to provide supplemental information and discussion on selected topics relevant to the SIR. This guide focuses on technical issues that have to date resulted in the majority of utility findings within the context of interconnecting photovoltaic (PV) inverters. This guide provides background on the overall issue and related mitigation measures for selected topics, including substation backfeeding, anti-islanding and considerations for monitoring and controlling distributed energy resources (DER).

  2. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    A crucial challenge in packaging of microsystems is microfluidic interconnections. These have to seal the ports of the system, and have to provide the appropriate interface to other devices or the external environment. Integrated fluidic interconnections appear to be a good solution for interconn...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  3. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Anni; Joo, Sung-Kwan; Song, Kyung-Bin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kisung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  4. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kou, Gefei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Zuohong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  5. Interconnection blocks with minimal dead volumes permitting planar interconnection to thin microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described 'Interconnection Blocks' which are re-usable, non-integrated PDMS blocks which allowing multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Here, we describe Interconnection Block versions with zero dead volumes that allow fluidic interfacing to flat or thin s...

  6. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  7. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  8. Colligation, Or the Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter

    1998-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in pure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  9. Colligation or, The Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franksen, Ole Immanuel; Falster, Peter

    2000-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in oure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  10. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  11. Assessment of on-farm anaerobic digester grid interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhnke, W.

    2006-01-01

    While several anaerobic digestion (AD) pilot plants have recently been built in Canada, early reports suggest that interconnection barriers are delaying their widescale implementation. This paper examined grid interconnection experiences from the perspectives of farmers, local distributing companies (LDCs) and other stakeholders. The aim of the paper was to identify challenges to the implementation of AD systems. Case studies included an Ontario Dairy Herd AD system generating 50 kW; a Saskatchewan hog farm AD system generating 120 kW and an Alberta outdoor beef feedlot AD system generating 1000 kW. Two survey forms were created for project operators, and LDCs. The following 3 category barriers were identified: (1) technical concerns over islanding conditions, power quality requirements, power flow studies and other engineering analyses; (2) business practices barriers such as a lack of response after initial utility contact; and (3) regulatory barriers including the unavailability of fair buy-back rates, the lack of net metering programs, restrictive net metering programs, and pricing issues. It was suggested that collaborative efforts among all stakeholders are needed to resolve barriers quickly. Recommendations included the adoption of uniform technical standards for connecting generators to the grid, as well as adopting standard commercial practices for any required LDC interconnection review. It was also suggested that standard business terms for interconnection agreements should be established. Regulatory principles should be compatible with distributed power choices in regulated and unregulated markets. It was concluded that resolving interconnection barriers is a critical step towards realizing market opportunities available for AD technologies. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  13. Interconnecting Microgrids via the Energy Router with Smart Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel and flexible interconnecting framework for microgrids and corresponding energy management strategies are presented, in response to the situation of increasing renewable-energy penetration and the need to alleviate dependency on energy storage equipment. The key idea is to establish complementary energy exchange between adjacent microgrids through a multiport electrical energy router, according to the consideration that adjacent microgrids may differ substantially in terms of their patterns of energy production and consumption, which can be utilized to compensate for each other’s instant energy deficit. Based on multiport bidirectional voltage source converters (VSCs and a shared direct current (DC power line, the energy router serves as an energy hub, and enables flexible energy flow among the adjacent microgrids and the main grid. The analytical model is established for the whole system, including the energy router, the interconnected microgrids and the main grid. Various operational modes of the interconnected microgrids, facilitated by the energy router, are analyzed, and the corresponding control strategies are developed. Simulations are carried out on the Matlab/Simulink platform, and the results have demonstrated the validity and reliability of the idea for microgrid interconnection as well as the corresponding control strategies for flexible energy flow.

  14. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Interconnections of the LHC Cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemod, A; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the LHC, the next world-class facility in high-energy physics, are the twin-aperture high-field superconducting cryomagnets to be installed in the existing 26.7-km long tunnel. After installation and alignment, the cryomagnets have to be interconnected. The interconnections must ensure the continuity of several functions: vacuum enclosures, beam pipe image currents (RF contacts), cryogenic circuits, electrical power supply, and thermal insulation. In the machine, about 1700 interconnections between cryomagnets are necessary. The interconnections constitute a unique system that is nearly entirely assembled in the tunnel. For each of them, various operations must be done: TIG welding of cryogenic channels (~ 50 000 welds), induction soldering of main superconducting cables (~ 10 000 joints), ultrasonic welding of auxiliary superconducting cables (~ 20 000 welds), mechanical assembly of various elements, and installation of the multi-layer insulation (~ 200 000 m2). Defective junctions cou...

  16. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  17. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Li, Daqing; Qin, Pengju; Liu, Chaoran; Wang, Huijuan; Wang, Feilong

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  18. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    Full Text Available Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks has rarely been considered. Here, we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS model of epidemic spreading in a system comprising two interconnected small-world networks. We find that the epidemic threshold in such networks decreases when the rewiring probability of the component small-world networks increases. When the infection rate is low, the rewiring probability affects the global steady-state infection density, whereas when the infection rate is high, the infection density is insensitive to the rewiring probability. Moreover, epidemics in interconnected small-world networks are found to spread at different velocities that depend on the rewiring probability.

  19. At the speed of light? electricity interconnections for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, S.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity moves almost at the speed of light: 273,000 km per second. The speed of electricity makes it the ultimate 'just in time' commodity. A problem anywhere can be transmitted every where in a nanosecond. Electricity interconnection is a prominent issue in the news, sometimes even featured as a panacea for the shortcomings of the European electricity market - a panacea that will ensure security o supply, solidarity and pave the way for a promising use of renewables in the future. The present study is devoted to electricity interconnections in Europe, their current state and the projects concerning them. The study addresses the following questions: - What is the role of interconnections in the development of a sustainable grid that can emerge from the existing pieces, make optimum use of existing generation capacity, ensure energy security, and offer economies of scales? What is their role in the process of building a different energy concept, one that would be concerned with climate change and thus in favour of the use of renewables? - How are existing interconnections exploited and governed, and how can their exploitation be improved? Does the EU need more and new interconnections; and if so, where and why, and who is going to finance them? Prominent projects as such as Desertec, the debate on DC or AC lines, or the limits of synchronization, as well as the state of a potential East-West electricity linkage between Former Soviet Union and EU, termed UCTE-UPS/IPS, are discussed in the volume. Part I develops definitions and basic notions necessary for the understanding of the subject. It also addresses the independent variables that influence interconnections (here the dependent variable), and recounts the historical legacies and their enduring impact on today's grid. Part II is devoted to the EU legal framework and to the complex landscape of governance and its current state of transition. Part III addresses the management of existing interconnections and

  20. Olfactory neuroblastoma: the long-term outcome and late toxicity of multimodal therapy including radiotherapy based on treatment planning using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takashi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Yasuda, Koichi; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Homma, Akihiro; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumor originating from olfactory epithelium. Here we retrospectively analyzed the long-term treatment outcomes and toxicity of radiotherapy for ONB patients for whom computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional treatment planning was conducted to reappraise the role of radiotherapy in the light of recent advanced technology and chemotherapy. Seventeen patients with ONB treated between July 1992 and June 2013 were included. Three patients were Kadish stage B and 14 were stage C. All patients were treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery or chemotherapy. The radiation dose was distributed from 50 Gy to 66 Gy except for one patient who received 40 Gy preoperatively. The median follow-up time was 95 months (range 8–173 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated at 88% and 74%, respectively. Five patients with stage C disease had recurrence with the median time to recurrence of 59 months (range 7–115 months). Late adverse events equal to or above Grade 2 in CTCAE v4.03 were observed in three patients. Multimodal therapy including radiotherapy with precise treatment planning based on CT simulation achieved an excellent local control rate with acceptable toxicity and reasonable overall survival for patients with ONB

  1. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, G.

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  2. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Xiao, G., E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-09-03

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  3. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement.

  4. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    alloy showed differences in adhesion strength and IMC formation. Bond strength by wire pull testing showed the 95Ag alloy with higher values while shear bond testing showed the 88Ag higher bond strength. Use of Cu pillars in flip chips and eutectic bonding in wafer level chip scale packages are direct consequences of diminishing interconnect dimension as a result of the drive for miniaturization. The combination of Cu-Sn interdiffusion, Kirkendall mechanism and heterogeneous vacancy precipitation are the main causes of IMC and void formation in Cu pillar - Sn solder - Cu lead frame sandwich structure. However, adding a Ni barrier agent showed less porous IMC layer as well as void formation as a result of the modified Cu and Sn movement well as the void formation. Direct die to die bonding using Al-Ge eutectic bonds is necessary when 3D integration is needed to reduce the footprint of a package. Hermeticity and adhesion strength are a function of the Al/Ge thickness ratio, bonding pressure, temperature and time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) allowed imaging of interfacial microstructures, porosity, grain morphology while Scanning Transmission Electron microscope (STEM) provided diffusion profile and confirmed interdiffusion. Ion polishing technique provided information on porosity and when imaged using backscattered mode, grain structure confirmed mechanical deformation of the bonds. Measurements of the interfacial bond strength are made by wire pull tests and ball shear tests based on existing industry standard tests. However, for the Al-Ge eutectic bonds, no standard strength is available so a test is developed using the stud pull test method using the Dage 4000 Plus to yield consistent results. Adhesion strengths of 30-40 MPa are found for eutectic bonded packages however, as low as 20MPa was measured in low temperature bonded areas.

  5. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  6. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  7. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with −3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  8. Interconnection test framework for the CMS level-1 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Wulz, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System is a software package designed to configure, monitor and test the Level-1 Trigger System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It is a large and distributed system that runs over 50 PCs and controls about 200 hardware units. The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the architecture of a distributed testing framework - the Interconnection Test Framework (ITF). This generic and highly flexible framework for creating and executing hardware tests within the Level-1 Trigger environment is meant to automate testing of the 13 major subsystems interconnected with more than 1000 links. Features include a web interface to create and execute tests, modeling using finite state machines, dependency management, automatic configuration, and loops. Furthermore, the ITF will replace the existing heterogeneous testing procedures and help reducing both maintenance and complexity of operation tasks. (authors)

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of global energy interconnection development index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Under the background of building global energy interconnection and realizing green and low-carbon development, this article constructed the global energy interconnection development index system which based on the current situation of global energy interconnection development. Through using the entropy method for the weight analysis of global energy interconnection development index, and then using gray correlation method to analyze the selected countries, this article got the global energy interconnection development index ranking and level classification.

  10. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  11. Genomic Predictability of Interconnected Biparental Maize Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Stange, Michael; Sorrells, Mark E.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense structuring of plant breeding populations challenges the design of the training set (TS) in genomic selection (GS). An important open question is how the TS should be constructed from multiple related or unrelated small biparental families to predict progeny from individual crosses. Here, we used a set of five interconnected maize (Zea mays L.) populations of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from four parents to systematically investigate how the composition of the TS affects the prediction accuracy for lines from individual crosses. A total of 635 DH lines genotyped with 16,741 polymorphic SNPs were evaluated for five traits including Gibberella ear rot severity and three kernel yield component traits. The populations showed a genomic similarity pattern, which reflects the crossing scheme with a clear separation of full sibs, half sibs, and unrelated groups. Prediction accuracies within full-sib families of DH lines followed closely theoretical expectations, accounting for the influence of sample size and heritability of the trait. Prediction accuracies declined by 42% if full-sib DH lines were replaced by half-sib DH lines, but statistically significantly better results could be achieved if half-sib DH lines were available from both instead of only one parent of the validation population. Once both parents of the validation population were represented in the TS, including more crosses with a constant TS size did not increase accuracies. Unrelated crosses showing opposite linkage phases with the validation population resulted in negative or reduced prediction accuracies, if used alone or in combination with related families, respectively. We suggest identifying and excluding such crosses from the TS. Moreover, the observed variability among populations and traits suggests that these uncertainties must be taken into account in models optimizing the allocation of resources in GS. PMID:23535384

  12. Probabilistic interconnection between interdependent networks promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baokui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2012-01-01

    Most previous works study the evolution of cooperation in a structured population by commonly employing an isolated single network. However, realistic systems are composed of many interdependent networks coupled with each other, rather than an isolated single one. In this paper, we consider a system including two interacting networks with the same size, entangled with each other by the introduction of probabilistic interconnections. We introduce the public goods game into such a system, and study how the probabilistic interconnection influences the evolution of cooperation of the whole system and the coupling effect between two layers of interdependent networks. Simulation results show that there exists an intermediate region of interconnection probability leading to the maximum cooperation level in the whole system. Interestingly, we find that at the optimal interconnection probability the fraction of internal links between cooperators in two layers is maximal. Also, even if initially there are no cooperators in one layer of interdependent networks, cooperation can still be promoted by probabilistic interconnection, and the cooperation levels in both layers can more easily reach an agreement at the intermediate interconnection probability. Our results may be helpful in understanding cooperative behavior in some realistic interdependent networks and thus highlight the importance of probabilistic interconnection on the evolution of cooperation. (paper)

  13. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  14. Regulate or deregulate. Influencing network interconnection charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Wielle, B.

    2003-06-01

    We study the choice between regulating interconnection charges or delegating their determination to the operators, both in a non-mature and a mature market. Three regulatory regimes are considered: full, cost-based and bill-and-keep. Delegation corresponds to bargaining about the interconnection charges using the regulatory schemes as disagreement outcomes. Applying regulation benefits the consumers. Under full regulation, access charges account for asymmetries and allow a unique Ramsey price. Delegation benefits the operators. In a mature market delegation robs the government of any market influence. In a non-mature market government preferences coincide with those of the largest operator and are disadvantageous for entry.

  15. Digital optical interconnects for photonic computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Zeise, Frederick F.

    1994-05-01

    A 32-bit digital optical computer (DOC II) has been implemented in hardware utilizing 8,192 free-space optical interconnects. The architecture exploits parallel interconnect technology by implementing microcode at the primitive level. A burst mode of 0.8192 X 1012 binary operations per sec has been reliably demonstrated. The prototype has been successful in demonstrating general purpose computation. In addition to emulating the RISC instruction set within the UNIX operating environment, relational database text search operations have been implemented on DOC II.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  17. IC layout adjustment method and tool for improving dielectric reliability at interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Chan, Tuck Boon

    2018-03-20

    Method for adjusting a layout used in making an integrated circuit includes one or more interconnects in the layout that are susceptible to dielectric breakdown are selected. One or more selected interconnects are adjusted to increase via to wire spacing with respect to at least one via and one wire of the one or more selected interconnects. Preferably, the selecting analyzes signal patterns of interconnects, and estimates the stress ratio based on state probability of routed signal nets in the layout. An annotated layout is provided that describes distances by which one or more via or wire segment edges are to be shifted. Adjustments can include thinning and shifting of wire segments, and rotation of vias.

  18. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The polymer SU-8 is becoming widely used for all kinds of micromechanical and microfluidic devices, not only as a photoresist but also as the constitutional material of the devices. Many of these polymeric devices need to include a microfluidic system as well as electrical connection from the ele...

  19. Report on electricity interconnection management and use. June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Apart from some concrete advances in interconnection management, the most striking event of 2007 has to be the emergence of a consensus at European level on the general principles of the target mechanisms for interconnection management. Three major projects currently undergoing development by the TSOs and the exchanges - the setting up of a single auction platform for allocating long- and medium-term products and of 'flow-based' market coupling in the Central-West region (Belgium, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Germany, France), and in the France-UK-Ireland region, the introduction of reciprocal balancing exchanges on the France-England interconnection - should lay the foundations for the future management of congestion on interconnections in Europe. The completion of these projects, planned for the end of 2008 for the single auction platform project in the Central-West region and for mid-2009 for the other two, will be an important turning point in the construction of the European electricity market. This will be one of the successes of the Regional Initiatives process launched by ERGEG just over two years ago. However, this should not hide the fact that the regulators have experienced many difficulties during the regional integration of the markets and that the market operators have the general impression that this process could progress much more quickly. These difficulties and this relative slowness are mainly explained by: - a lack of consensus on the target market design the national markets would gradually tend towards, - a lack of harmonisation of the powers and competencies of the regulators when it comes to cross-border trades, the immediate consequence of which is a lack of incentives for TSOs to accelerate market integration. Several sizeable challenges await all the stakeholders over the coming months and years if market integration is to be a success: - How can the 'third legislative package' give all the necessary competencies

  20. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoribbons: Potentials for Nanoscale Electrical Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastik Kar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or deposited at a desired location. In this Review, we will focus our attention on carbon-based nanostructures (in particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons which could play an important role in the technological quest to replace copper/low-k for interconnect applications. We will provide the reader with a number of possible architectures, including single-wall as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes, arranged in horizontal and vertical arrays, regarded as individual objects as well as bundles. Modification of their functional properties in order to fulfill interconnect applications requirements are also presented. Then, in the second part of the Review, recently discovered graphene and in particular graphene and few-graphene layers nanoribbons are introduced. Different architectures involving nanostructured carbon are presented and discussed in light of interconnect application in terms of length, chirality, edge configuration and more.

  1. Interconnections and market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2012-01-01

    Interconnections can be an effective way to increase competition and improve market integration in concentrated wholesale electricity markets with limited number of participants. This paper examines the potential for interconnections and increasing market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market (SEM). We use a time-varying Kalman filter technique to assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other large, mature and interconnected wholesale electricity markets in Europe including Great Britain (GB). The results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17% indicating potential to improve market integration via increased interconnector capacity. The results indicate that liquidity of wholesale markets might be a crucial factor in the market integration process while our results remain inconclusive in determining whether increased trade of renewables can improve market integration. - Highlights: ► We assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other EU electricity markets. ► Our results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. ► We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17%.

  2. 78 FR 73112 - Monitoring System Conditions-Transmission Operations Reliability Standards; Interconnection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...\\ \\8\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, 72 FR 16416 (Apr. 4... operators and reliability coordinators to ``plan and operate the interconnected Bulk Electric System in a... mandated in the currently- effective standards, thereby improving reliability of the bulk power system...

  3. Formalized Interconnected Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Those for Management of Diabetes, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana

    24 Suppl. 4, - (2006), s. 172-172 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /16./. 12.06.2006-15.06.2006, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computer presentation * interconnected medical guidelines * cardiovascular prevention Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  4. 78 FR 21928 - Demand Response Coalition v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-57-000] Demand Response... Demand Response Coalition \\1\\ (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against the PJM Interconnection, L.L... Plan Enhancements'') violate section 205 of the FPA and are therefore unenforceable. \\1\\ The Demand...

  5. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  6. Integration of oncologic margins in three-dimensional virtual planning for head and neck surgery, including a validation of the software pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraeima, Joep; Schepers, Rutger H.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Steenbakkers, Roel J. H. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) virtual planning of reconstructive surgery, after resection, is a frequently used method for improving accuracy and predictability. However, when applied to malignant cases, the planning of the oncologic resection margins is difficult due to visualisation of tumours

  7. Green interconnecting materials for semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matin, M.A.; Vellinga, W.P.; Geers, M.G.D.; Sawada, K.; Ishida, M.

    2009-01-01

    Interconnecting materials experience a complex thermo-mechanical load in applications. This may lead to the formation of macroscopic cracks resulting from induced stresses of the differences in thermal expansion coefficients on a sample scale (since different materials are involved) and on a grain

  8. Health and the environment: Examining some interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.; Castelino, J.; Parr, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    In various ways, the IAEA is working with national and international agencies to broaden scientific understanding of the interconnections between the environment and human health. Often nuclear and related technologies are applied in the search for answers to complex and puzzling questions. This article highlights some of that work, illustrating the dimensions of both the problems and the potential solutions

  9. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  10. Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinsey, N.; Ferrera, M.; Naik, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mu m. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 mu m...

  11. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  12. Patterned electrodeposition of interconnects using microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Maijenburg, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Microcontact printing combined with electroless deposition is a potential low cost technique to make electrical interconnects for opto-electronic devices. Microcontact printed inhibitors locally prevent electroless deposition resulting in a pre-defined pattern of metal tracks. The inhibition of

  13. An architectural model for network interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.; Kalin, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique of successive decomposition of a common users' activity to illustrate the problems of network interconnection. The criteria derived from this approach offer a structuring principle which is used to develop an architectural model that embeds heterogeneous subnetworks

  14. Identifying influential spreaders in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Li, Lixiang; Huo, Yujia; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the most influential spreaders in spreading dynamics is of the utmost importance for various purposes for understanding or controlling these processes. The existing relevant works are limited to a single network. Most real networks are actually not isolated, but typically coupled and affected by others. The properties of epidemic spreading have recently been found to have some significant differences in interconnected networks from those in a single network. In this paper, we focus on identifying the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We find that the well-known k-shell index loses effectiveness; some insignificant spreaders in a single network become the influential spreaders in the whole interconnected networks while some influential spreaders become no longer important. The simulation results show that the spreading capabilities of the nodes not only depend on their influence for the network topology, but also are dramatically influenced by the spreading rate. Based on this perception, a novel index is proposed for measuring the influential spreaders in interconnected networks. We then support the efficiency of this index with numerical simulations. (paper)

  15. Laser printed interconnects for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Alberto; Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott; Charipar, Nicholas

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) can be used to generate microscale 3D structures for interconnect applications non-lithographically. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or dispersed metallic nanoparticles. However, the resulting 3D structures do not achieve the bulk conductivity of metal interconnects of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. It is possible, however, to laser transfer entire structures using a LIFT technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place allows whole components and parts to be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This talk will present the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding solid metal interconnects to connect individual devices into functional circuits. Furthermore, the same laser can bend or fold the thin metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief due to flexing or thermal mismatch. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation flexible electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented. This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Naval Research Laboratory Basic Research Program.

  16. Electro-optic techniques for VLSI interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J. A.

    1985-03-01

    A major limitation to achieving significant speed increases in very large scale integration (VLSI) lies in the metallic interconnects. They are costly not only from the charge transport standpoint but also from capacitive loading effects. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, in pursuit of the fifth generation supercomputer, is investigating alternatives to the VLSI metallic interconnects, especially the use of optical techniques to transport the information either inter or intrachip. As the on chip performance of VLSI continues to improve via the scale down of the logic elements, the problems associated with transferring data off and onto the chip become more severe. The use of optical carriers to transfer the information within the computer is very appealing from several viewpoints. Besides the potential for gigabit propagation rates, the conversion from electronics to optics conveniently provides a decoupling of the various circuits from one another. Significant gains will also be realized in reducing cross talk between the metallic routings, and the interconnects need no longer be constrained to the plane of a thin film on the VLSI chip. In addition, optics can offer an increased programming flexibility for restructuring the interconnect network.

  17. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  18. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [Namibia Univ. of Science and Technology, Windhoek, (Namibia). Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly-Moman, Jessica [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group; Kammen, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group; Callaway, Duncan S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2017-03-27

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental– impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with “no-regrets” options—or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6–20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. In conclusion, the overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  19. Strategic siting and regional grid interconnections key to low-carbon futures in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Grace C; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly-Moman, Jessica; Phadke, Amol; Kammen, Daniel M; Callaway, Duncan S

    2017-04-11

    Recent forecasts suggest that African countries must triple their current electricity generation by 2030. Our multicriteria assessment of wind and solar potential for large regions of Africa shows how economically competitive and low-environmental-impact renewable resources can significantly contribute to meeting this demand. We created the Multicriteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) framework to map and characterize solar and wind energy zones in 21 countries in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP) and find that potential is several times greater than demand in many countries. Significant fractions of demand can be quickly served with "no-regrets" options-or zones that are low-cost, low-environmental impact, and highly accessible. Because no-regrets options are spatially heterogeneous, international interconnections are necessary to help achieve low-carbon development for the region as a whole, and interconnections that support the best renewable options may differ from those planned for hydropower expansion. Additionally, interconnections and selecting wind sites to match demand reduce the need for SAPP-wide conventional generation capacity by 9.5% in a high-wind scenario, resulting in a 6-20% cost savings, depending on the avoided conventional technology. Strategic selection of low-impact and accessible zones is more cost effective with interconnections compared with solutions without interconnections. Overall results are robust to multiple load growth scenarios. Together, results show that multicriteria site selection and deliberate planning of interconnections may significantly increase the economic and environmental competitiveness of renewable alternatives relative to conventional generation.

  20. Actual issues concerning nuclear power plants and interconnected grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.; Brkic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and transmission grid have always been mutually of special relevance. In countries and/or regions where nuclear power plants are located they are almost as a rule counted among strongest nodes of the grid. Hence, they are treated as such from grid point of view in various aspects (operational, planning). In interconnected high-voltage transmission grid of European mainland, usually called UCTE interconnected system, this importance could be shown in a range of issues and several cases, particularly under present situation in which there are numerous demanding and challenging tasks put on transmission system operators, largely due to the opening of electricity markets in the most of European countries. Among these issues definitely worth of mentioning is relevant influence to both commercial paths and physical power flows, and also to exchange programmes between control areas and blocks. In this context there is also relation to cross-border transactions and mechanism applied to them. In respect to security of supply issues and future of nuclear power generation under present regulative framework of most European countries it is needed to comply with connecting conditions (and other stipulations) from national grid codes where different approaches could be observed. Furthermore, nuclear issues significantly influence approach to extension of UCTE system. In certain extent this also applies to pending re-connection of present two synchronous zones of UCTE, particularly to area of broader region directly affected with this complex process. Some of these also reflect to Croatian high-voltage transmission grid as a part of UCTE interconnected system with certain peculiarities.(author)

  1. Review of Interconnection Practices and Costs in the Western States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manning, David [Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB); McAllister, Richard [Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB)

    2018-04-27

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the nature of barriers to interconnecting distributed PV, assess costs of interconnection, and compare interconnection practices across various states in the Western Interconnection. The report addresses practices for interconnecting both residential and commercial-scale PV systems to the distribution system. This study is part of a larger, joint project between the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to examine barriers to distributed PV in the 11 states wholly within the Western Interconnection.

  2. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.; Thompson, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  3. SBRT of lung tumours: Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE of dose distributions including respiratory motion and comparison with different treatment planning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Wennberg, Berit; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Amor Duch, Maria; Ginjaume, Mercè; Lax, Ingmar

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to simulate with the Monte Carlo (MC) code PENELOPE the dose distribution in lung tumours including breathing motion in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Two phantoms were modelled to simulate a pentagonal cross section with chestwall (unit density), lung (density 0.3 g cm-3) and two spherical tumours (unit density) of diameters respectively of 2 cm and 5 cm. The phase-space files (PSF) of four different SBRT field sizes of 6 MV from a Varian accelerator were calculated and used as beam sources to obtain both dose profiles and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) in different volumes of interest. Dose distributions were simulated for five beams impinging on the phantom. The simulations were conducted both for the static case and including the influence of respiratory motion. To reproduce the effect of breathing motion different simulations were performed keeping the beam fixed and displacing the phantom geometry in chosen positions in the cranial and caudal and left-right directions. The final result was obtained by combining the different position with two motion patterns. The MC results were compared with those obtained with three commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs), two based on the pencil beam (PB) algorithm, the TMS-HELAX (Nucletron, Sweden) and Eclipse (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, CA), and one based on the collapsed cone algorithm (CC), Pinnacle3 (Philips). Some calculations were also carried out with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse system. All calculations with the TPSs were performed without simulated breathing motion, according to clinical practice. In order to compare all the TPSs and MC an absolute dose calibration in Gy/MU was performed. The analysis shows that the dose (Gy/MU) in the central part of the gross tumour volume (GTV) is calculated for both tumour sizes with an accuracy of 2-3% with PB and CC algorithms, compared to MC. At the periphery of the GTV the TPSs overestimate

  4. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  5. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  7. Scandinavian interconnections as a means for an integrated and sustainable European system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstedt, A.; Hansson, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the national grids had been established the comprehensive integration of the Nordic countries took place during a 20 year's period that started in early 1960's. A characteristic feature of the interconnection of the Nordic electric power systems is the need for long HVDC submarine cables for several of the interconnection links. Today the Nordel system is almost considered as one system. At present there are several ongoing, actively considered and planned projects for the integration of the Nordel system and the UCPTE system. The interconnection links offer a number of benefits for both the systems. One very important benefit is the stabilisation effect on the power supply security and the price for electricity. This is of special importance in view of the expected de-regulation of the electricity market. (author)

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  9. Development and operation of interconnections in a restructuring context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In many countries the electrical network is not fully interconnected and the best technical solution to achieve interconnection has to be found. At the same time the electricity industry is being restructured and interconnecting independent energy markets presents technical challenges. It is therefore timely to consider interconnection development and operation options: examine the benefits of interconnecting electrical networks and the development strategies, review the interconnection design options and the technologies available, identify the operational issues, the security problems of large interconnected systems, the protection issues, consider the impact of the restructuring of the electrical supply industry, assess the political, environmental and social implications of interconnections. reorganized in slovenia from 5-7 april 2004. (author)

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  11. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is to act both as a diffusion barrier for chromium and provide better protection against high temperature oxidation than a pure cobalt coating. This work presents a characterization of a cobalt-tungsten alloy coating electrodeposited on the ferritic steel Crofer 22 H which subsequently was oxidized in air......A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  12. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  13. Si micro photonics for optical interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, K.; Ahn, D.H.; Lim, D.R.; Michel, J.; Kimerling, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews current status of silicon microphotonics and the recent prototype of on-chip optical interconnection. Si microphotonics pursues complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatibility of photonic devices to reduce the materials diversity eventually to integrate on Si chips. Fractal optical H-trees have been implemented on a chip and found to be a technology breakthrough beyond metal interconnection. It has shown that large RC time constants associated with metal can be eliminated at least long distant data communication on a chip, and eventually improve yield and power issues. This has become the world's first electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) and the possibility of at least 10 GHz clocking for personal computers has been demonstrated

  14. Copper Nanowire Production for Interconnect Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of fabricating metallic Cu nanowires with lengths up to about 25 micrometers and diameters in a range 20-100 nanometers, or greater if desired. Vertically oriented or laterally oriented copper oxide structures (CuO and/or Cu2O) are grown on a Cu substrate. The copper oxide structures are reduced with 99+ percent H or H2, and in this reduction process the lengths decrease (to no more than about 25 micrometers), the density of surviving nanostructures on a substrate decreases, and the diameters of the surviving nanostructures have a range, of about 20-100 nanometers. The resulting nanowires are substantially pure Cu and can be oriented laterally (for local or global interconnects) or can be oriented vertically (for standard vertical interconnects).

  15. Accurate Modeling Method for Cu Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenta; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Asai, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Hideo; Okada, Norio; Yasuda, Makoto; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio; Hiroi, Masayuki; Takewaki, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Sadayuki; Iguchi, Manabu; Minda, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mieko

    This paper proposes an accurate modeling method of the copper interconnect cross-section in which the width and thickness dependence on layout patterns and density caused by processes (CMP, etching, sputtering, lithography, and so on) are fully, incorporated and universally expressed. In addition, we have developed specific test patterns for the model parameters extraction, and an efficient extraction flow. We have extracted the model parameters for 0.15μm CMOS using this method and confirmed that 10%τpd error normally observed with conventional LPE (Layout Parameters Extraction) was completely dissolved. Moreover, it is verified that the model can be applied to more advanced technologies (90nm, 65nm and 55nm CMOS). Since the interconnect delay variations due to the processes constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.

  16. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  17. Interconnection of psychology, color and design

    OpenAIRE

    Minchuk, A. M.; Kudryashova, Aleksandra Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the direct interconnection between color, design and psychology on the basis of theoretical and historical analysis. It describes the peculiarities of how peopleperceive color. In the paper some of the historical details concerning the way our ancestors used color are presented and the modern scientific discoveries in the field of psychology, which give the evidence of the great psychological, emotional and physical influence of color on a person are shown as well. The pape...

  18. Computer simulation of electromigration in microelectronics interconnect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoxin

    2014-01-01

    Electromigration (EM) is a phenomenon that occurs in metal conductor carrying high density electric current. EM causes voids and hillocks that may lead to open or short circuits in electronic devices. Avoiding these failures therefore is a major challenge in semiconductor device and packaging design and manufacturing, and it will become an even greater challenge for the semiconductor assembly and packaging industry as electronics components and interconnects get smaller and smaller. According...

  19. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  20. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  1. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  2. Upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado Castillo, R.; Aguilar Pacheco, R.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the results obtained in the upgrade the intervention levels derived for water and foods, to be include in the PERE 607 procedure the external radiological emergency plan in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  3. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  4. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  5. Implementation of interconnect simulation tools in spice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsangi, H.; Schutt-Aine, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of high speed digital computer circuits and communication circuits requires a multimode approach to simulate both the devices and the interconnects between devices. Classical circuit analysis algorithms (lumped parameter) are needed for circuit devices and the network formed by the interconnected devices. The interconnects, however, have to be modeled as transmission lines which incorporate electromagnetic field analysis. An approach to writing a multimode simulator is to take an existing software package which performs either lumped parameter analysis or field analysis and add the missing type of analysis routines to the package. In this work a traditionally lumped parameter simulator, SPICE, is modified so that it will perform lossy transmission line analysis using a different model approach. Modifying SPICE3E2 or any other large software package is not a trivial task. An understanding of the programming conventions used, simulation software, and simulation algorithms is required. This thesis was written to clarify the procedure for installing a device into SPICE3E2. The installation of three devices is documented and the installations of the first two provide a foundation for installation of the lossy line which is the third device. The details of discussions are specific to SPICE, but the concepts will be helpful when performing installations into other circuit analysis packages.

  6. The variability of interconnected wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We present the first frequency-dependent analyses of the geographic smoothing of wind power's variability, analyzing the interconnected measured output of 20 wind plants in Texas. Reductions in variability occur at frequencies corresponding to times shorter than ∼24 h and are quantified by measuring the departure from a Kolmogorov spectrum. At a frequency of 2.8x10 -4 Hz (corresponding to 1 h), an 87% reduction of the variability of a single wind plant is obtained by interconnecting 4 wind plants. Interconnecting the remaining 16 wind plants produces only an additional 8% reduction. We use step change analyses and correlation coefficients to compare our results with previous studies, finding that wind power ramps up faster than it ramps down for each of the step change intervals analyzed and that correlation between the power output of wind plants 200 km away is half that of co-located wind plants. To examine variability at very low frequencies, we estimate yearly wind energy production in the Great Plains region of the United States from automated wind observations at airports covering 36 years. The estimated wind power has significant inter-annual variability and the severity of wind drought years is estimated to be about half that observed nationally for hydroelectric power.

  7. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  8. Exploring the interconnections between gender, health and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBride-Stewart, S; Gong, Y; Antell, J

    2016-12-01

    Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles. We took two approaches for this review to provide an overview and analysis of the range of research in the field, and to present a framework of research that is an analysis of the intersection of gender, health and nature. Four dimensions are distinguished: (1) evaluations of health benefits and 'toxicities' of nature; (2) dimensions and qualities of nature/space; (3) environmental justice including accessibility, availability and usability; and (4) identification of boundaries (symbolic/material) that construct differential relationships between nature, gender and health. This paper offers an understanding of how environmental and social conditions may differentially shape the health of women and men. The dimensions direct analytical attention to the diverse linkages that constitute overlapping and inseparable domains of knowledge and practice, to identify complex interconnections between gender, health and nature. This review therefore analyses assumptions about the health benefits of nature, and its risks, for gender from an in-depth, analytical perspective that can be used to inform policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  9. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  10. Installation and Quality Assurance of the Interconnections between Cryo-assemblies of the LHC Long Straight Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C; Tock, J P

    2006-01-01

    The interconnections between the cryomagnets and cryogenic utilities in the LHC long Straight Sections constitute the last machine installation activity. They are ensuring continuity of the beam and insulation vacuum systems, cryogenic fluid and electrical circuits and thermal insulation. The assembly is carried out in a constraining tunnel environment with restricted space. Therefore, the assembly sequence has to be well defined and specific tests have to be performed during the interconnection work to secure the reliability of the system and thus to ensure the global accelerator availability. The LHC has 8 long straight insertion zones composed of special cryomagnets involving specific interconnection procedures and QA plans. The aim of this paper is to present the installation and quality assurance procedures implemented for the LHC LSS interconnections. Technologies such as manual and automatic welding and resistive soldering will be described as well as the different quality controls, such as visual and ...

  11. Decentralised output feedback control of Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Wei; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-07-01

    The problem of decentralised output feedback control is addressed for Markovian jump interconnected systems with unknown interconnections and general transition rates (TRs) allowed to be unknown or known with uncertainties. A class of decentralised dynamic output feedback controllers are constructed, and a cyclic-small-gain condition is exploited to dispose the unknown interconnections so that the resultant closed-loop system is stochastically stable and satisfies an H∞ performance. With slack matrices to cope with the nonlinearities incurred by unknown and uncertain TRs in control synthesis, a novel controller design condition is developed in linear matrix inequality formalism. Compared with the existing works, the proposed approach leads to less conservatism. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the new results.

  12. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  13. Interconnectivity and the Electronic Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Riggs

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Due to the emphasis on the use of computing networks on campuses and to the very nature of more information being accessible to library users only via electronic means, we are witnessing a migration to electronic academic libraries. this new type of library is being required to have interconnections with the campus' other online information/data systems. Arizona State University libraries have been provided the opportunity to develop an electronic library that will be the focal point of a campus-wide information/data network.

  14. Progress report on first year of WP5.2. Including detailed description of planned research for WP 5.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellemers, N.; Van Dijk, E.; Terwel, B.; De Vries, G. [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    This document contains the progress report on the first half year of the CATO-2 WP5.2 PhD project 'Framing effects in communication about CCS'. In the first few months a literature study has been conducted, both on (factors that influence) public perceptions and acceptance of CCS, and on framing. In the last two month, a first study was designed. This study consists of an experiment designed to examine how framing a company's involvement in CCS in terms of economic benefits and/or CSR of the organization affects the corporate image, trust, and perceived 'greenwashing' (deceit). Furthermore, this experiment serves to test the quality of newly developed questionnaires to measure these variables. In addition, this document contains a detailed description of the research planned for WP5.2 written by senior (CATO-2) researchers from January 2010 on. The objective of the research planned for WP5.2 is to examine whether framing of communications by an organization can improve the perceived credibility and trustworthiness of the organization and the information provided. This issue will be examined by a combination of experimental studies and a survey-type study.

  15. Superconducting Multilayer High-Density Flexible Printed Circuit Board for Very High Thermal Resistance Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Le Coguie, Alain; Sauvageot, Jean-Luc; Pigot, Claude; Coppolani, Xavier; Moreau, Vincent; d'Hollosy, Samuel; Knarosovski, Timur; Engel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    We have successively developed two superconducting flexible PCBs for cryogenic applications. The first one is monolayer, includes 552 tracks (10 µm wide, 20 µm spacing), and receives 24 wire-bonded integrated circuits. The second one is multilayer, with one track layer between two shielding layers interconnected by microvias, includes 37 tracks, and can be interconnected at both ends by wire bonding or by connectors. The first cold measurements have been performed and show good performances. The novelty of these products is, for the first one, the association of superconducting materials with very narrow pitch and bonded integrated circuits and, for the second one, the introduction of a superconducting multilayer structure interconnected by vias which is, to our knowledge, a world-first.

  16. Thermoelectric Coolers with Sintered Silver Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Julian; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication and performance of a sintered Peltier cooler (SPC) based on bismuth telluride with sintered silver interconnects are described. Miniature SPC modules with a footprint of 20 mm2 were assembled using pick-and-place pressure-assisted silver sintering at low pressure (5.5 N/mm2) and moderate temperature (250°C to 270°C). A modified flip-chip bonder combined with screen/stencil printing for paste transfer was used for the pick-and-place process, enabling high positioning accuracy, easy handling of the tiny bismuth telluride pellets, and immediate visual process control. A specific contact resistance of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10-5 Ω cm2 was found, which is in the range of values reported for high-temperature solder interconnects of bismuth telluride pellets. The realized SPCs were evaluated from room temperature to 300°C, considerably outperforming the operating temperature range of standard commercial Peltier coolers. Temperature cycling capability was investigated from 100°C to 235°C over more than 200 h, i.e., 850 cycles, during which no degradation of module resistance or cooling performance occurred.

  17. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  18. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  19. Towards energy aware optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesk, Ivan; Osadola, Tolulope; Idris, Siti

    2013-10-01

    In a today's world, information technology has been identified as one of the major factors driving economic prosperity. Datacenters businesses have been growing significantly in the past few years. The equipments in these datacenters need to be efficiently connected to each other and also to the outside world in order to enable effective exchange of information. This is why there is need for highly scalable, energy savvy and reliable network connectivity infrastructure that is capable of accommodating the large volume of data being exchanged at any time within the datacenter network and the outside network in general. These devices that can ensure such effective connectivity currently require large amount of energy in order to meet up with these increasing demands. In this paper, an overview of works being done towards realizing energy aware optical networks and interconnects for datacenters is presented. Also an OCDMA approach is discussed as potential multiple access technique for future optical network interconnections. We also presented some challenges that might inhibit effective implementation of the OCDMA multiplexing scheme.

  20. High-speed VCSEL-based optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih S.

    2001-11-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have made significant inroads into commercial realization especially in the area of data communications. Single VCSEL devices are key components in Gb Ethernet Transceivers. A multi-element VCSEL array is the key enabling technology for high-speed multi Gb/s parallel optical interconnect modules. In 1996, several companies introduced a new generation of fiber optic products based VCSEL technology such as multimode fiber transceivers for the ANSI Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. VCSELs offer unique advantages over its edge-emitting counterparts in several areas. These include low-cost (LED-like) manufacturability, low current operation and array integrability. As data rates continue to increase, VCSELs offer the advantage of being able to provide the highest modulation bandwidth per milliamp of modulation current. Currently, most of the VCSEL-based products use short (780 - 980 nm) wavelength lasers. However, significant research efforts are taking place at universities and industrial research labs around the world to develop reliable, manufacturable and high-power long (1300 - 1550 nm) wavelength VCSELs. These lasers will allow longer (several km) transmission distances and will help alleviate some of the eye-safety issues. Perhaps, the most important advantage of VCSELs is the ability to form two-dimensional arrays much easier than in the case of edge-emitting lasers. These arrays (single and two-dimensional) will allow a whole new family of applications, specifically in very high-speed computer and switch interconnects.

  1. A Privacy-Preserving Distributed Optimal Scheduling for Interconnected Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microgrids (MGs, interconnected operation of multiple MGs is becoming a promising strategy for the smart grid. In this paper, a privacy-preserving distributed optimal scheduling method is proposed for the interconnected microgrids (IMG with a battery energy storage system (BESS and renewable energy resources (RESs. The optimal scheduling problem is modeled to minimize the coalitional operation cost of the IMG, including the fuel cost of conventional distributed generators and the life loss cost of BESSs. By using the framework of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM, a distributed optimal scheduling model and an iteration solution algorithm for the IMG is introduced; only the expected exchanging power (EEP of each MG is required during the iterations. Furthermore, a privacy-preserving strategy for the sharing of the EEP among MGs is designed to work with the mechanism of the distributed algorithm. According to the security analysis, the EEP can be delivered in a cooperative and privacy-preserving way. A case study and numerical results are given in terms of the convergence of the algorithm, the comparison of the costs and the implementation efficiency.

  2. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency, therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a global bus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  4. Planned development and evaluation protocol of two versions of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at adults, including cognitive and environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, Linda; Lechner, Lilian; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-17

    Despite decades of nutrition education, the prevalence of unhealthy dietary patterns is still high and inequalities in intake between high and low socioeconomic groups still exist. Therefore, it is important to innovate and improve existing nutrition education interventions. This paper describes the development, design and evaluation protocol of a web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention for adults targeting fruit, vegetable, high-energy snack and fat intake. This intervention innovates existing computer-tailored interventions by not only targeting motivational factors, but also volitional and self-regulation processes and environmental-level factors. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, ensuring a theory-informed and evidence-based intervention. Two versions of the intervention were developed: a basic version targeting knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy and volitional and self-regulation processes, and a plus version additionally addressing the home environment arrangement and the availability and price of healthy food products in supermarkets. Both versions consist of four modules: one for each dietary behavior, i.e. fruit, vegetables, high-energy snacks and fat. Based on the self-regulation phases, each module is divided into three sessions. In the first session, feedback on dietary behavior is provided to increase awareness, feedback on attitude and self-efficacy is provided and goals and action plans are stated. In the second session goal achievement is evaluated, reasons for failure are explored, coping plans are stated and goals can be adapted. In the third session, participants can again evaluate their behavioral change and tips for maintenance are provided. Both versions will be evaluated in a three-group randomized controlled trial with measurements at baseline, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months post-intervention, using online questionnaires. Both versions will be compared with a generic

  5. NRC program for the resolution of generic issues related to nuclear power plants. (Includes plans for the resolution of ''unresolved safety issues'' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This report provides a description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Program for the Resolution of Generic Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plants. The NRC program is of considerably broader scope than the ''Unresolved Safety Issues Plan'' required by Section 210. The NRC program does include plans for the resolution of ''Unresolved Safety Issues''; however, in addition, it includes generic tasks for the resolution of environmental issues, for the development of improvements in the reactor licensing process and for consideration of less conservative design criteria or operating limitations in areas where over conservatisms may be unnecessarily restrictive or costly

  6. Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections Via Dynamic Computer-Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor); Zhou, Shao-Min (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system is presented for optically providing one-to-many irregular interconnections, and strength-adjustable many-to-many irregular interconnections which may be provided with strengths (weights) w(sub ij) using multiple laser beams which address multiple holograms and means for combining the beams modified by the holograms to form multiple interconnections, such as a cross-bar switching network. The optical means for interconnection is based on entering a series of complex computer-generated holograms on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator for real-time reconfigurations, thus providing flexibility for interconnection networks for large-scale practical use. By employing multiple sources and holograms, the number of interconnection patterns achieved is increased greatly.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  8. Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary

  9. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  10. Interconnection network architectures based on integrated orbital angular momentum emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffardi, Mirco; Zhang, Ning; Malik, Muhammad Nouman; Lazzeri, Emma; Klitis, Charalambos; Lavery, Martin; Sorel, Marc; Bogoni, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    Novel architectures for two-layer interconnection networks based on concentric OAM emitters are presented. A scalability analysis is done in terms of devices characteristics, power budget and optical signal to noise ratio by exploiting experimentally measured parameters. The analysis shows that by exploiting optical amplifications, the proposed interconnection networks can support a number of ports higher than 100. The OAM crosstalk induced-penalty, evaluated through an experimental characterization, do not significantly affect the interconnection network performance.

  11. Self-Rerouting and Curative Interconnect Technology (SERCUIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SPECIAL REPORT RDMR-CS-17-01 SELF-REROUTING AND CURATIVE INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY (SERCUIT) Shiv Joshi Concepts to Systems, Inc...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-Rerouting and Curative Interconnect Technology (SERCUIT) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Shiv Joshi...concepts2systems.com (p) 434-207-5189 x (f) Click to view full size Title Contract Number SELF-REROUTING AND CURATIVE INTERCONNECT TECHNOLOGY (SERCUIT) W911W6-17-C-0029

  12. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  13. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debat...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  14. Financial viability of the Sonora-Baja California interconnection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ortega, G.

    2017-09-01

    In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector 2015-2029, an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California (Mexico) is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line. The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. (Author)

  15. 78 FR 73239 - Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1547 for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power... discriminatory manner.\\38\\ \\37\\ The Electricity Consumers Resource Council, American Chemistry Council, American...

  16. DIMACS Workshop on Interconnection Networks and Mapping, and Scheduling Parallel Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Arnold L; Sotteau, Dominique; NSF Science and Technology Center in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science; Interconnection networks and mapping and scheduling parallel computations

    1995-01-01

    The interconnection network is one of the most basic components of a massively parallel computer system. Such systems consist of hundreds or thousands of processors interconnected to work cooperatively on computations. One of the central problems in parallel computing is the task of mapping a collection of processes onto the processors and routing network of a parallel machine. Once this mapping is done, it is critical to schedule computations within and communication among processor from universities and laboratories, as well as practitioners involved in the design, implementation, and application of massively parallel systems. Focusing on interconnection networks of parallel architectures of today and of the near future , the book includes topics such as network topologies,network properties, message routing, network embeddings, network emulation, mappings, and efficient scheduling. inputs for a process are available where and when the process is scheduled to be computed. This book contains the refereed pro...

  17. X-Ray Microdiffraction as a Probe to Reveal Flux Divergences in Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2006-02-01

    Most reliability issues in interconnect systems occur at a local scale and many of them include the local build-up of stresses. Typical failure mechanisms are electromigration and stress voiding in interconnect lines and fatigue in surface acoustic wave devices. Thus a local probe is required for the investigation of these phenomena. In this paper the application of the Laue microdiffraction technique to investigate flux divergences in interconnect systems will be described. The deviatoric strain tensor of single grains can be correlated with the local microstructure, orientation and defect density. Especially the latter led to recent results about the correlation of stress build-up and orientation in Cu lines and electromigration-induced grain rotation in Cu and Al lines.

  18. MATL : Canada's first merchant power transmission interconnection : experiences and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. (MATL) merchant transmission project was outlined with reference to the business concept, the advantages of the project and market opportunities. Some of the challenges facing the project were discussed along with lessons learned and accomplishments thus far. MATL is preparing to construct a privately funded transmission line between Lethbridge, Alberta and Great Falls, Montana. The project represents the first direct power transmission inter-connection between Montana and Alberta. The 346 km, 230 kV AC transmission line with phase shifting transformer and 300 MW transfer capacity will be a synchronous interconnection and will improve the reliability of the entire electric systems in both Montana and Alberta. The benefits of the interconnected power system include increased reliability and stability of the existing power grids; better import/export capabilities; more competition and options in the marketplace; greater flexibility in scheduling generator maintenance; and, optimal allocation of generation resources. tabs., figs

  19. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process

  20. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  1. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  2. Study on application of a high-speed trigger-type SFCL (TSFCL) for interconnection of power systems with different reliabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Ji; Yoon, Yong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of TSFCL to interconnect systems with different reliabilities is proposed. • TSFCL protects a grid by preventing detrimental effects from being delivered through the interconnection line. • A high-speed TSFCL with high impedance for transmission systems is required to be developed. - Abstract: Interconnection of power systems is one effective way to improve power supply reliability. However, differences in the reliability of each power system create a greater obstacle for the stable interconnection of power systems, as after interconnection a high-reliability system is affected by frequent faults in low reliability side systems. Several power system interconnection methods, such as the back-to-back method and the installation of either transformers or series reactors, have been investigated to counteract the damage caused by faults in the other neighboring systems. However, these methods are uneconomical and require complex operational management plans. In this work, a high-speed trigger-type superconducting fault current limiter (TSFCL) with large-impedance is proposed as a solution to maintain reliability and power quality when a high reliability power system is interconnected with a low reliability power system. Through analysis of the reliability index for the numerical examples obtained from a PSCAD/EMTDC simulator, a high-speed TSFCL with a large-impedance is confirmed to be effective for the interconnection between power systems with different reliabilities.

  3. Extraction of MOS VLSI (Very-Large-Scale-Integrated) Circuit Models Including Critical Interconnect Parasitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    level descrip- tion without human intervention. Although design rules and the layout function may not be checked, performance verification is still a...digital syvstems.- Proc. I1E1., vol. 69. no. 10. pp. 1200-1211. October 198 1. [2] A. Gupta, AT A circuit extractor." Proc. 20th Design Automiation

  4. Interconnecting Multidiscilinary Data Infrastructures: From Federation to Brokering Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Standardization and federation activities have been played an essential role to push interoperability at the disciplinary and cross-disciplinary level. However, they demonstrated not to be sufficient to resolve important interoperability challenges, including: disciplinary heterogeneity, cross-organizations diversities, cultural differences. Significant international initiatives like GEOSS, IODE, and CEOS demonstrated that a federation system dealing with global and multi-disciplinary domain turns out to be rater complex, raising more the already high entry level barriers for both Providers and Users. In particular, GEOSS demonstrated that standardization and federation actions must be accompanied and complemented by a brokering approach. Brokering architecture and its implementing technologies are able to implement an effective interoperability level among multi-disciplinary systems, lowering the entry level barriers for both data providers and users. This presentation will discuss the brokering philosophy as a complementary approach for standardization and federation to interconnect existing and heterogeneous infrastructures and systems. The GEOSS experience will be analyzed, specially.

  5. The GIOD Project-Globally Interconnected Object Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, J J; Newman, H B; Wilkinson, R P

    2001-01-01

    The GIOD (Globally Interconnected Object Databases) Project, a joint effort between Caltech and CERN, funded by Hewlett Packard Corporation, has investigated the use of WAN-distributed Object Databases and Mass Storage systems for LHC data. A prototype small- scale LHC data analysis center has been constructed using computing resources at Caltechs Centre for advanced Computing Research (CACR). These resources include a 256 CPU HP Exemplar of ~4600 SPECfp95, a 600 TByte High Performance Storage System (HPSS), and local/wide area links based on OC3 ATM. Using the exemplar, a large number of fully simulated CMS events were produced, and used to populate an object database with a complete schema for raw, reconstructed and analysis objects. The reconstruction software used for this task was based on early codes developed in preparation for the current CMS reconstruction program, ORCA. (6 refs).

  6. Post-Kyoto energy consumption strategies for the Greek interconnected electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoumas, A.S.; Panapakidis, I.P.; Papagiannis, G.K.; Dokopoulos, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The liberalization of the Greek electric market (Law 2773/99, updated with Laws 3175/2003 and 3426/2005 for incorporating Directive 2003/54 into the Greek legislation) is in its final structural transformation, which includes the fact that from 1.7.2007 each customer can select its electricity provider. This new status together with the procedure towards the formation of a post-Kyoto plan, raise the need of examining different energy saving strategies in the consumption side for evaluating their economic and environmental consequences. Such strategies may be useful for the decision makers or the electricity retail companies. This paper examines the influence of several post-Kyoto electricity consumption strategies in the Greek interconnected electric system for the period 2005-2025. The aim of the paper is to be used as a decision makers' tool for investigating the potential of electricity consumption policies. The results show that policies related either to seasonal peak demand control, or targeting at the total electric consumption lead to significant gains and emission reduction. Moreover the influence of factors, such as the weather conditions, the discount rate of the energy investments, the fuel prices evolution and the consumers' behavior linkage with oil prices are examined

  7. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  8. Optimal interconnection and renewable targets for north-west Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Muireann Á.; Tol, Richard S.J.; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a mixed-integer, linear programming model for determining optimal interconnection for a given level of renewable generation using a cost minimisation approach. Optimal interconnection and capacity investment decisions are determined under various targets for renewable penetration. The model is applied to a test system for eight regions in Northern Europe. It is found that considerations on the supply side dominate demand side considerations when determining optimal interconnection investment: interconnection is found to decrease generation capacity investment and total costs only when there is a target for renewable generation. Higher wind integration costs see a concentration of wind in high-wind regions with interconnection to other regions. - Highlights: ► We use mixed-integer linear programming to determine optimal interconnection locations for given renewable targets. ► The model is applied to a test system for eight regions in Northern Europe. ► Interconnection reduces costs only when there is a renewable target. ► Wind integration costs affect the interconnection portfolio.

  9. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow between them due to gravity or flight accelerations, it must be impossible for fuel to flow between tanks in...

  10. Robert Aymar seals the last interconnect in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The LHC completes the circle. On 7 November, in a brief ceremony in the LHC tunnel, CERN Director General Robert Aymar (Photo 1) sealed the last interconnect between the main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Jean-Philippe Tock, leader of the Interconnections team, tightens the last bolt (Photos 4-8).

  11. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  12. Mapping of interconnection of climate risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohata, Tokuta; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Nishina, Kazuya; Takanashi, Kiyoshi; Emori, Seita; Kiguchi, Masashi; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Honda, Yasushi; Okada, Masashi; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Yamamoto, Akitomo; Shigemitsu, Masahito; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Iwase, Kenta; Hanasaki, Naota; Ito, Akihiko; Sakurai, Gen; Iizumi, Toshichika; Oki, Taikan

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change possibly causes various impacts on human society and ecosystem. Here, we call possible damages or benefits caused by the future climate change as "climate risks". Many climate risks are closely interconnected with each other by direct cause-effect relationship. In this study, the major climate risks are comprehensively summarized based on the survey of studies in the literature using IPCC AR5 etc, and their cause-effect relationship are visualized by a "network diagram". This research is conducted by the collaboration between the experts of various fields, such as water, energy, agriculture, health, society, and eco-system under the project called ICA-RUS (Integrated Climate Assessment - Risks, Uncertainties and Society). First, the climate risks are classified into 9 categories (water, energy, food, health, disaster, industry, society, ecosystem, and tipping elements). Second, researchers of these fields in our project survey the research articles, and pick up items of climate risks, and possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items. A long list of the climate risks is summarized into ~130, and that of possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items is summarized into ~300, because the network diagram would be illegible if the number of the risk items and cause-effect relationship is too large. Here, we only consider the risks that could occur if climate mitigation policies are not conducted. Finally, the chain of climate risks is visualized by creating a "network diagram" based on a network graph theory (Fruchtman & Reingold algorithm). Through the analysis of network diagram, we find that climate risks at various sectors are closely related. For example, the decrease in the precipitation under the global climate change possibly causes the decrease in river runoff and the decrease in soil moisture, which causes the changes in crop production. The changes in crop production can have an impact on society by

  13. Next generation space interconnect research and development in space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Interconnect or "bus" is one of the critical technologies in design of spacecraft avionics systems that dictates its architecture and complexity. MIL-STD-1553B has long been used as the avionics backbone technology. As avionics systems become more and more capable and complex, however, limitations of MIL-STD-1553B such as insufficient 1 Mbps bandwidth and separability have forced current avionics architects and designers to use combination of different interconnect technologies in order to meet various requirements: CompactPCI is used for backplane interconnect; LVDS or RS422 is used for low and high-speed direct point-to-point interconnect; and some proprietary interconnect standards are designed for custom interfaces. This results in a very complicated system that consumes significant spacecraft mass and power and requires extensive resources in design, integration and testing of spacecraft systems.

  14. Optical backplane interconnect switch for data processors and computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.; Benz, Harry F.; Hammer, Jacob M.

    1989-01-01

    An optoelectronic integrated device design is reported which can be used to implement an all-optical backplane interconnect switch. The switch is sized to accommodate an array of processors and memories suitable for direct replacement into the basic avionic multiprocessor backplane. The optical backplane interconnect switch is also suitable for direct replacement of the PI bus traffic switch and at the same time, suitable for supporting pipelining of the processor and memory. The 32 bidirectional switchable interconnects are configured with broadcast capability for controls, reconfiguration, and messages. The approach described here can handle a serial interconnection of data processors or a line-to-link interconnection of data processors. An optical fiber demonstration of this approach is presented.

  15. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.

  16. Production and characterization of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 micron thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. T...

  17. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  18. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  19. 76 FR 45248 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-002; Docket No. EL11-20-001] PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., PJM Power Providers Group v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice of Staff Technical Conference On June 13, 2011, the Commission issued... Resources Services, Inc., Maryland Public Service Commission, Monitoring Analytics, L.L.C., National Rural...

  20. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

  1. Thermal Runaways in LHC Interconnections: Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; Bottura, L; Scheuerlein, C; Verweij, A P

    2011-01-01

    The incident in the LHC in September 2008 occurred in an interconnection between two magnets of the 13 kA dipole circuit. This event was traced to a defect in one of the soldered joints between two superconducting cables stabilized by a copper busbar. Further investigation revealed defective joints of other types. A combination of (1) a poor contact between the superconducting cable and the copper stabilizer and (2) an electrical discontinuity in the stabilizer at the level of the connection can lead to an unprotected quench of the busbar. Once the heating power in the unprotected superconducting cable exceeds the heat removal capacity a thermal run-away occurs, resulting in a fast melt-down of the non-stabilized cable. We have performed a thorough investigation of the conditions upon which a thermal run-away in the defect can occur. To this aim, we have prepared heavily instrumented samples with well-defined and controlled defects. In this paper we describe the experiment, and the analysis of the data, and w...

  2. Microtexture of Strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolenak, R.; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 mm to 5 mm and thickness of 1 mm were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB)

  3. Landfill Gas Electricity Project Interconnection Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about a webinar LMOP offered to LMOP Partners to address questions associated with connecting electricity generating systems to the grid during LFG energy project planning and implementation.

  4. Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.K.; Pandya, N.D.; Kaushik, B.K.; Manhas, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.

  5. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  6. Interacting Social Processes on Interconnected Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila G Alvarez-Zuzek

    Full Text Available We propose and study a model for the interplay between two different dynamical processes -one for opinion formation and the other for decision making- on two interconnected networks A and B. The opinion dynamics on network A corresponds to that of the M-model, where the state of each agent can take one of four possible values (S = -2,-1, 1, 2, describing its level of agreement on a given issue. The likelihood to become an extremist (S = ±2 or a moderate (S = ±1 is controlled by a reinforcement parameter r ≥ 0. The decision making dynamics on network B is akin to that of the Abrams-Strogatz model, where agents can be either in favor (S = +1 or against (S = -1 the issue. The probability that an agent changes its state is proportional to the fraction of neighbors that hold the opposite state raised to a power β. Starting from a polarized case scenario in which all agents of network A hold positive orientations while all agents of network B have a negative orientation, we explore the conditions under which one of the dynamics prevails over the other, imposing its initial orientation. We find that, for a given value of β, the two-network system reaches a consensus in the positive state (initial state of network A when the reinforcement overcomes a crossover value r*(β, while a negative consensus happens for r βc. We develop an analytical mean-field approach that gives an insight into these regimes and shows that both dynamics are equivalent along the crossover line (r*, β*.

  7. On-chip photonic interconnects a computer architect's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Christopher J; Akella, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cores on a chip continues to climb, architects will need to address both bandwidth and power consumption issues related to the interconnection network. Electrical interconnects are not likely to scale well to a large number of processors for energy efficiency reasons, and the problem is compounded by the fact that there is a fixed total power budget for a die, dictated by the amount of heat that can be dissipated without special (and expensive) cooling and packaging techniques. Thus, there is a need to seek alternatives to electrical signaling for on-chip interconnection appli

  8. The Enhanced Segment Interconnect for FASTBUS data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.; Downing, R.W.; Kirsten, F.A.; Nelson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The Enhanced Segment Interconnect concept (ESI) for improved FASTBUS data communications is a development supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The ESI will contain both the Segment Interconnect (SI) Tyhpe S-1 and an optional buffered interconnect for store-and-forward data communications; fiber-optic-coupled serial ports will provide optional data paths. The ESI can be applied in large FASTBUS-implemented physics experiments whose data-set or data-transmission distance requirements dictate alternate approaches to data communications. This paper describes the functions of the ESI and the status of its development, now 25% complete

  9. Investigation and experimental validation of the contribution of optical interconnects in the SYMPHONIE massively parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Progress in microelectronics lead to electronic circuits which are increasingly integrated, with an operating frequency and an inputs/outputs count larger than the ones supported by printed circuit board and back-plane technologies. As a result, distributed systems with several boards cannot fully exploit the performance of integrated circuits. In synchronous parallel computers, the situation is worsen since the overall system performances rely on the efficiency of electrical interconnects between the integrated circuits which include the processing elements (PE). The study of a real parallel computer named SYMPHONIE shows for instance that the system operating frequency is far smaller than the capabilities of the microelectronics technology used for the PE implementation. Optical interconnections may cancel these limitations by providing more efficient connections between the PE. Especially, free-space optical interconnections based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL), micro-lens and PIN photodiodes are compatible with the required features of the PE communications. Zero bias modulation of VCSEL with CMOS-compatible digital signals is studied and experimentally demonstrated. A model of the propagation of truncated gaussian beams through micro-lenses is developed. It is then used to optimise the geometry of the detection areas. A dedicated mechanical system is also proposed and implemented for integrating free-space optical interconnects in a standard electronic environment, representative of the one of parallel computer systems. A specially designed demonstrator provides the experimental validation of the above physical concepts. (author) [fr

  10. The economic impacts of a submarine HVDC interconnection between Norway and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard L.; Frøystad, Dag Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we analyze the profitability of different HVDC interconnection alternatives between Norway and Great Britain for present and future scenarios. The analysis is done from a merchant and a social welfare perspective. The analyses include interconnections between Norway and Scotland and Southern Great Britain, respectively, as well as an alternative link to a future offshore wind farm. From a social welfare perspective the northern interconnection alternative is profitable under all sets of assumptions. The southern alternative is profitable under present conditions, but less than the northern alternative. The alternative link to the offshore wind park is not profitable, but this result is highly dependent on market conditions. From a merchant perspective none of the alternatives is profitable, clearly illustrating that leaving investments to commercial parties does not realize all projects that increase social welfare. - Highlights: • Profitability of interconnection between Norway and GB is analyzed using simulation. • The Northern alternative increases social welfare under all assumptions. • None of the alternatives is profitable from a merchant perspective. • A link to a prospective wind farm 200 km from the GB coast is not profitable. • Social welfare increasing infrastructure may not be built on commercial conditions

  11. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  12. Opto-Electronic and Interconnects Hierarchical Design Automation System (OE-IDEAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turowski, M

    2004-01-01

    As microelectronics technology continues to advance, the associated electrical interconnection technology is not likely to keep pace, due to many parasitic effects appearing in metallic interconnections...

  13. Free-Space Optical Interconnect Employing VCSEL Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Savich, Gregory R.; Torres, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Sensor signal processing is widely used on aircraft and spacecraft. The scheme employs multiple input/output nodes for data acquisition and CPU (central processing unit) nodes for data processing. To connect 110 nodes and CPU nodes, scalable interconnections such as backplanes are desired because the number of nodes depends on requirements of each mission. An optical backplane consisting of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), VCSEL drivers, photodetectors, and transimpedance amplifiers is the preferred approach since it can handle several hundred megabits per second data throughput.The next generation of satellite-borne systems will require transceivers and processors that can handle several Gb/s of data. Optical interconnects have been praised for both their speed and functionality with hopes that light can relieve the electrical bottleneck predicted for the near future. Optoelectronic interconnects provide a factor of ten improvement over electrical interconnects.

  14. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... poor by sharing innovations, best practices and indigenous knowledge using ... A third thematic network - on knowledge management strategies - will play an ...

  15. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  16. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  17. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  18. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  19. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Numerical simulation of CTE mismatch and thermal-structural stresses in the design of interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Geoffrey John M.

    With the ever-increasing chip complexity, interconnects have to be designed to meet the new challenges. Advances in optical lithography have made chip feature sizes available today at 70 nm dimensions. With advances in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, X-ray Lithography, and Ion Projection Lithography it is expected that the line width will further decrease to 20 nm or less. With the decrease in feature size, the number of active devices on the chip increases. With higher levels of circuit integration, the challenge is to dissipate the increased heat flux from the chip surface area. Thermal management considerations include coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matching to prevent failure between the chip and the board. This in turn calls for improved system performance and reliability of the electronic structural systems. Experience has shown that in most electronic systems, failures are mostly due to CTE mismatch between the chip, board, and the solder joint (solder interconnect). The resulting high thermal-structural stress and strain due to CTE mismatch produces cracks in the solder joints with eventual failure of the electronic component. In order to reduce the thermal stress between the chip, board, and the solder joint, this dissertation examines the effect of inserting wire bundle (wire interconnect) between the chip and the board. The flexibility of the wires or fibers would reduce the stress at the rigid joints. Numerical simulations of two, and three-dimensional models of the solder and wire interconnects are examined. The numerical simulation is linear in nature and is based on linear isotropic material properties. The effect of different wire material properties is examined. The effect of varying the wire diameter is studied by changing the wire diameter. A major cause of electronic equipment failure is due to fatigue failure caused by thermal cycling, and vibrations. A two-dimensional modal and harmonic analysis was simulated for the wire interconnect

  1. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  2. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  3. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For years, most of the European electricity interconnections were managed using administrative mechanisms (priority lists or pro-rata), and a priority of access was granted to long-term contracts between incumbent operators. With the liberalization process, cross-border power flows tended to increase, and congestions occurred more frequently, calling for efficient congestion management methods. Furthermore, the European Regulation 1228/2003 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity came into force. Among other issues, it stipulated that 'network congestion problems shall be addressed with non-discriminatory market based solutions which give efficient economic signals to the market participants and transmission system operators involved'. In other words, cross-border capacity auctions had to be implemented. Due to repeated critical situations in December 2004 the past pro-rata procedure used for Germany to France exports was replaced as from 5 April 2005 by the introduction of a one-sided explicit auction for the day-ahead capacities by RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH and EnBW Transportnetze AG. In addition the capacities have been auctioned quarterly and monthly since 1 July 2005. During the summer of 2005, the Federal Network Agency and the Commission de Regulation de l'energie (CRE) set the priority for further developing the auctions in 2006 by having a coordinated congestion management mechanism for both directions. The general principles of the auction design were publicly consulted by the regulators together with further questions on cross-border exchanges in the autumn of 2005. The market participants' statements were assessed by the regulatory authorities and considered through the development of a common Road-map for the congestion management methods at the French-German border, published on 3 November 2005. In addition to the implementation of explicit auctions, this road-map included the

  4. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For years, most of the European electricity interconnections were managed using administrative mechanisms (priority lists or pro-rata), and a priority of access was granted to long-term contracts between incumbent operators. With the liberalization process, cross-border power flows tended to increase, and congestions occurred more frequently, calling for efficient congestion management methods. Furthermore, the European Regulation 1228/2003 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity came into force. Among other issues, it stipulated that 'network congestion problems shall be addressed with non-discriminatory market based solutions which give efficient economic signals to the market participants and transmission system operators involved'. In other words, cross-border capacity auctions had to be implemented. Due to repeated critical situations in December 2004 the past pro-rata procedure used for Germany to France exports was replaced as from 5 April 2005 by the introduction of a one-sided explicit auction for the day-ahead capacities by RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH and EnBW Transportnetze AG. In addition the capacities have been auctioned quarterly and monthly since 1 July 2005. During the summer of 2005, the Federal Network Agency and the Commission de Regulation de l'energie (CRE) set the priority for further developing the auctions in 2006 by having a coordinated congestion management mechanism for both directions. The general principles of the auction design were publicly consulted by the regulators together with further questions on cross-border exchanges in the autumn of 2005. The market participants' statements were assessed by the regulatory authorities and considered through the development of a common Road-map for the congestion management methods at the French-German border, published on 3 November 2005. In addition to the implementation of explicit auctions, this road-map included the establishment of a secondary

  5. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  6. Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1985-05-01

    Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 μs) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO 2 dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 μs, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO 2 (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 μm surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs

  7. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greacen, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Engel, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quetchenbach, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW is intended to help meet the widespread need for guidance, standards, and procedures for interconnecting mini-grids with the central electric grid as rural electrification advances in developing countries, bringing these once separate power systems together. The guidebook aims to help owners and operators of renewable energy mini-grids understand the technical options available, safety and reliability issues, and engineering and administrative costs of different choices for grid interconnection. The guidebook is intentionally brief but includes a number of appendices that point the reader to additional resources for indepth information. Not included in the scope of the guidebook are policy concerns about “who pays for what,” how tariffs should be set, or other financial issues that are also paramount when “the little grid connects to the big grid.”

  8. 76 FR 16405 - Notice of Attendance at PJM INterconnection, L.L.C., Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... INterconnection, L.L.C., Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., (PJM...: Docket No. EL05-121, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Docket No. ER06-456, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Docket...

  9. Electrode and interconnect for miniature fuel cells using direct methanol feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An improved system for interconnects in a fuel cell. In one embodiment, the membranes are located in parallel with one another, and current flow between them is facilitated by interconnects. In another embodiment, all of the current flow is through the interconnects which are located on the membranes. The interconnects are located between two electrodes.

  10. Perturbed cooperative-state feedback strategy for model predictive networked control of interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2018-01-01

    A perturbed cooperative-state feedback (PSF) strategy is presented for the control of interconnected systems in this paper. The subsystems of an interconnected system can exchange data via the communication network that has multiple connection topologies. The PSF strategy can resolve both issues, the sensor data losses and the communication network breaks, thanks to the two components of the control including a cooperative-state feedback and a perturbation variable, e.g., u i =K ij x j +w i . The PSF is implemented in a decentralized model predictive control scheme with a stability constraint and a non-monotonic storage function (ΔV(x(k))≥0), derived from the dissipative systems theory. Numerical simulation for the automatic generation control problem in power systems is studied to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented PSF strategy. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a New Insulation Approach for the LHC Main 13 kA Interconnection Splices

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Fessia, P; Lopez, R; Prin, H; Tock, J Ph

    2012-01-01

    In the long LHC (Large Hadron Collider) shutdown in 2013 it is foreseen to intervene on all the 13 kA interconnections in order to guarantee the necessary margin and redundancy to provide safe LHC operation at 7 TeV per beam. This implies reinforcement of the present interconnection configuration including a new insulation scheme of the busbars. The purpose of the new insulation model is to provide dielectric insulation with at least the same performance as its predecessor currently installed in the LHC machine, but in addition to contain the Lorentz forces. This paper describes the analytic and empirical approach of development to reach a new insulation concept based on state of the art materials and manufacturing techniques.

  12. Interconnection, Integration, and Interactive Impact Analysis of Microgrids and Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ning [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lu, Xiaonan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Distribution management systems (DMSs) are increasingly used by distribution system operators (DSOs) to manage the distribution grid and to monitor the status of both power imported from the transmission grid and power generated locally by a distributed energy resource (DER), to ensure that power flows and voltages along the feeders are maintained within designed limits and that appropriate measures are taken to guarantee service continuity and energy security. When microgrids are deployed and interconnected to the distribution grids, they will have an impact on the operation of the distribution grid. The challenge is to design this interconnection in such a way that it enhances the reliability and security of the distribution grid and the loads embedded in the microgrid, while providing economic benefits to all stakeholders, including the microgrid owner and operator and the distribution system operator.

  13. Generation adequacy and transmission interconnection in regional electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo; Finon, Dominique; Pignon, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    The power system capacity adequacy has public good features that cannot be entirely solved by electricity markets. Regulatory intervention is then necessary and established methods have been used to assess adequacy and help regulators to fix this market failure. In regional electricity markets, transmission interconnections play an important role in contributing to adequacy. However, the adequacy problem and related policy are typically considered at a national level. This paper presents a simple model to study how the interconnection capacity interacts with generation adequacy. First results indicate that increasing interconnection capacity between systems improves adequacy up to a certain level; further increases do not procure additional adequacy improvements. Furthermore, besides adequacy improvement, increasing transmission capacity under asymmetric adequacy criteria or national system characteristics could create several concerns about externalities. These results imply that regional coordination of national adequacy policies is essential to internalise adequacy of cross-border effects.

  14. Performance of WCN diffusion barrier for Cu multilevel interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-04-01

    The electrical and thermal properties of a WCN diffusion barrier have been studied for Cu multilevel interconnects. The WCN has been prepared using an atomic layer deposition system with WF6-CH4-NH3-H2 gases and has a very low resistivity of 100 µΩ cm and 96.9% step coverage on the high-aspect-ratio vias. The thermally stable WCN maintains an amorphous state at 800 °C and Cu/WCN contact resistance remains within a 10% deviation from the initial value after 700 °C. The mean time to failure suggests that the Cu/WCN interconnects have a longer lifetime than Cu/TaN and Cu/WN interconnects because WCN prevents Cu migration owing to the stress evolution from tensile to compressive.

  15. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  16. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  17. Bi cluster-assembled interconnects produced using SU8 templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J G; Matthewson, T; Brown, S A

    2007-01-01

    Bi clusters with an average diameter of 25 nm have been deposited from an inert gas aggregation source and assembled into thin-film interconnects which are formed between planar electrical contacts and supported on Si substrates passivated with Si 3 N 4 or thermally grown oxide. A layer of SU8 (a negative photoresist based on EPON SU-8 epoxy resin) is patterned using optical or electron-beam lithography, and it defines the position and dimensions of the cluster film. The conduction between the contacts is monitored throughout the deposition/assembly process, and subsequent I(V) characterization is performed in situ. Bi cluster-assembled interconnects have been fabricated with nanoscale widths and with up to 1:1 thickness:width aspect ratios. The conductivity of these interconnects has been increased, post-deposition, using a simple thermal annealing process

  18. Carbon nanotube based VLSI interconnects analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The brief primarily focuses on the performance analysis of CNT based interconnects in current research scenario. Different CNT structures are modeled on the basis of transmission line theory. Performance comparison for different CNT structures illustrates that CNTs are more promising than Cu or other materials used in global VLSI interconnects. The brief is organized into five chapters which mainly discuss: (1) an overview of current research scenario and basics of interconnects; (2) unique crystal structures and the basics of physical properties of CNTs, and the production, purification and applications of CNTs; (3) a brief technical review, the geometry and equivalent RLC parameters for different single and bundled CNT structures; (4) a comparative analysis of crosstalk and delay for different single and bundled CNT structures; and (5) various unique mixed CNT bundle structures and their equivalent electrical models.

  19. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Khan, S. M.; Nour, Maha A.; Rehman, M. U.; Rojas, J. P.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  20. Natural gas and electrical interconnections in the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate and long term socio-economical and energetic scenarios have shown that mediterranean basin countries will know a great growth of energy demand, particularly power demand. The first part of this paper describes the main projects for the establishment of interconnected natural gas systems through Mediterranean sea, by pipelines (Algeria-Tunisia-Libya project, Algeria-Morocco-Spain project, Libya-Italy project). The second part describes the main projects of electrical networks with the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco, and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East (from Egypt to Turkey)

  1. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubany, Adam; Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. → An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. → Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  2. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  3. Load Frequency Control of AC Microgrid Interconnected Thermal Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Deepak Kumar; Barisal, Ajit Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a microgrid (MG) power generation system is interconnected with a single area reheat thermal power system for load frequency control study. A new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm i.e. Moth-Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm is applied to evaluate optimal gains of the fuzzy based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controllers. The system dynamic performance is studied by comparing the results with MFO optimized classical PI/PID controllers. Also the system performance is investigated with fuzzy PID controller optimized by recently developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm, which has proven its superiority over other previously developed algorithm in many interconnected power systems.

  4. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  5. Compact models and performance investigations for subthreshold interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Dhiman, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a detailed analysis of issues related to sub-threshold interconnect performance from the perspective of analytical approach and design techniques. Particular emphasis is laid on the performance analysis of coupling noise and variability issues in sub-threshold domain to develop efficient compact models. The proposed analytical approach gives physical insight of the parameters affecting the transient behavior of coupled interconnects. Remedial design techniques are also suggested to mitigate the effect of coupling noise. The effects of wire width, spacing between the wires, wi

  6. 47 CFR 95.1313 - Interconnection prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... points in the wireline or radio network of a public telephone company and persons served by multi-use... licensees or other authorized persons for transmitter control (including dial-up transmitter control circuits) or as an integral part of an authorized, private, internal system of communication or as an...

  7. Report on the use of the French-German interconnection in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    framework of the road-map has greatly improved congestion management. New economic signals have appeared, estimating the value of the different interconnection capacities at the French-German border. Furthermore, because the TSOs have to use the congestion income, it is now shared out amongst all grid users. Lastly, thanks to market-based and nondiscriminatory allocation mechanisms, the capacities are now more widely shared out amongst market players and are used more consistently with price differentials on the French-German border. Inefficiency is still to be found in congestion management methods. To fine-tune the mechanisms already in use and apply the new legal framework, a more global approach, at least at a regional level, is needed. The launch of the European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG)'s Regional Initiatives meets this need perfectly. In particular, in the Central- West region, including Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, the five regulators work actively together in order to define the target congestion management mechanisms to be applied within the region. Accordingly, the Action Plan published by regulators in February 2007 defined eight priorities for improvement in existing mechanisms within this region

  8. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  9. CWDM for very-short-reach and optical-backplane interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Michael J.

    2002-06-01

    Course Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) provides access to next generation optical interconnect data rates by utilizing conventional electro-optical components that are widely available in the market today. This is achieved through the use of CWDM multiplexers and demultiplexers that integrate commodity type active components, lasers and photodiodes, into small optical subassemblies. In contrast to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), in which multiple serial data streams are combined to create aggregate data pipes perhaps 100s of gigabits wide, CWDM uses multiple laser sources contained in one module to create a serial equivalent data stream. For example, four 2.5 Gb/s lasers are multiplexed to create a 10 Gb/s data pipe. The advantages of CWDM over traditional serial optical interconnects include lower module power consumption, smaller packaging, and a superior electrical interface. This discussion will detail the concept of CWDM and design parameters that are considered when productizing a CWDM module into an industry standard optical interconnect. Additionally, a scalable parallel CWDM hybrid architecture will be described that allows the transport of large amounts of data from rack to rack in an economical fashion. This particular solution is targeted at solving optical backplane bottleneck problems predicted for the next generation terabit and petabit routers.

  10. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a ...

  11. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Chrul, Anna; Damianoglou, Dimitrios; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Strychalski, Michał; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles; Wright, Loren

    2014-01-01

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  12. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Michał [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  13. Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. (review article)

  14. Encoded low swing for ultra low power interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, R.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel encoded-low swing technique for ultra low power interconnect. Using this technique and an efficient circuit implementation, we achieve an average of 45.7% improvement in the power-delay product over the schemes utilizing low swing techniques alone, for random bit streams. Also, we

  15. Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems Using Chordal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale interconnected uncertain systems commonly have large state and uncertainty dimensions. Aside from the heavy computational cost of performing robust stability analysis in a centralized manner, privacy requirements in the network can also introduce further issues. In this paper, we util...

  16. FDTD technique based crosstalk analysis of bundled SWCNT interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duksh, Yograj Singh; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra P.

    2015-01-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit model of a bundled single-walled carbon nanotube based distributed RLC interconnects is employed for the crosstalk analysis. The accurate time domain analysis and crosstalk effect in the VLSI interconnect has emerged as an essential design criteria. This paper presents a brief description of the numerical method based finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique that is intended for estimation of voltages and currents on coupled transmission lines. For the FDTD implementation, the stability of the proposed model is strictly restricted by the Courant condition. This method is used for the estimation of crosstalk induced propagation delay and peak voltage in lossy RLC interconnects. Both functional and dynamic crosstalk effects are analyzed in the coupled transmission line. The effect of line resistance on crosstalk induced delay, and peak voltage under dynamic and functional crosstalk is also evaluated. The FDTD analysis and the SPICE simulations are carried out at 32 nm technology node for the global interconnects. It is observed that the analytical results obtained using the FDTD technique are in good agreement with the SPICE simulation results. The crosstalk induced delay, propagation delay, and peak voltage obtained using the FDTD technique shows average errors of 4.9%, 3.4% and 0.46%, respectively, in comparison to SPICE. (paper)

  17. The myth of interconnected plastids and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattat, Martin H; Barton, Kiah A; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Studies spread over nearly two and a half centuries have identified the primary plastid in autotrophic algae and plants as a pleomorphic, multifunctional organelle comprising of a double-membrane envelope enclosing an organization of internal membranes submerged in a watery stroma. All plastid units have been observed extending and retracting thin stroma-filled tubules named stromules sporadically. Observations on living plant cells often convey the impression that stromules connect two or more independent plastids with each other. When photo-bleaching techniques were used to suggest that macromolecules such as the green fluorescent protein could flow between already interconnected plastids, for many people this impression changed to conviction. However, it was noticed only recently that the concept of protein flow between plastids rests solely on the words "interconnected plastids" for which details have never been provided. We have critically reviewed botanical literature dating back to the 1880s for understanding this term and the phenomena that have become associated with it. We find that while meticulously detailed ontogenic studies spanning nearly 150 years have established the plastid as a singular unit organelle, there is no experimental support for the idea that interconnected plastids exist under normal conditions of growth and development. In this review, while we consider several possibilities that might allow a single elongated plastid to be misinterpreted as two or more interconnected plastids, our final conclusion is that the concept of direct protein flow between plastids is based on an unfounded assumption.

  18. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network ...

  19. Optimal interconnect ATPG under a ground-bounce constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollmann, H.D.L.; Marinissen, E.J.; Vermeulen, B.

    In order to prevent ground bounce, Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) algorithms for wire interconnects have recently been extended with the capability to restrict the maximal Hamming distance between any two consecutive test patterns to a user-defined integer, referred to as the

  20. Time analysis of interconnection network implemented on the honeycomb architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milutinovic, D [Inst. Michael Pupin, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    Problems of time domains analysis of the mapping of interconnection networks for parallel processing on one form of uniform massively parallel architecture of the cellular type are considered. The results of time analysis are discussed. It is found that changing the technology results in changing the mapping rules. 17 refs.

  1. Area analysis of interconnection networks implemented on the honeycomb architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milutinovic, D

    1996-12-31

    The are utilization of interconnection networks for parallel processing on one form of uniform parallel architecture of cellular type is analyzed. Formulae for the number of cells necessity to realize a networks and the efficiency factor of the system are derived. 15 refs.

  2. 14 CFR 25.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. If fuel can be pumped from one tank to another in flight, the fuel tank vents and the fuel transfer system must be designed so that no structural damage to the tanks can occur because of overfilling. ...

  3. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  4. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  5. On Interconnections of Infinite-dimensional Port-Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    2004-01-01

    Network modeling of complex physical systems leads to a class of nonlinear systems called port-Hamiltonian systems, which are defined with respect to a Dirac structure (a geometric structure which formalizes the power-conserving interconnection structure of the system). A power conserving

  6. On interconnections of infinite-dimensional port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramkrishna Pasumarthy, R.P.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    Network modeling of complex physical systems leads to a class of nonlinear systems called port-Hamiltonian systems, which are defined with respect to a Dirac structure (a geometric structure which formalizes the power-conserving interconnection structure of the system). A power conserving

  7. Bandwidth Analysis of Functional Interconnects Used as Test Access Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.; Ren, P.; Marinissen, E.J.; Gaydadjiev, G.; Goossens, K.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  8. Bandwidth analysis of functional interconnects used as test access mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Ardy; Ren, P.; Marinissen, Erik Jan; Gaydadjiev, G.N.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Test data travels through a System on Chip (SOC) from the chip pins to the Core-Under-Test (CUT) and vice versa via a Test Access Mechanism (TAM). Conventionally, a TAM is implemented using dedicated communication infrastructure. However, also existing functional interconnect, such as a bus or

  9. Cascade-robustness optimization of coupling preference in interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xue-Jun; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Xia, Yong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A specific memetic algorithm was proposed to optimize coupling links. • A small toy model was investigated to examine the underlying mechanism. • The MA optimized strategy exhibits a moderate assortative pattern. • A novel coupling coefficient index was proposed to quantify coupling preference. - Abstract: Recently, the robustness of interconnected networks has attracted extensive attentions, one of which is to investigate the influence of coupling preference. In this paper, the memetic algorithm (MA) is employed to optimize the coupling links of interconnected networks. Afterwards, a comparison is made between MA optimized coupling strategy and traditional assortative, disassortative and random coupling preferences. It is found that the MA optimized coupling strategy with a moderate assortative value shows an outstanding performance against cascading failures on both synthetic scale-free interconnected networks and real-world networks. We then provide an explanation for this phenomenon from a micro-scope point of view and propose a coupling coefficient index to quantify the coupling preference. Our work is helpful for the design of robust interconnected networks.

  10. Security challenges for cooperative and interconnected mobility systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, T.; Kievit, S. de; Sluis, H.J.D. van de; Nunen, E. van; Passchier, I.; Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Software is becoming an important part of the innovation for vehicles. In addition, the systems in vehicles become interconnected and also get external connections, to the internet and Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs). These trends form a combined security and safety threat, because recent

  11. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  12. Early resistance change and stress/electromigrationmodeling in aluminium interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, V.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Schoenmaker, W.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description for early resistance change and two dimensional simulation of mechanical stress evolution in confined Al interconnects, related to the electromigration, is given in this paper. The model, combines the stress/ vacancy concentration evolution with the early resistance change of

  13. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... and indigenous knowledge using information and communication technologies (ICTs) ... for research proposals on the aforementioned topics, action-research projects, ... Evaluating knowledge-sharing methods to improve land utilization and ...

  14. Advanced Modulation Techniques for High-Performance Computing Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally assess the performance of a 64 × 64 optical switch fabric used for ns-speed optical cell switching in supercomputer optical interconnects. More specifically, we study four alternative modulation formats and detection schemes, namely, 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-...

  15. A proposed holistic approach to on-chip, off-chip, test, and package interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, Dirk J.

    1998-11-01

    recognize—test is also performed using IC's. A system interconnection is proposed using multiple chips fabricated with conventional silicon processes, including MEMS technology. The system resembles an MCM that can be joined without committing to final assembly to perform at-speed testing. 50-Ohm test probes never load the circuit; only intended neighboring chips are ever connected. A `back-plane' chip provides the connection layers for both inter- and intra-chip signals and also serves as the probe card, in analogy with membrane probes now used for single-chip testing. Intra-chip connections, which require complicated connections during test that exactly match the product, are then properly made and all waveforms and loading conditions under test will be identical to those of the product. The major benefit is that all front-end chip technologies can be merged—logic, memory, RF, even passives. ESD protection is required only on external system connections. Manufacturing test information will accurately characterize process faults and thus avoid the Known-Good-Die problem that has slowed the arrival of conventional MCM's.

  16. Beyond the Internet of Things everything interconnected

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, George; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos; Pallis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    The major subjects of the book cover modeling, analysis and efficient management of information in Internet of Everything (IoE) applications and architectures. As the first book of its kind, it addresses the major new technological developments in the field and will reflect current research trends, as well as industry needs. It comprises of a good balance between theoretical and practical issues, covering case studies, experience and evaluation reports and best practices in utilizing IoE applications. It also provides technical/scientific information about various aspects of IoE technologies, ranging from basic concepts to research grade material, including future directions.

  17. The interconnected fashion industry - an integrated vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papahristou, E.; Kyratsis, P.; Priniotakis, G.; Bilalis, N.

    2017-10-01

    The internet of things (IoT) is transforming everyday physical objects that surround us into an ecosystem of information that is rapidly changing the way we live our lives. Any physical product can be more intelligent, more interactive, more trackable and more valuable by being connected via IoT. All industries, including Fashion, are expecting that the IoT will make real quantifiable impact that can be quickly translated into positive ROI for the business, and equally a positive return for consumers. In our research on the integration of 3D virtual prototype in the Textile and Clothing sector, IoT was of particular interest. The research was contacted using a combination of primary and secondary sources. First hand interviews to explore the impact of recent technology applications in the design and production of fashion products and the areas which are going to benefit most. The research has included several questions to interviewees who are executives in fashion companies or industry entrepreneurs with the aim to investigate what IoT represents and attempts to understand how IoT can support Fashion Design, Development and procurement as well as manufacturing.

  18. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanstad, Alan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  19. Arbitration in crossbar interconnect for low latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-02-05

    A system and method and computer program product for reducing the latency of signals communicated through a crossbar switch, the method including using at slave arbitration logic devices associated with Slave devices for which access is requested from one or more Master devices, two or more priority vector signals cycled among their use every clock cycle for selecting one of the requesting Master devices and updates the respective priority vector signal used every clock cycle. Similarly, each Master for which access is requested from one or more Slave devices, can have two or more priority vectors and can cycle among their use every clock cycle to further reduce latency and increase throughput performance via the crossbar.

  20. ESnet Program Plan 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, S.

    1994-11-01

    This Program Plan characterizes ESnet with respect to the current and future needs of Energy Research programs for network infrastructure, services, and development. In doing so, this document articulates the vision and recommendations of the ESnet Steering Committee regarding ESnet`s development and its support of computer networking facilities and associated user services. To afford the reader a perspective from which to evaluate the ever-increasing utility of networking to the Energy Research community, we have also provided a historical overview of Energy Research networking. Networking has become an integral part of the work of DOE principal investigators, and this document is intended to assist the Office of Scientific Computing in ESnet program planning and management, including prioritization and funding. In particular, we identify the new directions that ESnet`s development and implementation will take over the course of the next several years. Our basic goal is to ensure that the networking requirements of the respective scientific programs within Energy Research are addressed fairly. The proliferation of regional networks and additional network-related initiatives by other Federal agencies is changing the process by which we plan our own efforts to serve the DOE community. ESnet provides the Energy Research community with access to many other peer-level networks and to a multitude of other interconnected network facilities. ESnet`s connectivity and relationship to these other networks and facilities are also described in this document. Major Office of Energy Research programs are managed and coordinated by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Office of Magnetic Fusion Energy, the Office of Scientific Computing, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Summaries of these programs are presented, along with their functional and technical requirements for wide-area networking.

  1. ESnet Program Plan 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, S.

    1994-01-01

    This Program Plan characterizes ESnet with respect to the current and future needs of Energy Research programs for network infrastructure, services, and development. In doing so, this document articulates the vision and recommendations of the ESnet Steering Committee regarding ESnet's development and its support of computer networking facilities and associated user services. To afford the reader a perspective from which to evaluate the ever-increasing utility of networking to the Energy Research community, we have also provided a historical overview of Energy Research networking. Networking has become an integral part of the work of DOE principal investigators, and this document is intended to assist the Office of Scientific Computing in ESnet program planning and management, including prioritization and funding. In particular, we identify the new directions that ESnet's development and implementation will take over the course of the next several years. Our basic goal is to ensure that the networking requirements of the respective scientific programs within Energy Research are addressed fairly. The proliferation of regional networks and additional network-related initiatives by other Federal agencies is changing the process by which we plan our own efforts to serve the DOE community. ESnet provides the Energy Research community with access to many other peer-level networks and to a multitude of other interconnected network facilities. ESnet's connectivity and relationship to these other networks and facilities are also described in this document. Major Office of Energy Research programs are managed and coordinated by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Office of Magnetic Fusion Energy, the Office of Scientific Computing, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Summaries of these programs are presented, along with their functional and technical requirements for wide-area networking

  2. Planning manual for utility application of WECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.L. (ed.)

    1979-06-01

    A two-part approach for evaluating the feasibility of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) for utility application is presented and explained. Assessment of wind energy potential, sites, interconnection, and capital and production costing is included. The first part is a brief preliminary procedure used to determine whether the expense and effort of a detailed investigation is justified. The preliminary procedure requires assumptions which limit its accuracy. If the result indicates that WECS have probable potential for a specific utility application, then a set of modifications to detailed conventional planning procedures is developed. The modifications include discussion of wind velocity estimation and effects of site features on wind velocity, institutional problems, siting, choosing generation cases with WECS, reliability considerations, production costing, and operating problems. Appendices include an annotated bibliography, wind measurement methods, procedure for estimating WECS capacity factor, and a method for generating correlated wind velocity samples for use in production cost programs.

  3. Role of Wind Power in Primary Frequency Response of an Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Gevorgian, V.; Ela, E.; Singhvi, V.; Pourbeik, P.

    2013-09-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and system inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.

  4. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes as electronic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopee, Vimal Chandra

    The drive for miniaturisation of electronic circuits provides new materials challenges for the electronics industry. Indeed, the continued downscaling of transistor dimensions, described by Moore’s Law, has led to a race to find suitable replacements for current interconnect materials to replace copper. Carbon nanotubes have been studied as a suitable replacement for copper due to its superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. One of the advantages of using carbon nanotubes is their high current carrying capacity which has been demonstrated to be three orders of magnitude greater than that of copper. Most approaches in the implementation of carbon nanotubes have so far focused on the growth in vias which limits their application. In this work, a process is described for the transfer of carbon nanotubes to substrates allowing their use for more varied applications. Arrays of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesised by photo-thermal chemical vapour deposition with high growth rates. Raman spectroscopy was used to show that the synthesised carbon nanotubes were of high quality. The carbon nanotubes were exposed to an oxygen plasma and the nature of the functional groups present was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Functional groups, such as carboxyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, were found to be present on the surface of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes after the functionalisation process. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were metallised after the functionalisation process using magnetron sputtering. Two materials, solder and sintered silver, were chosen to bind carbon nanotubes to substrates so as to enable their transfer and also to make electrical contact. The wettability of solder to carbon nanotubes was investigated and it was demonstrated that both functionalisation and metallisation were required in order for solder to bond with the carbon nanotubes. Similarly, functionalisation followed by metallisation

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the

  6. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... (BPA) has decided to offer Puget Sound Energy Inc., a Large Generator Interconnection Agreement for...

  7. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  8. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  9. Security analysis of interconnected AC/DC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses N-1 security in an interconnected ac/dc transmission system using power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). In the case of a dc converter outage the power needs to be redistributed among the remaining converter to maintain power balance and operation of the dc grid...... any line or transformer limits. Simulations were performed in a model of the Nordic power system where a dc grid is placed on top. The simulation supports the method as a tool to consider transfer limits in the grid to avoid violate the same and increase the security after a converter outage........ The redistribution of power has a sudden effect on the power-flow in the interconnected ac system. This may cause overloading of lines and transformers resulting in disconnection of equipment, and as a consequence cascading failure. The PTDF is used as a method to analyze and avoid violating limits by in the dc...

  10. Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Luna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for identifying and assessing the impact of distributed generation interconnection on distribution systems using Monte Carlo techniques. This methodology consists of two analysis schemes: a technical analysis, which evaluates the reliability conditions of the distribution system; on the other hand, an economic analysis that evaluates the financial impacts on the electric utility and its customers, according to the system reliability level. The proposed methodology was applied to an IEEE test distribution system, considering different operation schemes for the distributed generation interconnection. The application of each one of these schemes provided significant improvements regarding the reliability and important economic benefits for the electric utility. However, such schemes resulted in negative profitability levels for certain customers, therefore, regulatory measures and bilateral contracts were proposed which would provide a solution for this kind of problem.

  11. TEM sample preparation by FIB for carbon nanotube interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Xiaoxing; Bals, Sara; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Hantschel, Thomas; Bender, Hugo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2009-01-01

    A powerful method to study carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown in patterned substrates for potential interconnects applications is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, high-quality TEM samples are necessary for such a study. Here, TEM specimen preparation by focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to obtain lamellae of patterned samples containing CNTs grown inside contact holes. A dual-cap Pt protection layer and an extensive 5 kV cleaning procedure are applied in order to preserve the CNTs and avoid deterioration during milling. TEM results show that the inner shell structure of the carbon nanotubes has been preserved, which proves that focused ion beam is a useful technique to prepare TEM samples of CNT interconnects.

  12. TEM sample preparation by FIB for carbon nanotube interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiaoxing, E-mail: xiaoxing.ke@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Romo Negreira, Ainhoa [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Hantschel, Thomas; Bender, Hugo [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    A powerful method to study carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown in patterned substrates for potential interconnects applications is transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, high-quality TEM samples are necessary for such a study. Here, TEM specimen preparation by focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to obtain lamellae of patterned samples containing CNTs grown inside contact holes. A dual-cap Pt protection layer and an extensive 5 kV cleaning procedure are applied in order to preserve the CNTs and avoid deterioration during milling. TEM results show that the inner shell structure of the carbon nanotubes has been preserved, which proves that focused ion beam is a useful technique to prepare TEM samples of CNT interconnects.

  13. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  14. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  15. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...

  16. Optimal interconnection trees in the plane theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brazil, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This book explores fundamental aspects of geometric network optimisation with applications to a variety of real world problems. It presents, for the first time in the literature, a cohesive mathematical framework within which the properties of such optimal interconnection networks can be understood across a wide range of metrics and cost functions. The book makes use of this mathematical theory to develop efficient algorithms for constructing such networks, with an emphasis on exact solutions.  Marcus Brazil and Martin Zachariasen focus principally on the geometric structure of optimal interconnection networks, also known as Steiner trees, in the plane. They show readers how an understanding of this structure can lead to practical exact algorithms for constructing such trees.  The book also details numerous breakthroughs in this area over the past 20 years, features clearly written proofs, and is supported by 135 colour and 15 black and white figures. It will help graduate students, working mathematicians, ...

  17. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  18. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  19. Building an organic computing device with multiple interconnected brains

    OpenAIRE

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Chiuffa, Gabriela; Lebedev, Mikhail; Yadav, Amol; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed that Brainets, i.e. networks formed by multiple animal brains, cooperating and exchanging information in real time through direct brain-to-brain interfaces, could provide the core of a new type of computing device: an organic computer. Here, we describe the first experimental demonstration of such a Brainet, built by interconnecting four adult rat brains. Brainets worked by concurrently recording the extracellular electrical activity generated by populations of cortical ...

  20. Authentication in Virtual Organizations: A Reputation Based PKI Interconnection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazan, Ahmad Samer; Laborde, Romain; Barrere, Francois; Benzekri, Abdelmalek

    Authentication mechanism constitutes a central part of the virtual organization work. The PKI technology is used to provide the authentication in each organization involved in the virtual organization. Different trust models are proposed to interconnect the different PKIs in order to propagate the trust between them. While the existing trust models contain many drawbacks, we propose a new trust model based on the reputation of PKIs.

  1. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrsson, Erica C.; Tsukayama, Pablo; Patel, Sanket; Mej?a-Bautista, Melissa; Sosa-Soto, Giordano; Navarrete, Karla M.; Calderon, Maritza; Cabrera, Lilia; Hoyos-Arango, William; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by resistance gene exchange between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. We characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human fecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin A...

  3. Synthesis of micro-sized interconnected Si-C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Dai, Fang

    2016-02-23

    Embodiments provide a method of producing micro-sized Si--C composites or doped Si--C and Si alloy-C with interconnected nanoscle Si and C building blocks through converting commercially available SiO.sub.x (0

  4. Smart hospitality—Interconnectivity and interoperability towards an ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Buhalis, Dimitrios; Leung, Rosanna

    2018-01-01

    The Internet and cloud computing changed the way business operate. Standardised web-based applications simplify data interchange which allow internal applications and business partners systems to become interconnected and interoperable. This study conceptualises the smart and agile hospitality enterprises of the future, and proposes a smart hospitality ecosystem that adds value to all stakeholders. Internal data from applications among all stakeholders, consolidated with external environment ...

  5. Design and Training of Limited-Interconnect Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    and signal processing. Neuromorphic (brain like) models, allow an alternative for achieving real-time operation tor such tasks, while having a...compact and robust architecture. Neuromorphic models consist of interconnections of simple computational nodes. In this approach, each node computes a...operational performance. I1. Research Objectives The research objectives were: 1. Development of on- chip local training rules specifically designed for

  6. Overvoltages related to distributed generation-power system interconnection transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanillo, G.R.; Gomez, J.C.; Florena, E.F. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], Email: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The energy crisis that experiences the world drives to carry to an extreme, the use of all energy sources which are available. The sources need to be connected to the electric network in their next point, requiring of electric-electronic interfaces. The traditional electric power systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation and on overvoltage generation. This change is not taking place in coordinated form among the involved sectors. The interconnection of a Distributed Generator (DG) directly with the power system is objectionable and risky. It is required of an interconnection transformer which performs several functions. Rigid specifications do not exist in this respect, for the variety of systems in use in the world, nevertheless there are utilities recommendations. Overvoltages caused by the DG, which arise due to the change of structure of the electric system, are explained. The transformer connection selection, presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the user in a different or many times in an antagonistic way. The phenomenon of balanced and unbalanced ferroresonance overvoltage is studied. This phenomenon can takes place when using DG, either with synchronous or asynchronous generator, and for any type of connection of the transformer. The necessary conditions so that the phenomenon appears are presented. Eight interconnection transformer connection ways were studied. It is concluded that the solutions to reach by means of the employment of the DG, offer technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user. It is also concluded in this work that the more advisable interconnection type is function of the system connection type. (author)

  7. Stackable Form-Factor Peripheral Component Interconnect Device and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M. (Inventor); Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo (Inventor); Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A stackable form-factor Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) device can be configured as a host controller or a master/target for use on a PCI assembly. PCI device may comprise a multiple-input switch coupled to a PCI bus, a multiplexor coupled to the switch, and a reconfigurable device coupled to one of the switch and multiplexor. The PCI device is configured to support functionality from power-up, and either control function or add-in card function.

  8. The critical thickness of liners of Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q; Zhang, S H; Li, J C

    2004-01-01

    A model for the size-dependence of activation energy is developed. With the model and Fick's second law, relationships among the liner thickness, the working life and the working temperature of a TaN liner for Cu interconnects are predicted. The predicted results of the TaN liner are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the critical thicknesses of liners of some elements are calculated

  9. GTRgaz: investment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    GTRgaz company published on June 2007 its indicative development plan for the 10 years to come. This document serves as a communication vector between GTRgaz and the actors of the market and presents the projects of development of the gas transportation network as defined on the basis of the evolution of French and European markets, and on the knowledge of capacity needs directly or indirectly expressed by the suppliers community. This article summarizes the different points of this plan: reduction of the number of balancing points, development of interconnection capacities, development of output capacities, network free interplay improvement beyond 2013. (J.S.)

  10. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  11. Fabrication of interconnected microporous biomaterials with high hydroxyapatite nanoparticle loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Donggang; Zhang Qingwei; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack G

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to promote osteogenicity and enhance the mechanical properties of biopolymers. However, incorporating a large amount of HA into a porous biopolymer still remains a challenge. In the present work, a new method was developed to produce interconnected microporous poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) with high HA nanoparticle loading. First, a ternary blend comprising PLGA/PS (polystyrene)/HA (40/40/20 wt%) was prepared by melt blending under conditions for formation of a co-continuous phase structure. Next, a dynamic annealing stage under small-strain oscillation was applied to the blend to facilitate nanoparticle redistribution. Finally, the PS phase was sacrificially extracted, leaving a porous matrix. The results from different characterizations suggested that the applied small-strain oscillation substantially accelerated the migration of HA nanoparticles during annealing from the PS phase to the PLGA phase; nearly all HA particles were uniformly presented in the PLGA phase after a short period of annealing. After dissolution of the PS phase, a PLGA material with interconnected microporous structure was successfully produced, with a high HA loading above 30 wt%. The mechanisms beneath the experimental observations, particularly on the enhanced particle migration process, were discussed, and strategies for producing highly particle loaded biopolymers with interconnected microporous structures were proposed.

  12. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, O F; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2013-01-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  13. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R; Wolf, Marc P; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries. (paper)

  14. Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamai, Noriyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Several porous calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been used clinically as bone substitutes, but most of them possessed few interpore connections, resulting in pathological fracture probably due to poor bone formation within the substitute. We recently developed a fully interconnected porous HA ceramic (IP-CHA) by adopting the ‘foam-gel’ technique. The IP-CHA had a three-dimensional structure with spherical pores of uniform size (average 150 μm, porosity 75%), which were interconnected by window-like holes (average diameter 40 μm), and also demonstrated adequate compression strength (10–12 MPa). In animal experiments, the IP-CHA showed superior osteoconduction, with the majority of pores filled with newly formed bone. The interconnected porous structure facilitates bone tissue engineering by allowing the introduction of mesenchymal cells, osteotropic agents such as bone morphogenetic protein or vasculature into the pores. Clinically, we have applied the IP-CHA to treat various bony defects in orthopaedic surgery, and radiographic examinations demonstrated that grafted IP-CHA gained radiopacity more quickly than the synthetic HA in clinical use previously. We review the accumulated data on bone tissue engineering using the novel scaffold and on clinical application in the orthopaedic field. PMID:19106069

  15. 32 x 16 CMOS smart pixel array for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Choquette, Kent D.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2000-05-01

    Free space optical interconnects can increase throughput capacities and eliminate much of the energy consumption required for `all electronic' systems. High speed optical interconnects can be achieved by integrating optoelectronic devices with conventional electronics. Smart pixel arrays have been developed which use optical interconnects. An individual smart pixel cell is composed of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a photodetector, an optical receiver, a laser driver, and digital logic circuitry. Oxide-confined VCSELs are being developed to operate at 850 nm with a threshold current of approximately 1 mA. Multiple quantum well photodetectors are being fabricated from AlGaAs for use with the 850 nm VCSELs. The VCSELs and photodetectors are being integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry using flip-chip bonding. CMOS circuitry is being integrated with a 32 X 16 smart pixel array. The 512 smart pixels are serially linked. Thus, an entire data stream may be clocked through the chip and output electrically by the last pixel. Electrical testing is being performed on the CMOS smart pixel array. Using an on-chip pseudo random number generator, a digital data sequence was cycled through the chip verifying operation of the digital circuitry. Although, the prototype chip was fabricated in 1.2 micrometers technology, simulations have demonstrated that the array can operate at 1 Gb/s per pixel using 0.5 micrometers technology.

  16. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  17. Chip-Level Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, M.; Oh, C.; Grinshpon, A.; Zolotov, V.; Panda, R.; Demircan, E.; Mueller, J.; Justison, P.; Ramakrishna, K.; Thrasher, S.; Hernandez, R.; Herrick, M.; Fox, R.; Boeck, B.; Kawasaki, H.; Haznedar, H.; Ku, P.

    2004-01-01

    Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten reliable, long-term operation at elevated temperatures. The traditional method of verifying EM reliability only through current density limit checks is proving to be inadequate in general, or quite expensive at the best. A Statistical EM Budgeting (SEB) methodology has been proposed to assess more realistic chip-level EM reliability from the complex statistical distribution of currents in a chip. To be valuable, this approach requires accurate estimation of currents for all interconnect segments in a chip. However, no efficient technique to manage the complexity of such a task for very large chip designs is known. We present an efficient method to estimate currents exhaustively for all interconnects in a chip. The proposed method uses pre-characterization of cells and macros, and steps to identify and filter out symmetrically bi-directional interconnects. We illustrate the strength of the proposed approach using a high-performance microprocessor design for embedded applications as a case study

  18. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2013-06-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  19. Ontario's intertie capacity and electricity trade in the interconnected system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, S.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro One's capacity of existing interconnections were described. The Ontario utility is within reach of about 320 GW electricity markets in neighbouring Quebec, New York, Michigan, Minnesota, and Manitoba. It is also within reach of 50 million customers, and 30 per cent of total U.S. energy consumption. The author emphasized the need for expanded interties and new interconnections. The status of new interconnections was described along with the rules regarding electric power import, export and wheeling. It was noted that compared to the United States, Canada has a higher proportion of clean hydro and nuclear power plants in its mix of power generation. Markets across North America are adopting electricity restructuring and open competition. However, the transmission grids were not designed to support market-driven electricity trading. Most transmission grids were built when utilities were tightly regulated and provided service only within their assigned regions. The current energy infrastructure is not equipped for large-scale swapping of power in competitive markets. It was also noted that growth in US power flows is outpacing transmission investment. This paper addressed the issue of license requirements, transmitter proposals for regulated investments, and non-rate base transmitter investments. It was concluded that while market rules are flexible enough to encourage inter-jurisdictional trade, the rules have to facilitate and encourage transmission investment. 8 figs

  20. 77 FR 3766 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Staff Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Staff Technical Conference On December 14, 2011, the Commission issued an order... Interconnection, L.L.C.'s (PJM) filing.\\1\\ Take notice that the technical conference will be held on February 14...\\ PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., 137 FERC ] 61,204 (2011) (December 14 Order). All interested parties are...

  1. 75 FR 40815 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing July 7, 2010. Take notice that on July 1, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) filed revised sheets to Schedule 1 of the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (Operating Agreement) and the parallel provisions of Attachment K--Appendix of the PJM...

  2. 78 FR 19259 - Notice of Attendance at PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM... proceedings: Docket No. EL05-121, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Docket No. EL08-14, Black Oak Energy LLC, et al...

  3. 75 FR 22773 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing April 23, 2010. Take notice that on April 22, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) filed revised tariff sheets to its Schedule 1 of the Amended and Restated Operating... (Commission) March 23, 2010 Order on Compliance Filing, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C., 130 FERC ] 61,230 (2010...

  4. 77 FR 34378 - PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on June 1, 2012, pursuant to section 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824(e), PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) filed proposed revisions to the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection L.L.C. (Operating Agreement) to...

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  6. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  7. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  9. Essays on optimal capacity and optimal regulation of interconnection infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Federico

    The integration between geographically differentiated markets or between vertically related industries generate effects on welfare that depend on the structure of the underlying markets. My thesis investigates the impact of geographical interconnection on welfare, and illustrates welfare-enhancing modes of regulation of vertically integrated industries and of geographically integrated markets. The first chapter analyzes the effects of interconnection between two formerly fully-separated markets under the assumptions that producers in the two markets are capacity-constrained, and tacitly collude whenever it is rational for them to do so. I find that there exists a set of assumptions under which interconnection brings about greater collusion, hence it reduces overall welfare. The second chapter analyzes the optimal interconnection capacity allocation mechanism for a benevolent electricity regulator when generation is not competitive. The regulator's intervention should not only ensure that interconnection capacity is efficiently allocated to the most efficient firms, but it should also induce a higher welfare in the upstream generation market. In a two-node setting, with one firm per node, I show that the regulatory intervention becomes more effective as the cost asymmetries between the two firms become more pronounced. The third chapter illustrates a regulation mechanism for vertically related industries. Ownership shares of the upstream industry (that displays economies of scale) are allocated to the downstream (competitive) firms in proportion to their shares in the final goods market. I show that the mechanism combines the benefits of vertical integration with those of vertical separation. The advantages of vertical integration consist in avoiding double marginalization, and in internalizing the reduction in average cost resulting from the upstream increase in output; on the other hand, vertical separation allows to preserve the competitiveness of the downstream

  10. Plan well, plan often

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes an invited paper by Courtney Schultz and her colleagues commenting on the application of the newly adopted U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule (hereafter, the rule) for wildlife. The rule is basically implementing language to interpret the spirit and intent of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. Laws such as NFMA require additional...

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  12. The Advances, Challenges and Future Possibilities of Millimeter-Wave Chip-to-Chip Interconnections for Multi-Chip Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Ganguly

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With aggressive scaling of device geometries, density of manufacturing faults is expected to increase. Therefore, yield of complex Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chips (MP-SoCs will decrease due to higher probability of manufacturing defects especially, in dies with large area. Therefore, disintegration of large SoCs into smaller chips called chiplets will improve yield and cost of complex platform-based systems. This will also provide functional flexibility, modular scalability as well as the capability to integrate heterogeneous architectures and technologies in a single unit. However, with scaling of the number of chiplets in such a system, the shared resources in the system such as the interconnection fabric and memory modules will become performance bottlenecks. Additionally, the integration of heterogeneous chiplets operating at different frequencies and voltages can be challenging. State-of-the-art inter-chip communication requires power-hungry high-speed I/O circuits and data transfer over long wired traces on substrates. This increases energy consumption and latency while decreasing data bandwidth for chip-to-chip communication. In this paper, we explore the advances and the challenges of interconnecting a multi-chip system with millimeter-wave (mm-wave wireless interconnects from a variety of perspectives spanning multiple aspects of the wireless interconnection design. Our discussion on the recent advances include aspects such as interconnection topology, physical layer, Medium Access Control (MAC and routing protocols. We also present some potential paradigm-shifting applications as well as complementary technologies of wireless inter-chip communications.

  13. High temperature corrosion of metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development has made it possible to use metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) instead of ceramic materials. The use of metallic interconnects was formerly hindered by the high operating temperature, which made the interconnect degrade too much and too fast to be an efficient alternative. When the operating temperature was lowered, the use of metallic interconnects proved to be favourable since they are easier and cheaper to produce than ceramic interconnects. However, metallic interconnects continue to be degraded despite the lowered temperature, and their corrosion products contribute to electrical degradation in the fuel cell. coatings of nickel, chromium, aluminium, zinc, manganese, yttrium or lanthanum between the interconnect and the electrodes reduce this degradation during operation. (Author) 66 refs

  14. Time Domain Analysis of Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects Based on Transmission Line ‎Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haji Nasiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time domain analysis of multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR interconnects, based on ‎transmission line modeling (TLM using a six-order linear parametric expression, has been ‎presented for the first time. We have studied the effects of interconnect geometry along with ‎its contact resistance on its step response and Nyquist stability. It is shown that by increasing ‎interconnects dimensions their propagation delays are increased and accordingly the system ‎becomes relatively more stable. In addition, we have compared time responses and Nyquist ‎stabilities of MLGNR and SWCNT bundle interconnects, with the same external dimensions. ‎The results show that under the same conditions, the propagation delays for MLGNR ‎interconnects are smaller than those of SWCNT bundle interconnects are. Hence, SWCNT ‎bundle interconnects are relatively more stable than their MLGNR rivals.‎

  15. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  16. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  17. Warpage Characteristics and Process Development of Through Silicon Via-Less Interconnection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Lin, Yu-Min; Wu, Sheng-Tsai; Lee, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Shin-Yi; Chang, Hsiang-Hung; Chang, Tao-Chih; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2018-08-01

    In this study, through silicon via (TSV)-less interconnection using the fan-out wafer-level-packaging (FO-WLP) technology and a novel redistribution layer (RDL)-first wafer level packaging are investigated. Since warpage of molded wafer is a critical issue and needs to be optimized for process integration, the evaluation of the warpage issue on a 12-inch wafer using finite element analysis (FEA) at various parameters is presented. Related parameters include geometric dimension (such as chip size, chip number, chip thickness, and mold thickness), materials' selection and structure optimization. The effect of glass carriers with various coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) is also discussed. Chips are bonded onto a 12-inch reconstituted wafer, which includes 2 RDL layers, 3 passivation layers, and micro bumps, followed by using epoxy molding compound process. Furthermore, an optical surface inspector is adopted to measure the surface profile and the results are compared with the results from simulation. In order to examine the quality of the TSV-less interconnection structure, electrical measurement is conducted and the respective results are presented.

  18. Preliminary investigation of interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Lappa, D.A.; Smith, C.F.; Sacks, I.J.

    1983-01-01

    The rich diversity of ideas and techniques for analyzing interconnected systems interaction has presented the NRC with the problem of identifying methods appropriate for their own review and audit. This report presents the findings of a preliminary study using the Digraph Matrix Analysis method to evaluate interconnected systems interactions for the safety injection system of Indian Point-3. The analysis effort in this study was subjected to NRC constraints regarding the use of Boolean logic, the construction of simplified plant representations or maps, and the development of heuristic measures as specified by the NRC. The map and heuristic measures were found to be an unsuccessful approach. However, from the effort to model and analyze the Indian Point-3 safety injection system, including Boolean logic in the model, singleton and doubleton cut-sets were identified. It is recommended that efforts excluding Boolean logic and utilizing the NRC heuristic measures not be pursed further and that the Digraph Matrix approach (or other comparable risk assessment technique) with Boolean logic included to conduct the audit of the Indian Point-3 systems interaction study

  19. Feasibility study on the interconnection of traction and other power line infrastructures; Machbarkeitsstudie zur Verknuepfung von Bahn- und Energieleitungsinfrastrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Lutz [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Stephan, Arnd [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur Elektrische Bahnen; Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Deutsches und Internationales Berg- und Energierecht

    2013-06-15

    It was the purpose of the feasibility study to find out if and to what extent the existing transmission route potentials of the 16.7 Hz traction power network (DB Energie GmbH) can be used for the installation of new transmission lines of the standard 50 Hz power supply system. Of importance is here the question if and in which way the integration of new three-phase or DC overhead lines or cable systems in existing traction power routes is technically feasible, and to what extent such interconnection offers a potential for the acceleration of the planning and approval processes. (orig.)

  20. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  1. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-12-12

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  2. First experience with the InfiniBand interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Heiss, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A test cluster of dual Intel-Xeon processor server nodes has been equipped with 10 GBit/s InfiniBand interconnect. Capabilities of this new technique were tested and compared to Gigabit-Ethernet (GE) with respect to both High-Performance Computing (MPI-based parallel computing applications) and High-Throughput Computing (HTC). RFIO, a protocol for fast and efficient file transfers, has been ported to make immediate use of InfiniBand, utilizing the remote direct memory access (RDMA) capabilities of the InfiniBand hardware. The performance is compared to Gigabit-Ethernet

  3. Performance evaluation of two highly interconnected Data Center networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Mihai Poncea, Ovidiu; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies and subjecting them...... to uniformly distributed traffic routed by shortest path algorithms, we are able to extract relevant statistics related to average throughput, latency and loss rate. A decrease in throughput per connection of only about 5% for the hypercube compared to 16% for the 3D torus was measured when the size...

  4. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Unnat, Bhansali; Khan, Mohd Adnan; Saleh, Moussa M.; Odeh, Ihab N.

    2013-01-01

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  5. Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

  6. Effect of interconnectivity of structures against seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, P.; Elangovan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Since years world had experienced number of earthquakes and in India, zones have been modified according to the severity of earthquake and all this have made designers and engineers to concentrate rigorously to bring down the effect of damage to structures. Since the response of the structures to seismic force mainly depends on the distribution of mass, stiffness and damping characteristics an attempt is being made to compare and study the response by improving these characteristics in a simple building frame with and without infill. This in turn gives an idea of interconnecting the adjacent buildings of nuclear island to reduce the hazard to a minimum. (author)

  7. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  8. A new method for energy accounting in interconnected operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navid, Taghizadegan; Navid, Taghizadegan; Naser, Tabatabaei; Ahmad Reza, Zentabchi; Majid, Mollazadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The measurement of electrical energy supplied to customers or purchased from and delivered to interconnected power systems is of paramount importance in power system operations. Accurate measurement of energy delivered to customers or received from and delivered to other systems is necessary to ensure that billing is correct. energy transferred between systems also must be properly measured and accounted for to ensure that agreed-upon schedules are being met and that each system meets its obligation to match generation with load on a moment-to-moment basis

  9. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  10. X-ray microdiffraction study of Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.; Lai, B.; Cai, Z.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Rodrigues, W.

    2000-01-01

    We have used x-ray microdiffraction to study the local structure and strain variation of copper interconnects. Different types of local microstructures have been found in different samples. Our data show that the Ti adhesion layer has a very dramatic effect on Cu microstructure. Strain measurement was conducted before and after electromigration test, Cu fluorescence was used to find the mass variations around voids and hillocks, and x-ray microdiffraction was used to measure the strain change around that interested region. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an ...

  12. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  13. Bottom-up approach for carbon nanotube interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Ye Qi; Cassell, Alan; Ng, Hou Tee; Stevens, Ramsey; Han Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report a bottom-up approach to integrate multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into multilevel interconnects in silicon integrated-circuit manufacturing. MWNTs are grown vertically from patterned catalyst spots using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We demonstrate the capability to grow aligned structures ranging from a single tube to forest-like arrays at desired locations. SiO 2 is deposited to encapsulate each nanotube and the substrate, followed by a mechanical polishing process for planarization. MWNTs retain their integrity and demonstrate electrical properties consistent with their original structure

  14. Nonlinear optical properties of interconnected gold nanoparticles on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuffleur, Antoine; Gogol, Philippe; Beauvillain, Pierre; Guizal, B.; Van Labeke, D.; Georges, P.

    2008-12-01

    We report second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements in reflectivity from chains of gold nanoparticles interconnected with metallic bridges. We measured more than 30 times a SHG enhancement when a surface plasmon resonance was excited in the chains of nanoparticles, which was influenced by coupling due to the electrical connectivity of the bridges. This enhancement was confirmed by rigorous coupled wave method calculations and came from high localization of the electric field at the bridge. The introduction of 10% random defects into the chains of nanoparticles dropped the SHG by a factor of 2 and was shown to be very sensitive to the fundamental wavelength.

  15. Centralized database for interconnection system design. [for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A database application called DFACS (Database, Forms and Applications for Cabling and Systems) is described. The objective of DFACS is to improve the speed and accuracy of interconnection system information flow during the design and fabrication stages of a project, while simultaneously supporting both the horizontal (end-to-end wiring) and the vertical (wiring by connector) design stratagems used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project engineering community. The DFACS architecture is centered around a centralized database and program methodology which emulates the manual design process hitherto used at JPL. DFACS has been tested and successfully applied to existing JPL hardware tasks with a resulting reduction in schedule time and costs.

  16. On some interconnections between combinatorial optimization and extremal graph theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniting feature of combinatorial optimization and extremal graph theory is that in both areas one should find extrema of a function defined in most cases on a finite set. While in combinatorial optimization the point is in developing efficient algorithms and heuristics for solving specified types of problems, the extremal graph theory deals with finding bounds for various graph invariants under some constraints and with constructing extremal graphs. We analyze by examples some interconnections and interactions of the two theories and propose some conclusions.

  17. Decentralized control and filtering in interconnected dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2011-01-01

    Based on the many approaches available for dealing with large-scale systems (LSS), Decentralized Control and Filtering in Interconnected Dynamical Systems supplies a rigorous framework for studying the analysis, stability, and control problems of LSS. Providing an overall assessment of LSS theories, it addresses model order reduction, parametric uncertainties, time delays, and control estimator gain perturbations. Taking readers on a guided tour through LSS, the book examines recent trends and approaches and reviews past methods and results from a contemporary perspective. It traces the progre

  18. Report on technological survey in fiscal 1999. Demonstration test for smoothing grid interconnection (Collection of information by surveys in overseas countries); 1999 nendo keito renkei enkatsuka jissho shiken chosa hokokusho. Kaigai chosa ni yoru joho shushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys were performed on the institutional aspects of establishment and operation of grid interconnection guidelines in the countries advanced in introduction of discrete power supply systems. The survey items for America include: (1) summary of the status related to grid interconnection, (2) grid interconnection process, (3) methods for paying expenses for increasing power transmission facilities by means of grid interconnection, (4) dispute processing, (5) information release, and (6) software. The survey items for England, Germany, and France include: (1) summary of electricity business, (2) regulation patterns in electricity business, (3) summary of grid operating organizations, (4) connection to grid interconnection systems, and (5) the future liberalization programs. America is establishing standards for grid interconnection in discrete power supplies including photovoltaic power generation and energy storage under SCC21 of IEEE, whose conclusion will be drawn in the end of 2000. The Energy Department has an intention to give the standards the legal bases to operate them under unified requirements. Germany, England and France have all established standards for operating the grid interconnection. Market liberalization for electric power retailing is advancing in the order of America, England, Germany, and France. (NEDO)

  19. Mechanics of ultra-stretchable self-similar serpentine interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yihui; Fu, Haoran; Su, Yewang; Xu, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed analytical models of flexibility and elastic-stretchability for self-similar interconnect. The analytic solutions agree very well with the finite element analyses, both demonstrating that the elastic-stretchability more than doubles when the order of self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively. The analytic models are useful for the development of stretchable electronics that simultaneously demand large coverage of active devices, such as stretchable photovoltaics and electronic eye-ball cameras. -- Abstract: Electrical interconnects that adopt self-similar, serpentine layouts offer exceptional levels of stretchability in systems that consist of collections of small, non-stretchable active devices in the so-called island–bridge design. This paper develops analytical models of flexibility and elastic stretchability for such structures, and establishes recursive formulae at different orders of self-similarity. The analytic solutions agree well with finite element analysis, with both demonstrating that the elastic stretchability more than doubles when the order of the self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively

  20. Complexity in neuronal noise depends on network interconnectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Demitre; Zalay, Osbert C; Valiante, Taufik A; Bardakjian, Berj L; Carlen, Peter L

    2011-06-01

    "Noise," or noise-like activity (NLA), defines background electrical membrane potential fluctuations at the cellular level of the nervous system, comprising an important aspect of brain dynamics. Using whole-cell voltage recordings from fast-spiking stratum oriens interneurons and stratum pyramidale neurons located in the CA3 region of the intact mouse hippocampus, we applied complexity measures from dynamical systems theory (i.e., 1/f(γ) noise and correlation dimension) and found evidence for complexity in neuronal NLA, ranging from high- to low-complexity dynamics. Importantly, these high- and low-complexity signal features were largely dependent on gap junction and chemical synaptic transmission. Progressive neuronal isolation from the surrounding local network via gap junction blockade (abolishing gap junction-dependent spikelets) and then chemical synaptic blockade (abolishing excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials), or the reverse order of these treatments, resulted in emergence of high-complexity NLA dynamics. Restoring local network interconnectivity via blockade washout resulted in resolution to low-complexity behavior. These results suggest that the observed increase in background NLA complexity is the result of reduced network interconnectivity, thereby highlighting the potential importance of the NLA signal to the study of network state transitions arising in normal and abnormal brain dynamics (such as in epilepsy, for example).

  1. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  2. Tomography of integrated circuit interconnect with an electromigration void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Zachary H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Kalukin, Andrew R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kuhn, Markus [Intel Corporation RA1-329, 5200 Northeast Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 74124 (United States); Frigo, Sean P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); McNulty, Ian [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Retsch, Cornelia C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Yuxin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Arp, Uwe [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Lucatorto, Thomas B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Ravel, Bruce D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-05-01

    An integrated circuit interconnect was subject to accelerated-life test conditions to induce an electromigration void. The silicon substrate was removed, leaving only the interconnect test structure encased in silica. We imaged the sample with 1750 eV photons using the 2-ID-B scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the Advanced Photon Source, a third-generation synchrotron facility. Fourteen views through the sample were obtained over a 170 degree sign range of angles (with a 40 degree sign gap) about a single rotation axis. Two sampled regions were selected for three-dimensional reconstruction: one of the ragged end of a wire depleted by the void, the other of the adjacent interlevel connection (or ''via''). We applied two reconstruction techniques: the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique and a Bayesian reconstruction technique, the generalized Gaussian Markov random field method. The stated uncertainties are total, with one standard deviation, which resolved the sample to 200{+-}70 and 140{+-}30 nm, respectively. The tungsten via is distinguished from the aluminum wire by higher absorption. Within the void, the aluminum is entirely depleted from under the tungsten via. The reconstructed data show the applicability of this technique to three-dimensional imaging of buried defects in submicrometer structures relevant to the microelectronics industry. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10 o ). In out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {110} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the grains will have a direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe

  4. Electromigration-induced Plasticity and Texture in Cu Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C. S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-01

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study[1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10°). In out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {110} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the grains will have a direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  5. Synthesis of lanthanum tungstate interconnecting nanoparticles by high voltage electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keereeta, Yanee, E-mail: ynkeereeta@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} as one of semiconducting materials. • H.V. electrospinning was used to synthesize La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} interconnecting nanoparticles. • A promising material for photoemission. - Abstract: Lanthanum tungstate (La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}) interconnecting nanoparticles in the shape of fibers were successfully synthesized by electrospinning in combination with high temperature calcination. In this research, calcination temperature for the synthesis of the fibers evidently influenced the diameter, morphology and crystalline degree. The crystalline monoclinic La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} fibers with 200–700 nm in diameter, two main Raman peaks at 945 and 927 cm{sup −1}, FTIR stretching modes at 936 and 847 cm{sup −1}, 2.02 eV energy gap and 415–430 nm blue emission were synthesized by calcination of inorganic/organic hybrid fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface of the composite fibers before calcination was very smooth. Upon calcination the composite fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, they were transformed into nanoparticles join together in the shape of fibers with rough surface.

  6. Seismic Hazard Analysis on a Complex, Interconnected Fault Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. T.; Field, E. H.; Milner, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    In California, seismic hazard models have evolved from simple, segmented prescriptive models to much more complex representations of multi-fault and multi-segment earthquakes on an interconnected fault network. During the development of the 3rd Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3), the prevalence of multi-fault ruptures in the modeling was controversial. Yet recent earthquakes, for example, the Kaikora earthquake - as well as new research on the potential of multi-fault ruptures (e.g., Nissen et al., 2016; Sahakian et al. 2017) - have validated this approach. For large crustal earthquakes, multi-fault ruptures may be the norm rather than the exception. As datasets improve and we can view the rupture process at a finer scale, the interconnected, fractal nature of faults is revealed even by individual earthquakes. What is the proper way to model earthquakes on a fractal fault network? We show multiple lines of evidence that connectivity even in modern models such as UCERF3 may be underestimated, although clustering in UCERF3 mitigates some modeling simplifications. We need a methodology that can be applied equally well where the fault network is well-mapped and where it is not - an extendable methodology that allows us to "fill in" gaps in the fault network and in our knowledge.

  7. Design rules for vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2018-03-01

    Formation of vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing was investigated, particularly focusing on the transfer step, in which an ink pattern is transferred from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet for the step coverage of contact holes. We systematically examined the coverage of contact holes made of a tapered photoresist layer by varying the hole size, the hole depth, PDMS elasticity, PDMS thickness, printing speed, and printing indentation depth. Successful ink filling was achieved when the PDMS was softer, and the optimal PDMS thickness varied depending on the size of the contact holes. This behaviour is related to the bell-type uplift deformation of incompressible PDMS, which can be described by contact mechanics numerical simulations. Based on direct observation of PDMS/resist-hole contact behaviour, the step coverage of contact holes typically involves two steps of contact area growth: (i) the PDMS first touches the bottom of the holes and then (ii) the contact area gradually and radially widens toward the tapered sidewall. From an engineering perspective, it is pointed out that mechanical synchronisation mismatch in the roll-to-sheet type printing invokes the cracking of ink layers at the edges of contact holes. According to the above design rule, ink filling into a contact hole with thickness of 2.5 µm and radius of 10 µm was achieved. Contact chain patterns with 1386 points of vertical interconnections with the square hole size of up to 10 µm successfully demonstrated the validity of the technique presented herein.

  8. Sound insulation performance of plates with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Kaijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sound insulation performance of a thin plate with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches. Piezoelectric patches are periodically bonded on the surfaces of the plate in a collocated fashion, and are interconnected via an inductive circuit network. This piezoelectric system is termed as piezo-electromechanical (PEM plate in the paper. Homogenization methods are involved under a sub-wavelength assumption to analytically develop the dynamical equations for the PEM plate. The dispersion relationships and energy densities of the wave modes propagating in the PEM plate are studied; the sub-wavelength assumption is verified for the simulations in this paper. The coincidence frequency of the PEM plate is researched, and results show that the coincidence frequency of the PEM plate will disappear at certain circumstances; mathematical and physical explanations are made for this phenomenon. The disappearance of the coincidence frequency is used to optimize the value of inductance, for the purpose of improving the sound transmission loss of the PEM plate.

  9. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-31

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong <111> textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a <112> direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10{sup o}). In <111> out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the <111> grains will have a <112> direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong <111> textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  10. Zooplankton structure in two interconnected ponds: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špoljar Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of zooplankton diversity, abundance and trophic structure was conducted during the summer period in pelagial zone on the longitudinal profile of the Sutla River Backwater. Investigated site consists of two interconnected basins: transparent Upper Basin with submerged macrophytes and turbid Lower Basin without macrophytes in the littoral zone. In the Upper Basin, abundance and diversity of zooplankton in the pelagial was higher in comparison to the Lower Basin, with prevailing species of genus Keratella as microfilter-feeder, and genera of Polyartha and Trihocerca as macrofilter-feeder rotifers. On the contrary, in the Lower Basin, crustaceans dominated in abundance. Microfilter-feeder cladoceran (Bosmina longirostris and larval and adult stages of macrofilter-feeder copepod (Macrocyclops albidus prevailed in the Lower Basin. Fish predation pressure was more pronounced in the pelagial of the Upper Basin, indicated by low cladoceran abundance in the surface layer. Although the studied basins were interconnected, results indicate significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05 differences in the zooplankton structure as a potential result of the macrophyte impact on environmental conditions and fish predation pressure.

  11. Cooperative behavior evolution of small groups on interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Yang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Small groups are modeled on interconnected networks. • Players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups. • Impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution are studied. - Abstract: Understanding the behavioral evolution in evacuation is significant for guiding and controlling the evacuation process. Based on the fact that the population consists of many small groups, here we model the small groups which are separated in space but linked by other methods, such as kinship, on interconnected networks. Namely, the players in the same layer belong to an identical small group, while the players located in different layers belong to different small groups. And the players of different layers establish interaction by edge crossed layers. In addition, players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups, in detail, the players in the same layer play prisoner’s dilemma, but players in different layers play harmony game. By means of numerous simulations, we study the impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution. Because the framework of this work takes the space distribution into account, which is close to the realistic life, we hope that it can provide a new insight to reveal the law of behavioral evolution of evacuation population.

  12. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials

  13. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment

  14. Energy Zones Study: A Comprehensive Web-Based Mapping Tool to Identify and Analyze Clean Energy Zones in the Eastern Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, Vladimir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kuiper, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rollins, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, Donna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Green, Jr., Herman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makar, Jeffrey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ayers, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Holm, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Simunich, Kathy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); McLamore, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shamsuddin, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kavicky, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Portante, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conzelmann, Guenter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Molburg, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, Corrie [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Darling, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gasper, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Richmond, Pamela [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Beardsley, Brett [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gracia, Jose R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fernandez, Steven [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kodysh, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report describes the work conducted in support of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones Study and the development of the Energy Zones Mapping Tool performed by a team of experts from three National Laboratories. The multi-laboratory effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  15. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the management planning technique known as Break Even Analysis and outlines its use as a tool in financial planning for organizations intending to conduct or sponsor a conference, seminar, or workshop. Three figures illustrating Break Even Analysis concepts and a Break Even Analysis worksheet are included. (JL)

  16. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service; however, maintenance therapy itself is not covered as part of these services. (c) Occupational... increase respiratory function, such as graded activity services; these services include physiologic... rehabilitation plan of treatment, including physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, speech...

  17. Chemically etched edges of YBa2Cu3O7 films for interconnects, crossovers and Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppe, U.; Faley, M.I.; Urban, K.; Soltner, H.

    1993-01-01

    To produce damage-free edges is one of the main problems during the preparation of Josephson edge-type junctions and interconnects in multilayer structures including high temperature superconductors. The inherently short and anisotropic coherence length in high temperature superconductors makes it also difficult to fabricate Josephson junctions from these materials. One promising technique which helps to overcome such problems using a nonaqueous chemical etching with a Br-ethanol solution was first presented in a recent publication. Here we report results obtained with the use of this method: test of insulation properties of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , PrBa 2 Cu 2.85 Ga 0.15 O 7 , and SrTiO 3 used for crossovers and Josephson junctions. Some features of interconnects and Josephson junctions, prepared on the basis of the chemical technique are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Gregory D.

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  19. 77 FR 10505 - Notice of Attendance at PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Interconnection, L.L.C. Meetings The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM..., PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Docket Nos. ER06-456, ER06-880, ER06-954, ER06-1271, EL07-57, ER07-424...

  20. Design of a highly parallel board-level-interconnection with 320 Gbps capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.; Bauer, H.

    2012-01-01

    A parallel board-level interconnection design is presented consisting of 32 channels, each operating at 10 Gbps. The hardware uses available optoelectronic components (VCSEL, TIA, pin-diodes) and a combination of planarintegrated free-space optics, fiber-bundles and available MEMS-components, like the DMD™ from Texas Instruments. As a specific feature, we present a new modular inter-board interconnect, realized by 3D fiber-matrix connectors. The performance of the interconnect is evaluated with regard to optical properties and power consumption. Finally, we discuss the application of the interconnect for strongly distributed system architectures, as, for example, in high performance embedded computing systems and data centers.

  1. New organization scheme for the energy supply in the not interconnected zones of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Josue; Bayona Lugdy

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a new scheme of solutions in the financial institutional environment and regulatory, in this sense it thinks about the creation from a support unit to the rural energy administration that takes charge of to identify energy solutions and the technical and organizational support of the service of a foundation that manage the obtained resources and a interconnected scheme to the current conditions of the NIZ. In Colombia the not interconnected zones NIZ corresponds those of the country that don't receive electric power service through the national interconnected system, and who interconnection is not economically feasible

  2. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection...... systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity...

  3. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  4. Coupling electromagnetic pulse-shaped waves into wire-like interconnection structures with a non-linear protection – Time domain calculations by the PEEC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wollenberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An interconnection system whose loads protected by a voltage suppressor and a low-pass filter against overvoltages caused by coupling pulse-shaped electromagnetic waves is analyzed. The external wave influencing the system is assumed as a plane wave with HPM form. The computation is provided by a full-wave PEEC model for the interconnection structure incorporated in the SPICE code. Thus, nonlinear elements of the protection circuit can be included in the calculation. The analysis shows intermodulation distortions and penetrations of low frequency interferences caused by intermodulations through the protection circuits. The example examined shows the necessity of using full-wave models for interconnections together with non-linear circuit solvers for simulation of noise immunity in systems protected by nonlinear devices.

  5. Oxygen assisted interconnection of silver nanoparticles with femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Zhou, Y., E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Duley, W. W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-12-14

    Ablation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the direction of laser polarization is achieved by utilizing femtosecond laser irradiation in air at laser fluence ranging from ∼2 mJ/cm{sup 2} to ∼14 mJ/cm{sup 2}. This directional ablation is attributed to localized surface plasmon induced localized electric field enhancement. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the irradiated particles in different gases and at different pressures indicate that the ablation is further enhanced by oxygen in the air. This may be due to the external heating via the reactions of its dissociation product, atomic oxygen, with the surface of Ag particles, while the ablated Ag is not oxidized. Further experimental observations show that the ablated material re-deposits near the irradiated particles and results in the extension of the particles in laser polarization direction, facilitating the interconnection of two well-separated nanoparticles.

  6. The high speed interconnect system architecture and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven C.

    The design and operation of a fiber-optic high-speed interconnect system (HSIS) being developed to meet the requirements of future avionics and flight-control hardware with distributed-system architectures are discussed. The HSIS is intended for 100-Mb/s operation of a local-area network with up to 256 stations. It comprises a bus transmission system (passive star couplers and linear media linked by active elements) and network interface units (NIUs). Each NIU is designed to perform the physical, data link, network, and transport functions defined by the ISO OSI Basic Reference Model (1982 and 1983) and incorporates a fiber-optic transceiver, a high-speed protocol based on the SAE AE-9B linear token-passing data bus (1986), and a specialized application interface unit. The operating modes and capabilities of HSIS are described in detail and illustrated with diagrams.

  7. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  8. Crosstalk in dynamic optical interconnects in photorefractive crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Buchhave, Preben

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the crosstalk between two neighboring gratings in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 optical interconnects. The gratings are induced by the interference between one reference beam and two object beams. By applying a suitable phase shift in one of the object beams, we can selectively...... switch off one of the gratings. The crosstalk between the two gratings is experimentally determined from the diffraction efficiency in the remaining grating before and after applying the phase shift. The magnitude of the crosstalk is determined by the intensity ratio between the reference beam intensity...... and the object beam intensity. Crosstalk can be avoided by choosing a certain intensity ratio between the reference and the object beams....

  9. Stretchable microelectrode array using room-temperature liquid alloy interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B; Taylor, R; Chung, C; Higgs, G; Pruitt, B L; Ding, Z; Abilez, O J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable microelectrode array for studying cell behavior under mechanical strain. The electrode array consists of gold-plated nail-head pins (250 µm tip diameter) or tungsten micro-wires (25.4 µm in diameter) inserted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform (25.4 × 25.4 mm 2 ). Stretchable interconnects to the outside were provided by fusible indium-alloy-filled microchannels. The alloy is liquid at room temperature, thus providing the necessary stretchability and electrical conductivity. The electrode platform can withstand strains of up to 40% and repeated (100 times) strains of up to 35% did not cause any failure in the electrodes or the PDMS substrate. We confirmed biocompatibility of short-term culture, and using the gold pin device, we demonstrated electric field pacing of adult murine heart cells. Further, using the tungsten microelectrode device, we successfully measured depolarizations of differentiated murine heart cells from embryoid body clusters

  10. Results on 3D interconnection from AIDA WP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: hgm@hll.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    From 2010 to 2014 the EU funded AIDA project established in one of its work packages (WP3) a network of groups working collaboratively on advanced 3D integration of electronic circuits and semiconductor sensors for applications in particle physics. The main motivation came from the severe requirements on pixel detectors for tracking and vertexing at future Particle Physics experiments at LHC, super-B factories and linear colliders. To go beyond the state-of-the-art, the main issues were studying low mass, high bandwidth applications, with radiation hardness capabilities, with low power consumption, offering complex functionality, with small pixel size and without dead regions. The interfaces and interconnects of sensors to electronic readout integrated circuits are a key challenge for new detector applications.

  11. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  12. The Quality Control of the LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Fessia, P; Grimaud, A; Kotarba, A; Maan, W; Olek, S; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Sulek, Z; Tock, J P; Tommasini, D; Vaudaux, L; Williams, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) magnets have required some 40 000 TIG welded joints and 65 000 electrical splices. At the level of single joints and splices, non-destructive techniques find limited application: quality control is based on the qualification of the process and of operators, on the recording of production parameters and on production samples. Visual inspection and process audits were the main techniques used. At the level of an extended chain of joints and splices - from a 53.5 m half-cell to a complete 2.7 km arc sector - quality control is based on vacuum leak tests, electrical tests and RF microwave reflectometry that progressively validated the work performed. Subsequent pressure tests, cryogenic circuits flushing with high pressure helium and cool-downs revealed a few unseen or new defects. This paper presents an overview of the quality control techniques used, seeking lessons applicable to similar large, complex projects.

  13. Interconnected magnetic tunnel junctions for spin-logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Mauricio; Vaysset, Adrien; Wan, Danny; Raymenants, Eline; Swerts, Johan; Rao, Siddharth; Zografos, Odysseas; Souriau, Laurent; Gavan, Khashayar Babaei; Rassoul, Nouredine; Radisic, Dunja; Cupak, Miroslav; Dehan, Morin; Sayan, Safak; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.; Mocuta, Dan; Radu, Iuliana P.

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid progress of spintronic devices, spin-logic concepts hold promises of energy-delay conscious computation for efficient logic gate operations. We report on the electrical characterization of domain walls in interconnected magnetic tunnel junctions. By means of spin-transfer torque effect, domains walls are produced at the common free layer and its propagation towards the output pillar sensed by tunneling magneto-resistance. Domain pinning conditions are studied quasi-statically showing a strong dependence on pillar size, ferromagnetic free layer width and inter-pillar distance. Addressing pinning conditions are detrimental for cascading and fan-out of domain walls across nodes, enabling the realization of domain-wall-based logic technology.

  14. Fixed Orientation Interconnection Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasen, Martin

    Interconnection problems have natural applications in the design of integrated circuits (or chips). A modern chip consists of billions of transistors that are connected by metal wires on the surface of the chip. These metal wires are routed on a (fairly small) number of layers in such a way...... that electrically independent nets do not intersect each other. Traditional manufacturing technology limits the orientations of the wires to be either horizontal or vertical — and is known as Manhattan architecture. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in general architectures, where more than two...... a significant step forward, both concerning theory and algorithms, for the fixed orientation Steiner tree problem. In addition, the work maintains a close link to applications and generalizations motivated by chip design....

  15. Efficient dual layer interconnect coating for high temperature electrochemical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Effects of novel dual layer coatings Co3O4/La0.85Sr0.15MnO3−δ on high temperature oxidation behaviour of candidate steels for interconnects are studied at 1123 K in flowing simulated ambient air (air + 1% H2O) and oxygen. Four alloys are investigated: Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, E-Brite and AL 29...... that the oxidation reaction is limited by outward Cr3+ diffusion in the chromia scale. The coating effectively reduces the oxidation rate. Reactions and cation inter-diffusion between the coating and the oxide scale are observed. Long term effects of these interactions are discussed and practical implications...

  16. The Special LHC Interconnections Technologies, Organization and Quality Control

    CERN Document Server

    Tock, J P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Desebe, O; Felip, M; Garion, C; Hajduk, L; Jacquemod, A; Kos, N; Laurent, F; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Slits, I; Vaudaux, L; Williams, L

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the standard interconnections (IC) of the continuous cryostat of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), there exists a variety of special ones related to specific components and assemblies, such as cryomagnets of the insertion regions, electrical feedboxes and superconducting links. Though they are less numerous, their specificities created many additional IC types, requiring a larger variety of assembly operations and quality control techniques, keeping very high standards of quality. Considerable flexibility and adaptability from all the teams involved (CERN staff, collaborating institutes, contractors) were the key points to ensure the success of this task. This paper first describes the special IC and presents the employed technologies which are generally adapted from the standard work. Then, the organization adopted for this non-repetitive work is described. Examples of non-conformities that were resolved are also discussed. Figures of merit in terms of quality and productivity are given and com...

  17. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their capability of reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and a reasonable adhesion between them. • Selective metallization of the two component plastic part (coating one polymer with metal and leaving the other one uncoated) To overcome these two main issues in MID fabrication for micro applications, the current Ph.D. project explores the technical difficulties...

  18. Processing and Prolonged 500 C Testing of 4H-SiC JFET Integrated Circuits with Two Levels of Metal Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liangyu; Lukco, Dorothy; Chang, Carl W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2015-01-01

    Complex integrated circuit (IC) chips rely on more than one level of interconnect metallization for routing of electrical power and signals. This work reports the processing and testing of 4H-SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) prototype IC's with two levels of metal interconnect capable of prolonged operation at 500 C. Packaged functional circuits including 3- and 11-stage ring oscillators, a 4-bit digital to analog converter, and a 4-bit address decoder and random access memory cell have been demonstrated at 500 C. A 3-stage oscillator functioned for over 3000 hours at 500 C in air ambient. Improved reproducibility remains to be accomplished.

  19. Interrelationships between different generations of interconnected tillers of Cares bigelowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsdottir, I.S.; Callaghan, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    (1) The interrelationships between tiller generations of Carex bigelowii Torr. ex Schwein were investigated at two subarctic sites by labelling young tiller modules with 14 C and detecting its translocation, and by severing modules at increasing distances from the youngest tiller generation. Tiller survival, regeneration and physiological continuity were all measured. All of the investigations were on systems produced by vegetative proliferation and subsequent fragmentation: recruitment from seedlings was not observed. (2) 14 C-assimilates were translocated through the rhizome system, from the one to two years old assimilating tillers into the roots and rhizomes of nine to eleven years old tillers with only below-ground organs remaining. This shows that the roots and rhizomers of the numerous interconnected old non-assimilating tillers were alive and that their roots were probably still functioning. (3) The severing-experiment showed that the few assimilating young tiller generations were to some extent dependent on the old below-ground, non-assimilating tiller generations for their survival, growth and reproduction. Water and nutrients are probably the forms of subsidy. (4) The minimum size of a succesful physiologically functional unit was around five interconnected tiller generations. The maximum size could not be determined. (5) Apical dominance effects were detected within the rhizome system. The rhizomes keep a reserve of dormant buds. When the connection between tiller generations was severed, buds on the old rhizomes, which had been dormant for several years, developed into new tillers. These tillers were characterized by having only short rhizomes and they produced green leaves in the first season of growth. (6) The integrated system of old and young tiller generations, together with a spatial network of modules controlled by apical dominance, provide Carex bigelowii with mechanisms for locating and exploiting favorable patches in a nutrient poor, but

  20. Deposition and characterisation of copper for high density interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, N.

    1999-09-01

    Copper has been deposited by sputtering and investigated for application as high density interconnects, with a view to maximising its performance and reliability. A sputter deposition process using gettering has been developed, which produces consistently pure, low resistivity films. A relationship between film thickness and resistivity has been explained by studying the grain growth process in copper films using atomic force microscopy. The Maydas-Shatzkes model has been used to separate the contributions of grain boundary and surface scattering to thin film resistivity, in copper and gold. Stress and texture in copper film have been studied. Annealing has been used to promote grain growth and texture development. Electromigration has been studied in copper and aluminium interconnects using a multi-line accelerated test set-up. A difference in failure distributions and void morphologies has been explained by an entirely different damage mechanism. The importance of surface/interface migration in electromigration damage of copper lines has been established and explained using a grain boundary-grooving model. A tantalum overlayer was found to extend the lifetime of copper lines. A composite sputtering target has been used to deposit copper/zirconium alloy films. The composition of the alloys was studied by Rutherford backscattering, Auger and secondary neutral mass spectrometry. The alloy films had an improved electromigration lifetime. A surface controlled mechanism is proposed to explain the advantage. A metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor technique is used to investigate barrier reliability. Tungsten is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier for copper, up to 700 deg. C. (author)

  1. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  2. Action plan for photovoltaic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldach, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the present situation regarding international standards governing photovoltaic (PV) systems and components, and seeks to identify barriers to the commercialisation of PV systems in the UK due to the absence of standards and codes of practice, and develop an action plan to overcome these barriers. An overview of standardisation bodies and standard generation mechanisms is presented, and the PV cells and modules, stand-alone PV systems, utility interconnection with PV systems, and building integration of PV are reviewed.

  3. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2010. Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the...

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 322 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 01-25-01, AST Release (Area 1); 03-25-03, Mud Plant AST Diesel Release (Area 3); 03-20-05, Injection Wells (Area 3). Corrective Action Unit 322 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. The investigation of three CASs in CAU 322 will determine if hazardous and/or radioactive constituents are present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. A model-based prognostic approach to predict interconnect failure using impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dae Il; Yoon, Jeong Ah [Dept. of System Design and Control Engineering. Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The reliability of electronic assemblies is largely affected by the health of interconnects, such as solder joints, which provide mechanical, electrical and thermal connections between circuit components. During field lifecycle conditions, interconnects are often subjected to a DC open circuit, one of the most common interconnect failure modes, due to cracking. An interconnect damaged by cracking is sometimes extremely hard to detect when it is a part of a daisy-chain structure, neighboring with other healthy interconnects that have not yet cracked. This cracked interconnect may seem to provide a good electrical contact due to the compressive load applied by the neighboring healthy interconnects, but it can cause the occasional loss of electrical continuity under operational and environmental loading conditions in field applications. Thus, cracked interconnects can lead to the intermittent failure of electronic assemblies and eventually to permanent failure of the product or the system. This paper introduces a model-based prognostic approach to quantitatively detect and predict interconnect failure using impedance analysis and particle filtering. Impedance analysis was previously reported as a sensitive means of detecting incipient changes at the surface of interconnects, such as cracking, based on the continuous monitoring of RF impedance. To predict the time to failure, particle filtering was used as a prognostic approach using the Paris model to address the fatigue crack growth. To validate this approach, mechanical fatigue tests were conducted with continuous monitoring of RF impedance while degrading the solder joints under test due to fatigue cracking. The test results showed the RF impedance consistently increased as the solder joints were degraded due to the growth of cracks, and particle filtering predicted the time to failure of the interconnects similarly to their actual timesto- failure based on the early sensitivity of RF impedance.

  6. Effects of advanced process approaches on electromigration degradation of Cu on-chip interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.

    2007-07-12

    This thesis provides a methodology for the investigation of electromigration (EM) in Cu-based interconnects. An experimental framework based on in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations was developed for that purpose. It is capable to visualize the EM-induced void formation and evolution in multi-level test structures in real time. Different types of interconnects were investigated. Furthermore, stressed and unstressed samples were studied applying advanced physical analysis techniques in order to obtain additional information about the microstructure of the interconnects as well as interfaces and grain boundaries. These data were correlated to the observed degradation phenomena. Correlations of the experimental results to recently established theoretical models were highlighted. Three types of Cu-based interconnects were studied. Pure Cu interconnects were compared to Al-alloyed (CuAl) and CoWP-coated interconnects. The latter two represent potential approaches that address EM-related reliability concerns. It was found that in such interconnects the dominant diffusion path is no longer the Cu/capping layer interface for interconnects as in pure Cu interconnects. Instead, void nucleation occurs at the bottom Cu/barrier interface with significant effects from grain boundaries. Moreover, the in-situ investigations revealed that the initial void nucleation does not occur at the cathode end of the lines but several micrometers away from it. The mean times-to-failure of CuAl and CoWP-coated interconnects were increased by at least one order of magnitude compared to Cu interconnects. The improvements were attributed to the presence of foreign metal atoms at the Cu/capping layer interface. Post-mortem EBSD investigations were used to reveal the microstructure of the tested samples. The data were correlated to the in-situ observations. (orig.)

  7. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  8. Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that drive oncogenesis tend to be highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-05-01

    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins. We found that adaptor proteins, like RTKs, have many high affinity bindings sites for other adaptor proteins. In addition, proteins that drive cancer, including both receptors and adaptor proteins, tend to be much more highly interconnected via networks of SH2 and PTB domain-mediated interactions than nononcogenic proteins. Our results suggest that network topological properties such as connectivity can be used to prioritize new drug targets in this well-studied family of signaling proteins.

  9. Data processing and optimization system to study prospective interstate power interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkovalnikov, Sergei; Trofimov, Ivan; Trofimov, Leonid

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents Data processing and optimization system for studying and making rational decisions on the formation of interstate electric power interconnections, with aim to increasing effectiveness of their functioning and expansion. The technologies for building and integrating a Data processing and optimization system including an object-oriented database and a predictive mathematical model for optimizing the expansion of electric power systems ORIRES, are described. The technology of collection and pre-processing of non-structured data collected from various sources and its loading to the object-oriented database, as well as processing and presentation of information in the GIS system are described. One of the approaches of graphical visualization of the results of optimization model is considered on the example of calculating the option for expansion of the South Korean electric power grid.

  10. Wide area stability analysis and control of interconnected power systems with HVDC and FACTS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong

    2012-11-01

    In order to damp low-frequency oscillations and improve the overall stability of large-scale interconnected power systems, this book investigates the wide-area stability analysis and control methods from different perspectives. The flexible and fast control capability of high-voltage (FACTS) is investigated in detail to implement a wide-area measurement based damping control. A sequential and global mixed optimization method is proposed to simultaneously optimize local and wide area damping controllers. A wide-area robust coordination method is presented to coordinate multiple wide-area damping controllers (WADC). A delay-dependent robust design method is also proposed to handle time-varying delays commonly existing in wide-area signal communication. A closed-loop hardware experiment is used to validate the damping performance. The research activities of this book include power system stability analysis and control, wide-area damping control as well as HVDC and FACTS technologies.

  11. Opportunities and challenges in the wider adoption of liver and interconnected microphysiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J; Kostrzewski, Tomasz; Sceats, Emma L

    2017-10-01

    Liver disease represents a growing global health burden. The development of in vitro liver models which allow the study of disease and the prediction of metabolism and drug-induced liver injury in humans remains a challenge. The maintenance of functional primary hepatocytes cultures, the parenchymal cell of the liver, has historically been difficult with dedifferentiation and the consequent loss of hepatic function limiting utility. The desire for longer term functional liver cultures sparked the development of numerous systems, including collagen sandwiches, spheroids, micropatterned co-cultures and liver microphysiological systems. This review will focus on liver microphysiological systems, often referred to as liver-on-a-chip, and broaden to include platforms with interconnected microphysiological systems or multi-organ-chips. The interconnection of microphysiological systems presents the opportunity to explore system level effects, investigate organ cross talk, and address questions which were previously the preserve of animal experimentation. As a field, microphysiological systems have reached a level of maturity suitable for commercialization and consequent evaluation by a wider community of users, in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Here scientific, operational, and organizational considerations relevant to the wider adoption of microphysiological systems will be discussed. Applications in which microphysiological systems might offer unique scientific insights or enable studies currently feasible only with animal models are described, and challenges which might be addressed to enable wider adoption of the technologies are highlighted. A path forward which envisions the development of microphysiological systems in partnerships between academia, vendors and industry, is proposed. Impact statement Microphysiological systems are in vitro models of human tissues and organs. These systems have advanced rapidly in recent years and are now being

  12. Methods for the secure and economical operation of inter-connected electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iggland, L. J. E.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis considers aspects of the operation of electric power systems. In particular the focus is on the operation in systems where multiple operators are jointly responsible for the operation of an interconnected system, but where each operator is solely responsible for a sub-system. Due to the manner in which the operation is separated, the operators have detailed information about the subsystem they control, but only limited information about the rest of the system. The market liberalization, and an interest in an integrated pan-European energy market, are leading to increased cross-border power flows. These increased cross-border flows increase the interdependencies between the areas. With increasing interdependencies the problems associated with operators only having limited knowledge about the entire system increase. In order to reduce these issues, which include an inability to properly dispatch generation and being able to perform security analysis, this thesis presents methods which can be used to perform data-exchange without requiring that all information needs to be exchanged. By using repeated exchange of the price and amount of energy traded together with an iterative solution of the local generation dispatch problem, a multi-lateral solution for the interconnected system is achieved. The method is evaluated with respect to how close its solution is to the central one, both for the non-security constrained and the security constrained case. This method is then extended to include HVDC transmission systems. In order to allow the operators to evaluate the effect of contingencies which occur in other areas, the operators must exchange the contingencies which they consider with each other. In order to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted this thesis proposes a method which summarizes contingencies which are similar into a common one. Thus allowing for a smaller number of contingencies to be considered, without reducing the coverage. This

  13. Methods for the secure and economical operation of inter-connected electrical power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iggland, L. J. E.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis considers aspects of the operation of electric power systems. In particular the focus is on the operation in systems where multiple operators are jointly responsible for the operation of an interconnected system, but where each operator is solely responsible for a sub-system. Due to the manner in which the operation is separated, the operators have detailed information about the subsystem they control, but only limited information about the rest of the system. The market liberalization, and an interest in an integrated pan-European energy market, are leading to increased cross-border power flows. These increased cross-border flows increase the interdependencies between the areas. With increasing interdependencies the problems associated with operators only having limited knowledge about the entire system increase. In order to reduce these issues, which include an inability to properly dispatch generation and being able to perform security analysis, this thesis presents methods which can be used to perform data-exchange without requiring that all information needs to be exchanged. By using repeated exchange of the price and amount of energy traded together with an iterative solution of the local generation dispatch problem, a multi-lateral solution for the interconnected system is achieved. The method is evaluated with respect to how close its solution is to the central one, both for the non-security constrained and the security constrained case. This method is then extended to include HVDC transmission systems. In order to allow the operators to evaluate the effect of contingencies which occur in other areas, the operators must exchange the contingencies which they consider with each other. In order to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted this thesis proposes a method which summarizes contingencies which are similar into a common one. Thus allowing for a smaller number of contingencies to be considered, without reducing the coverage. This

  14. Fiscal 2000 report on result of international joint demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system. Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system (Myanmar); 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden keito renkei system jissho kenkyu (Myanmar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Joint research was conducted with Myanmar on a photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system, for which fiscal 2000 results were described in this paper. Power generating facilities were set up consisting of 80kW photovoltaic, 40kW wind and 60kW diesel systems. With the photovoltaic and wind power generation connected to a small-scale power system as a ballast load, the system interconnection is formed through load adjusting equipment such as storage batteries. The hybrid system feeding is from 6 o'clock early in the morning until 23 late at night. The diesel power generation is free from restrictions. The operating method was set on system control (demand side management) by adjustment from the load side, with ballast load control employed that adjustably operates an ice machine load. The basic design was drafted in terms of a storage battery capacity of 1,000Ah and an ice machine load of 32kW. The daytime load was assumed to be 25% of the night load. On the equipment specifications set in this basic design, arrangement design was conducted for the equipment in the premises, making a land development plan and a basic construction plan including a temporary work site, construction steps, transportation and delivery of the equipment. Quantity of solar radiation and wind data were continuously observed. (NEDO)

  15. 11. Strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  16. 77 FR 63757 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... telephone subscriptions in the United States were users of interconnected VoIP providers--an increase of 21... Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  17. Global On-Chip Differential Interconnects with Optimally-Placed Twists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Schinkel, Daniel; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Global on-chip communication is receiving quite some attention as global interconnects are rapidly becoming a speed, power and reliability bottleneck for digital CMOS systems. Recently, we proposed a bus-transceiver test chip in 0.13 μm CMOS using 10 mm long uninterrupted differential interconnects

  18. Investigation of performance degradation of SOFC using chromium-containing alloy interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeaff, D.R.; Dinesen, A.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2007-01-01

    The long-term aging of a stack element (fuel cell, current collectors, and interconnect materials) was studied. A pair of tests were made in which one sample contained an interconnect, a high-temperature stainless steel (Crofer 22 APU), treated with an LSMC coating applied to the cathode-side int...

  19. 76 FR 42534 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits; System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Reliability Operating Limits; System Restoration Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... data necessary to analyze and monitor Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL) within its... Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits, Order No. 748, 134 FERC ] 61,213 (2011). \\2\\ The term ``Wide-Area...

  20. Simple and reusable fibre-to-chip interconnect with adjustable coupling eficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Parriaux, Olivier M.; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    A simple, efficient and reusable fiber-to-chip interconnect is presented. The interconnect is based on a V-groove (wet- chemically etched) in silicon, combined with a loose-mode Si3N4-channel waveguide. The loose-mode waveguide is adiabatically tapered to the integrated optical (sensor) circuitry.