WorldWideScience

Sample records for planned invasive strategy

  1. Conservative versus invasive stable ischemic heart disease management strategies: what do we plan to learn from the ISCHEMIA trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Torres, Kathleen A; Desai, Karan P; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Maron, David J; Boden, William E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, landmark randomized clinical trials comparing initial management strategies in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) have demonstrated no significant reduction in 'hard' end points (all-cause mortality, cardiac death or myocardial infarction) with one strategy versus another. The main advantage derived from early revascularization is improved short-term quality of life. Nonetheless, questions remain regarding how best to manage SIHD patients, such as whether a high-risk subgroup can be identified that may experience a survival or myocardial infarction benefit from early revascularization, and if not, when should diagnostic catheterization and revascularization be performed. The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial is designed to address these questions by randomizing SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy or an initial invasive strategy of optimal medical therapy plus cardiac catheterization and revascularization.

  2. Technology Planning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Effective planning strategies drive achievement of an overall technology goal to increase access to electronic information in real time in order to increase efficiency, productivity, and communication across campus. Planning relies on providing access, 'Anytime Anywhere' to student information, calendar, email, course management tools, and the…

  3. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  4. Strategies for Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, H. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Provides a definition of the planning process drawing upon models from management science, outlines the steps library administrators should take in developing a planning program, and describes some of the recent planning processes for public libraries, school media centers, academic libraries, and special libraries. A reference list is provided.…

  5. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  6. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  7. Invasive mechanism and control strategy of Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to ascertain the invasive mechanism and control strategy of the invasive Crofton weed, Ageratina adenophora, its ecological adaptability and population differentiation,the formation of single dominant population, displacement of native plants and sustainable management strategies were investigated. The present results helped to clarify and explain such issues as the adaptability post invasion,interaction and competition between inter-and intra-species and community resistance, thereby providing important references to researches on other invasive alien species.

  8. Interplay of approximate planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Lally, Níall; Faulkner, Paul; Eshel, Neir; Seifritz, Erich; Gershman, Samuel J; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2015-03-10

    Humans routinely formulate plans in domains so complex that even the most powerful computers are taxed. To do so, they seem to avail themselves of many strategies and heuristics that efficiently simplify, approximate, and hierarchically decompose hard tasks into simpler subtasks. Theoretical and cognitive research has revealed several such strategies; however, little is known about their establishment, interaction, and efficiency. Here, we use model-based behavioral analysis to provide a detailed examination of the performance of human subjects in a moderately deep planning task. We find that subjects exploit the structure of the domain to establish subgoals in a way that achieves a nearly maximal reduction in the cost of computing values of choices, but then combine partial searches with greedy local steps to solve subtasks, and maladaptively prune the decision trees of subtasks in a reflexive manner upon encountering salient losses. Subjects come idiosyncratically to favor particular sequences of actions to achieve subgoals, creating novel complex actions or "options."

  9. A minimally invasive approach for a compromised treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibaum, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    A primary goal in dentistry is the execution of appropriate treatment plans that are minimally invasive and maintainable. However, it is sometimes necessary to repair existing dental restorations or revise treatment plans to accommodate changes in a patient's condition. In the present case, a patient who was satisfied with a removable partial overdenture lost a critical abutment tooth. A creative, minimally invasive approach enabled the patient to keep his existing partial prosthesis and avoid the need for a full reconstruction or complete denture.

  10. Ecological principles underpinning invasive plant management tools and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The broad focus of ecologically-based invasive plant management is to identify and repair the ecological processes facilitating plant invasion. To be useful, however, EBIPM requires that our application of management tools and strategies be based on ecological principles that determine the rate and ...

  11. Threat and management strategies of potentially invasive insects in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG RunZhi; ZHANG YaPing; JIANG YouXu

    2009-01-01

    The Global Invasive Species Database, GISD, comprises 27 species of the most significant invasive alien insects in the world (through November, 2005), 6 of which are originally native to China, 11 are established in China, and 10 have a potential invasion threat to China. This paper discusses these species in terms of distribution, harmfulness and dispersal ways, and finds that: (ⅰ) Information regarding invasive insects in the GISD remains inadequate. Such harmful invasive species as Opogona sacchari (Bojer), Oracella acuta (Lobdell), and Dendroctonus valens LeConte are not included. (ⅱ) Ten species of invasive insects, particularly Lasius neglectus Van Loon and Linepithema humile (Mayr)which become established in areas near China, have the potential to become established in China. (ⅲ)Special attention should be paid to species from Asia and the Americas because of their greater Iikelihood of becoming established in China. Finally, some management strategies including legislation,quarantine, early warning, prevention and control are suggested.

  12. Threat and management strategies of potentially invasive insects in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Global Invasive Species Database, GISD, comprises 27 species of the most significant invasive alien insects in the world (through November, 2005), 6 of which are originally native to China, 11 are established in China, and 10 have a potential invasion threat to China. This paper discusses these species in terms of distribution, harmfulness and dispersal ways, and finds that: (i) Information re-garding invasive insects in the GISD remains inadequate. Such harmful invasive species as Opogona sacchari (Bojer), Oracella acuta (Lobdell), and Dendroctonus valens LeConte are not included. (ii) Ten species of invasive insects, particularly Lasius neglectus Van Loon and Linepithema humile (Mayr) which become established in areas near China, have the potential to become established in China. (iii) Special attention should be paid to species from Asia and the Americas because of their greater likeli-hood of becoming established in China. Finally, some management strategies including legislation, quarantine, early warning, prevention and control are suggested.

  13. Strategy Planning in Continuing Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Eula

    Corporate strategies that can be used in continuing nursing education programs are discussed, based on the Regional Action for Continuing Education in Nursing Education project. Attention is focused on strategies employed at Southern State University (SSU). A practical planning method was used to guide the process of corporate strategy formulation…

  14. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The

  15. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The differenc

  16. Strategy in Generative Planning of Turning Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and operations planning system ROUND and the strategies which underlie the decision making processes in the planning of turning operations. At first, an outline is given about the environment for which generative systems like ROUND are being developed. The differenc

  17. Measurement and evaluation of alternative planning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jwala, Vidya Ranya

    1995-01-01

    Strategic Planning is a function practiced by most public and private sector organizations. Most managers are familiar with the concept of strategic planning and associated processes. There has been some research in the field of management focusing on the alternatives to strategic planning approach. "Management by groping along" is one such approach. The "Management by groping along" strategy attempts to make an organization capable of adapting, responding and, allocating resou...

  18. Measurement and evaluation of alternative planning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jwala, Vidya Ranya

    1995-01-01

    Strategic Planning is a function practiced by most public and private sector organizations. Most managers are familiar with the concept of strategic planning and associated processes. There has been some research in the field of management focusing on the alternatives to strategic planning approach. "Management by groping along" is one such approach. The "Management by groping along" strategy attempts to make an organization capable of adapting, responding and, allocating resou...

  19. [Planning and simulation of minimally-invasive robotic heart surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Severac-Bastide, Renault; Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel; Carpentier, Alain

    2002-04-01

    Due to their numerous advantages, mainly in terms of patient benefit, mini-invasive robotically assisted interventions are gaining in importance in various surgical fields. However, this conversion has its own challenges that stem from both its novelty and complexity. In this paper we propose to accompany the surgeons in their transition, by offering an integrated environment that enables them to make better use of this new technology. The proposed system is patient-dependent, and enables the planning, validation, simulation, teaching and archiving of robotically assisted interventions. The approach is illustrated for a coronary bypass graft using the daVinci tele-operated robot.

  20. METHODS AND TOOLS OF STRATEGY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principles and the methods of strategic planning were shown in the article. We have investigated the tools of strategic analysis, strategy development and enterprise strategic plan. In the implementation of the strategic planning process – the strategic development of the company – we use the analysis of internal and external environment: PEST–analysis, five forces model of Michael Porter, administrative examination, analysis of the “value chain” by M. Porter and system management analysis of Mc Kinsey CVP–analysis (Cost – Volume – Profit, SWOT–analysis. On the basis of the analysis of the company’s internal and external environment, as well as the SWOT–analysis, we have proposed a business strategy. Among all the methods of portfolio analysis in strategic planning, the authors identify three of the most famous ones: the method of the Boston Consulting Group (BCG; model of McKinsey; Model of ADL / LC (a concept of life cycle. We have also substantiated a comprehensive strategic plan, as well as its system implementation and management, because the previously developed strategy was a generalized idea of the direction of the organization. The research made by the authors was based on the use of the following groups of methods: target program; economic-mathematical methods (simulation of queuing systems, theory of production functions, dynamic modeling and methods of network planning

  1. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    The paper evaluates the current status of community energy planning in northern Europe via a review of literature, practice and the performance of a barrier analysis for successful community energy planning. Main findings of the paper are that current community energy planning lacks a systematic...... approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...... (CEP), is presented. The methodology was applied in a case study in Germany. With CEPs, a possibility to merge qualitative data from local settings into generic energy modelling is shown, which could contribute to improved community energy strategies....

  2. Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies for sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidorfer, Manfred; Möderl, Michael; Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz; Hammerer, Max; Kinzel, Heiko; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Building measures in sewer systems are increasingly driven by rehabilitation/retrofitting and adaptation needs. Aging infrastructure together with changing boundary conditions (due to climate change, land-use change, demographic change) and also changing design standards and legislation require a prospective design to preserve the functionality of urban drainage systems not only today, but also in a long-term perspective. To improve a prospective design of urban water infrastructure, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency funded the research project 'REHAB - Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies of urban infrastructure systems'. Therein a novel strategic planning tool which considers these external drivers of rehabilitation strategies is developed. In this study the scope of the project is described and, as well as first results regarding sewer pipe conditions, future development and vulnerability assessment are also discussed.

  3. Study on Extension Strategy-Tactics-Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangChunyan; ZhangYongjun; ZhuDongmei

    2004-01-01

    Extension strategy-tactics-planning (ESTP), based upon the science of Extenics, is established for the purpose of solving contradictory problems. In this paper, the fundamental thoughts, theories and methods of ESTP are introduced concisely. The highlights of ESTP are that the techniques, used in the case of tackling such problems as how to generate the ideas of strategy-tactics-planning, how to completely analyze the resources, how to exploit extension resources, how to transfer the incompatible into the compati-ble, and how to transfer the opposite into the co-existent, are developed in a formalized way. And regarding the practices of ESTP, the applications of ESTP in resource integration, project, market development, and the prevention and handling crises are presented.

  4. Nonholonomic Motion Planning Strategy for Underactuated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops nonholonomic motion planning strategy for three-joint underactuated manipulator, which uses only two actuators and can be converted into chained form. Since the manipulator was designed focusing on the control simplicity, there are several issues for motion planning, mainly including transformation singularity, path estimation, and trajectory robustness in the presence of initial errors, which need to be considered. Although many existing motion planning control laws for chained form system can be directly applied to the manipulator and steer it to desired configuration, coordinate transformation singularities often happen. We propose two mathematical techniques to avoid the transformation singularities. Then, two evaluation indicators are defined and used to estimate control precision and linear approximation capability. In the end, the initial error sensitivity matrix is introduced to describe the interference sensitivity, which is called robustness. The simulation and experimental results show that an efficient and robust resultant path of three-joint underactuated manipulator can be successfully obtained by use of the motion planning strategy we presented.

  5. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instead of waiting for challenges to confront hospital management, doctors and managers should act in advance to optimize and sustain value-based health. This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Methodology: Based on literature analysis as well as on personal interviews with stakeholders we propose an elaborated definition of stakeholders and designed a questionnaire that integrated the following influence factors, which have relevant impact on hospital management: political/legal, economic, social, technological and environmental forces. These influence factors are examined to develop the so-called critical uncertainties. Thorough identification of uncertainties was based on a “Stakeholder Feedback”. Results: Two key uncertainties were identified and considered in this study: According to the developed scenarios, complementary education of the medical staff as well as of non-medical top executives and managers of hospitals was the recommended core strategy. Complementary scenario-specific strategic options should be considered whenever needed to optimize dealing with a specific future development of the health care environment. Conclusion: Strategic planning in hospitals is essential to ensure sustainable success. It considers multiple situations and integrates internal and external insights and perspectives in addition to identifying weak signals and “blind spots”. This flows into a sound planning for multiple strategic options. It is a state of the art tool that allows dealing with the increasing challenges facing hospital management.

  6. Succession planning. A strategy for taking charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, F L

    2000-01-01

    This article on succession planning includes a definition of succession planning, the reasons for and components of succession planning, and why succession planning is important to the leadership of an organization, unit, division or department. Each component of succession planning, that is, vision, networking, and mentorship, is described, with examples that are intended to guide the reader to initiate and evaluate succession planning.

  7. Novel non invasive diagnostic strategies in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truta, Anamaria; Popon, Tudor Adrian Hodor; Saraci, George; Ghervan, Liviu; Pop, Ioan Victor

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD,ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, -145, -222, -210, -10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population.

  8. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Saroj

    2014-11-01

    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  9. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Instead of waiting for challenges to confront hospital management, doctors and managers should act in advance to optimize and sustain value-based health. This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Based on literature analysis as well as on personal interviews with stakeholders we propose an elaborated definition of stakeholders and designed a questionnaire that integrated the following influence factors, which have relevant impact on hospital management: political/legal, economic, social, technological and environmental forces. These influence factors are examined to develop the so-called critical uncertainties. Thorough identification of uncertainties was based on a "Stakeholder Feedback". Two key uncertainties were identified and considered in this study: the development of workload for the medical staff the profit oriented performance of the medical staff. According to the developed scenarios, complementary education of the medical staff as well as of non-medical top executives and managers of hospitals was the recommended core strategy. Complementary scenario-specific strategic options should be considered whenever needed to optimize dealing with a specific future development of the health care environment. Strategic planning in hospitals is essential to ensure sustainable success. It considers multiple situations and integrates internal and external insights and perspectives in addition to identifying weak signals and "blind spots". This flows into a sound planning for multiple strategic options. It is a state of the art tool that allows dealing with the increasing challenges facing hospital management.

  10. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background: Instead of waiting for challenges to confront hospital management, doctors and managers should act in advance to optimize and sustain value-based health. This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Methodology: Based on literature analysis as well as on personal interviews with stakeholders we propose an elaborated definition of stakeholders and designed a questionnaire that integrated the following influence factors, which have relevant impact on hospital management: political/legal, economic, social, technological and environmental forces. These influence factors are examined to develop the so-called critical uncertainties. Thorough identification of uncertainties was based on a “Stakeholder Feedback”. Results: Two key uncertainties were identified and considered in this study: the development of workload for the medical staff the profit oriented performance of the medical staff. According to the developed scenarios, complementary education of the medical staff as well as of non-medical top executives and managers of hospitals was the recommended core strategy. Complementary scenario-specific strategic options should be considered whenever needed to optimize dealing with a specific future development of the health care environment. Conclusion: Strategic planning in hospitals is essential to ensure sustainable success. It considers multiple situations and integrates internal and external insights and perspectives in addition to identifying weak signals and “blind spots”. This flows into a sound planning for multiple strategic options. It is a state of the art tool that allows dealing with the increasing challenges facing hospital management. PMID:26504735

  11. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: a planning parameters study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2013-11-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (~2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning). Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency. All online reoptimized plans were finished within ~2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the original plan fluence map as the

  12. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  13. Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A; Pulsipher, Lashley; Zellen, Barry; Lavoy, Peter R.; Clary, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Monterey Strategy Seminar: Day 1: Capabilities Based Planning. Day 2: Dissuasion in the U.S. Defense Strategy. Day 3: Global Strike Warfare Naval Postgraduate School Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC)

  14. Automatic image processing solutions for MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, YH

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, automatic image processing methods are discussed for the purpose of improving treatment planning of MRI-guided minimally invasive interventions. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: rib detection in MRI, liver motion modeling in MRI and MR-CT registration of planning ima

  15. Automatic image processing solutions for MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, YH

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, automatic image processing methods are discussed for the purpose of improving treatment planning of MRI-guided minimally invasive interventions. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: rib detection in MRI, liver motion modeling in MRI and MR-CT registration of planning ima

  16. Automatic image processing solutions for MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention planning

    OpenAIRE

    Noorda, YH

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, automatic image processing methods are discussed for the purpose of improving treatment planning of MRI-guided minimally invasive interventions. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: rib detection in MRI, liver motion modeling in MRI and MR-CT registration of planning image for HIFU treatment.

  17. Supporting patients' birth plans: theories, strategies & implications for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia Jane; Kilpatrick, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women often create birth plans to specify their preferences for their labor and delivery. When nurses implement and advocate for women's birth plans, it increases women's autonomy and decision-making in the birth process and can lead to greater patient satisfaction. This article describes strategies for how nurses can help implement patients' birth plans, and discusses two psychological theories as a base for understanding nurses' roles in advocating for birth plans to improve patients' experiences. © 2012 AWHONN.

  18. Succession planning: multilevel organizational strategies for the new workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Edna

    2006-06-01

    Succession planning for staff and managers starts with a clear vision and strategic plan. It includes hiring, developing, and coaching all employees to meet new competencies. The implementation of succession planning requires commitment, vigilance, and engagement by all members of the nursing department. Partnerships with human resources and the education department are key for success. The author shares one medical center's experience with succession planning and ongoing strategies for success.

  19. The redevelopment of the Copenhagen harbourfront and recent planning strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khani, Roudaina Al

    2001-01-01

    development principles has been attached to the planning of the redevelopment of the harborfront areas. Nevertheless, this paper shortly presents an evaluation of the urban conversion of the Copenhagen harborfront sites and of their redevelopment strategies with regards to their contribution to sustainable......-use planning policy or a compact city strategy. Promoting a coherent strategy that allocates a greater importance to the urban and regional contexts, to the democracy of the process and to the urban-architectural dimension is a main determinant of the outcome. This paper highlights the recent planning...... be reflected on waterfront redevelopment and its evaluation. It throws light on the redevelopment of the Copenhagen Harborfront and its planning policy and places an emphasis on the city's recent planning strategies. Furthermore, this paper presents an essay on the evaluation of waterfront development...

  20. Fuzzy Quantitive Strategic Planning Matrix dalam Perencanaan Strategi Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fera Tri Wulandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategic plan helps the college in determining the direction of the college to achieve a desired future and provides a framework for achieving competitive advantage. In the strategic planning process, the selection of strategies is essential if universities do not have the resources to implement all the strategies. FQSPM designed to determine the relative attractiveness of each alternative strategy using triangular fuzzy numbers. Merger FQSPM and FTOPSIS used in the decision-making process on strategic planning by a college to conduct the election strategy based on the results of internal and external analysis. The results of the strategic planning helps colleges determine the direction to achieve the desired future so that colleges can anticipate environmental changes and predict the risk while continuing to adjust the action with the aim to be achieved college. Keywords: Strategic Planning; SWOT; Fuzzy QSPM; Fuzzy TOPSIS

  1. Regional Design in Dutch Transport Planning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balz, V.E.; Stead, D.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed various trends in decentralization of government responsibilities related to spatial planning in the Netherlands and this has resulted in a differing flexibility of the indicative planning frameworks for transport and spatial development. In this article we investigate

  2. Invasive Aspergillosis: Current Strategies for Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Jose; Thompson, George R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised population. The spectrum of disease is broad, ranging from severe and rapidly fatal infection to noninvasive disease. The diversity of patients and risk factors complicates diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. Invasive procedures are often precluded by host status; noninvasive diagnostic tests vary in their sensitivity and specificity. Advancements in understanding the pathophysiology of invasive aspergillosis and host genetics in differential risk have also occurred. Future work may assist in therapeutic decision-making and patient prognosis. Voriconazole remains the preferred agent for treatment. Additional alternatives have emerged.

  3. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings...... is unknown. Objective: To investigate adverse cardiovascular outcomes of an early versus conservative invasive strategy in a national cohort of patients with ACSs. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Administrative health care data on hospitalizations, procedures, and outcomes abstracted from...... the Danish national registries and covering all acute invasive procedures in patients presenting with an ACS. Patients: 19 704 propensity score-matched patients hospitalized with a first ACS between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. Measurements: Risk for cardiac death or rehospitalization for MI within...

  4. Anisotropic invasion and its consequences in two-strategy evolutionary games on a square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Varga, Levente; Szabó, Mátyás

    2016-11-01

    We have studied invasion processes in two-strategy evolutionary games on a square lattice for imitation rule when the players interact with their nearest neighbors. Monte Carlo simulations are performed for systems where the pair interactions are composed of a unit strength coordination game when varying the strengths of the self-dependent and cross-dependent components at a fixed noise level. The visualization of strategy distributions has clearly indicated that circular homogeneous domains evolve into squares with an orientation dependent on the composition. This phenomenon is related to the anisotropy of invasion velocities along the interfaces separating the two homogeneous regions. The quantified invasion velocities indicate the existence of a parameter region in which the invasions are opposite for the horizontal (or vertical) and the tilted interfaces. In this parameter region faceted islands of both strategies shrink and the system evolves from a random initial state into the homogeneous state that first percolated.

  5. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    .... This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed to. Methodology...

  6. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    .... This work highlights the importance of scenario planning in hospitals, proposes an elaborated definition of the stakeholders of a hospital and defines the influence factors to which hospitals are exposed...

  7. Analysis of the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy for an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Walton, Jay R; Parshad, Rana D; Storey, Katie; Boggess, May

    2014-06-01

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we analyze the dynamical system model of the TYC strategy, with the aim of studying the viability of the TYC eradication and control strategy of an invasive species. In particular, because the constant introduction of sex-reversed trojan females for all time is not possible in practice, there arises the question: What happens if this injection is stopped after some time? Can the invasive species recover? To answer that question, we perform a rigorous bifurcation analysis and study the basin of attraction of the recovery state and the extinction state in both the full model and a certain reduced model. In particular, we find a theoretical condition for the eradication strategy to work. Additionally, the consideration of an Allee effect and the possibility of a Turing instability are also studied in this work. Our results show that: (1) with the inclusion of an Allee effect, the number of the invasive females is not required to be very low when the introduction of the sex-reversed trojan females is stopped, and the remaining Trojan Y-Chromosome population is sufficient to induce extinction of the invasive females; (2) incorporating diffusive spatial spread does not produce a Turing instability, which would have suggested that the TYC eradication strategy might be only partially effective, leaving a patchy distribution of the invasive species.

  8. Analysis of the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy for an invasive species

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xueying

    2013-05-24

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we analyze the dynamical system model of the TYC strategy, with the aim of studying the viability of the TYC eradication and control strategy of an invasive species. In particular, because the constant introduction of sex-reversed trojan females for all time is not possible in practice, there arises the question: What happens if this injection is stopped after some time? Can the invasive species recover? To answer that question, we perform a rigorous bifurcation analysis and study the basin of attraction of the recovery state and the extinction state in both the full model and a certain reduced model. In particular, we find a theoretical condition for the eradication strategy to work. Additionally, the consideration of an Allee effect and the possibility of a Turing instability are also studied in this work. Our results show that: (1) with the inclusion of an Allee effect, the number of the invasive females is not required to be very low when the introduction of the sex-reversed trojan females is stopped, and the remaining Trojan Y-Chromosome population is sufficient to induce extinction of the invasive females; (2) incorporating diffusive spatial spread does not produce a Turing instability, which would have suggested that the TYC eradication strategy might be only partially effective, leaving a patchy distribution of the invasive species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Current therapeutic strategies for invasive and metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu, Jacob Mathew, Winston W TanDivision of Hematology Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe, the United States, and Northern African countries. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive epithelial tumor, with a high rate of early systemic dissemination. Superficial, noninvasive bladder cancer can most often be cured; a good proportion of invasive cases can also be cured by a combined modality approach of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Recurrences are common and mostly manifest as metastatic disease. Those with distant metastatic disease can sometime achieve partial or complete remission with combination chemotherapy.Recent developments: Better understanding of the biology of the disease has led to the incorporation of molecular and genetic features along with factors such as tumor grade, lympho-vascular invasion, and aberrant histology, thereby allowing identification of ‘favorable’ and ‘unfavorable’ cancers which helps a more accurate informed and objective selection of patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling has been used to find molecular signature patterns that can potentially be predictive of drug sensitivity and metastasis. Understanding the molecular pathways of invasive bladder cancer has led to clinical investigation of several targeted therapeutics such as anti-angiogenics, mTOR inhibitors, and anti-EGFR agents.Conclusion: With improvements in the understanding of the biology of bladder cancer, clinical trials studying novel and targeted agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy have increased the armamentarium for the treatment of bladder cancer. Although the novel biomarkers and gene expression profiles have been shown to provide important predictive and prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in clinical decision-making, their exact utility

  10. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  11. Two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modelling of two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes: the enlargement of existing reserve sites and the allocation of stepping stones between these sites. We developed two spatial allocation models that plan new habitat according to these

  12. Urban strategy: Noise mapping in instrument for interactive spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial planning in urban areas is complex. Besides noise from different source types, many other aspects play a role. In order to support local authorities and others involved in spatial planning, TNO has developed an interactive instrument: 'Urban Strategy', which integrates a detailed interactive

  13. Planning Lessons for Refugee-Background Students: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer; Windle, Joel Austin; Yazdanpanah, Lilly K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the ways teachers plan lessons for English as an Additional Language (EAL) students from refugee backgrounds in secondary school transition programs. Based on a study of teachers working with students in three Victorian schools, we identify the key challenges teachers face in planning and the strategies they adopt to confront…

  14. Succession Planning: A Necessary Strategy for Rural School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2001-01-01

    Succession planning focuses on anticipated future administrative positions, the expected skill requirements of those positions, and developing potential candidates to fill the positions. Although succession planning is basically a business oriented model, it seems appropriate for rural educational settings. Strategies for implementing succession…

  15. Two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modelling of two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes: the enlargement of existing reserve sites and the allocation of stepping stones between these sites. We developed two spatial allocation models that plan new habitat according to these strat

  16. Urban strategy: Noise mapping in instrument for interactive spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial planning in urban areas is complex. Besides noise from different source types, many other aspects play a role. In order to support local authorities and others involved in spatial planning, TNO has developed an interactive instrument: 'Urban Strategy', which integrates a detailed interactive

  17. Strategic business planning linking strategy with financial reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrodt, Andrew K; Smyth, J Patrick

    2004-11-01

    To succeed in today's complex and often adverse business environment, a healthcare organization's strategic direction must be calculated, focused, and financially sustainable. Strategic business planning is an essential tool to help organizations focus strategic choices within the financial realities of their environment. An effective strategic business planning cycle includes conducting an assessment, identifying business objectives, developing strategy, conducting an impact analysis, and developing an implementation plan.

  18. Integrating human resources and program-planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    1989-06-01

    The integration of human resources management (HRM) strategies with long-term program-planning strategies in hospital pharmacy departments is described. HRM is a behaviorally based, comprehensive strategy for the effective management and use of people that seeks to achieve coordination and integration with overall planning strategies and other managerial functions. It encompasses forecasting of staffing requirements; determining work-related factors that are strong "motivators" and thus contribute to employee productivity and job satisfaction; conducting a departmental personnel and skills inventory; employee career planning and development, including training and education programs; strategies for promotion and succession, including routes of advancement that provide alternatives to the managerial route; and recruitment and selection of new personnel to meet changing departmental needs. Increased competitiveness among hospitals and a shortage of pharmacists make it imperative that hospital pharmacy managers create strategies to attract, develop, and retain the right individuals to enable the department--and the hospital as a whole--to grow and change in response to the changing health-care environment in the United States. Pharmacy managers would be greatly aided in this mission by the establishment of a well-defined, national strategic plan for pharmacy programs and services that includes an analysis of what education and training are necessary for their successful accomplishment. Creation of links between overall program objectives and people-planning strategies will aid hospital pharmacy departments in maximizing the long-term effectiveness of their practice.

  19. Financial Planning: Strategies and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Morgan, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Financial planning is an increasingly critical function within higher education institutions. Its pivotal and multifaceted role is described in detail in this article. Based on many years of experience in higher education, the authors offer practical suggestions on how best to locate the function organizationally and perform it effectively. They…

  20. Financial Planning: Strategies and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Morgan, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    Financial planning is an increasingly critical function within higher education institutions. Its pivotal and multifaceted role is described in detail in this article. Based on many years of experience in higher education, the authors offer practical suggestions on how best to locate the function organizationally and perform it effectively. They…

  1. Marketing Strategy and Planning of Wahaha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵修水

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduced the development of Wahaha in China, explained tips six marketing strate-gies. This thesis makes the market strategies of Wahaha Company by the analysis of internal and external environ-ment. Then it goes deep into the strategies and situation analysis of Wahaha Ltd developing NCB business, includ-ing the situation analysis of internal and external enterprises as well as SWOT. Making special product strategy; Making different price strategy to different customer and consumer, Making the place strategy mainly in large city; Making colorful promotion. Then by setting up effective market strategy, Wahaha will be successfully launched in Dalian. And this thesis also can be provided as a reference for other new product launch. This paper does some researches and analysis on marketing strategies, with its object on NCB (Non Carbonic acid Beverage, such as Juice, Tea, Water, ere) business of Wahaha Company in China. In this paper it analyses the existing trade status ot the beverage business in China, introduces the marketing scale, the main enterprises and the development trend ot the market.%本文介绍了娃哈哈的发展在我国的营销战略.以及娃哈哈市场战略分析公司的内部和外部环境.然后用深入的战略和情况分析娃哈哈有限公司的业务发展协调机构,包括情况分析内部和外部企业以及SWOT分析.特殊产品战略;制作不同的价格策略,不同的客户和消费者;使地方战略主要集中在大城市;制作丰富多彩的宣传.然后通过建立有效的市场策略,娃哈哈将在大连成功发展.本论文就研究和分析市场营销策略其对象是国家协调机构(非碳酸饮料,比如果汁,茶,水等)的业务的娃哈哈公司.分析了现有的贸易地位的饮料在华业务引入了市场规模,主要的企业和发展趋势的市场份额.

  2. Planning strategies for nosocomial infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacanna, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    According to the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 99,000 deaths per year in the United States are caused or impacted on by multiple hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), which are roughly estimated to be around 1.7 million cases. In Europe, there are 25,000 deaths per year from the same cause, 17.000 of which are linked to nosocomial infections. Patient safety is a core issue in today's health care settings. There is a growing consensus, supported by scientific investigation, that the role of the built environment is central towards minimizing and controlling the level of such infections. The contribution of architectural solutions and planning choices becomes crucial at this stage. This paper outlines the most common measures to adopt at the architectural and planning level, to combat HAI, focusing on the most critical areas of the hospital: wards, intensive care units and operating theatres.

  3. Successful Strategies for Planning a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents several strategies for successful green building on campus: develop a set of clear environmental performance goals (buildings as pedagogical tools, climate-neutral operations, maximized human performance), use Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) as a gauge of performance, and use the project to reform the campus building…

  4. Strategy Plan Strengthens Energy Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Schools and Hospitals Program has been popular among schools. The necessity of locating nonfederal resources to achieve energy management warrants (1) developing a strategy of evaluation among schools and (2) market research and analysis. (CJH)

  5. A new national unit for invasive species detection, assessment and eradication planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. U. Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Even with no new introductions, the number of biological invasions in South Africa will increase as introduced species naturalise and become invasive. As of 2010 South Africa had ~8750 introduced plant taxa, 660 recorded as naturalised, 198 included in invasive species legislation, but only 64 subject to regular control (i.e. only widespread invaders are managed post-border. There is only one documented example of a successful eradication programme in continental South Africa against the Mediterranean snail (Otala punctata in Cape Town. Here we describe the establishment in 2008 of a unit funded by the Working for Water Programme as part of the South African National Biodiversity Institute's Invasive Species Programme (SANBI ISP designed to (1 detect and document new invasions, (2 provide reliable and transparent post-border risk assessments and (3 provide the cross-institutional coordination needed to successfully implement national eradication plans. As of the end of 2012, the ISP had an annual budget of R36 million, employed 33 staff working across all nine provinces, supported 10 postgraduate students, hosted 35 interns (including those as part of a drive to collect DNA barcodes for all invasive taxa and created over 50 000 days of work as part of government poverty alleviation programmes. The unit has worked towards full risk assessments for 39 plant taxa and has developed eradication plans for seven species; the unit is now helping implement these plans. By focusing on science-based management and policy, we argue that SANBI ISP can play a leading role in preventing introduced species from becoming widespread invaders.

  6. Objectives and strategies of the International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Koontz, R.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Perelman, L.

    1979-07-01

    The Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD and D) Act of 1978 calls for the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a plan to demonstrate photovoltaic systems in other nations and to facilitate the widespread use of these systems. The objective of the International Photovoltaic Program Plan, the strategies that will be used in the plan, and the approach that is being taken to prepare the plan are described. Background on photovoltaic technology and markets and the DOE domestic photovoltaic effort is also provided. The International Photovoltaic Program Plan will complement the DOE domestic activities to stimulate international markets. A number of national and international benefits could result if the objective of accelerating the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets is realized. A primary benefit is that foreign markets may help stabilize the US photovoltaic industry and foster its expansion. Other benefits include contributions to the advancement of developing countries, reductions in world oil imports, and improvements in the US balance of trade. Strategies to be addressed in the plan are photovoltaic system demonstrations, systems development, information gathering and dissemination, financial incentives, and administrative actions. A critical aspect of the plan will be the coordination of selected programs and the monitoring and assessment of the plan's results. Analyses of international markets, international financial institutions, foreign competition, international marketing experiences of other US industries, and system development needs have been initiated to support the plan.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  8. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  9. Feasibility of identification of gamma knife planning strategies by identification of pareto optimal gamma knife plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, C A

    2011-12-01

    The use of conformity indices to optimize Gamma Knife planning is common, but does not address important tradeoffs between dose to tumor and normal tissue. Pareto analysis has been used for this purpose in other applications, but not for Gamma Knife (GK) planning. The goal of this work is to use computer models to show that Pareto analysis may be feasible for GK planning to identify dosimetric tradeoffs. We define a GK plan A to be Pareto dominant to B if the prescription isodose volume of A covers more tumor but not more normal tissue than B, or if A covers less normal tissue but not less tumor than B. A plan is Pareto optimal if it is not dominated by any other plan. Two different Pareto optimal plans represent different tradeoffs between dose to tumor and normal tissue, because neither plan dominates the other. 'GK simulator' software calculated dose distributions for GK plans, and was called repetitively by a genetic algorithm to calculate Pareto dominant plans. Three irregular tumor shapes were tested in 17 trials using various combinations of shots. The mean number of Pareto dominant plans/trial was 59 ± 17 (sd). Different planning strategies were identified by large differences in shot positions, and 70 of the 153 coordinate plots (46%) showed differences of 5mm or more. The Pareto dominant plans dominated other nearby plans. Pareto dominant plans represent different dosimetric tradeoffs and can be systematically calculated using genetic algorithms. Automatic identification of non-intuitive planning strategies may be feasible with these methods.

  10. Information Technology Investment Strategy Planning: Balance Scorecard Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Hendarti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research are to prepare the IT investment strategy using Balanced Scorecard approach in the company where the appropriate planning of this IT investment strategy can maximize the competitive benefit in the company, and it also to recommended a strategy of IT investment that can be implemented and measure the rate of return from the IT investment in the company. Research Method used book studies, field studies, and analysis system. Book studies from the books and journal. Field studies done by observation, interview, and questioner, and analysis system done by analyzed the ongoing system in the company. The result from this analysis is a recommendation in investment IT such as sales module, payment module, and report module. Then for the conclusion, this information technology investment planning can be develop to another investment implementation such authorized website of the company and using PDA (Personal Digital AssistantIndex Terms - Planning, Information Technology, Investment, Balance Scorecard

  11. A novel blood-saving plan for less-invasive primary total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourlier, Hervé; Fennema, Peter; Liné, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    We conducted a quality improvement program to examine the effect of a blood-saving plan during primary total hip replacement (THR) performed using a nonvascular less invasive approach (LI-THR) and compared the results with historical control subjects. Erythropoietin and tranexamic acid (TA) were administered for selected patients. Analysis of 221 (study group) and 186 (historic group) LI-THRs showed reductions in total blood loss by 20% in a group of 133 patients compared to a control group of 82 patients who did not receive TA. This novel blood plan for LI-THR changed practice, improved quality of care, and allowed all patients to remain blood transfusion free.

  12. Minimally invasive and surgical management strategies tailored to the severity of acute diverticulitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, F D

    2014-01-01

    The severity of acute diverticulitis ranges from mild, simple inflammation to pericolic abscesses, or perforation with faeculent peritonitis. Treatment of diverticulitis has evolved towards more conservative and minimally invasive strategies. The aim of this review is to highlight recent concepts and advances in management.

  13. A Social Marketing Based Strategy For Planning Diversity Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambhavi Lakshminarayanan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are both enriched and challenged by diversity. Organizational diversity management is based on several factors such as strategy, competitive positioning and internal culture. Most organizations hold events of various kinds as part of their diversity strategy. Although participation in events is often mandated, such as in training programs, providing opportunities for voluntary participation is also important. In particular, organizing events in which participation is voluntary signals that management is willing to be responsive and flexible. Events, in general, are a highly visible aspect of diversity programs and serve many purposes, such as providing information, building awareness and creating social capital. On the other hand, there are associated costs. Consequently, organizations need to plan events carefully in order to obtain their full benefit. This paper presents a comprehensive strategy for planning, publicising and organizing diversity related events. The strategy addresses the interests and needs of all individuals in the organization with a goal of maximizing voluntary participation.  A simple yet powerful method from (social marketing is used in constructing the comprehensive strategy: that of market segmentation. In this paper, individuals in an organization are classified into four segments. Events, too, are classified into four types – support, celebratory, educational and training. Each segment responds best to a specific type of event. This link between segments and events is used to formulate the strategy that recommends organizing all four types of events, during a planning period, as part of the diversity management effort. 

  14. Planning of innovation strategies as direction of modern anticrisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Yefremov, O.

    2011-01-01

    The essence of anticrisis management at an enterprise has been defined. The basic varieties of anticrisis management have been examined. The necessity of increasing of enterprise innovation activity and planning of innovation strategies with the purpose of overcoming the crisis phenomena has been defined.

  15. Strategic Marketing Planning: Creative Strategies for Developing Unique Income Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, John A.

    After discussing current community college financial problems, this paper examines the acquisition of alternative funding through the application of marketing strategies and strategic planning. The paper first differentiates marketing from sales or promotion and then describes the ability of a marketing program to attract new consumers and to…

  16. Drunk Driving Public Information Program Strategies and Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide, designed to accompany a videocassette of selected television spots is a compendium of specific drunk driving topics and issues for each of the major planning steps of a public information program. The guide is organized around these steps, which are (1) select program strategies, (2) select target audiences, (3) select media channels,…

  17. PEMANFAATAN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING UNTUK PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS SISTEM INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kridanto Surendro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the endeavor to attain its goal, an enterprise strives to undertake challenges and changes of which strategies for effective measures and efficient resource usage become necessary. To this necessity, the role of information system for supporting and enhancing enterprise performance has become more strategic and widely established. This elicits mission for information system and advises a general course of action to give a unified direction for planning, implementation and control in alignment with enterprise business strategy. A planning that identifies enterprise's information requirement and possible innovations in technology utilization for enhancing enterprise performance is a first step to begin the fulfillment of information system mission. Such a planning can be satisfied by employing Enterprise Architecture Planning methodology, which is purposed to deliver data architecture, application architecture, technology architecture and implementation plan. Implementation plan is comprised of a sequence of application development and technology platform migration / acquisition. Such a sequence is elaborated further according to business aspect as a main drive, organizational aspect which addresses people who will be involved in implementation, information system and information technology environment aspect as an interface for existing and future systems, and application development aspect which interconnects one stage in the development sequence with another. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pencapaian tujuan suatu enterprise menghadapi berbagai tantangan serta perubahan yang memerlukan strategi untuk langkah-langkah efektif dan pemanfaatan sumber daya yang efisien. Salah satu strategi yang penting dan semakin banyak digunakan adalah pemanfaatan dan peningkatan dukungan sistem informasi bagi enterprise. Penerapan strategi ini mengembankan misi pada sistem informasi yang pemenuhannya memerlukan keterpaduan arah dalam perencanaan, pelaksanaan

  18. Succession planning strategies : minimizing the impact of mass retirement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbens, J. [Direct Energy Marketing Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how the workforce in the energy industry will be affected by the impending retirement of the baby boom generation. New approaches will be needed for succession planning, recruitment and training. Energy companies will have to plan ahead to make sure that staffing needs are met. The strategies adopted by Direct Energy Marketing Ltd. were presented and compared with strategies adopted by Centrica's business units in the United Kingdom. Automation, outsourcing and changing roles and responsibilities are some of the opportunities that are available for companies to change their organization structure due to the retirement of the workforce. Internal training strategies are being designed and implemented to prepare for the impact of retiring employees. figs.

  19. Semiautomatic Cochleostomy Target and Insertion Trajectory Planning for Minimally Invasive Cochlear Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Wimmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major component of minimally invasive cochlear implantation is atraumatic scala tympani (ST placement of the electrode array. This work reports on a semiautomatic planning paradigm that uses anatomical landmarks and cochlear surface models for cochleostomy target and insertion trajectory computation. The method was validated in a human whole head cadaver model (n=10 ears. Cochleostomy targets were generated from an automated script and used for consecutive planning of a direct cochlear access (DCA drill trajectory from the mastoid surface to the inner ear. An image-guided robotic system was used to perform both, DCA and cochleostomy drilling. Nine of 10 implanted specimens showed complete ST placement. One case of scala vestibuli insertion occurred due to a registration/drilling error of 0.79 mm. The presented approach indicates that a safe cochleostomy target and insertion trajectory can be planned using conventional clinical imaging modalities, which lack sufficient resolution to identify the basilar membrane.

  20. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important...... conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions: The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between...... populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...

  1. Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas

  2. Study on Social Planning Strategies in China’s Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unbalanced with its rapid development in urban construction and economy,China’s social development is lagging behind a fair amount.As an important policy means to guarantee social equity and public benefit,urban planning should play its inevitable role in solving social problems and promoting harmonious social development,while at the same time it exposes certain limitations of traditional Chinese urban planning mainly focusing on physical planning in both theoretical and methodological aspects.Aimed at the relevant social problems caused by simple physical planning at present,this article attempts to study out a research framework of social planning suitable for China’s urban planning as a monographic study,so as to introduce a people-oriented view of social development into the key contents of urban planning,and to provide ameliorative strategies to supplement and improve the planning concept,procedure,contents and methods.This article also briefly introduces the perspectives and key contents of social planning.

  3. Effective succession planning strategies : minimizing the impact of mass retirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, S. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Nexen Inc. is a global exploration, production and chemical company with 2,500 employees world-wide. This presentation described the company's social and ethical responsibility to its employees and how it is preparing for the impending retirement of the baby boom generation. New approaches will be needed for succession planning, recruitment and training. Nexen Inc. will plan ahead to make sure that staffing needs are met through strategies such as phased retirement, changing organizational structure, changing job definitions, and part-time employees. Automation, outsourcing and changing roles and responsibilities are some of the other opportunities that are available for companies to change their organization structure due to the retirement of the workforce. Internal training strategies are being designed and implemented to prepare for the impact of retiring employees. figs.

  4. The application of the European strategy on invasive alien species: an example with introduced squirrels

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Bertolino; Piero Genovesi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract We assessed the cases of squirrel species already introduced into Italy inside the framework proposed by the European strategy on invasive alien species. We collected information on 9 introductions that originated 8 populations: 3 of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), 2 of Finlayson's squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii), and 3 of Siberian chip-munks (Eutamias sibiricus). Food opportunism...

  5. Development strategies in design and process planning quality assurance context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the new development strategies, the product development focuses on as much as possible parallel execution of alldevelopment related product life cycle phases, thus creating CE (Concurrent Engineering approach. Its further extension is CEE (CrossEnterprises Engineering approach incorporating the relations between business and engineering activities, so securing also the access tothe resources of cooperating enterprises. Computer integration of product phases can be viewed as functional, informational and complexintegration. The process planning quality is assured on the design and technological process planning stage with the use of methods andsystems processing the data from the other product development phases. The paper presents the methods and systems for design andprocess planning quality assurance in the product life cycle as well as the possibility for the implementation of the presented productdevelopment phases.

  6. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated are therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgia, Nicolini; Antonella, Fogliata; Alessandro, Clivio; Eugenio, Vanetti; Luca, Cozzi

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated are therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (0) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, Dv = 98% [%]= 92.5 +/- 0.9 and 68.5 +/- 3

  7. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (O) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, DV = 98% [%] = 92.5 ± 0

  8. Early Invasive Versus Selective Strategy for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome: The ICTUS Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Niels P G; Damman, Peter; Woudstra, Pier; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2017-04-18

    The ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes) trial compared early invasive strategy with a selective invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an elevated cardiac troponin T. No long-term benefit of an early invasive strategy was found at 1 and 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the 10-year clinical outcomes of an early invasive strategy versus a selective invasive strategy in patients with NSTE-ACS and an elevated cardiac troponin T. The ICTUS trial was a multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial that included 1,200 patients with NSTE-ACS and an elevated cardiac troponin T. Enrollment was from July 2001 to August 2003. We collected 10-year follow-up of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization through the Dutch population registry, patient phone calls, general practitioners, and hospital records. The primary outcome was the 10-year composite of death or spontaneous MI. Additional outcomes included the composite of death or MI, death, MI (spontaneous and procedure-related), and revascularization. Ten-year death or spontaneous MI was not statistically different between the 2 groups (33.8% vs. 29.0%, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97 to 1.46; p = 0.11). Revascularization occurred in 82.6% of the early invasive group and 60.5% in the selective invasive group. There were no differences in additional outcomes, except for a higher rate of death or MI in the early invasive group compared with the rates for the selective invasive group (37.6% vs. 30.5%; HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.58; p = 0.009), driven by a higher rate of procedure-related MI in the early invasive group (6.5% vs. 2.4%; HR: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.53 to 5.20; p = 0.001). In patients with NSTE-ACS and elevated cardiac troponin T levels, an early invasive strategy has no benefit over a selective invasive strategy in reducing the 10-year composite outcome of

  9. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  10. Resource-use strategies of native and invasive plants in Eastern North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2013-10-01

    Studies in disturbed, resource-rich environments often show that invasive plants are more productive than co-occurring natives, but with similar physiological tradeoffs. However, in resource-limited habitats, it is unclear whether native and invasive plants have similar metabolic constraints or if invasive plants are more productive per unit resource cost - that is, use resources more efficiently. Using a common garden to control for environment, we compared leaf physiological traits relating to resource investments, carbon returns, and resource-use efficiencies in 14 native and 18 nonnative invasive species of common genera found in Eastern North American (ENA) deciduous forest understories, where growth is constrained by light and nutrient limitation. Despite greater leaf construction and nitrogen costs, invaders exhibited greater instantaneous photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) and marginally greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE). When integrated over leaf lifespan (LL), these differences were magnified. Differences in efficiency were driven by greater productivity per unit leaf investment, as invaders exhibited both greater photosynthetic abilities and longer LL. Our results indicate that woody understory invaders in ENA forests are not constrained to the same degree by leaf-based metabolic tradeoffs as the native understory flora. These strategy differences could be attributable to pre-adaptation in the native range, although other explanations are possible. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Planning strategies in an age of active citizenship: a post-structuralist agenda for self-organization in spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Civic initiatives in spatial development are on the rise. Whereas for a long time they were just a fringe movement, sometimes even a stand in the way of planned urban development, civic initiatives today are increasingly seen as valuable strategies for urban development. So far, however, when dealing with citizens, spatial planning has mostly focused on strategies for citizen involvement through participatory planning. In participatory planning, citizens can exert influence on goals set by go...

  12. [Indonesia draws up plans for a national strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Dr. Sumedha Khanna, the World Health Organization representative in Indonesia, has reported that Indonesia is about to undertake a national level evaluation of maternal health care and training of midwives with the help of a UN subsidy. The results will be presented at a high level seminar planned for July 1992. The main elements of the national strategy and plan of action will also be developed at the meeting and integrated into the National Health Plan. The goal is to reduce maternal mortality to half its current level of 4500/100,000 live births by the year 2000. Part of the strategy will be to remedy the shortage of qualified midwives and of emergency services. Priority will be given to providing each village or health center with a qualified nurse-midwife. The Indonesian government expects to train 33,000 nurse-midwives within 5 years. The World Bank has agreed to subsidize training of 15,000. Physicians in district hospitals will be trained in essential obstetrical functions with the collaboration of the Indonesian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. UNICEF is reportedly prepared to help. The Indonesian Association of Midwives has supported the initiative by using surveys of maternal mortality in different parts of the country to analyze the need to improve the health of Indonesian women.

  13. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  14. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  15. NAFTA and member country strategies for maritime trade and marine invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2008-12-01

    Maritime shipping has two vectors of spreading marine invasive species: ballast water inside the ship and biofouling on the hulls outside the ship. While some attention has focused on ballast water, virtually none is focused on biofouling. This paper offers a quantitative analysis of economic incentives for shippers and regulating ports to address both pollution vectors. The strategies to address the vectors are induced by incentive mechanisms involving liability, subsidies and taxes. Results show these offer ample incentives in order to truly foster abatement of both vectors. Data from North America's Pacific coast is included in the analysis.

  16. An augmented reality platform for planning of minimally invasive cardiac surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Sarkar, Kripasindhu; Baxter, John S. H.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    One of the fundamental components in all Image Guided Surgery (IGS) applications is a method for presenting information to the surgeon in a simple, effective manner. This paper describes the first steps in our new Augmented Reality (AR) information delivery program. The system makes use of new "off the shelf" AR glasses that are both light-weight and unobtrusive, with adequate resolution for many IGS applications. Our first application is perioperative planning of minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. In this procedure, a combination of tracking technologies and intraoperative ultrasound is used to map the migration of cardiac targets prior to selection of port locations for trocars that enter the chest. The AR glasses will then be used to present this heart migration data to the surgeon, overlaid onto the patients chest. The current paper describes the calibration process for the AR glasses, their integration into our IGS framework for minimally invasive robotic cardiac surgery, and preliminary validation of the system. Validation results indicate a mean 3D triangulation error of 2.9 +/- 3.3mm, 2D projection error of 2.1 +/- 2.1 pixels, and Normalized Stereo Calibration Error of 3.3.

  17. Variations in reproductive strategies between one invasive population and two native populations of Pseudorasbora parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng CHEN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive traits of one invasive population in Lake Fuxian and two native populations in Lakes Chao and Dongting for Pseudorasbora parva were investigated to determine the variations in their reproductive strategies associated with the change of environmental conditions. Compared with the two native populations P. parva markedly experienced the protraction in their spawning time and the decrease in mortality for adult individuals in Lake Fuxian. The three populations all got their first sexual maturity at the same age, but their total lengths at maturity were quite different for those in Lake Chao were significantly lower than in Lakes Fuxian and Dongting. Additionally, in spite that no significant difference occurred in their relative fecundities for P. parva in Lakes Fuxian and Dongting, the population in Lake Chao showed the markedly higher relative fecundity than the other two populations. These results were analyzed with the variations in water temperature, nutrient status, fishing stress among the three lakes. The relative decline in fecundity for the invasive population, which conflicted with the enemy release hypothesis, was disscussed with the context of the preponderance of another invasive fish, Neosalanx taihuensis, in Lake Fuxian [Current Zoology 55(1:56 – 60, 2009].

  18. Variations in reproductive strategies between one invasive population and two native populations of Pseudorasbora parva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunzhi YAN; Yifeng CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive traits of one invasive population in Lake Fuxian and two native populations in Lakes Chao and Dongting for Pseudorasbora parva were investigated to determine the variations in their reproductive strategies associated with the change of environmental conditions. Compared with the two native populations,P.parva markedly experienced the protraction in their spawning time and the decrease in mortality for adult individuals in Lake Fuxian. The three populations all got their first sexual maturity at the same age,but their total lengths at maturity were quite different for those in Lake Chao were significantly lower than in Lakes Fuxian and Dongting. Additionally,in spite that no significant difference occurred in their relative fecundities for P.parva in Lakes Fuxian and Dongting,the population in Lake Chao showed the markedly higher relative fecundity than the other two populations. These results were analyzed with the variations in water temperature,nutrient status,fishing stress among the three lakes. The relative decline in fecundity for the invasive population,which conflicted with the enemy release hypothesis,was disscussed with the context of the preponderance of another invasive fish,Neosalanx taihuensis,in Lake Fuxian.

  19. Minimally invasive strategies and options for far-lateral Iumbar disc herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue; ZHANG Chao; WANG Jian; CHU Tong-wei; LI Chang-qing; ZHANG Zheng-feng; ZHENG wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surgical procedlures,options and surgical indications for far-lateral lumbar disc herniation between three different minimally invasive procedures.Methods: From January 2000 to October 2006, 52 patients with far-lateral lumbar disc herniation (29 males and 23 females, with the average age of 41.5 years) were treated with minimally invasive procedures. All the patients were assessed by X-ray and CT. Some were given additional myeography, discography, Computerized tomography myelography (CTM) and MRI examination. Yeung Endoscopy Spine System (YESS), METRx and X-tube procedures were performed in 25, 13 and 14 cases, respectively. All patients were followed up for a mean period of 13.5 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed by visual analog score (VAS) and Nakai criteria. Results: The results indicated that the three procedures could significantly improve the radiating leg symptoms (PO.05). The YESS procedure had several advantages including shortest operation time, simplest anesthesia and least trauma as compared with the other two procedures, especially for simple type I far-lateral lumbar disc herniation. METRx procedure was specially suitable for simple type II. And the procedure of posterior endoscopic facetectomy, posterior lumbar interbody fusion and unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation with X-tube was designed for far-lateral disc herniation combined with degenerative lumbar instability. Conclusion: Minimally invasive strategies and options should be determined by different types of far-lateral lumbar disc herniation.

  20. Publication planning: an effective corporate strategy to influence health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.

  1. Strategies for microwave thermal treatment planning, navigation, and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    2011-03-01

    Thermal treatment is commonly performed interstitially in either surgical or percutaneous procedures, using microwave antenna sources at 915 or 2540 MHz. There are a number of tools or aids as well as challenges for clinicians performing these procedures in the course of patient treatment. These challenges will be present whether the procedure is surgical, laparoscopic, or percutaneous, and include treatment planning, image guidance, navigation, coregistration in 3D, and treatment assessment. Treatment planning has been used historically in hyperthermia for microwave antenna arrays, but has yet to be properly applied in thermal ablation. Image assessment of thermal treatment is not typically performed in real time, although these tools will provide the clinician with further information to understand the extent of treatment and whether further treatment is needed. 3D imaging is available, but not coregistered to patient space. Navigation has been used in many medical specialties, but is also not in the clinician's toolbox in thermal treatment. Although treatment planning will lay out the skin entry and trajectory for each antenna placed, subsequently, each antenna needs to be tracked to accurately show placement in the patient and overlaid in patient space, along with the tumor target location. Some patient treatments may consist of multiple, but sequential single placements of an antenna, and guidance is even more critical to track positions and plan for the next insertion. Lastly, real-time image assessment will show the extent and shape of the coagulated lesion and which targets may have been undertreated. If used synchronously in arrays, MW power steering may also aid in filling in the ablation as the treatment progresses. This paper will analyze the present state-of-the art as well as a strategy to incorporate the various facets of planning, guidance, and assessment of treatment. The integration of thermal treatment planning, navigation and guidance, robotics

  2. Optimal Bidding Strategy in Power Market before and after Congestion Management Using Invasive Weed Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalilpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power companies world-wide have been restructuring their electric power systems from a vertically integrated entity to a deregulated, open-market environment. Previously, electric utilities usually sought to maximize the social welfare of the system with distributional equity as its main operational criterion. The operating paradigm was based on achieving the least-cost system solution while meeting reliability and security margins. This often resulted in investments in generating capacity operating at very low capacity factors. Decommissioning of this type of generating capacity was a natural outcome when the vertically integrated utilities moved over to deregulated market operations. This study proposes an optimizing base and load demand relative binding strategy for generating power apprises of different units in the investigated system. Afterwards, congestion effect in this biding strategy is investigated. The described systems analysis is implemented on 5 and 9 bus systems and optimizing technique in this issue is the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm; the results are then compared by GA. Finally, examined systems is simulated by using the Power World software; experimental results show that the proposed technique (Invasive Weed Optimization is a high performance by compared GA for the congestion management purposes.

  3. The biological basis of non-invasive strategies for selection of human oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lynette

    2003-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate embryo selection in human assisted reproduction, if the goal of reducing the number of embryos used in embryo transfer is to be realized. Furthermore, any selection strategy should be non-invasive if the embryos are to be used in embryo transfer. Currently, the strategy is selection by one to three parameters in the cleaving- and blastocyst-stage embryo, sometimes with additional pronuclear selection. It is clear that no one system is ideal, as the vast majority of transferred embryos do not implant. As the health of the embryo is largely dictated by the originating gametes, the very early events in oocyte development should be considered. This review will point to the early biological events in the unfertilized and fertilized oocyte that can be scored non-invasively and which can have a profound effect on the later developmental stages. Using a sequential scoring system, with emphasis on the oocyte, a system for selecting the most viable single embryo for transfer may hopefully be achieved.

  4. Undiagnosed invasive candidiasis: incorporating non-culture diagnostics into rational prophylactic and preemptive antifungal strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, Minh Hong

    2014-07-01

    The insensitivity of blood cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis fuels prophylactic and preemptive antifungal treatment. Assays like serum β-D-glucan or mannan/anti-mannan detection can identify blood culture-negative invasive candidiasis, but their roles in guiding antifungal therapy are undefined. We propose that non-culture tests can be incorporated into rational management strategies, based on clinical setting. As an example, β-D-glucan sensitivity/specificity for blood culture-negative, deep-seated candidiasis is approximately 60/75%. In intensive care units with candidiasis rates, positive/negative predictive values are 99% and 6/98%, respectively. With pre-test likelihoods of 10 and 33%, positive/negative predictive values are 20/94% and 54/79%, respectively. Based on these data, negative and positive β-D-glucan results likely will be most useful for discontinuing prophylaxis among low-risk to moderate-risk patients (pre-test likelihoods ∼3-10%), and triggering preemptive therapy among moderate-risk to high-risk patients (pre-test likelihoods ∼10-25%), respectively. In extremely high-risk patients, universal prophylaxis is likely to be the best strategy.

  5. Trojan Horse Strategy for Non-invasive Interference of Clock Gene in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Laura; Perrigault, Mickael; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marcel, Anjara; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene. To test the efficacy of the method, the Clock gene, a central gene of the circadian clock, was targeted for knockout. Results demonstrated specific and systemic efficiency of the Trojan horse strategy in reducing Clock mRNA abundance. Consequences of Clock disruption were observed in Clock-related genes (Bmal, Tim1, Per, Cry1, Cry2, Rev.-erb, and Ror) and triploid oysters were more sensitive than diploid to the interference. This non-invasive approach shows an involvement of the circadian clock in oyster bioaccumulation of toxins produced by the harmful alga Alexandrium minutum.

  6. A fluoroscopy-based planning and guidance software tool for minimally invasive hip refixation by cement injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malan, D.F.; Van der Walt, S.J.; Raidou, R.G.; Van den Berg, B.; Stoel, B.C.; Botha, C.P.; Nelissen, R.G.H.H.; Valstar, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In orthopaedics, minimally invasive injection of bone cement is an established technique. We present HipRFX, a software tool for planning and guiding a cement injection procedure for stabilizing a loosening hip prosthesis. HipRFX works by analysing a pre-operative CT and intraoperative C-arm

  7. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): access planning and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlawi, Basel; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Reardon, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has proven to be a viable tool for the high-surgical-risk population with severe aortic valve stenosis. Vascular access complications are not uncommon with TAVR and may increase early and late mortality. Avoiding these serious complications is the goal. With experience and careful screening, we are now able to risk-stratify patients who may be at increased risk of vascular complications. While the traditional iliofemoral access site remains the most common for TAVR, alternate access sites that have proven to be viable and safe alternatives include the transapical, direct-aortic, and subclavian techniques. TAVR teams should be familiar and comfortable with these approaches as each of them has its own advantages and weaknesses. The best option is usually one in which the procedure is tailored to the patient. The present review examines our current access planning and strategies for TAVR.

  8. Intraoperative laparoscope augmentation for port placement and resection planning in minimally invasive liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Marco; Mussack, Thomas; Heining, Sandro M; Navab, Nassir

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of liver tumor indications were treated by minimally invasive laparoscopic resection. Besides the restricted view, two major intraoperative issues in laparoscopic liver resection are the optimal planning of ports as well as the enhanced visualization of (hidden) vessels, which supply the tumorous liver segment and thus need to be divided (e.g., clipped) prior to the resection. We propose an intuitive and precise method to plan the placement of ports. Preoperatively, self-adhesive fiducials are affixed to the patient's skin and a computed tomography (CT) data set is acquired while contrasting the liver vessels. Immediately prior to the intervention, the laparoscope is moved around these fiducials, which are automatically reconstructed to register the patient to its preoperative imaging data set. This enables the simulation of a camera flight through the patient's interior along the laparoscope's or instruments' axes to easily validate potential ports. Intraoperatively, surgeons need to update their surgical planning based on actual patient data after organ deformations mainly caused by application of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, preoperative imaging data can hardly be used. Instead, we propose to use an optically tracked mobile C-arm providing cone-beam CT imaging capability intraoperatively. After patient positioning, port placement, and carbon dioxide insufflation, the liver vessels are contrasted and a 3-D volume is reconstructed during patient exhalation. Without any further need for patient registration, the reconstructed volume can be directly augmented on the live laparoscope video, since prior calibration enables both the volume and the laparoscope to be positioned and oriented in the tracking coordinate frame. The augmentation provides the surgeon with advanced visual aid for the localization of veins, arteries, and bile ducts to be divided or sealed.

  9. 7 CFR 1948.82 - Plan and State Investment Strategy approval procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas. (c) Appropriate growth management and/or... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Plan and State Investment Strategy approval procedure... Impacted Area Development Assistance Program § 1948.82 Plan and State Investment Strategy approval...

  10. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Pachauri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  11. Enhancing Planning Strategies for Sunscreen Use at Different Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schuz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To promote sun safety by implementing different plans for sunscreen use, different psychological interventions are compared. Self-regulatory strategies such as action planning and coping planning are seen as proximal predictors of actual behavior. The study compares a pure planning intervention with a broader resource communication and examines…

  12. Nantucket, Ma. Climate Protection Action Plan: A Public Outreach Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, C.; Stephenson, A.; Petsch, S.

    2009-12-01

    As communities and municipalities gain a better understanding of climate change, they are exploring the ways in which to work towards adaptation and mitigation. One strategy that the Island of Nantucket, Massachusetts turned toward is the drafting of a Climate Protection Action Plan (CPAP). The CPAP was developed during the summer of 2009 to meet three goals: (1) assist the Town of Nantucket in creating a framework to help them reduce CO2 emissions; (2) educate the municipality and community in techniques that promote energy efficiency and sustainability on the island; and (3) document past, present and future approaches adopted by the Town towards emissions reduction and energy sustainability. In particular, this project focused on using local strengths and natural resources identified by island stakeholders that may help the island to mitigate carbon emissions and adapt to climate change.. Drafting the CPAP provided community members and politicians with an opportunity to become better educated in the science of climate change and to learn how climate change will affect their community. On the island of Nantucket, leaders in the religious, civic, and political communities were brought into a conversation about how each group could contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A geosciences graduate student was brought into the CPAP team as a climate fellow to facilitate this conversation. This provided the foundation for stakeholder recommendations incorporated into the CPAP. This capacity-building model served as an effective way to create an informal learning environment about climate change that allowed members of the island community to directly participate in developing their locally appropriate climate protection strategy. The draft CPAP developed through this study and presented to the Town of Nantucket comprises assessments and recommendations in public research and education; building and energy efficiency; transportation; renewable energy; and carbon

  13. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action.

  14. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based (T2Candida assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40% or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%. Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2% and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%. In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations.

  15. Strategies and Exemplars for Public Outreach Events: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Shebby, S.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionEach year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsors a variety of public outreach events to share information with educators, students, and the general public. These events are designed to increase interest in and awareness of the mission and goals of NASA. Planning and implementation best practices gleaned from the NASA SMD Education's review of large-scale events, "Best Practices in Outreach Events" will be shared. Outcomes from an event, i C Ceres, celebrating the Dawn mission's arrival at dwarf planet Ceres that utilized these strategies will be shared. Best practices included can be pertinent for all event organizers and evaluators regardless of event size. BackgroundThe literature review focused on identifying evaluations of large-scale public outreach events—and, within these evaluations, identifying best practices. The following criteria for identifying journal articles and reports to potentially include: Public, science-related events open to adults and children. Events with more than 1,000 attendees. Events that occurred during the last 5 years. Evaluations that included information on data collected from visitors and/or volunteers. Evaluations that specified the type of data collected, methodology, and associated results. Planning and Implementation Best PracticesThe literature review revealed key considerations for planning and of large-scale events implementing events. A summary of related best practices is presented below. 1) Advertise the event 2) Use and advertise access to scientists 3) Recruit scientists using these findings 4) Ensure that the event is group and particularly child friendly 5) Target specific event outcomes Best Practices Informing Real-world Planning, Implementation and EvaluationDawn mission's collaborative design of a series of events, i C Ceres, including in-person, interactive events geared to families and live presentations will be shared. Outcomes and lessons learned will be imparted

  16. Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7902 ● DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War by...Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War by Alexander Kott and Ananthram Swami Computational and Information Sciences ...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) December 2015–February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The

  17. Long-term outcome after an early invasive versus selective invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome and elevated cardiac troponin T (the ICTUS trial): a follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, A.; Windhausen, F.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Cornel, J.H.; Winter, R.J. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICTUS trial was a study that compared an early invasive with a selective invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTE-ACS). The study reported no difference between the strategies for frequency of death, myocardial infarction, or

  18. Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A. Helms IV

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species are expanding their ranges in response to climate changes or species introductions. Expansion-related selection likely drives the evolution of dispersal and reproductive traits, especially in invasive species introduced into novel habitats. We used an agent-based model to investigate these relationships in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, by tracking simulated populations over 25 years. Most colonies of this invasive species produce two types of queens practicing alternate reproductive strategies. Claustral queens found new colonies in vacant habitats, while parasitic queens take over existing colonies whose queens have died. We investigated how relative investment in the two queen types affects population demography, habitat occupancy, and range expansion. We found that parasitic queens extend the ecological lifespan of colonies, thereby increasing a population’s overall habitat occupancy as well as average colony size (number of workers and territory size. At the same time, investment in parasitic queens slowed the rate of range expansion by diverting investment from claustral queens. Divergent selection regimes caused edge and interior populations to evolve different levels of reproductive investment, such that interior populations invested heavily in parasitic queens whereas those at the edge invested almost entirely in claustral queens. Our results highlight factors shaping ant life histories, including the evolution of social parasitism, and have implications for the response of species to range shifts.

  19. Advantage of rare infanticide strategies in an invasion experiment of behavioural polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mappes, Tapio; Aspi, Jouni; Koskela, Esa; Mills, Suzanne C; Poikonen, Tanja; Tuomi, Juha

    2012-01-03

    Killing conspecific infants (infanticide) is among the most puzzling phenomena in nature. Stable polymorphism in such behaviour could be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection (benefit of rare types). However, it is currently unknown whether there is genetic polymorphism in infanticidal behaviour or whether infanticide may have any fitness advantages when rare. Here we show genetic polymorphism in non-parental infanticide. Our novel invasion experiment confirms negative frequency-dependent selection in wild bank vole populations, where resource benefits allow an infanticidal strategy to invade a population of non-infanticidal individuals. The results show that infanticidal behaviour is highly heritable with genetic correlation across the sexes. Thus, a positive correlative response in male behaviour is expected when selection operates on females only and vice versa. Our results, on one hand, demonstrate potential benefits of infanticide, and on the other, they open a new perspective of correlative evolution of infanticide in females and males.

  20. Underuse of an invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ida; Hvelplund, Anders; Hansen, Kim Wadt;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We investigated if patients with diabetes with ACS are offered coronary angiography (CAG) and revascularisation to the same extent as patients without diabetes. METHODS...... with diabetes underwent CAG: cumulative incidence 64% vs 74% for patients without diabetes, HR=0.72 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.76, page, sex, previous revascularisation and comorbidity HR=0.78 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.82, p...-vessel disease (53% vs 38%, pdisease was less likely in patients with diabetes (multivariable adjusted HR=0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.85, p

  1. Comparative environmental assessment of valorization strategies of the invasive macroalgae Sargassum muticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Balboa, Elena M; González-García, Sara; Domínguez, Herminia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, M Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum (Yendo) exhibits a significant content of phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and fucoxanthin, with potential biological activities. In this study, four valorization strategies for S. muticum biomass were compared under a life cycle perspective. Depending on the alternative, three products were obtained: sodium alginate, antioxidant extract and fucoxanthin-containing extract. Regardless of the approach, the combined extraction of alginate and antioxidant from wet algae constituted the most efficient scenario. Among the stages, supercritical extraction of fucoxanthin and non-isothermal autohydrolysis were identified as the major environmental burdens due to electricity consumption. Although changes in product distribution fairly affected the environmental impacts of the scenarios, the single extraction of antioxidant fraction and the integral valorization to obtain fucoxanthin, alginate and antioxidant were only competitive when considering a functional unit based on the value of the products through an economic allocation approach instead of the amount of valorized algae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photonics-based strategies for minimally invasive cancer diagnosis using endogenous and molecular contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiantang

    Optical- and spectroscopic-based screening and imaging strategies possess unique advantages for minimally invasive cancer diagnosis. In this dissertation, we investigated how diagnostic results based on such techniques can be improved by the utilization of both endogenous and nanotechnology-facilitated molecular contrast. First, a diffusion-theory-based inversion reflectance model was constructed for the extraction of intrinsic tissue optical properties from the shape of normalized tissue diffusion reflectance spectra. The accuracy of our diffusion-based inversion algorithm was systematically assessed against Monte Carlo simulation as a function of probe geometry and tissue optical property combinations. By using this method, the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of normal and cancerous tissue were efficiently retrieved within the center-to-center source-detector fiber separation of 0.5 mm ˜3 mm, which is compatible with endoscopic specifications. The presented inversion approach is computationally viable for eventual real-time in vivo tissue diagnostic applications. Second, novel quantum dot nanoparticle-based contrast agents were developed for molecular and tissue imaging applications in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges. Specifically, lead sulfide quantum dot bioconjugates were explored as NIR contrast agents for targeted molecular imaging; a protease-activated quantum dot probe was developed to monitor specific molecular targets and pathways through optical strategies; and a phantom study was conducted to assess the utilization of lead sulfide NIR quantum dots as fluorescent contrast agents for deep tissue imaging applications. These nanoengineered exogenous probes were shown to have the potential to significantly improve the implementation of optical/spectroscopic cancer imaging techniques. Taken together, the goal of the combined projects in this dissertation was to demonstrate that photonics-based minimally invasive cancer

  3. Evidence for shifts to faster growth strategies in the new ranges of invasive alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Michelle R; Cooke, Julia; Richardson, David M; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding the processes underlying the transition from introduction to naturalization and spread is an important goal of invasion ecology. Release from pests and pathogens in association with capacity for rapid growth is thought to confer an advantage for species in novel regions. We assessed leaf herbivory and leaf-level traits associated with growth strategy in the native and exotic ranges of 13 invasive plant species from 256 populations. Species were native to either the Western Cape region of South Africa, south-western Australia or south-eastern Australia and had been introduced to at least one of the other regions or to New Zealand. We tested for evidence of herbivore release and shifts in leaf traits between native and exotic ranges of the 13 species. Across all species, leaf herbivory, specific leaf area and leaf area were significantly different between native and exotic ranges while there were no significant differences across the 13 species found for leaf mass, assimilation rate, dark respiration or foliar nitrogen. Analysis at the species- and region-level showed that eight out of 13 species had reduced leaf herbivory in at least one exotic region compared to its native range. Six out of 13 species had significantly larger specific leaf area (SLA) in at least one exotic range region and five of those six species experienced reduced leaf herbivory. Increases in SLA were underpinned by increases in leaf area rather than reductions in leaf mass. No species showed differences in the direction of trait shifts from the native range between different exotic regions. This suggests that the driver of selection on these traits in the exotic range is consistent across regions and hence is most likely to be associated with factors linked with introduction to a novel environment, such as release from leaf herbivory, rather than with particular environmental conditions. Synthesis. These results provide evidence that introduction of a plant species into a

  4. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  5. Evolving strategies for optimal care management and plan benefit designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, John M

    2012-11-01

    As a prevalent, complex disease, diabetes presents a challenge to managed care. Strategies to optimize type 2 diabetes care management and treatment outcomes have been evolving over the past several years. Novel economic incentive programs (eg, those outlined in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 that tie revenue from Medicare Advantage plans to the quality of healthcare delivered) are being implemented, as are evidence-based interventions designed to optimize treatment, reduce clinical complications, and lower the total financial burden of the disease. Another step that can improve outcomes is to align managed care diabetes treatment algorithms with national treatment guidelines. In addition, designing the pharmacy benefit to emphasize the overall value of treatment and minimize out-of-pocket expenses for patients can be an effective approach to reducing prescription abandonment. The implementation of emerging models of care that encourage collaboration between providers, support lifestyle changes, and engage patients to become partners in their own treatment also appears to be effective.

  6. Invasive fire ants reduce reproductive success and alter the reproductive strategies of a native vertebrate insectivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A Ligon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Introduced organisms can alter ecosystems by disrupting natural ecological relationships. For example, red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta have disrupted native arthropod communities throughout much of their introduced range. By competing for many of the same food resources as insectivorous vertebrates, fire ants also have the potential to disrupt vertebrate communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore the effects of fire ants on a native insectivorous vertebrate, we compared the reproductive success and strategies of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis inhabiting territories with different abundances of fire ants. We also created experimental dyads of adjacent territories comprised of one territory with artificially reduced fire ant abundance (treated and one territory that was unmanipulated (control. We found that more bluebird young fledged from treated territories than from adjacent control territories. Fire ant abundance also explained significant variation in two measures of reproductive success across the study population: number of fledglings and hatching success of second clutches. Furthermore, the likelihood of bluebird parents re-nesting in the same territory was negatively influenced by the abundance of foraging fire ants, and parents nesting in territories with experimentally reduced abundances of fire ants produced male-biased broods relative to pairs in adjacent control territories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Introduced fire ants altered both the reproductive success (number of fledglings, hatching success and strategies (decision to renest, offspring sex-ratio of eastern bluebirds. These results illustrate the negative effects that invasive species can have on native biota, including species from taxonomically distant groups.

  7. COMPARISON OF VALUE GENERATION STRATEGIES BETWEEN PLANNED AND EMERGING STRATEGIES: A STUDY BASED ON GAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paixão Garcez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the economic results of the planned strategies compared to the emergent strategies in decision-making. The theoretical background emphasizes some aspects, like the strategy concept evolution throughout the time, the typology of strategies proposed by Mintzberg, the comparison between competition and cooperation, and the use of a business simulator as a tool for business research purposes. As a controlled experiment, the EGS simulator (Management Exercise Simulated allowed comparison of the economic results of the two decision-making situations. The findings show that when planned strategies were implemented without corrections, the value generated (expressed by the internal rate of return IRR = 1.51% was greater than in the case of adjusted emerging strategies in three periods (IRR= 1.40%. Comparing the two situations, it is possible to find a value added advantage of 7.86% in favor of the planned strategies, indicating the competition might be responsible for the value decreasing in real environment. Analyzing the performance degrees reached by the competitors, the ranking results show that there is no association between planned strategy and emerging strategies. Although the business simulators can be considered weak approximations for the business environment, the experiment contributed new evidence of the competition rise in oligopoly industries and a new methodological approach for studying this phenomenon.

  8. Establishing the behavioral basis for an attract-and-kill strategy to manage the invasive Halyomorpha halys in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) is an invasive, polyphagous insect that inflicts serious economic injury on specialty crops in the United States. Growers have been forced to respond by increasing the frequency of broad-spectrum insecticide applications. One strategy to reduce reliance on insecticides is ...

  9. Assessing Resilience: How Plans, Strategies, and After Action Reports Can Improve Our Understanding of Organizational Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    organizations, existing resources, doctrinal documents, plans, strategies, and related artifacts were reviewed. A resilience management framework from...resilience within their organizations, this thesis reviewed existing resources, doctrinal documents, plans, strategies, and related artifacts . A resilience...critically wounded and the first suspect was transported to a hospital where attempts to resuscitate him were unsuccessful. Law enforcement

  10. Need for Optimisation of Immunisation Strategies Targeting Invasive Meningococcal Disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousema, Josefien Cornelie Minthe; Ruitenberg, Joost

    2015-09-13

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a severe bacterial infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. In recent years, industrialised countries have implemented vaccines targeting IMD in their National Immunisation Programmes (NIPs). In 2002, the Netherlands successfully implemented a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months and performed a single catch-up for children ≤18 years of age. Since then the disease disappeared in vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, herd protection was induced, leading to a significant IMD reduction in non-vaccinated individuals. However, previous studies revealed that the current programmatic immunisation strategy was insufficient to protect the population in the foreseeable future. In addition, vaccines that provide protection against additional serogroups are now available. This paper describes to what extent the current strategy to prevent IMD in the Netherlands is still sufficient, taking into account the burden of disease and the latest scientific knowledge related to IMD and its prevention. In particular, primary MenC immunisation seems not to provide long-term protection, indicating a risk for possible recurrence of the disease. This can be combatted by implementing a MenC or MenACWY adolescent booster vaccine. Additional health benefits can be achieved by replacing the primary MenC by a MenACWY vaccine. By implementation of a recently licensed MenB vaccine for infants in the NIP, the greatest burden of disease would be targeted. This paper shows that optimisation of the immunisation strategy targeting IMD in the Netherlands should be considered and contributes to create awareness concerning prevention optimisation in other countries.

  11. Need for Optimisation of Immunisation Strategies Targeting Invasive Meningococcal Disease in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefien Cornelie Minthe Bousema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a severe bacterial infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. In recent years, industrialised countries have implemented vaccines targeting IMD in their National Immunisation Programmes (NIPs. In 2002, the Netherlands successfully implemented a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months and performed a single catch-up for children ≤18 years of age. Since then the disease disappeared in vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, herd protection was induced, leading to a significant IMD reduction in non-vaccinated individuals. However, previous studies revealed that the current programmatic immunisation strategy was insufficient to protect the population in the foreseeable future. In addition, vaccines that provide protection against additional serogroups are now available. This paper describes to what extent the current strategy to prevent IMD in the Netherlands is still sufficient, taking into account the burden of disease and the latest scientific knowledge related to IMD and its prevention. In particular, primary MenC immunisation seems not to provide long-term protection, indicating a risk for possible recurrence of the disease. This can be combatted by implementing a MenC or MenACWY adolescent booster vaccine. Additional health benefits can be achieved by replacing the primary MenC by a MenACWY vaccine. By implementation of a recently licensed MenB vaccine for infants in the NIP, the greatest burden of disease would be targeted. This paper shows that optimisation of the immunisation strategy targeting IMD in the Netherlands should be considered and contributes to create awareness concerning prevention optimisation in other countries.

  12. The Action Plan Against Repetitive Work - An Industrial Relation Strategy for Improving the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation ot the Action Plan. The asseessment of the Action Plan ind...... and industrial relation agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems....

  13. An Analysis of Strategies for Teaching Standards-Based Lesson Plan Alignment to Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Bryan R.; Levine, Anita C.

    2015-01-01

    Research consistently shows that well-aligned lesson plans lead to better student learning outcomes. The development of these plans challenges both preservice teachers and the teacher educators who instruct them. This exploratory study examined strategies for teaching lesson plan alignment utilized by 87 teacher educators in the United States.…

  14. Strategic plan strategy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provides information about the use of an integrated strategic plan, strategy, and life-cycle baseline in the long range planning and risk process employed by the environmental restoration program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Long-range planning is essential because the ER Program encompasses hundreds of sites; will last several decades; and requires complex technology, management, and policy. Long-range planning allows a focused, cost-effective approach to identify and meet Program objectives. This is accomplished through a strategic plan, a strategy, and a life-cycle baseline. This long-range methodology is illustrated below.

  15. Strategic plan strategy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provides information about the use of an integrated strategic plan, strategy, and life-cycle baseline in the long range planning and risk process employed by the environmental restoration program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Long-range planning is essential because the ER Program encompasses hundreds of sites; will last several decades; and requires complex technology, management, and policy. Long-range planning allows a focused, cost-effective approach to identify and meet Program objectives. This is accomplished through a strategic plan, a strategy, and a life-cycle baseline. This long-range methodology is illustrated below.

  16. The application of the European strategy on invasive alien species: an example with introduced squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We assessed the cases of squirrel species already introduced into Italy inside the framework proposed by the European strategy on invasive alien species. We collected information on 9 introductions that originated 8 populations: 3 of grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, 2 of Finlayson's squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii, and 3 of Siberian chip-munks (Eutamias sibiricus. Food opportunism and high reproductive rate may explain the high success rate in establishing new populations, even with a low propagule pressure. A negative impact on the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris and damage to forestry and manufactures have been recorded in the areas of introduction. Accordingly to the European strategy, Italy is called to build-up a rapid response system in order to avoid further releases of alien squirrels in the wild. Meanwhile these species must be considered as a priority for trade restriction. Considering the risks posed to biodiversity and human activities, Italy must adopt a precautionary principle, removing small nuclei of introduced species before they spread in large areas. Riassunto Applicazione della strategia europea sulle specie non indigene: un esempio con gli scoiattoli introdotti Come esempio di applicazione della strategia europea sulle specie invasive introdotte, abbiamo analizzato la situazione degli scoiattoli introdotti in Italia. Su 9 introduzioni registrate, in 8 casi si sono formate popolazioni naturalizzate: 3 di scoiattolo grigio (Sciurus carolinensis, 2 di scoiattolo di Finlayson (Callosciurus finlaysonii e 3 di tamia siberiano (Eutamias sibiricus. L'alto successo delle introduzioni, anche a partire da pochi animali rilasciati, è probabilmente legato all'opportunismo alimentare delle specie considerate e al loro elevato tasso riproduttivo. Al momento, nelle aree di introduzione sono segnalati fenomeni

  17. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Patyal, Baldev; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Bush, David

    2013-03-25

    To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose coverage but also increased the ipsilateral

  18. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Bo Lu; D. Barry Lyons; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Taylor Scarr; Klaus Koehler

    2014-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate how the notion of diversification can be used in broad-scale resource allocation for surveillance of invasive species. We consider the problem of short-term surveillance for an invasive species in a geographical environment.Wefind the optimal allocation of surveillance resourcesamongmultiple geographical subdivisions via application of a...

  19. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced Fv /Fm ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PPint ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  1. Update on epidemiology of and preventive strategies for invasive fungal infections in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, John R; Hachem, Ray; Wingard, John R

    2014-11-15

    Changes in antineoplastic treatments and transplant practices are driving shifts in the epidemiology of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and those undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT) are at greatest risk for contracting IFDs. Unfortunately, there are few large population studies that can be used to track trends and help us to better understand why certain individuals within recognized high-risk groups are at greater risks than others for contracting IFDs. The growing use of antifungals in prophylaxis and treatment influences which species will cause an IFD as well as the resistance patterns of these fungi. On the one hand, antifungal prophylaxis has mitigated, but not eliminated, the threat of candidiasis. Furthermore, prophylaxis trials have shown trends of reduced aspergillosis in BMT patients; however, no survival benefits were seen, and 1 trial indicated a lower rate of aspergillosis and survival benefits in patients with AML. Future prophylaxis trials should reduce the heterogeneity of risk in study participants in order to better assess benefit; these trials should also incorporate fungal biomarkers into their design. The threat of emerging fungal resistance in prophylaxis strategies is real and must be monitored.

  2. Re-engineering the Federal planning process: A total Federal planning strategy, integrating NEPA with modern management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1997-09-05

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was established by Congress more than a quarter of a century ago, yet there is a surprising lack of specific tools, techniques, and methodologies for effectively implementing these regulatory requirements. Lack of professionally accepted techniques is a principal factor responsible for many inefficiencies. Often, decision makers do not fully appreciate or capitalize on the true potential which NEPA provides as a platform for planning future actions. New approaches and modem management tools must be adopted to fully achieve NEPA`s mandate. A new strategy, referred to as Total Federal Planning, is proposed for unifying large-scale federal planning efforts under a single, systematic, structured, and holistic process. Under this approach, the NEPA planning process provides a unifying framework for integrating all early environmental and nonenvironmental decision-making factors into a single comprehensive planning process. To promote effectiveness and efficiency, modem tools and principles from the disciplines of Value Engineering, Systems Engineering, and Total Quality Management are incorporated. Properly integrated and implemented, these planning tools provide the rigorous, structured, and disciplined framework essential in achieving effective planning. Ultimately, the goal of a Total Federal Planning strategy is to construct a unified and interdisciplinary framework that substantially improves decision-making, while reducing the time, cost, redundancy, and effort necessary to comply with environmental and other planning requirements. At a time when Congress is striving to re-engineer the governmental framework, apparatus, and process, a Total Federal Planning philosophy offers a systematic approach for uniting the disjointed and often convoluted planning process currently used by most federal agencies. Potentially this approach has widespread implications in the way federal planning is approached.

  3. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... of these governance initiatives tend to re-produce the idea of technical potentials, and have difficulties in coping with the challenge of establishing a social context for embedding energy saving actions in local households. Our aim in this paper is to explore how energy strategies and plans may be anchored...... (the social context), on the one hand, and the stage of planning and carrying out energy saving action initiatives (strategies and plans), on the other hand. The paper explores how these practices encounter in exemplary local processes of learning-by-trying to implement energy saving solutions...

  4. Educational affairs plan: A five-year strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A five-year plan is presented to guide the use of NASA resources in administering a focused and consistent set of aeronautics and space science education programs. Major initiatives outlined in this plan fall into two categories: programmatic priorities and institutional priorities. Programmatic priorities for this plan include elementary education, teacher education, underrepresented minority participation, educational technology and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP). Institutional priorities highlighted in this plan include university programs, educational publications and their distribution, educational partnerships with public and private organizations, educational research and evaluation, and activities of the educational affairs administration. The plan's aim is to directly and indirectly help to ensure an adequate pool of talented scientists, engineers and technical personnel to keep NASA at the forefront of advancements for the 21st century.

  5. HCA Richmond Hospitals' new marketing strategy a winning plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2003-01-01

    HCA Richmond Hospitals, a five-hospital system in Richmond, Va., is positioning itself as a winner in a highly competitive, healthcare-saturated market since overhauling is marketing strategy a little over a year ago. The marketing strategy enables individual hospital to target their own unique constituencies. "Understanding the intricate marketing dynamics of hospital systems is today of critical importance and equal complexity," said Tony Bejamin, principal of Oxygen Advertising Inc., New York, the agency that remodeled HCA Richmond Hospitals' marketing strategy.

  6. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  7. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: comparison of different planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Peter W J; Dirkx, Maarten L P; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2013-07-01

    To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses. All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT remove) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT cut). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated. Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT cut significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT remove. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V60 Gy reduced by 17.5% ± 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p = 0.036) and rectum D mean by 9.4% ± 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p = 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V 60Gy by another 4.6% ± 4.9% (p = 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT cut plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V 60Gy was 37.3% ± 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p = 0.012) for 15 directions. iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRTcut strategy) significantly improved OAR sparing. Noncoplanar beam arrangements and, to a larger extent, increasing the number of

  8. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved

  9. The Strategic Planning Process and the Need for Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Basil Liddell Hart defines the purpose of grand strategy as the means “to coordinate and direct all of the resources of the nation, or band of nations...University Press. Murray, William, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein . The Making of Strategy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Naveh, Shimon

  10. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge;

    context to explore successful intersections between energy planning practices and household practices. The theoretical contribution of the paper is to bridge between household and energy planning practices. This bridging is based on the conceptualisation of the house as the stage of household practices......Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... of these governance initiatives tend to re-produce the idea of technical potentials, and have difficulties in coping with the challenge of establishing a social context for embedding energy saving actions in local households. Our aim in this paper is to explore how energy strategies and plans may be anchored...

  11. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  12. Leading tomorrow's healthcare organizations: strategies and tactics for effective succession planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ann Scott; McDonagh, Kathryn J; Neistadt, Allyson M; Helfand, Bradley

    2006-06-01

    Hospitals and health systems today are challenged by the lack of consistent workforce planning which has resulted in a significant dearth of effective succession planning strategies and tactics for the executive suite as well as middle management. This article discusses how the healthcare industry lags behind other corporate organizations in creating a succession plan and in retaining top leadership talent. It also provides practical approaches for succession planning in healthcare and identifies the key elements of succession planning for the chief executive officer and other senior leaders.

  13. Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control Strategies for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  14. Path planning versus cue responding: a bio-inspired model of switching between navigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollé, Laurent; Sheynikhovich, Denis; Girard, Benoît; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Guillot, Agnès

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we describe a new computational model of switching between path-planning and cue-guided navigation strategies. It is based on three main assumptions: (i) the strategies are mediated by separate memory systems that learn independently and in parallel; (ii) the learning algorithms are different in the two memory systems-the cue-guided strategy uses a temporal-difference (TD) learning rule to approach a visible goal, whereas the path-planning strategy relies on a place-cell-based graph-search algorithm to learn the location of a hidden goal; (iii) a strategy selection mechanism uses TD-learning rule to choose the most successful strategy based on past experience. We propose a novel criterion for strategy selection based on the directions of goal-oriented movements suggested by the different strategies. We show that the selection criterion based on this "common currency" is capable of choosing the best among TD-learning and planning strategies and can be used to solve navigational tasks in continuous state and action spaces. The model has been successfully applied to reproduce rat behavior in two water-maze tasks in which the two strategies were shown to interact. The model was used to analyze competitive and cooperative interactions between different strategies during these tasks as well as relative influence of different types of sensory cues.

  15. Application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Planning Model in Designing an Oral Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Catherine J; Johnson, Knowlton W

    2013-11-01

    Although the poor oral health of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) constitutes a significant health disparity in the United States, few interventions to date have produced lasting results. Moreover, there is minimal application of planning models to inform and design a theory-based strategy that has the potential to be effective and sustainable in this population. The PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model is being used to design and evaluate an oral health strategy for adults with IDD. The PRECEDE component involves assessing social, epidemiological, behavioral, environmental, educational, and ecological factors that informed the development of an intervention with underlying social cognitive theory assumptions. The PROCEED component consists of pilot-testing and evaluating the implementation of the strategy, its impact on mediators and outcomes of the population under study. A The PRECEDE assessment and strategy design results are presented including a conceptual framework and oral health strategy that are linked to social cognitive theory and Health Action Process Approach. We have developed a strategy consisting of a planned actions, capacity building, environmental adaptations, and caregiver reinforcement within group homes. The strategy is designed to increase caregiver self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and behavioral capability, and also to create environmental influences that will lead to improved self-care behavior of the adult with IDD. It is anticipated that this strategy will improve the oral health and quality of life, including respiratory health, of individuals with IDD. The planned PROCEED component of the planning model includes a description of an in-process pilot study to refine the oral health strategy, along with a future randomized controlled clinical trial to demonstrate its effectiveness. The application of the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model presented here demonstrates the feasibility of this planning model for

  16. Planning Strategies in an Age of Active Citizenship : A Post-structuralist Agenda for Self-organization in Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, B.

    2015-01-01

    Civic initiatives in spatial development are on the rise. Whereas for a long time they were just a fringe movement, sometimes even a stand in the way of planned urban development, civic initiatives today are increasingly seen as valuable strategies for urban development. So far, however, when dealin

  17. Planning Strategies in an Age of Active Citizenship : A Post-structuralist Agenda for Self-organization in Spatial Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, B.

    2015-01-01

    Civic initiatives in spatial development are on the rise. Whereas for a long time they were just a fringe movement, sometimes even a stand in the way of planned urban development, civic initiatives today are increasingly seen as valuable strategies for urban development. So far, however, when

  18. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE TAX PLANNING AS PART OF EXPENSE OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Garnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax liability planning is vital for industrial enterprises to reduce their tax burden and thus reduce expenses of the organization for a certain period. Industrial enterprises are among main taxpayers in the Russian Federation, and recommendations given in the article on topical issues related to planning of tax obligations will help top managers of the enterprises to avoid unnecessary financial losses and to ensure further growth and development of their organizations. Attention is focused on specifics of the industrial enterprises’ activities under present conditions due to the nature and particular features of their operation.

  19. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE TAX PLANNING AS PART OF EXPENSE OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Garnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax liability planning is vital for industrial enterprises to reduce their tax burden and thus reduce expenses of the organization for a certain period. Industrial enterprises are among main taxpayers in the Russian Federation, and recommendations given in the article on topical issues relatedto planning of tax obligations will help top managers of the enterprises to avoid unnecessary financial losses and to ensure further growth and development of their organizations. Attention is focused on specifics of the industrial enterprises’ activities under present conditions due to thenature and particular features of their operation.

  20. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  1. Research on Route Planning Method Based on Active-Attack Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin-yan; HUANG Xian-lin

    2007-01-01

    Aimed at modern high-density, high overlapped and powerful antipersonnel stealthy penetration environment, route planning techniques on active-attack strategy were thoroughly and further studied, in order to get good probability of survival and perfect efficiency of task accomplishment. It provides a new thought for and a new solution to the application of route planning in new era.

  2. The reproductive life plan as a strategy to decrease poor birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnory, Margaret E; Johnson, Teresa S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of implementing a life course perspective model that includes a reproductive life plan to improve health outcomes, especially in populations at risk for adverse outcomes. A reproductive life plan is a comprehensive strategy that can be incorporated into nursing practice at all levels to improve birth outcomes. Health care providers, especially nurses, should incorporate reproductive life planning into their daily encounters with patients.

  3. Hart Mountain - Work Yard Invasives Control and Implementation of Prevention Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hart Mountain Refuge maintenance yard and borrow pits are currently heavily infested with numerous invasive weeds, the most problematic being Russian thistle...

  4. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.

    2004-01-01

    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  5. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.

    2004-01-01

    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  6. The challenges and related strategies of planning for wilderness experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerri Cahill

    2012-01-01

    Planning is where science, public interests and management of wilderness areas come together. Unfortunately, science and information specifically supporting wilderness experiences, if any exists, is often perceived by managers as subjective, value laden, and hard to defend. This can sometimes lead to the tough decisions about providing high quality wilderness...

  7. Career Assessment and Planning Strategies for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Richard T.; Hennessey, Mary L.; Hogan, Ebony M.; Savickas, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Career assessment and planning services that enable students with disabilities to make successful transitions from higher education to careers are an important component often missing in the postsecondary educational experience. Comprehensive services in this regard involve students in considering how to incorporate their preferences, assets, and…

  8. Beyond the espoused goals of IS/IT strategy planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Mike; Heng, Michael S.H.

    2001-01-01

    The paper uses a sociological concept to study the uses of strategic informationsystems/information technology planning (SISP) beyond its espoused goals. The conceptis termed unanticipated or unintended consequences of social action (Merton 1963;Giddens 1984), and it has a long intellectual history,

  9. Small-molecule agonists of mammalian Diaphanous-related (mDia) formins reveal an effective glioblastoma anti-invasion strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Jessica D; Lavik, Kari I; Rubinic, Kaitlin A; Chiaia, Nicolas; Khuder, Sadik A; Howard, Marthe J; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Alberts, Arthur S; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    The extensive invasive capacity of glioblastoma (GBM) makes it resistant to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and thus makes it lethal. In vivo, GBM invasion is mediated by Rho GTPases through unidentified downstream effectors. Mammalian Diaphanous (mDia) family formins are Rho-directed effectors that regulate the F-actin cytoskeleton to support tumor cell motility. Historically, anti-invasion strategies focused upon mDia inhibition, whereas activation remained unexplored. The recent development of small molecules directly inhibiting or activating mDia-driven F-actin assembly that supports motility allows for exploration of their role in GBM. We used the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 and mDia agonists IMM-01/-02 and mDia2-DAD peptides, which disrupt autoinhibition, to examine the roles of mDia inactivation versus activation in GBM cell migration and invasion in vitro and in an ex vivo brain slice invasion model. Inhibiting mDia suppressed directional migration and spheroid invasion while preserving intrinsic random migration. mDia agonism abrogated both random intrinsic and directional migration and halted U87 spheroid invasion in ex vivo brain slices. Thus mDia agonism is a superior GBM anti-invasion strategy. We conclude that formin agonism impedes the most dangerous GBM component-tumor spread into surrounding healthy tissue. Formin activation impairs novel aspects of transformed cells and informs the development of anti-GBM invasion strategies.

  10. Small-molecule agonists of mammalian Diaphanous–related (mDia) formins reveal an effective glioblastoma anti-invasion strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Jessica D.; Lavik, Kari I.; Rubinic, Kaitlin A.; Chiaia, Nicolas; Khuder, Sadik A.; Howard, Marthe J.; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L.; Alberts, Arthur S.; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive invasive capacity of glioblastoma (GBM) makes it resistant to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy and thus makes it lethal. In vivo, GBM invasion is mediated by Rho GTPases through unidentified downstream effectors. Mammalian Diaphanous (mDia) family formins are Rho-directed effectors that regulate the F-actin cytoskeleton to support tumor cell motility. Historically, anti-invasion strategies focused upon mDia inhibition, whereas activation remained unexplored. The recent development of small molecules directly inhibiting or activating mDia-driven F-actin assembly that supports motility allows for exploration of their role in GBM. We used the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 and mDia agonists IMM-01/-02 and mDia2-DAD peptides, which disrupt autoinhibition, to examine the roles of mDia inactivation versus activation in GBM cell migration and invasion in vitro and in an ex vivo brain slice invasion model. Inhibiting mDia suppressed directional migration and spheroid invasion while preserving intrinsic random migration. mDia agonism abrogated both random intrinsic and directional migration and halted U87 spheroid invasion in ex vivo brain slices. Thus mDia agonism is a superior GBM anti-invasion strategy. We conclude that formin agonism impedes the most dangerous GBM component—tumor spread into surrounding healthy tissue. Formin activation impairs novel aspects of transformed cells and informs the development of anti-GBM invasion strategies. PMID:26354425

  11. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  12. Would You Follow Your Own Route Description? Cognitive Strategies in Urban Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper…

  13. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  14. Would You Follow Your Own Route Description? Cognitive Strategies in Urban Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper…

  15. Planning the unknown: the simultaneity of predictive and non-predictive entrepreneurial strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Ratinho, Tiago; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct approaches have emerged to categorize entrepreneurial strategies. While some argue that planning is beneficial for entrepreneurs, a growing body of literature argues that non-predictive strategies can also lead to successful outcomes. The effectuation framework gained attention and it i

  16. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  17. Optimal timing of an invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs, Alexander; Mehta, Shamir R; Montalescot, Gilles; Vicaut, Eric; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Badings, Erik A; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Kastrati, Adnan; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Milosevic, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Goran; Milasinovic, Dejan; Vonthein, Reinhard; Desch, Steffen; Thiele, Holger

    2017-08-19

    A routine invasive strategy is recommended for patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). However, optimal timing of invasive strategy is less clearly defined. Individual clinical trials were underpowered to detect a mortality benefit; we therefore did a meta-analysis to assess the effect of timing on mortality. We identified randomised controlled trials comparing an early versus a delayed invasive strategy in patients presenting with NSTE-ACS by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase. We included trials that reported all-cause mortality at least 30 days after in-hospital randomisation and for which the trial investigators agreed to collaborate (ie, providing individual patient data or standardised tabulated data). We pooled hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models. This meta-analysis is registered at PROSPERO (CRD42015018988). We included eight trials (n=5324 patients) with a median follow-up of 180 days (IQR 180-360). Overall, there was no significant mortality reduction in the early invasive group compared with the delayed invasive group HR 0·81, 95% CI 0·64-1·03; p=0·0879). In pre-specified analyses of high-risk patients, we found lower mortality with an early invasive strategy in patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers at baseline (HR 0·761, 95% CI 0·581-0·996), diabetes (0·67, 0·45-0·99), a GRACE risk score more than 140 (0·70, 0·52-0·95), and aged 75 years older (0·65, 0·46-0·93), although tests for interaction were inconclusive. An early invasive strategy does not reduce mortality compared with a delayed invasive strategy in all patients with NSTE-ACS. However, an early invasive strategy might reduce mortality in high-risk patients. None. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Intrascrotal lipoblastoma in childhood: diagnostic strategies and therapy planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promm, M; Reingruber, B; Rösch, W H

    2013-12-01

    Based on a case report of an intrascrotal lipoblastoma in childhood, we present the preoperative diagnostic algorithm and the main differential diagnoses in testicular and paratesticular tumors as well as their surgical management. An 8-week-old infant was admitted with a scrotal tumor known since birth. MRI showed a pinnate vessel supply, originating in the left internal iliac artery. The tumor was exposed operatively and could be completely removed. Intrascrotal lipoblastoma are rare. Like most testicular and paratesticular tumors in childhood lipoblastomas are benign. Today ultrasound and Doppler sonography are basic tools for diagnosis and surgical planning in testicular and scrotal tumors in childhood. In some cases MRI can provide additional important information for surgical planning. In contrast to adults testis sparing surgery is favoured in children.

  19. Planning of Sheet Metal Drawing Processes Based on Information Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Marty Delgado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet metal forming processes represent an important group of manufacturing processes for dissimilar applications. The development of numerical simulation methods has created new possibilities in important industrial aspects with regard to optimization and integration CAPP system in sheet metal drawing processes. The result of the processes depends on a large number of parameters and their interdependence hence, knowledge and experience of the designer are critical. The present work deals with the elements to be considered in the integral design, planning and optimization sheet metal drawing processes under a set of criteria and as such the possibilities that this task offers in the decision making, preparation along with the analysis and synthesis of engineering systems. In addition a methodology for integration design and process planning of sheet metal forming process analysis is summarized.

  20. Employer strategies to combat health care plan fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, B B; Rivers, J S

    1991-01-01

    Each year health care fraud drains millions of dollars from employer-sponsored health plans. Historically, employers have taken a rather tolerant view of fraud. As the pressure to manage health plan costs increases, however, many employers are beginning to see the detection and prosecution of fraud as an appropriate part of a cost management program. Fraud in medical insurance covers a wide range of activities in terms of cost and sophistication--from misrepresenting information on a claim, to billing for services never rendered, to falsifying the existence of an entire medical organization. To complicate matters, fraudulent activities can emanate from many, many sources. Perpetrators can include employees, dependents or associates of employees, providers and employees of providers--virtually anyone able to make a claim against a plan. This article addresses actions that employers can take to reduce losses from fraud. The first section suggests policy statements and administrative procedures and guidelines that can be used to discourage employee fraud. Section two addresses the most prevalent form of fraud--provider fraud. To combat provider fraud, employers should set corporate guidelines and should enlist the assistance of employees in identifying fraudulent provider activities. Section three suggests ways to improve fraud detection through the claims payment system--often the first line of defense against fraud. Finally, section four discusses the possibility of civil and criminal remedies and reviews the legal theories under which an increasing number of fraud cases have been prosecuted.

  1. US–China Military Technological Competition and the Making of Chinese Weapons Development Strategies and Plans

    OpenAIRE

    CHEUNG, Tai Ming

    2017-01-01

    How do Chinese decision-makers and strategists view the United States todayas a military strategic competitor especially in light of the US Third Offset Strategy? This brief examines the nature, dynamics, and direction of intensifying US–China military strategic technology competition and how the Third Offset Strategy may influence implementation of Chinese strategies and plans for long-termdevelopment of its military technological and war-fighting capabilities.

  2. Inter-Organisational Systems, Strategy and Structure: the case for planning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Finnegan

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic trade and commerce have brought inter organisational co-operation to the forefront of organisational strategies. However, inter-organisational systems (IOS planning lacks appropriate methodological guidelines, and tends to be practised in an insular manner. This paper examines the development of systems in three interorganisational networks in Ireland in order to ascertain the planning that went into them. The networks studied are representative of three types of structural interdependencies - pooled, reciprocal and sequential. Although it is difficult to identify an activity that can be clearly labelled IOS planning, planning is integral to the development of all networks. The interdependencies influence planning processes and outcomes. For the pooled and reciprocal networks, the planning process gives a focus. For the sequential network, the main planning is done by the hub organisation, and extended to the spokes. Planning interactions across all networks illustrate similarities that reveal that existence of planning environments within which IOS planning takes place. These planning environments are proposed as being an appropriate basis for the development of IOS planning guidelines.

  3. [An application of the strategy results cycle to HIV/AIDS strategic planning in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Rosalía; Rosenberg, Hernán

    2013-07-01

    To describe the Strategy Results Cycle (SRC), a model that approaches planning as an ongoing cycle of seven phases that continually responds and adapts to existing evidence. Reliable sources were used for the preparation of databases and expenditure-costing data for resources needs analysis. The planning process 6-9 months to complete a national strategic plan that was informed by evidence, focused on results and costed. Knowledge transfer facilitated national leadership and stakeholders' participation. Between 2007 and 2011, 13 of 16 countries adopted the Strategy Results Cycle model. The evidence supported the identification of results and the expenditure-costing analysis improved budget allocation efficiency. The SRC facilitated purposeful participation and added value to previous planning approaches by connecting "thinking" and "doing" which resulted in national strategic plans that are designed by stakeholders, relevant to local conditions, and can guide implementation and resource mobilization.

  4. Comparison of tablet-based strategies for incision planning in laser microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoob, Andreas; Lekon, Stefan; Kundrat, Dennis; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Mattos, Leonardo S.; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has revealed that incision planning in laser surgery deploying stylus and tablet outperforms state-of-the-art micro-manipulator-based laser control. Providing more detailed quantitation regarding that approach, a comparative study of six tablet-based strategies for laser path planning is presented. Reference strategy is defined by monoscopic visualization and continuous path drawing on a graphics tablet. Further concepts deploying stereoscopic or a synthesized laser view, point-based path definition, real-time teleoperation or a pen display are compared with the reference scenario. Volunteers were asked to redraw and ablate stamped lines on a sample. Performance is assessed by measuring planning accuracy, completion time and ease of use. Results demonstrate that significant differences exist between proposed concepts. The reference strategy provides more accurate incision planning than the stereo or laser view scenario. Real-time teleoperation performs best with respect to completion time without indicating any significant deviation in accuracy and usability. Point-based planning as well as the pen display provide most accurate planning and increased ease of use compared to the reference strategy. As a result, combining the pen display approach with point-based planning has potential to become a powerful strategy because of benefiting from improved hand-eye-coordination on the one hand and from a simple but accurate technique for path definition on the other hand. These findings as well as the overall usability scale indicating high acceptance and consistence of proposed strategies motivate further advanced tablet-based planning in laser microsurgery.

  5. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Paul; Hewitt, Stephen; Blackshaw, Neil

    2013-09-01

    There has been a welcome joining up of the rhetoric around health, the environment and land use or spatial planning in both the English public health white paper and the National Planning Policy Framework. However, this paper highlights a real concern that this is not being followed through into practical guidance needed by local authorities (LAs), health bodies and developers about how to deliver this at the local level. The role of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Health and Wellbeing Strategies (HWSs) have the potential to provide a strong basis for integrated local policies for health improvement, to address the wider determinants of health and to reduce inequities. However, the draft JSNA guidance from the Department of Health falls short of providing a robust, comprehensive and practical guide to meeting these very significant challenges. The paper identifies some examples of good practice. It recommends that action should be taken to raise the standards of all JSNAs to meet the new challenges and that HWSs should be aligned spatially and temporally with local plans and other LA strategies. HWSs should also identify spatially targeted interventions that can be delivered through spatial planning or transport planning. Steps need to be taken to ensure that district councils are brought into the process.

  6. The Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus in southern European coastal waters: Distribution, impact and prospective invasion management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Chainho, Paula; Cilenti, Lucrezia; Falco, Silvia; Kapiris, Kostas; Katselis, George; Ribeiro, Filipe

    2017-06-15

    The native distribution of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus in the western Atlantic extends from Nova Scotia to Argentina. Introduced to Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, it is currently recorded almost ubiquitously in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea. An overview of the occurrence, abundance, and ecological impact of the species in southern European waters is provided; additionally, we present a pragmatic assessment of its management scenarios, explicitly considering the dual nature of C. sapidus as both an invasive species and a fishery resource. We emphasise that the ongoing expansion of C. sapidus in the region may represent a stimulating challenge for the identification and implementation of future strategies in the management of invasive crustaceans. The impact of the invader could be converted into an enhancement of the services delivered by southern European coastal ecosystems, while mitigation costs could be transformed into profits for local populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing: Technologies, Clinical Assays and Implementation Strategies for Women's Healthcare Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Amy; Sehnert, Amy J; Bhatt, Sucheta

    2013-06-01

    The field of prenatal genetic testing has exploded with new non-invasive technologies and test options in the past several years. It is challenging for women's healthcare providers to keep up with the multitude of publications and provide patients with the most accurate and up-to-date information possible regarding prenatal testing. In this article, we examine the sequencing technologies that provide the framework for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and review the major North American NIPT clinical validation studies published in 2011 and 2012. This paper also compares and contrasts the commercially available non-invasive prenatal tests in the United States, discusses clinical implementation recommendations from professional societies and highlights considerations for genetic counseling.

  8. Cephalopod genomics: A plan of strategies and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Di Cristo, Carlo; Dilkes, Brian P.; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Freeman, Robert M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Koenig, Kristen M.; Lindgren, Annie R.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Minx, Patrick; Moroz, Leonid L.; Nödl, Marie-Therese; Nyholm, Spencer V.; Ogura, Atsushi; Pungor, Judit R.; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.; Schwarz, Erich M.; Shigeno, Shuichi; Strugnell, Jan M.; Wollesen, Tim; Zhang, Guojie; Ragsdale, Clifton W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, “Paths to Cephalopod Genomics- Strategies, Choices, Organization,” held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod mollusks. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described in this white paper. PMID:23451296

  9. United States Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Strategy and Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Operating Concepts 2010. 20 International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2009, Executive Summary . 21 U.S. Energy Information Administration...Data includes crude oil and refined petroleum products. 23 World Energy Outlook 2009, Executive Summary . 24 World Bank Group and Center for Energy...Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference, Detroit, 24 August 2006 99USMC Expedit ionary Energy Strategy World Energy Outlook 2009

  10. Treatment strategies for invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic patients: voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin-B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, L; Valentini, C G; Fianchi, L; Caira, M

    2011-02-01

    The proportion of patients with cancers who develop invasive fungal infections has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Most of these infections are diagnosed in patients with hematological malignancies, mainly in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For years deoxycolate amphotericin B has been considered the drug of choice for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, but it has been outclassed by its lipid formulations and new triazoles (i.e. voriconazole), that produced better response rates; nonetheless recovery from neutropenia remains the most important factor influencing outcome.

  11. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  12. The San Pablo experiment: educational strategies in family planning for rural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchalian, J; Aganon, M

    1978-01-01

    16 couples from each of 3 barrios in the Philippines - Barrio Santiago 1, Barrio Santiago 2, and Barrio Dolores - were randomly selected to make up homogeneous groups of young potential family planning acceptors. The objectives were 3-fold: 1) to increase the rural workers' knowledge and awareness of population issues and family planning in order to motivate them to adopt practices; 2) to assist a trade union in integrating population education into its workers' educational program; and 3) to test the effectiveness of 2 different population education strategies. Couples from Barrio Santiago 1 underwent the integrated approach, those from Barrio Dolores the conventional approach, and those from Barrio Santiago 2 served as the control group. Both strategies made use of the same teaching methods. The relative effectiveness of the 2 strategies was gauged through an evaluation of the respondents' knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning 3 months after the training course. The following were among the results: 1) both the conventional and integrated educational strategies worked toward a higher level of knowledge and a more favorable attitude toward family planning; 2) there was no statistical significant difference between the 2 educational strategies in terms of attitude change and increase in knowledge; and 3) the study demonstrates the benefits of integrating family planning into the overall effort of trade unions to educate and inform their members.

  13. Strategy Pattern Creation in Forest Planning in Swedish Forest-Owning Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Staal Wästerlund

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest-owning companies in Sweden have both a goal to yield a good short-term rate of return on their forest and a goal to maintain a high long-term rate of return by maintaining the production of wood-based products. Both these objectives are taken into account in the forest planning process. For the long-term goal, the companies develop strategies formulated in the forest planning system and for the short-term goal, sale strategies are formulated in the sale plans. These strategies may raise conflicts on how to use the forest resources. These conflicts would occur in the work with the tract bank (TB, the register of stands ready for harvesting. The objective of this study was to analyze how Swedish forest owning companies form their strategy patterns around the work with the TB and to discuss the implications of the pattern formation for forest planning in the companies. Planners and harvest managers at three large forest-owning companies responded to a questionnaire. The results show that the delivery plan based on the sale strategy is often a main factor in determining the content of the TB.

  14. Universal precautions: employee resistance and strategies for planned organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Hogg, M

    1988-01-01

    Health care organizations have been strongly encouraged to design and implement procedures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The procedures will have a dramatic impact on the work habits of health care workers and may even challenge some dominant health care values. Therefore, precautionary procedures are likely to meet with mixed reactions and, perhaps, outright resistance from health care workers. This article identifies some plausible causes for employee resistance to precautionary procedures. After describing the dilemma in terms of competing values and conflicting objectives, some practical managerial strategies for reconciling differences and securing broad-based commitment to preventive policies and procedures are proposed.

  15. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractLife-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  16. Developing strategies for aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a webinar round-table discussion of invasive species and ballast water research, Dr. Trebitz will be giving a short overview of the research that she and co-PIs Jack Kelly, Joel Hoffman, and Greg Peterson are conducting in this area. Key findings from the 2005-2007 sam...

  17. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  18. Effective strategy making: Co-designing scenarios as a tool for effective strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vogelij

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this studyFor establishing main lines of their future development, governments on several levels of government prepare spatial development visions, for assessing individual plans and initiatives against the background of a desired direction of development. Such strategic visions help to avoid the necessity to start considering again and again the question which direction long-term development should take. The European Commission promotes making such development strategies, hoping this leads to innovation in the regions and increased competitiveness of Europe. More particularly, the Commission expects a substantial contribution to prosperity of the rich diversity of local characteristics as assets for the development and innovation of the European territory.This study aims to explore the factors for success of strategic spatial planning.Strategy making happens in the different circumstances in European countries, legally regulated or informally, using terms like: Structure plans, structural visions, master plans, development visions and spatial development strategies. Here the term (spatial development vision is used.The central question is: Which aspects of planning processes and place-related conditions support the effectiveness of strategy making?The processes of strategy making and the place related circumstances are intensively interrelated. The diversity of circumstances in the European countries is expressed in the different national and regional planning cultures. That includes the set of procedures, competencies, education of planners and other experts and their resulting attitudes towards strategy making. In a development strategy all interests of society come together. Therefore the constructive working together of representatives of different sectors and interest is key to the success. Because of this crucial issue, we distinguished between co-operation, as just contributing to someone else’s activity, co-producing, as

  19. Research on Planning & Evaluaion for Track Traffic Under China’s Sustainable Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiaoping

    2004-01-01

    The author advances some basic problems of planning & evaluating for track traffic in the proeess of putting sustainable develop-ment strategy in practice and stresses the study of planning and evaluating methiod system for track traffic and environment strategy.sum-maries and main creative points presented in the thesis are as follows:①The changes of track traffic planning obiects cause by the concept of sustainable development are analyzed;②The theory &?A method of tracd planning optimal decision isset up ;③Environment im-pact assessment for track traffic planning is advanced;⑤Urbun mass transit network plannin is studied;④Planning of intrcity rail sys-tem——the alignment ofptimizattion of deicated passenger line and high speed railway line is studied;⑥An overall evaluation index sys-tem for sustainable development of track traffic planning is estahlished;⑦The track traffie building capacity for sustainable development is studied.Further more,the effect of the mehod and models with empirical studies is verified.The corresponding pplication software is re-alized to provide information service and decision-making support to traffic planning for putting theory into practice.

  20. [National planning of health policy in Brazil: strategies and instruments in the 2000s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the national planning of health policy between 2003 and 2010, in the light of the development of state planning in Brazil and Lula's administration. Firstly an historical overview is presented of the key moments for national planning, regarding its effects on health care. The governmental context is then described with a review of the strategies and instruments in health planning over recent years. The methodology involved a bibliographic and documental review - including the Multi-year Plans, the National Health Plan, the Health Pact and the More Health program - considering their intention, contents and development processes. The results indicate that national health planning has been condensed in order to enable better direction of the policy. Two key moments in federal health planning were identified: between 2003 and 2006 a managerial and participative line was followed; between 2007 and 2010, the managerial line was kept allied to an effort to tie health policy to the development model. Despite the advances, health planning has displayed limitations, such as: restrictions in health financing, which has compromised the execution of the plans; failure to tackle structural problems in the health care system; and the fragile territorial organization.

  1. New plan of strategy and organization. Annual report 1995; Ny strategisk plan og organisasjon. Aarsberetning 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from EFI (Norwegian Research Institute for Electricity) relates to an new strategic plan and organization of the institute. An example of this is the Research Council of Norway`s new R and D programme EFFEKT, which will be a major locomotive for research up to the year 2000. Topics are: EFI`s new strategic plan and organization; extracts from the Board`s annual report; extract from the accounts; diagnostic testing of circuit-breakers; breakdown and interruption statistics from the grid; power system reliability

  2. Implementation planning and progress on physical activity goals: the mediating role of life-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-03-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects. Results from a sample of 131undergraduate students showed that, as a composite, life-management strategies fully mediated the relationship between planning and goal progress. More specifically, decomposing the effects demonstrated that only elective selection and compensation mediated the association between planning and greater progress on a personal physical activity goal. Results are discussed in light of their practical implications and contributions to the personal goal literature.

  3. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  4. Analyzing the Social Factors That Influence Willingness to Pay for Invasive Alien Species Management Under Two Different Strategies: Eradication and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llorente, Marina; Martín-López, Berta; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; González, José A.; Alcorlo, Paloma; Montes, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide, and have been the object of ecological and socio-economic research for decades. However, the manner in which different stakeholder groups identify the problems associated with invasive species and confront invasive species management under different policies remains poorly understood. In this study, we conducted an econometric analysis of the social factors influencing willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different regimes: eradication and prevention in the Doñana Natural Protected Area (SW Spain). Controlling for the participation of local residents, tourists and conservationists, email and face-to-face questionnaires were conducted. Results indicated that respondents were more willing to pay for eradication than prevention; and public support for invasive alien species management was influenced by an individual's knowledge and perception of invasive alien species, active interest in nature, and socio-demographic attributes. We concluded that invasive alien species management research should confront the challenges to engage stakeholders and accept any tradeoffs necessary to modify different conservation policies to ensure effective management is implemented. Finally, our willingness to pay estimates suggest the Department of Environment of Andalusian Government has suitable social support to meet the budgetary expenditures required for invasive alien species plans and adequate resources to justify an increase in the invasive alien species management budget.

  5. STRATEGY AND PLANNING - PROJECT FOR MONITORING STRICTO SENSU POSTGRADUATE ALUMNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES has been contributing to the development of post-graduate studies in Brazil, through its system of evaluation. Lately, CAPES signaled the importance of follow the professional performance of the alumni as a way to measure the quality of courses. One difficulty reported by institutions that intend to recognize the trajectory of its graduates is to compile a lot of isolated and outdated data. In order to structure the data collection and to assist educational managers in decision making, we propose the development of a system that enables the evolution of the students and alumni professional career, in order to diagnose the influence of the courses. Based on literature review, this study presents an analysis and makes recommendations about the Monitoring Alumni Project planning. As a result, it is expected that the analysis will serve as a driver for conducting the project, aiming to contribute to the academic reflections, and in practice, contribute to improve educational projects quality.

  6. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  7. Planning the Green Walkable City: Conceptualizing Values and Conflicts for Urban Green Space Strategies in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Littke

    2015-01-01

    Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the Green Walkable City Programme in Stockholm, a document developed to supplement the comprehensive plan as a strategic backbone for green urban planning. Based on interviews and content analysis, this paper identif...

  8. Early Invasive Strategy and In-Hospital Survival Among Diabetics With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Contemporary National Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed N; Elgendy, Islam Y; Mansoor, Hend; Wen, Xuerong; Mojadidi, Mohammad K; Bavry, Anthony A; Anderson, R David

    2017-03-18

    There are limited data on the merits of an early invasive strategy in diabetics with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, with unclear influence of this strategy on survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-hospital survival of diabetics with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome treated with an early invasive strategy compared with an initial conservative strategy. The National Inpatient Sample database, years 2012-2013, was queried for diabetics with a primary diagnosis of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome defined as either non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina (unstable angina). An early invasive strategy was defined as coronary angiography±revascularization within 48 hours of admission. Propensity scores were used to assemble a cohort managed with either an early invasive or initial conservative strategy balanced on >50 baseline characteristics and hospital presentations. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was compared in both groups. In a cohort of 363 500 diabetics with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, 164 740 (45.3%) were treated with an early invasive strategy. Propensity scoring matched 21 681 diabetics in both arms. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was lower with an early invasive strategy in both the unadjusted (2.0% vs 4.8%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.39-0.42; Pstrategy may be associated with a lower incidence of in-hospital mortality in patients with diabetes. The benefit of this strategy appears to be superior in patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction compared with unstable angina. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Collision Distance Detection Based on Swept Volume Strategy for Optimal Motion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsai-Jeon

    A swept volume strategy to detect the collision distances between obstacles is presented in this paper for robot motion planning based on optimization technique. The strategy utilizes the recursive quadratic programming optimization method to perform the motion planning problem. This paper is based on segmental swept volume for convenient distance-to-contact calculation. Hermite interpolation is presented to approach the envelope bounding the swept volume. The new method is capable of handling a modestly non-convex swept volume and it has yielded accurate answers in distance calculations. Also, examples would be presented to illustrate and demonstrate this approach in the paper.

  10. Evaluating impacts of fire management strategies on native and invasive plants using an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangur, Alexander N.; Fill, Jennifer M.; Northfield, Tobin D.; van de Wiel, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The capacity for species to coexist and potentially exclude one another can broadly be attributed to drivers that influence fitness differences (such as competitive ability) and niche differences (such as environmental change). These drivers, and thus the determinants of coexistence they influence, can interact and fluctuate both spatially and temporally. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation in niche and fitness differences in systems prone to fluctuating drivers, such as fire, can help to inform the management of invasive species. In the Cape floristic region of South Africa, invasive Pinus pinaster seedlings are strong competitors in the post-burn environment of the fire-driven Fynbos vegetation. In this, system native Protea spp. are especially vulnerable to unseasonal burns, but seasonal prescribed (Summer) burns are thought to present a high safety risk. Together, these issues have limited the appeal of prescribed burn management as an alternative to costly manual eradication of P. pinaster. Using a spatially-explicit field-of-neighbourhood individual-based model, we represent the drivers of spatiotemporal variation in niche differences (driven by fire regimes) and fitness differences (driven by competitive ability). In doing so, we evaluate optimal fire management strategies to a) control invasive P. pinaster in the Cape floristic region of South Africa, while b) minimizing deleterious effects of management on native Protea spp. The scarcity of appropriate data for model calibration has been problematic for models in invasion biology, but we use recent advances in Approximate Bayesian Computing techniques to overcome this limitation. We present early conclusions on the viability of prescribed burn management to control P. pinaster in South Africa.

  11. Assessing the geographic origin of the invasive grey squirrel using DNA sequencing: Implications for management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D. Stevenson-Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis has become a major pest species causing negative effects to forestry and biodiversity. This study aims to assess the origin of grey squirrel within Cumbria using phylogeographic analysis to aid in management and control. The work reported analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences in the D-Loop gene of 73 grey squirrel individuals from multiple locations in the UK. The results indicate that individuals in north Cumbria are derived from individuals from Scotland and North East England. Other individuals in north Cumbria share a unique haplotype with south Cumbria and Lancashire suggesting a southerly origin and movement around or over the Cumbrian Mountain range which is thought of as a barrier to movements. The assessment of invasive species geographical origin and the identification of potential wildlife transit corridors through natural barriers are becoming more important as species shift range in response to environmental and ecological changes. With the grey squirrel population expansion also occurring in Italy, the European red squirrel may become threatened across its entire range. It is crucial to understand the population origins of the invasive grey squirrel and landscape usage to successfully manage the incursion routes and control the population.

  12. Computed tomography for preoperative planning in minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty: Radiation exposure and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, Alexander, E-mail: Alexander.Huppertz@charite.de [Imaging Science Institute Charite Berlin, Robert-Koch-Platz 7, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Radmer, Sebastian, E-mail: s.radmer@immanuel.de [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Immanuel-Krankenhaus, Koenigstr. 63, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Asbach, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Asbach@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Juran, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.juran@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.schwenke@scossis.de [Biostatistician, Scossis Statistical Consulting, Zeltinger Str. 58G, D-13465 Berlin (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.diederichs@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Sparmann, Martin, E-mail: m.sparmann@immanuel.de [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Immanuel-Krankenhaus, Koenigstr. 63, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for preoperative planning of minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA). 92 patients (50 males, 42 females, mean age 59.5 years) with a mean body-mass-index (BMI) of 26.5 kg/m{sup 2} underwent 64-slice CT to depict the pelvis, the knee and the ankle in three independent acquisitions using combined x-, y-, and z-axis tube current modulation. Arthroplasty planning was performed using 3D-Hip Plan (Symbios, Switzerland) and patient radiation dose exposure was determined. The effects of BMI, gender, and contralateral THA on the effective dose were evaluated by an analysis-of-variance. A process-cost-analysis from the hospital perspective was done. All CT examinations were of sufficient image quality for 3D-THA planning. A mean effective dose of 4.0 mSv (SD 0.9 mSv) modeled by the BMI (p < 0.0001) was calculated. The presence of a contralateral THA (9/92 patients; p = 0.15) and the difference between males and females were not significant (p = 0.08). Personnel involved were the radiologist (4 min), the surgeon (16 min), the radiographer (12 min), and administrative personnel (4 min). A CT operation time of 11 min and direct per-patient costs of 52.80 Euro were recorded. Preoperative CT for THA was associated with a slight and justifiable increase of radiation exposure in comparison to conventional radiographs and low per-patient costs.

  13. Computed tomography for preoperative planning in minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty: radiation exposure and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Alexander; Radmer, Sebastian; Asbach, Patrick; Juran, Ralf; Schwenke, Carsten; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Sparmann, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for preoperative planning of minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA). 92 patients (50 males, 42 females, mean age 59.5 years) with a mean body-mass-index (BMI) of 26.5 kg/m(2) underwent 64-slice CT to depict the pelvis, the knee and the ankle in three independent acquisitions using combined x-, y-, and z-axis tube current modulation. Arthroplasty planning was performed using 3D-Hip Plan(®) (Symbios, Switzerland) and patient radiation dose exposure was determined. The effects of BMI, gender, and contralateral THA on the effective dose were evaluated by an analysis-of-variance. A process-cost-analysis from the hospital perspective was done. All CT examinations were of sufficient image quality for 3D-THA planning. A mean effective dose of 4.0 mSv (SD 0.9 mSv) modeled by the BMI (p<0.0001) was calculated. The presence of a contralateral THA (9/92 patients; p=0.15) and the difference between males and females were not significant (p=0.08). Personnel involved were the radiologist (4 min), the surgeon (16 min), the radiographer (12 min), and administrative personnel (4 min). A CT operation time of 11 min and direct per-patient costs of 52.80 € were recorded. Preoperative CT for THA was associated with a slight and justifiable increase of radiation exposure in comparison to conventional radiographs and low per-patient costs.

  14. High-speed biosensing strategy for non-invasive profiling of multiple cancer fusion genes in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt

    2017-03-15

    Aberrant chromosal rearrangements, such as the multiple variants of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene mutations in prostate cancer (PCa), are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers due to their specific expression in cancerous tissue only. Additionally, TMPRSS2:ERG variants are detectable in urine to provide non-invasive PCa diagnostic sampling as an attractive surrogate for needle biopsies. Therefore, rapid and simplistic assays for identifying multiple urinary TMPRSS2:ERG variants are potentially useful to aid in early cancer detection, immediate patient risk stratification, and prompt personalized treatment. However, current strategies for simultaneous detection of multiple gene fusions are limited by tedious and prolonged experimental protocols, thus limiting their use as rapid clinical screening tools. Herein, we report a simple and rapid gene fusion strategy which expliots the specificity of DNA ligase and the speed of isothermal amplification to simultaneously detect multiple fusion gene RNAs within a short sample-to-answer timeframe of 60min. The method has a low detection limit of 2 amol (1000 copies), and was successfully applied for non-invasive fusion gene profiling in patient urine samples with subsequent validation by a PCR-based gold standard approach.

  15. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An emerging crisis across northern prairie refuges: Prevalence of invasive plants and a plan for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.A.; Flanders-Wanner, B.; Shaffer, T.L.; Murphy, R.K.; Knutsen, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains. ??2009 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

  17. Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Paul

    Full Text Available Reproductive environments are variable and the resources available for reproduction are finite. If reliable cues about the environment exist, mothers can alter offspring phenotype in a way that increases both offspring and maternal fitness ('anticipatory maternal effects'-AMEs. Strategic use of AMEs is likely to be important in chemically defended species, where the risk of offspring predation may be modulated by maternal investment in offspring toxin level, albeit at some cost to mothers. Whether mothers adjust offspring toxin levels in response to variation in predation risk is, however, unknown, but is likely to be important when assessing the response of chemically defended species to the recent and pervasive changes in the global predator landscape, driven by the spread of invasive species. Using the chemically defended two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, we investigated reproductive investment, including egg toxin level, under conditions that varied in the degree of simulated offspring predation risk from larval harlequin ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis. H. axyridis is a highly voracious alien invasive species in the UK and a significant intraguild predator of A. bipunctata. Females laid fewer, larger egg clusters, under conditions of simulated predation risk (P+ than when predator cues were absent (P-, but there was no difference in toxin level between the two treatments. Among P- females, when mean cluster size increased there were concomitant increases in both the mass and toxin concentration of eggs, however when P+ females increased cluster size there was no corresponding increase in egg toxin level. We conclude that, in the face of offspring predation risk, females either withheld toxins or were physiologically constrained, leading to a trade-off between cluster size and egg toxin level. Our results provide the first demonstration that the risk of offspring predation by a novel invasive predator can influence maternal investment in

  18. Summary and Recommendations from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, S.P.; Bajorin, D.F.; Dinney, C.P.; Efstathiou, J.A.; Groshen, S.; Hahn, N.M.; Hansel, D.; Kwiatkowski, D.; O'Donnell, M.; Rosenberg, J.; Svatek, R.; Abrams, J.S.; Al-Ahmadie, H.; Apolo, A.B.; Bellmunt, J.; Callahan, M.; Cha, E.K.; Drake, C.; Jarow, J.; Kamat, A.; Kim, W.; Knowles, M.; Mann, B.; Marchionni, L.; McConkey, D.; McShane, L.; Ramirez, N.; Sharabi, A.; Sharpe, A.H.; Solit, D.; Tangen, C.M.; Amiri, A.T.; Allen, E. Van; West, P.J.; Witjes, J.A.; Quale, D.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The NCI Bladder Cancer Task Force convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) Workshop focused on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC). Meeting attendees included a broad and multi-disciplinary group of clinical and research stakeholders and included leaders from

  19. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects o...

  20. SU-C-303-06: Treatment Planning Study for Non-Invasive Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation with Scanned Carbon Ions in An Animal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, A; Constantinescu, A; Prall, M; Kaderka, R; Durante, M; Graeff, C [GSI Helmholtz Center, Darmstadt, DE (Germany); Lehmann, H I; Takami, M; Packer, D L [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lugenbiel, P; Thomas, D [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, DE (Germany); Richter, D; Bert, C [University Clinic Erlangen, Erlagen, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Scanned carbon ion beams might offer a non-invasive alternative treatment for cardiac arrhythmia, which are a major health-burden. We studied the feasibility of this procedure in an animal model. The underlying treatment planning and motion mitigation strategies will be presented. Methods: The study was carried out in 15 pigs, randomly distributed to 3 target groups: atrioventricular node (AVN, 8 animals with 25, 40, and 55 Gy target dose), left ventricular free-wall (LV, 4 animals with 40 Gy) and superior pulmonary vein (SPV, 3 animals with 40 Gy). Breathing motion was suppressed by repeated enforced breathholds at end exhale. Cardiac motion was mitigated by an inhomogeneous rescanning scheme with up to 15 rescans. The treatment planning was performed using the GSI in-house software TRiP4D on cardiac-gated 4DCTs, applying a range-considering ITV based on an extended CTV. For AVN and SPV isotropic 5 mm margins were applied to the CTV, while for the LV 2mm+2% range margins were used. The opposing fields for AVN and LV targets were optimized independently (SFUD), while SPV treatments were optimized as IMPT deliveries, including dose restrictions to the radiosensitive AVN. Results: Median value of D{sub 95} over all rescanning simulations was 99.1% (AVN), 98.0% (SPV) and 98.3% (LV) for the CTV and 94.7% (AVN) and 92.7% (SPV) for the PTV, respectively. The median D{sub 5}-D{sub 95} was improved with rescanning compared to unmitigated delivery from 13.3 to 6.5% (CTV) and from 23.4 to 11.6% (PTV). ICRP dose limits for aorta, trachea, esophagus and skin were respected. The maximal dose in the coronary arteries was limited to 30 Gy. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of a homogeneous dose delivery to different cardiac structures in a porcine model using a time-optimized inhomogeneous rescanning scheme. The presented treatment planning strategies were applied in a pig study with the analysis ongoing. Funding: This work was supported in part by the

  1. MO-D-BRB-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning I: Overview of Planning Strategies and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A. [Childrens Hospital of LA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child’s brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 40% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. The dosimetric tradeoffs made during the planning process are complex and require careful consideration for children treated with radiotherapy. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa

  2. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  3. An integrated science plan for the Lake Tahoe basin: conceptual framework and research strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary P. Hymanson; Michael W. Collopy

    2010-01-01

    An integrated science plan was developed to identify and refine contemporary science information needs for the Lake Tahoe basin ecosystem. The main objectives were to describe a conceptual framework for an integrated science program, and to develop research strategies addressing key uncertainties and information gaps that challenge government agencies in the theme...

  4. Person-Centered Planning: Strategies to Encourage Participation and Facilitate Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jenny C.; Sheehey, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    Person-centered planning is a process that allows individuals, family members, and friends an opportunity to share information to develop a personal profile and a future vision for an individual. This article describes strategies and technology that teachers can use to promote parents' participation and facilitate communication while maintaining…

  5. Maximizing Your Institution's Talent Strategy through a Domestic Partner Benefits Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Edna; Evans, Alvin

    2005-01-01

    In recruiting and retaining outstanding faculty and staff in a competitive higher education labor market, a state-of-the-art domestic partner benefits plan is a necessary and valuable component of a college or university's overall talent strategy. Edna Chun and Alvin Evans examine how, as part of a comprehensive total compensation package,…

  6. Strategy for Writing a Good Data Management Plan for a ROSES Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, S. P.; Walker, R. J.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    For years the ROSES calls have made it clear that all funded activities must archive any data products that are generated with the PDS or an equivalent archive. In this paper we outline a strategy for generating a well written data management plan.

  7. Analysis of the invasive strategy decision in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abreu, Maximiliano; Mariani, Javier A; Silberstein, Alejandro; Guridi, Cristian; Hecht, Gabriela; Gagliardi, Juan A; Doval, Hernán C; Tajer, Carlos D

    2014-06-15

    Observational studies have reported a marked discrepancy between the risk estimated by scores and the use of an invasive strategy in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The objective is to describe the criteria used to decide an early invasive strategy and to determine the differences between those criteria and the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score (TRS). Patients entered to the Epi-Cardio registry with a diagnosis of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were analyzed. A logistic regression model including variables associated with an early invasive strategy was developed and validated in 2 consecutive cohorts. The association between the TRS and the clinical decision model with an early invasive strategy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We included a total of 3,187 patients. In the derivation cohort, variables associated with an early invasive strategy were previous angioplasty (odds ratio [OR] 1.63), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.36), ST changes (OR 1.49), elevated biomarkers (OR 1.42), catheterization laboratory availability (OR 1.7), recurrent angina (OR 3.45), age (OR 0.98), previous coronary bypass (OR 0.65), previous heart failure (OR 0.40), and heart rate at admission (OR 0.98). The areas under the ROC curves to predict invasive strategy were 0.55 for the TRS and 0.69 for the clinical decision model, p variables not completely included in risk scores. The clinical, evolutionary, and structural variables included in the model can explain, partially, the discordance existing between risk stratification and medical strategies.

  8. Geographical diversification of growth-defense strategies in an invasive plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yun PAN; Xin JIA; Dong-Jing FU; Bo LI

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between herbivore pressure and resource availability may result in growth-defense trade-offs in plants (resource availability hypothesis),which promote the potential for ecological diversification and have recently been proposed as a new mechanism of plant invasion (resource-enemy release hypothesis).In the present study,we tested this idea by comparing patterns of maximum growth rate and antiherbivore defense capacity against Agasicles hygrophila (a specialist phytophagous insect on Alternanthera philoxeroides) among six morphs of A.philoxeroides from both native (Argentina) and introduced (US and China) ranges.The results revealed that herbivore resistance consistently exhibited a significant trade-off against the growth rate of A.philoxeroides.Compared with native morphs in Argentina,introduced morphs generally exhibited a higher growth rate and lower defense.The results demonstrate that the combination of flea beetle pressure and resource availability facilitates geographical divergence of A.philoxeroides,and that release from natural specialists and increased resource availability may interact to contribute to its successful invasion.

  9. The work plan for the newly created IUHPE Vice President for Strategy and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The position of Vice President for Strategy and Governance was created at the first full meeting of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education Board of Trustees in June 2007 in Vancouver, Canada. Specific duties were developed for the position and the newly elected Vice President developed a work plan for the period of 2007-10. This paper describes the responsibilities of the newly created Vice Presidency and the work plan developed to meet those responsibilities. The key action areas for the focus of the work of the Vice President for Strategy and Governance include: finalising the rewritten Strategic Directions for 2008-10; developing Strategic Directions for 2010-16; developing and implementing processes to improve the strategic coordination and reporting of work plans across the organisation; and broad responsibility for eliciting and working with the organisation to respond to governance issues.

  10. Business planning: can the health service move from strategy into action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A R

    1994-01-01

    Advances the case for the use of one particular business planning technique within a National Health Service Trust. At the present time, NHS trusts are required to write strategic direction statements. Evidence suggests that these documents provide an accurate account of past performance and present position of the trust, but do not express the future position intended to be achieved. These documents also tend to be lengthy and lack strategic focus, which means that they are not helpful to managers who want clear organizational goals and objectives to which to work. Attempts to address the difficulties associated with determining how existing skills and resources can be used as the platform for future growth strategies by using the Ansoff Matrix and SWOT Analysis planning tools, given the external changes in the marketplace. Also attempts to shed light on some of the important links between busines strategy and management development by extending planning theory into practice.

  11. The Role of Regional Strategies in Sustainable Development: The Approach of City Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Polat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the world economy and development, understanding changes are occurring, with the EU integration process of developments and understanding of planning priorities when considered as together, "city" scale development approach and an appropriate planning system, that is the basis of Turkey`s administrative division and the national management system, should be improved self-rises. To reduce disparities among regions to an acceptable level and development of relatively underdeveloped regions and cities, naturally, a development and planning system even starting from the city and province levels, is required. In today's sustainable understanding and evolution tools, burden important functions to local units, as "participation" in the foreground stands out in the stages of planning and execution of the development strategies. Regional and city development plans and strategies as the center of rapid and balanced development dynamics are sensitive to local needs and local initiatives are required in being a trigger level. The study is done with Goal Directed Project Management methodology, and in the study city level taken as an example of city scale development approach and an appropriate planning system.

  12. The Role of Regional Strategies in Sustainable Development: The Approach of City Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Polat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world economy and development, understanding changes are occurring, with the EU integration process of developments and understanding of planning priorities when considered as together, "city" scale development approach and an appropriate planning system, that is the basis of Turkey`s administrative division and the national management system, should be improved self-rises. To reduce disparities among regions to an acceptable level and development of relatively underdeveloped regions and cities, naturally, a development and planning system even starting from the city and province levels, is required. In today's sustainable understanding and evolution tools, burden important functions to local units, as "participation" in the foreground stands out in the stages of planning and execution of the development strategies. Regional and city development plans and strategies as the center of rapid and balanced development dynamics are sensitive to local needs and local initiatives are required in being a trigger level. The study is done with Goal Directed Project Management methodology, and in the study city level taken as an example of city scale development approach and an appropriate planning system.

  13. MO-C-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning I: Overview of Planning Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hua, C [St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child's brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. This fact has important implications for the choice of delivery techniques, especially when considering IMRT. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 50% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa, neuroblastoma, requiring focal

  14. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  15. A novel four-dimensional radiotherapy planning strategy from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Cohen, Patrice; Xie, Huchen; Low, Daniel; Li, Diana; Rimner, Andreas

    2012-11-21

    To investigate the feasibility of four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) planning from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view (ttBEV) with reliable gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation, realistic normal tissue representation, high planning accuracy and low clinical workload, we propose and validate a novel 4D conformal planning strategy based on a synthesized 3.5D computed tomographic (3.5DCT) image with a motion-compensated tumor. To recreate patient anatomy from a ttBEV in the moving tumor coordinate system for 4DRT planning (or 4D planning), the centers of delineated GTVs in all phase CT images of 4DCT were aligned, and then the aligned CTs were averaged to produce a new 3.5DCT image. This GTV-motion-compensated CT contains a motionless target (with motion artifacts minimized) and motion-blurred normal tissues (with a realistic temporal density average). Semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation of the tumor, lung and body was applied, while manual delineation was used for other organs at risk (OARs). To validate this 3.5DCT-based 4D planning strategy, five patients with peripheral lung lesions of small size (form deformable image registration (DIR). The DVH(3.5D) (for the 3.5DCT plan) was compared with both iDVH(4D) and DVH(4D). To quantify the DVH difference between the 3.5DCT plan and the 4DCT plan, two methods were used: relative difference (%) of the areas underneath the DVH curves and the volumes receiving more than 20% (V20) and 50% (V50) of prescribed dose of these 4D plans. The volume of the delineated GTV from different phase CTs varied dramatically from 24% to 112% among the five patients, whereas the GTV from 3.5DCT deviated from the averaged GTV in 4DCT by only -6%±6%. For planning tumor volume (PTV) coverage, the difference between the DVH(3.5D) and iDVH(4D) was negligible (equivalent to the 4DCT plan with <1% dose difference to the PTV and negligible dose difference in OARs. The 3.5DCT approach simplifies 4D planning and provides accurate dose

  16. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H

    1989-03-01

    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  17. Minimally Invasive Laminate Veneers: Clinical Aspects in Treatment Planning and Cementation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, R. K.; Hayashida, M. F.; Berger, G.; Reggiani, R. D.; Betiol, E. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    When a definitive aesthetic treatment is determined, it is crucial to grant the patient's wish with the necessary dental treatment. Thus, conservative treatments that are the solution to aesthetic problems involving morphologic modifications and provide the result that the patient expects should always be the first therapeutic option. In this context, ceramic laminate veneers, also known as “contact lens,” are capable of providing an extremely faithful reproduction of the natural teeth with great color stability and periodontal biocompatibility. Minimal or no preparation veneers are heavily advertised as the answer to our patients' cosmetic needs, which they can be if they are used correctly in the appropriate case. This report is about ultraconservative restorations to achieve functional and aesthetic rehabilitation through treatment planning. Thus, clinicians should be aware that the preparation for laminate veneers remains within enamel, to ensure the bond strength and avoid or minimize the occurrence of postoperative sensitivity. PMID:28070427

  18. Minimally Invasive Laminate Veneers: Clinical Aspects in Treatment Planning and Cementation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Morita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a definitive aesthetic treatment is determined, it is crucial to grant the patient’s wish with the necessary dental treatment. Thus, conservative treatments that are the solution to aesthetic problems involving morphologic modifications and provide the result that the patient expects should always be the first therapeutic option. In this context, ceramic laminate veneers, also known as “contact lens,” are capable of providing an extremely faithful reproduction of the natural teeth with great color stability and periodontal biocompatibility. Minimal or no preparation veneers are heavily advertised as the answer to our patients’ cosmetic needs, which they can be if they are used correctly in the appropriate case. This report is about ultraconservative restorations to achieve functional and aesthetic rehabilitation through treatment planning. Thus, clinicians should be aware that the preparation for laminate veneers remains within enamel, to ensure the bond strength and avoid or minimize the occurrence of postoperative sensitivity.

  19. Straighttalk. The ideal master facility plan begins with business strategy and integrates operational improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powder, Scott; Brown, Richard E; Haupert, John M; Smith, Ryder

    2007-04-02

    Given the scarcity of capital to meet ever-growing demands for healthcare services, master facility planning has become more important than ever. Executives must align their master facility plans with their overall business strategy, incorporating the best in care- and service-delivery models. In this installment of Straight Talk, executives from two health systems--Advocate Health Care in Oak Brook, Ill. and Parkland Health & Hospital System in Dallas--discuss master facility planning. Modern Healthcare and PricewaterhouseCoopers present Straight Talk. The session on master facility planning was held on March 8, 2007 at Modern Healthcare's Chicago Headquarters. Charles Lauer, former vice president of publishing and editorial director at Modern Healthcare, was the moderator.

  20. One-year clinical outcomes in invasive treatment strategies for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock in eld-erly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeon Pyo Yoo; Ki-Woon Kang; Hyeon Soo Yoon; Jin Cheol Myung; Yu Jeong Choi; Won Ho Kim; Sang Hyun Park; Kyung Tae Jung; Myung Ho Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes of an invasive strategy for elderly (aged≥75 years) patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). Methods Data on 366 of 409 elderly CS patients from a total of 6,132 acute STEMI cases enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry between January 2008 and June 2011, were collected and analyzed. In-hospital deaths and the 1-month and 1-year survival rates free from major adverse cardiac events (MACE;defined as all cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization) were reported for the patients who had undergone invasive (n=310) and conservative (n=56) treatment strategies. Results The baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. There were fewer in-hospital deaths in the invasive treatment strategy group (23.5%vs. 46.4%, P<0.001). In addition, the 1-year MACE-free survival rate after invasive treatment was significantly lower compared with the conservative treatment (51%vs. 66%, P=0.001). Conclusions In elderly patients with acute STEMI complicated by CS, the outcomes of invasive strategy are similar to those in younger patients at the 1-year follow-up.

  1. A CAD-based inspection planning strategy for video measuring instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-sheng; SHI Yan-qiong; XIA Rui-xue; CHEN Lin

    2012-01-01

    A CAD-based inspection planning strategy for video measuring instrument is proposed to improve manufacturing effec- tiveness. The system consists of a video probe that enables itself to inspect a work piece based on a CAD model. The measurement software includes CAIP module and MDP module. The CAIP module is developed based on a CAD development platform whose kernel is the Open CASCADE. The entire system was tested, and relevant examples show that the system can accomplish automatic inspection planning task for common parts efficiently.

  2. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A New Strategy in Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birba, Agustina; Ibáñez, Agustín; Sedeño, Lucas; Ferrari, Jesica; García, Adolfo M.; Zimerman, Máximo

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can significantly modulate cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, they have been applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) to prevent or delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we review this emerging empirical corpus and discuss therapeutic effects of NIBS on several target functions (e.g., memory for face-name associations and non-verbal recognition, attention, psychomotor speed, everyday memory). Available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly due to differences among their tasks, designs, and samples, let alone the latter’s small sizes. Thus, the impact of NIBS on cognitive performance in MCI and SCI remains to be determined. To foster progress in this direction, we outline methodological approaches that could improve the efficacy and specificity of NIBS in both conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the need for multicenter studies, accurate diagnosis, and longitudinal approaches combining NIBS with specific training regimes. These tenets could cement biomedical developments supporting new treatments for MCI and preventive therapies for AD. PMID:28243198

  3. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A New Strategy in Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birba, Agustina; Ibáñez, Agustín; Sedeño, Lucas; Ferrari, Jesica; García, Adolfo M; Zimerman, Máximo

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can significantly modulate cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, they have been applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) to prevent or delay the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we review this emerging empirical corpus and discuss therapeutic effects of NIBS on several target functions (e.g., memory for face-name associations and non-verbal recognition, attention, psychomotor speed, everyday memory). Available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly due to differences among their tasks, designs, and samples, let alone the latter's small sizes. Thus, the impact of NIBS on cognitive performance in MCI and SCI remains to be determined. To foster progress in this direction, we outline methodological approaches that could improve the efficacy and specificity of NIBS in both conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the need for multicenter studies, accurate diagnosis, and longitudinal approaches combining NIBS with specific training regimes. These tenets could cement biomedical developments supporting new treatments for MCI and preventive therapies for AD.

  4. Posaconazole-Loaded Leukocytes as a Novel Treatment Strategy Targeting Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baistrocchi, Shane R; Lee, Mark J; Lehoux, Melanie; Ralph, Benjamin; Snarr, Brendan D; Robitaille, Robert; Sheppard, Donald C

    2017-06-01

    Impaired delivery of antifungals to hyphae within necrotic lesions is thought to contribute to therapeutic failure in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We hypothesized that transfusion of leukocytes loaded ex vivo with the lipophilic antifungal posaconazole could improve delivery of antifungals to the sites of established infection and improve outcome in experimental IPA. The HL-60 leukemia cell line was differentiated to a neutrophil-like phenotype (differentiated HL-60 [dHL-60] cells) and then exposed to a range of posaconazole concentrations. The functional capacity and antifungal activity of these cells were assessed in vitro and in a mouse model of IPA. Posaconazole levels in dHL-60 cells were 265-fold greater than the exposure concentration. Posaconazole-loaded cells were viable and maintained their capacity to undergo active chemotaxis. Contact-dependent transfer of posaconazole from dHL-60 cells to hyphae was observed in vitro, resulting in decreased fungal viability. In a neutropenic mouse model of IPA, treatment with posaconazole-loaded dHL-60 cells resulted in significantly reduced fungal burden in comparison to treatment with dHL-60 cells alone. Posaconazole accumulates at high concentrations in dHL-60 cells and increases their antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that posaconazole-loading of leukocytes may hold promise for the therapy of IPA.

  5. A new strategy for controlling invasive weeds: selecting valuable native plants to defeat them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Luo, Jianning; Tian, Xingshan; Soon Chow, Wah; Sun, Zhongyu; Zhang, Taijie; Peng, Shaolin; Peng, Changlian

    2015-06-01

    To explore replacement control of the invasive weed Ipomoea cairica, we studied the competitive effects of two valuable natives, Pueraria lobata and Paederia scandens, on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of I. cairica, in pot and field experiments. When I. cairica was planted in pots with P. lobata or P. scandens, its total biomass decreased by 68.7% and 45.8%, and its stem length by 33.3% and 34.1%, respectively. The two natives depressed growth of the weed by their strong effects on its photosynthetic characteristics, including suppression of leaf biomass and the abundance of the CO2-fixing enzyme RUBISCO. The field experiment demonstrated that sowing seeds of P. lobata or P. scandens in plots where the weed had been largely cleared produced 11.8-fold or 2.5-fold as much leaf biomass of the two natives, respectively, as the weed. Replacement control by valuable native species is potentially a feasible and sustainable means of suppressing I. cairica.

  6. Photochemical internalisation, a minimally invasive strategy for light-controlled endosomal escape of cancer stem cell-targeting therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbo, Pål Kristian; Bostad, Monica; Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Edwards, Victoria Tudor; Høgset, Anders; Weyergang, Anette; Berg, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    Despite progress in radio-, chemo- and photodynamic-therapy (PDT) of cancer, treatment resistance still remains a major problem for patients with aggressive tumours. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour-initiating cells are intrinsically and notoriously resistant to conventional cancer therapies and are proposed to be responsible for the recurrence of tumours after therapy. According to the CSC hypothesis, it is imperative to develop novel anticancer agents or therapeutic strategies that take into account the biology and role of CSCs. The present review outlines our recent study on photochemical internalisation (PCI) using the clinically relevant photosensitiser TPCS2a/Amphinex® as a rational, non-invasive strategy for the light-controlled endosomal escape of CSC-targeting drugs. PCI is an intracellular drug delivery method based on light-induced ROS-generation and a subsequent membrane-disruption of endocytic vesicles, leading to cytosolic release of the entrapped drugs of interest. In different proof-of-concept studies we have demonstrated that PCI of CSC-directed immunotoxins targeting CD133, CD44, CSPG4 and EpCAM is a highly specific and effective strategy for killing cancer cells and CSCs. CSCs overexpressing CD133 are PDT-resistant; however, this is circumvented by PCI of CD133-targeting immunotoxins. In view of the fact that TPCS2a is not a substrate of the efflux pumps ABCG2 and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the PCI-method is a promising anti-CSC therapeutic strategy. Due to a laser-controlled exposure, PCI of CSC-targeting drugs will be confined exclusively to the tumour tissue, suggesting that this drug delivery method has the potential to spare distant normal stem cells.

  7. Strategic planning for measles control: using data to inform optimal vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Emily; Mort, Molly; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Wolfson, Lara

    2011-07-01

    In response to repeated requests for assistance in evaluating the health benefit and cost implications of adjustments to national measles immunization strategies, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Measles Strategic Planning (MSP) tool to harness routinely available data to estimate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of vaccination strategies. The MSP tool estimates measles incidence and mortality through a country-specific cohort model, using a probability of infection dependent on population immunity levels. This method approximates measles transmission dynamics without requiring detailed data that would prohibit use in low- and middle-income countries. Coupled with cost data, the tool estimates incremental costs and cost effectiveness of user-defined vaccination strategies over 5-10 year planning periods. The MSP tool produces valid estimates of measles incidence in settings with low to moderate vaccination coverage. Early adopters report that the tool facilitates decision making by minimizing the amount of time required to assess the impact of vaccination strategies on population immunity. By clearly illustrating what vaccination strategies can effectively protect against measles at the least cost to immunization programs, the MSP tool supports evidence-based decision making for effective and comprehensive measles control. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel four-dimensional radiotherapy planning strategy from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Cohen, Patrice; Xie, Huchen; Low, Daniel; Li, Diana; Rimner, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) planning from a tumor-tracking beam's eye view (ttBEV) with reliable gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation, realistic normal tissue representation, high planning accuracy and low clinical workload, we propose and validate a novel 4D conformal planning strategy based on a synthesized 3.5D computed tomographic (3.5DCT) image with a motion-compensated tumor. To recreate patient anatomy from a ttBEV in the moving tumor coordinate system for 4DRT planning (or 4D planning), the centers of delineated GTVs in all phase CT images of 4DCT were aligned, and then the aligned CTs were averaged to produce a new 3.5DCT image. This GTV-motion-compensated CT contains a motionless target (with motion artifacts minimized) and motion-blurred normal tissues (with a realistic temporal density average). Semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation of the tumor, lung and body was applied, while manual delineation was used for other organs at risk (OARs). To validate this 3.5DCT-based 4D planning strategy, five patients with peripheral lung lesions of small size (<5 cm3) and large motion range (1.2-3.5 cm) were retrospectively studied for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3D conformal radiotherapy planning tools. The 3.5DCT-based 4D plan (3.5DCT plan) with 9-10 conformal beams was compared with the 4DCT-based 4D plan (4DCT plan). The 4DCT plan was derived from multiple 3D plans based on all phase CT images, each of which used the same conformal beam configuration but with an isocenter shift to aim at the moving tumor and a minor beam aperture and weighting adjustment to maintain plan conformality. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the 4DCT plan was created with two methods: one is an integrated DVH (iDVH4D), which is defined as the temporal average of all 3D-phase-plan DVHs, and the other (DVH4D) is based on the dose distribution in a reference phase CT image by dose warping from all phase plans using the

  9. APPLICATION OF RESTART COVARIANCE MATRIX ADAPTATION EVOLUTION STRATEGY (RCMA-ES TO GENERATION EXPANSION PLANNING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthikeyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an evolutionary algorithm, Restart Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (RCMA-ES to the Generation Expansion Planning (GEP problem. RCMA-ES is a class of continuous Evolutionary Algorithm (EA derived from the concept of self-adaptation in evolution strategies, which adapts the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal search distribution. The original GEP problem is modified by incorporating Virtual Mapping Procedure (VMP. The GEP problem of a synthetic test systems for 6-year, 14-year and 24-year planning horizons having five types of candidate units is considered. Two different constraint-handling methods are incorporated and impact of each method has been compared. In addition, comparison and validation has also made with dynamic programming method.

  10. Is a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy for invasive aspergillosis cost effective in high-risk haematology patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, N; Morrissey, C O; Liew, D; Bohensky, M A; Chen, S C-A; Gilroy, N M; Milliken, S T; Szer, J; Slavin, M A

    2017-01-27

    Empirical antifungal therapy is frequently used in hematology patients at high risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with substantial cost and toxicity. Biomarkers for IA aim for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, data on the cost-effectiveness of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (BDS) are limited. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of BDS using results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and individual patient costing data. Data inputs derived from a published RCT were used to construct a decision-analytic model to compare BDS (Aspergillus galactomannan and PCR on blood) with standard diagnostic strategy (SDS) of culture and histology in terms of total costs, length of stay, IA incidence, mortality, and years of life saved. Costs were estimated for each patient using hospital costing data to day 180 and follow-up for survival was modeled to five years using a Gompertz survival model. Treatment costs were determined for 137 adults undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant or receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia in four Australian centers (2005-2009). Median total costs at 180 days were similar between groups (US[Formula: see text] for SDS [IQR US[Formula: see text

  11. Marketing Strategy and Promotion Plan of a Web Store In Finland. Case Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Katc, Viacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create a modern marketing strategy for a Finnish webstore and to develop an appropriate marketing plan for promotion of a new brand. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis were collected from secondary data resources, including literature, articles and the Internet. The primary and the secondary data for the empirical part of this thesis were gathered in the Internet from various articles, thematic forums and official statistics of Finland. ...

  12. Marketing Strategy and Promotion Plan of a Web Store In Finland. Case Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Katc, Viacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create a modern marketing strategy for a Finnish webstore and to develop an appropriate marketing plan for promotion of a new brand. The data for the theoretical part of this thesis were collected from secondary data resources, including literature, articles and the Internet. The primary and the secondary data for the empirical part of this thesis were gathered in the Internet from various articles, thematic forums and official statistics of Finland. ...

  13. Marketing Planning, Pricing strategies, and The Use of Online Social Networks for Marketing in A SME

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this dissertation are threefold. The dissertation is firstly aimed at recommending a practically useful marketing plan for Betterlanguages, a Nottingham based SME operating in the language services market. The recommendations for the internal and external analysis of the company are based on the academic tools outlined in the literature review. Second, the dissertation aims at offering suggestions concerning pricing strategy for Betterlanguages, by exploring the pricing l...

  14. Earthquake Risk Management Strategy Plan Using Nonparametric Estimation of Hazard Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflaton Amiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability studies. The main aims of earthquake risk management are to make plans and apply those for reducing human losses and protect properties from earthquake hazards. Natural risk managers are studying to identify and manage the risk from an earthquake for highly populated urban areas. They want to put some strategic plans for this purpose. Risk managers need some input about these kinds of studies. The prediction of earthquake events such as a input for preparation of earthquake risk management strategy plans were tried to find in this study. A Bayesian approach to earthquake hazard rate estimation is studied and magnitudes of historical earthquakes is used to predict the probability of occurrence of major earthquakes.

  15. A novel trajectory planning strategy for aircraft emergency landing using Gauss pseudospectral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaohua MENG; Jinwu XIANG; Zhangping LUO; Yiru REN; Nanjian ZHUANG

    2014-01-01

    To improve the survivability during an emergency situation, an algorithm for aircraft forced landing trajectory planning is proposed. The method integrates damaged aircraft modelling and trajectory planning into an optimal control framework. In order to deal with the complex aircraft flight dynamics, a solving strategy based on Gauss pseudospetral method (GPM) is presented. A 3-DOF nonlinear mass-point model taking into account the wind is developed to approximate the aircraft flight dynamics after loss of thrust. The solution minimizes the forced landing duration, with respect to the constraints that translate the changed dynamics, flight envelope limitation and operational safety requirements. The GPM is used to convert the trajectory planning problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP), which is solved by sequential quadratic programming algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can generate the minimum-time forced landing trajectory in event of engine-out with high efficiency and precision.

  16. Training of English Learning Strategy:Discussions Based on a Plan of Strategy Teaching in the Classroom of Senior School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Yun; CHEN Yong-lin

    2013-01-01

      Training of English learning strategy has become an important part in English teaching, but in the practice of the educ⁃tional activities, it does not be treated seriously. This paper tries to design a teaching plan to instruct some strategies and discuss the practical functions and meanings of learning strategy in English teaching by analyzing them.

  17. The need for non- or minimally-invasive biomonitoring strategies and the development of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2017-06-01

    Advancements in Exposure Science involving the development and deployment of biomarkers of exposure and biological response are anticipated to significantly (and positively) influence health outcomes associated with occupational, environmental and clinical exposure to chemicals/drugs. To achieve this vision, innovative strategies are needed to develop multiplex sensor platforms capable of quantifying individual and mixed exposures (i.e. systemic dose) by measuring biomarkers of dose and biological response in readily obtainable (non-invasive) biofluids. Secondly, the use of saliva (alternative to blood) for biomonitoring coupled with the ability to rapidly analyze multiple samples in real-time offers an innovative opportunity to revolutionize biomonitoring assessments. In this regard, the timing and number of samples taken for biomonitoring will not be limited as is currently the case. In addition, real-time analysis will facilitate identification of work practices or conditions that are contributing to increased exposures and will make possible a more rapid and successful intervention strategy. The initial development and application of computational models for evaluation of saliva/blood analyte concentration at anticipated exposure levels represents an important opportunity to establish the limits of quantification and robustness of multiplex sensor systems by exploiting a unique computational modeling framework. The use of these pharmacokinetic models will also enable prediction of an exposure dose based on the saliva/blood measurement. This novel strategy will result in a more accurate prediction of exposures and, once validated, can be employed to assess dosimetry to a broad range of chemicals in support of biomonitoring and epidemiology studies.

  18. Strategies for community-based medication management services in value-based health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie A; Spiggle, Susan; McConnell, Brody

    Health plans are moving away from a volume-driven payment structure toward value-driven and risk-based contracts. There is very limited information on commercial payers' perspectives on coverage of medication management services (MMS) in value-based alternative payment models. While some health plans have experience with Medicare Part D Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs, this experience does not promote the integration of pharmacists as health care team members. The study objectives were to: (1) understand the evaluation process that health plan executives would use to determine benefit coverage for pharmacist-provided MMS in value-based health plans, (2) identify the facilitators and barriers that affect pharmacist-provided MTM services at the community pharmacy level, and (3) propose strategies for pharmacist-provided MMS in value-based health plans. This study used qualitative research methods that involved structured key informant interviews with commercial health plan executives and focus groups with community pharmacists who had experience providing MTM services. Health plan executives agreed conceptually that MMS could be a valuable program and recognized its potential. However, the most substantial barriers that health plan executives expressed were funding MMS in today's fee-for-service payment models; lack of physician infrastructure to implement and manage MMS; and difficulty in collecting timely, accurate data to execute and assess MMS programs. Community pharmacists identified the most serious barrier to altering health outcomes through MTM as the current lack of integration of MTM with a coordinated health care team. MTM services are conducted as a separate program by pharmacists who do not have access to patient health records, are time-constrained, and poorly incentivized. The findings can inform the development of successful strategies for pharmacist-provided MMS that align with emerging value-based health plans and alternative provider

  19. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: A remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive pl...

  20. Strategies in architectural design and urban planning in the context of energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the design concepts in architecture and urban planning, created on demands of energy efficiency, that apply in early stages of design process a schematic design, i.e. in the phase of creating the basis of architectural or planning solution, are analyzed in this paper. These design strategies have a role to be comprehensive enough to provide application of their key potentials, but at the same time they need to remain simple enough and not burden a designer with inadequate number of information. Design models for passive heating, passive cooling and natural lighting that refer to the buildings mainly have been considered, together with the principles for the settlements or building groups. Guiding a design concept towards the one of described design principles e.g. their application within the diurnal and seasonal cycles, depends on local climatic conditions and type of building (residential, commercial or educational. The presentation of a model is followed by the explanation of the phenomena of impacts/influences (climate program and answers (the concept, passive components related to a certain strategy, and by the illustration of a strategy on a realized object (case study. Issues of design strategies on energy efficiency are considered through different levels, e.g. through spatial organization, form and added components of buildings, as well as structure and characteristics of elements of external structures - facades and roofs.

  1. Monte Carlo evaluation of RapidArc oropharynx treatment planning strategies for sparing of midline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, K; Zavgorodni, S; Gagne, I; Townson, R; Ansbacher, W; Beckham, W

    2010-08-21

    The aim of the study was to perform the Monte Carlo (MC) evaluation of RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) dose calculations for four oropharynx midline sparing planning strategies. Six patients with squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx were each planned with four RapidArc head and neck treatment strategies consisting of single and double photon arcs. In each case, RTOG0522 protocol objectives were used during planning optimization. Dose calculations performed with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) are compared against BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc dose calculations for the 24-plan dataset. Mean dose and dose-to-98%-of-structure-volume (D(98%)) were used as metrics in the evaluation of dose to planning target volumes (PTVs). Mean dose and dose-to-2%-of-structure-volume (D(2%)) were used to evaluate dose differences within organs at risk (OAR). Differences in the conformity index (CI) and the homogeneity index (HI) as well as 3D dose distributions were also observed. AAA calculated PTV mean dose, D(98%), and HIs showed very good agreement with MC dose calculations within the 0.8% MC (statistical) calculation uncertainty. Regional node volume (PTV-80%) mean dose and D(98%) were found to be overestimated (1.3%, sigma = 0.8% and 2.3%, sigma = 0.8%, respectively) by the AAA with respect to MC calculations. Mean dose and D(2%) to OAR were also observed to be consistently overestimated by the AAA. Increasing dose calculation differences were found in planning strategies exhibiting a higher overall fluence modulation. From the plan dataset, the largest local dose differences were observed in heavily shielded regions and within the esophageal and sinus cavities. AAA dose calculations as implemented in RapidArc demonstrate excellent agreement with MC calculations in unshielded regions containing moderate inhomogeneities. Acceptable agreement is achieved in regions of increased MLC shielding. Differences in dose are attributed to inaccuracies in the AAA

  2. Planning the Green Walkable City: Conceptualizing Values and Conflicts for Urban Green Space Strategies in Stockholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Littke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces are essential elements of cities, contributing to the quality of life in numerous ways. However, densification strategies create a complex relationship between urban development and the quality, as well as the quantity, of urban green space. This paper examines the Green Walkable City Programme in Stockholm, a document developed to supplement the comprehensive plan as a strategic backbone for green urban planning. Based on interviews and content analysis, this paper identifies and discusses concerns raised in the development of the planning programme, and addresses the importance of urban green space for citizens’ well-being. The new comprehensive plan has introduced a shift in the attitude towards the urban green space in Stockholm. The need for urban growth is used to justify development of green fields, and a focus on the quality, rather than the quantity, of urban green space is promoted. Despite this progress, the public requests definitions for this quality approach and fears that nature within the city will be “parkified”. Therefore, this paper offers a critical reflection on the role of the Green Walkable City Programme, its situation within the context of Swedish green urban planning, and various areas of concern that have been highlighted.

  3. Dosimetric advantages of a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy compared with a non-adaptive strategy in cervical cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Agustinus J A J; de Boer, Peter; Visser, Jorrit; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Rasch, Coen R N; Bel, Arjan

    2017-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) using a daily plan selection adaptive strategy can be applied to account for interfraction organ motion while limiting organ at risk dose. The aim of this study was to quantify the dosimetric consequences of daily plan selection compared with non-adaptive RT in cervical cancer. Ten consecutive patients who received pelvic irradiation, planning CTs (full and empty bladder), weekly post-fraction CTs and pre-fraction CBCTs were included. Non-adaptive plans were generated based on the PTV defined using the full bladder planning CT. For the adaptive strategy, multiple PTVs were created based on both planning CTs by ITVs of the primary CTVs (i.e., GTV, cervix, corpus-uterus and upper part of the vagina) and corresponding library plans were generated. Daily CBCTs were rigidly aligned to the full bladder planning CT for plan selection. For daily plan recalculation, selected CTs based on initial similarity were deformably registered to CBCTs. Differences in daily target coverage (D98% > 95%) and in V0.5Gy, V1.5Gy, V2Gy, D50% and D2% for rectum, bladder and bowel were assessed. Non-adaptive RT showed inadequate primary CTV coverage in 17% of the daily fractions. Plan selection compensated for anatomical changes and improved primary CTV coverage significantly (p adaptive RT, plan selection decreased the fraction dose to rectum and bowel indicated by significant (p adaptive strategy led to inadequate target coverage for individual patients. Daily plan selection corrected for day-to-day anatomical variations and resulted in adequate target coverage in all fractions. The dose to bowel and rectum was decreased significantly when applying adaptive RT.

  4. Opposed optimal strategies of weighting somatosensory inputs for planning reaching movements toward visual and proprioceptive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean; Saradjian, Anahid H; Lebar, Nicolas; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested that the brain uses a visual estimate of the hand to plan reaching movements toward visual targets and somatosensory inputs in the case of somatosensory targets. However, neural correlates for distinct coding of the hand according to the sensory modality of the target have not yet been identified. Here we tested the twofold hypothesis that the somatosensory input from the reaching hand is facilitated and inhibited, respectively, when planning movements toward somatosensory (unseen fingers) or visual targets. The weight of the somatosensory inputs was assessed by measuring the amplitude of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) resulting from vibration of the reaching finger during movement planning. The target sensory modality had no significant effect on SEP amplitude. However, Spearman's analyses showed significant correlations between the SEPs and reaching errors. When planning movements toward proprioceptive targets without visual feedback of the reaching hand, participants showing the greater SEPs were those who produced the smaller directional errors. Inversely, participants showing the smaller SEPs when planning movements toward visual targets with visual feedback of the reaching hand were those who produced the smaller directional errors. No significant correlation was found between the SEPs and radial or amplitude errors. Our results indicate that the sensory strategy for planning movements is highly flexible among individuals and also for a given sensory context. Most importantly, they provide neural bases for the suggestion that optimization of movement planning requires the target and the reaching hand to both be represented in the same sensory modality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. New Resource-Wise Planning Strategies for Smart Urban-Rural Development in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rönkkö

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the opportunities and challenges for resource-wise development strategies in regional planning. Spatial planning integrates the key aspects, transportation, housing, and food production which are, on many occasions, stated as the most significant consumption factors causing environmental impacts. In light of the challenges that regions are currently facing in Finland, we are drawing attention to the role of strategic spatial planning as demand-responsive resource management, a theme which is still inadequately addressed within regional development and planning in Finland. In many other fields of society, innovative data-based products and demand- and user-driven services are considered important sources of success in the future. Such strategies combine different types of service providers, like deliveries for groceries or restaurant meals, mobile healthcare services, or public transport with on-demand services. We highlight the fact that a regionally large and sparsely populated country, such as Finland, cannot achieve success solely through centralisation. Instead, smart networking, co-creation, and innovative cyber-physical solutions are vital for the utilisation of the entire country’s resource potentiality. In conclusion, we underpin the need for a framework, which would offer a strategic support scheme for resource-wise development, resource optimization, and closure of yield gaps. In our view it is necessary to begin to envision, strategise, and develop user- and demand-responsive development strategies with a specific aim for sustainable, resource-wise ways of life in northern regions, also outside the growing urban centres, and innovate solutions that help individuals, communities, and the whole society to renew and manage resources wisely.

  6. Invasion of Eukaryotic Cells by Legionella Pneumophila: A Common Strategy for all Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an environmental micro-organism capable of producing an acute lobar pneumonia, commonly referred to as Legionnaires’ disease, in susceptible humans. Legionellae are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where they survive in biofilms or intracellularly in various protozoans. Susceptible humans become infected by breathing aerosols laden with the bacteria. The target cell for human infection is the alveolar macrophage, in which the bacteria abrogate phagolysosomal fusion. The remarkable ability of L pneumophila to infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells suggests a common strategy that exploits very fundamental cellular processes. The bacteria enter host cells via coiling phagocytosis and quickly subvert organelle trafficking events, leading to formation of a replicative phagosome in which the bacteria multiply. Vegetative growth continues for 8 to 10 h, after which the bacteria develop into a short, highly motile form called the ‘mature form’. The mature form exhibits a thickening of the cell wall, stains red with the Gimenez stain, and is between 10 and 100 times more infectious than agar-grown bacteria. Following host cell lysis, the released bacteria infect other host cells, in which the mature form differentiates into a Gimenez-negative vegetative form, and the cycle begins anew. Virulence of L pneumophila is considered to be multifactorial, and there is growing evidence for both stage specific and sequential gene expression. Thus, L pneumophila may be a good model system for dissecting events associated with the host-parasite interactions.

  7. Caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Germany: results of a pre-planned subanalysis of an international registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egerer Gerlinde

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is a pre-planned country-specific subanalysis of results in Germany from a multinational multicenter registry to prospectively assess real-world experience with caspofungin administered for treatment of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA. Methods Data from patients treated with caspofungin for a single episode of IA were collected. Effectiveness was determined by the local investigator as favorable (complete or partial response or unfavorable (stable disease, failure or death at the end of caspofungin therapy. Descriptive statistics with binomial exact confidence intervals were employed. Results Forty-two consecutive patients were identified in three German centers. Three patients (7% had proven IA and 39/42 (93% had probable IA (modified European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG criteria. Forty-one patients had pulmonary IA and one had tracheal IA. Caspofungin monotherapy was received by 36/42 patients (86%; of these, 26/36 (72% received salvage therapy. A favorable response was observed in 29/42 patients (69%; 95% CI 53 to 82%; of these, 21/29 (72% had a complete and 8/29 (28% a partial response. Favorable response rate was 69% in patients with monotherapy (95% CI 52% to 84%; 25/36 patients, and 67% in patients receiving combination therapy (95% CI 22% to 96%; 4/6 patients. Favorable response rate in patients with first line therapy was 64% (95% CI 31% to 89%; 7/11 patients, and 73% in patients with second line therapy (95% CI 54% to 88%; 20/30 patients. No adverse events were reported. In total, 35/42 patients (83%; 95% CI 69 to 93% survived seven days after completion of caspofungin therapy. Conclusions These real-life findings in Germany are consistent with the international findings from this registry and with findings from randomized studies.

  8. Capability of leaf interdigitation with different inverse planning strategies in Monaco: an investigation of representative tumour sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinghao; Meng, Xiangjuan; Liu, Tonghai; Yin, Yong

    2016-06-17

    The aim of this study was to experimentally assess the dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation using different inverse treatment strategies for representative tumour sites and to identify the situations in which leaf interdigitation can benefit these tumour sites. Sixty previously treated patients (15 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 15 multiple brain metastasis (MBM), 15 cervical cancer and 15 prostate cancer) were re-planned for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), sliding window IMRT (dMLC) and step-and-shoot IMRT (ssIMRT) with and without leaf interdigitation. Various dosimetric variables, such as PTV coverage, OARs sparing, delivery efficiency and planning time, were evaluated for each plan. In addition, a protocol developed by our group was applied to identify the situations in which leaf interdigitation can achieve benefits in clinical practice. Leaf interdigitation produced few benefits in PTV homogeneity for the MBM VMAT plans and NPC ssIMRT plans. For OARs, sparing was equivalent with and without leaf interdigitation. Leaf interdigitation showed an increase in MUs for dMLC plans and a decrease in MUs for ssIMRT plans. Leaf interdigitation resulted in an increase in segments for dMLC plans and a decrease in segments for NPC and MBM ssIMRT plans. For beam on time, leaf interdigitation showed an increase in MBM dMLC, NPC ssIMRT and prostate ssIMRT plans. In addition, leaf interdigitation saved planning time for VMAT and dMLC plans but increased planning time for ssIMRT plans. Leaf interdigitation does not improve plan quality when performing inverse treatment strategies, regardless of whether the target is simple or complex. However, it influences the delivery efficiency and planning time. Based on these observations, our study suggests that leaf interdigitation should be utilized when performing MBM VMAT plans and NPC ssIMRT plans.

  9. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  10. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Yu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Wu Qiuwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States)], E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu

    2010-04-21

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  11. Invasive pneumococcal infections among persons with and without underlying medical conditions: Implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollgren Jukka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 is recommended for persons aged Methods Population-based data on all episodes of IPD (positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture reported by Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories during 1995–2002 were linked to data in national health care registries and vital statistics to obtain information on the patient's preceding hospitalisations, co-morbidities, and outcome of illness. Results Overall, 4357 first episodes of IPD were identified in all age groups (average annual incidence, 10.6/100,000. Patients aged 18–49 and 50–64 years accounted for 1282 (29% and 934 (21% of IPD cases, of which 372 (29% and 427 (46% had a current PPV23 indication, respectively. Overall, 536 (12% IPD patients died within one month of first positive culture. Persons aged 18–64 years accounted for 254 (47% of all deaths (case-fatality proportion, 12%. Of those who died 117 (46% did not have a vaccine indication. In a survival model, patients with alcohol-related diseases, non-haematological malignancies, and those aged 50–64 years were most likely to die. Conclusion In the general population of non-elderly adults, almost two-thirds of IPD and half of fatal cases occurred in persons without a recognised PPV23 indication. Policymakers should consider additional prevention strategies such as lowering the age of universal PPV23 vaccination and introducing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate immunisation which could provide substantial health benefits to this population through indirect vaccine effects.

  12. Competition between the invasive macrophyte Caulerpa taxifolia and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica: contrasting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergent-Martini Christine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant defense strategy is usually a result of trade-offs between growth and differentiation (i.e. Optimal Defense Theory – ODT, Growth Differentiation Balance hypothesis – GDB, Plant Apparency Theory – PAT. Interaction between the introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea offers the opportunity to investigate the plausibility of these theories. We have accordingly investigated defense metabolite content and growth year-round, on the basis of an interaction gradient. Results When in competition with P. oceanica, C. taxifolia exhibits increased frond length and decreased Caulerpenyne – CYN content (major terpene compound. In contrast, the length of P. oceanica leaves decreases when in competition with C. taxifolia. However, the turnover is faster, resulting in a reduction of leaf longevity and an increase on the number of leaves produced per year. The primary production is therefore enhanced by the presence of C. taxifolia. While the overall concentration of phenolic compounds does not decline, there is an increase in some phenolic compounds (including ferulic acid and a methyl 12-acetoxyricinoleate and the density of tannin cells. Conclusion Interference between these two species determines the reaction of both, confirming that they compete for space and/or resources. C. taxifolia invests in growth rather than in chemical defense, more or less matching the assumptions of the ODT and/or PAT theories. In contrast, P. oceanica apparently invests in defense rather than growth, as predicted by the GDB hypothesis. However, on the basis of closer scrutiny of our results, the possibility that P. oceanica is successful in finding a compromise between more growth and more defense cannot be ruled out.

  13. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  14. Optimal planning strategy among various arc arrangements for prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sang Won

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal strategy among various arc arrangements in prostate plans of stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy (SBRT-VMAT.

  15. Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

  16. Selection and Penalty Strategies for Genetic Algorithms Designed to Solve Spatial Forest Planning Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GAs have demonstrated success in solving spatial forest planning problems. We present an adaptive GA that incorporates population-level statistics to dynamically update penalty functions, a process analogous to strategic oscillation from the tabu search literature. We also explore performance of various selection strategies. The GA identified feasible solutions within 96%, 98%, and 93% of a nonspatial relaxed upper bound calculated for landscapes of 100, 500, and 1000 units, respectively. The problem solved includes forest structure constraints limiting harvest opening sizes and requiring minimally sized patches of mature forest. Results suggest that the dynamic penalty strategy is superior to the more standard static penalty implementation. Results also suggest that tournament selection can be superior to the more standard implementation of proportional selection for smaller problems, but becomes susceptible to premature convergence as problem size increases. It is therefore important to balance selection pressure with appropriate disruption. We conclude that integrating intelligent search strategies into the context of genetic algorithms can yield improvements and should be investigated for future use in spatial planning with ecological goals.

  17. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  18. Detroit Works Long-Term Planning Project: Engagement Strategies for Blending Community and Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L. Griffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, civic leaders, community stakeholders, and residents came together to release Detroit Future City: 2012 Detroit Strategic Framework Plan, a guiding blueprint for transforming Detroit from its current state of population loss and excessive vacancy into a model for the reinvention of post-industrial American cities. Three years prior, the U.S. Census had reported that the city had lost 24% of its population over the last decade and had experienced a 20% increase in vacant and abandoned property, bringing total vacancy to roughly the size of Manhattan. In addition to physical and economic challenges, Detroiters had also acknowledged significant barriers to effective civic engagement. Foremost among these barriers were a profound sense of immobilization, planning fatigue, and a general perception of cynicism about planning and engagement efforts. These challenges were compounded by historic racial dynamics and tension. This case study elaborates on the comprehensive and innovative civic engagement executed in a citywide planning process called the Detroit Works Project, which took place from late 2010 through late 2012. For the citywide planning process to be successful and sustainable, civic leaders and project funders committed to a planning initiative that would be different from previous efforts, in large part because the “owners” of the process would be diverse and inclusive across all community sectors. The case study, written by three of the key consultants from the project, describes four key civic engagement strategies deployed in the creation of the strategic framework: (1 addressing profound challenges of culture, race, and politics by deliberately building trust; (2 elevating community expertise by fostering a sense of ownership of the process; (3 blending technical and community expertise; and (4 viewing civic engagement as an ongoing two-way conversation rather than a series of large-scale episodic events. This

  19. Optimal mission planning of GEO on-orbit refueling in mixed strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-qian; Yu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    The mission planning of GEO on-orbit refueling (OOR) in Mixed strategy is studied in this paper. Specifically, one SSc will be launched to an orbital slot near the depot when multiple GEO satellites are reaching their end of lives. The SSc replenishes fuel from the depot and then extends the lifespan of the target satellites via refueling. In the mixed scenario, only some of the target satellites could be served by the SSc, and the remaining ones will be fueled by Pseudo SScs (the target satellite which has already been refueled by the SSc and now has sufficient fuel for its operation as well as the fuel to refuel other target satellites is called Pseudo SSc here). The mission sequences and fuel mass of the SSc and Pseudo SScs, the dry mass of the SSc are used as design variables, whereas the economic benefit of the whole mission is used as design objective. The economic cost and benefit models are stated first, and then a mathematical optimization model is proposed. A comprehensive solution method involving enumeration, particle swarm optimization and modification is developed. Numerical examples are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and solution method. Economic efficiencies of different OOR strategies are compared and discussed. The mixed strategy would perform better than the other strategies only when the target satellites satisfy some conditions. This paper presents an available mixed strategy scheme for users and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages by comparing with some other OOR strategies, providing helpful references to decision makers. The best strategy in practical applications depends on the specific demands and user preference.

  20. Integrating the smart grid in your business strategy plan : renewable energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revuru, P.; Irwin, L.; Malme, R. [Schneider Electric, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed smart grid integration plans and strategies used as part of Schneider Electric's overall sustainable development plan for the future. It is expected that renewable generation mandates will add an extra 20 to 40 per cent to the cost of electricity generation. Federal programs are now being initiated to limit CO{sub 2} emissions. Demand response and smart grid solutions must be integrated with renewable energy infrastructure. An electric grid integration case study of a wind farm in Ireland was used to demonstrate grid solutions for a 25 per cent wind energy penetration. Other case studies included a Hawaiian grid with a 38 per cent renewable energy penetration and a distributed generation plant, and a virtual power plant with a demand response, energy efficiency and smart grid. It was suggested that demand management is a preferred means of balancing intermittent renewable energy sources. tabs., figs.

  1. Optimizing hurricane disaster relief goods distribution: model development and application with respect to planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Mark W; Downs, Joni A

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years, hurricane emergencies have been among the most pervasive major disruptions in the United States, particularly in the south-east region of the country. A key aspect of managing hurricane disasters involves logistical planning to facilitate the distribution and transportation of relief goods to populations in need. This study shows how a variant of the capacitated warehouse location model can be used to manage the flow of goods shipments to people in need. In this application, the model is used with protocols set forth in Florida's Comprehensive Emergency Plan and tested in a smaller city in north Florida. Scenarios explore the effects of alternate goods distribution strategies on the provision of disaster relief. Results show that measures describing people's accessibility to relief goods are affected by the distribution infrastructure used to provide relief, as well as assumptions made regarding the population(s) assumed to be in need of aid.

  2. Essays on strategy: hostage rescue planning; maritime theater nuclear capability; strategic psychological operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, R.F.; Thomas, R.E.; Kriesel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The essays in the volume won recognition in the 1984 Joint Chiefs of Staff Strategy Essay Competition. The volume contains three essays. The author of the first essay considers the requirements for successful planning of hostage rescues, specifically reviewing the Son Tay raid, the Mayaguez crisis, the Entebbe rescue, and the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. The author of the second essay looks at the US Navy's capability for maritime theater nuclear warfare, identifying problems and recommending improvements. The author of the third essay finds the United States lacking a national-level mechanism for coordinating military psychological operations and proposes a way to remedy the problem.

  3. Barriers and strategies to an iterative model of advance care planning communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Bekelman, David B; Huynh, Alexis K; Prendergast, Thomas J; Shreve, Scott; Lorenz, Karl A

    2015-12-01

    Early and repeated patient-provider conversations about advance care planning (ACP) are now widely recommended. We sought to characterize barriers and strategies for realizing an iterative model of ACP patient-provider communication. A total of 2 multidisciplinary focus groups and 3 semistructured interviews with 20 providers at a large Veterans Affairs medical center. Thematic analysis was employed to identify salient themes. Barriers included variation among providers in approaches to ACP, lack of useful information about patient values to guide decision making, and ineffective communication between providers across settings. Strategies included eliciting patient values rather than specific treatment choices and an increased role for primary care in the ACP process. Greater attention to connecting providers across the continuum, maximizing the potential of the electronic health record, and linking patient experiences to their values may help to connect ACP communication across the continuum. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Stent sizing strategies in renal artery stenting: the comparison of conventional invasive renal angiography with renal computed tomographic angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kadziela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Randomized trials comparing invasive treatment of renal artery stenosis with standard pharmacotherapy did not show substantial benefit from revascularization. One of the potential reasons for that may be suboptimal procedure technique. Aim : To compare renal stent sizing using two modalities: three-dimensional renal computed tomography angiography (CTA versus conventional angiography. Material and methods: Forty patients (41 renal arteries, aged 65.1 ±8.5 years, who underwent renal artery stenting with preprocedural CTA performed within 6 months, were retrospectively analyzed. In CTA analysis, reference diameter (CTA-D and lesion length (CTA_LL were measured and proposed stent diameter and length were recorded. Similarly, angiographic reference diameter (ANGIO_D and lesion length (ANGIO_LL as well as proposed stent dimensions were obtained by visual estimation. Results: The median CTA_D was 0.5 mm larger than the median ANGIO_D (p < 0.001. Also, the proposed stent diameter in CTA evaluation was 0.5 mm larger than that in angiography (p < 0.0001. The median CTA_LL was 1 mm longer than the ANGIO_LL (p = NS, with significant correlation of these variables (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001. The median proposed stent length with CTA was equal to that proposed with angiography. The median diameter of the implanted stent was 0.5 mm smaller than that proposed in CTA (p < 0.0005 and identical to that proposed in angiography. The median length of the actual stent was longer than that proposed in angiography (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : Renal CTA has potential advantages as a tool adjunctive to angiography in appropriate stent sizing. Careful evaluation of the available CTA scans may be beneficial and should be considered prior to the planned procedure.

  5. Siting Urban Agriculture as a Green Infrastructure Strategy for Land Use Planning in Austin, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Rogers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure refers to a type of land use design that mimics the natural water cycle by using the infiltration capacities of vegetation, soils, and other natural processes to mitigate stormwater runoff. As a multifunctional landscape, urban agriculture should be seen as a highly beneficial tool for urban planning not only because of its ability to function as a green stormwater management strategy, but also due to the multiple social and environmental benefits it provides. In 2012, the city of Austin adopted a major planning approach titled the “Imagine Austin Comprehensive Plan” (IACP outlining the city’s vision for future growth and land use up to 2039. The plan explicitly addresses the adoption of green infrastructure as a target for future land use with urban agriculture as a central component. Addressing this area of land use planning will require tools that can locate suitable areas within the city ideal for the development of green infrastructure. In this study, a process was developed to create a spatially explicit method of siting urban agriculture as a green infrastructure tool in hydrologically sensitive areas, or areas prone to runoff, in east Austin. The method uses geospatial software to spatially analyze open access datasets that include land use, a digital elevation model, and prime farmland soils. Through this method a spatial relationship can be made between areas of high surface runoff and where the priority placement of urban farms should be sited as a useful component of green infrastructure. Planners or geospatial analysts could use such information, along with other significant factors and community input, to aid decision makers in the placement of urban agriculture. This spatially explicit approach for siting potential urban farms, will support the integration of urban agriculture as part of the land use planning of Austin.

  6. The Analysis of the Tourism Plan within a Cross-border Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrtko Josip Čelan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Regional Tourism Product Plan (RTPP and analyses the strategic approach in the planning of tourism. Until 1 July 2013 the Hungary-Croatia Cross-border Co-operation Programme 2007-2013 (hereinafter HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme was part of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA. Compared to the previous periods, IPA brought significant development in co-operation, by introducing single set of rules and the Lead Beneficiary principle. The HU-HR (IPA CBC Programme applied a new two-step development of tourism. First, it prescribed the preparation of RTPP within a special project and only after the RTPP was elaborated could the open call for tourism proposals be launched. There was no similar case in other CBC programmes. The author will review the Programme level documents and reports, furthermore, examine the RTPP outcomes and the methodology introduced in the planning of tourism actions in the Programme. The risks RTPP involved and its influence on the implementation of the Programme and tourism projects will be investigated by highlighting the problems of application of RTPP in practice. The aim of this work is to focus on and to evaluate this specific planning methodology, and to assess whether it could be recommended to other similar programmes. Due to the shortcomings that the RTPP entailed, the author will come to conclusion that the planning of such strategies has to be prepared in advance and that the two-step approach of tourism development should not be recommended to other cross-border programmes.

  7. Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hua; Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W; Wang, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders' interest is mainly concerned.

  8. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  9. Size Matters: What Are the Characteristic Source Areas for Urban Planning Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Myint, Soe W.; Wang, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Urban environmental measurements and observational statistics should reflect the properties generated over an adjacent area of adequate length where homogeneity is usually assumed. The determination of this characteristic source area that gives sufficient representation of the horizontal coverage of a sensing instrument or the fetch of transported quantities is of critical importance to guide the design and implementation of urban landscape planning strategies. In this study, we aim to unify two different methods for estimating source areas, viz. the statistical correlation method commonly used by geographers for landscape fragmentation and the mechanistic footprint model by meteorologists for atmospheric measurements. Good agreement was found in the intercomparison of the estimate of source areas by the two methods, based on 2-m air temperature measurement collected using a network of weather stations. The results can be extended to shed new lights on urban planning strategies, such as the use of urban vegetation for heat mitigation. In general, a sizable patch of landscape is required in order to play an effective role in regulating the local environment, proportional to the height at which stakeholders’ interest is mainly concerned. PMID:27832111

  10. Water Resilience by Design: A water infrastructure planning framework for developing sustainable water management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Ray, P. A.; Freeman, S.

    2016-12-01

    Societal need for improved water management and concerns for the long-term sustainability of water resources systems are prominent around the world. The continued susceptibility of society to the harmful effects of hydrologic variability, pervasive concerns related to climate change and the emergent awareness of devastating effects of current practice on aquatic ecosystems all illustrate our limited understanding of how water ought to be managed in a dynamic world. To address these challenges, new problem solving approaches are required that acknowledge uncertainties, incorporate best available information, and link engineering design principles, typically based on determinism, with our best geoscience-based understanding of planetary change. In this presentation, we present and demonstrate a framework for developing water planning and management strategies that are resilient in the face of future uncertainties and our limited ability to anticipate the future. The approach begins with stakeholder engagement and decision framing to elicit relevant context, uncertainties, choices and connections that drive planning and serve as an entry point to exploring possible futures. The result is the development of water strategies that are informed by the best available predictive information and designed to perform well over a future of change. Examples from around the world are presented to illustrate the methodology.

  11. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  12. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jorgen; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2004-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We investigated whether or not surgical strategy has an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia in cases of cryptorchidism. We made a database study of the incidence of testicular neoplasia at surgery for cryptorchidism in childhood, and evaluated if such abnormalities were...... other than cryptorchidism, or diagnosed abnormal karyotype, versus no case in the 1281 patients without these characteristics (Fisher's exact test, p ... (Fisher's exact test, p

  13. Simplified strategies to determine the mean respiratory position for liver radiation therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L; Brock, Kristy K

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the time-weighted mean respiratory position in the liver is challenging due to poor tumor contrast on 4-dimensional (4D) imaging. The purpose of this study is to validate simplified strategies in determining the mean position of liver tumors for radiation therapy planning, and quantify the potential for planning target volume (PTV) reduction. Full, 10-phase 4D computed tomography (CT) data sets from 10 liver radiation therapy patients were analyzed to compare 2 techniques. First, a mid-ventilation CT was chosen from the initial reconstruction of the 4DCT. This was based on the minimum displacement of the diaphragm at each phase relative to its mean respiratory position, calculated using rigid registration over all 4DCT phases. Second, the exhale 4DCT was deformed to the inhale 4DCT using biomechanical-based deformable registration. The diaphragm's mean cranio-caudal position in the respiratory cycle (normalized as a percentage relative to exhale) was applied to the exhale-to-inhale deformation map assuming a linear trajectory to reconstruct a mid-position CT. These strategies were compared with the time-weighted mean respiratory position, calculated with deformable registration over all 10 4DCT phases. PTVs incorporating respiratory motion were then compared for 2 planning strategies: exhale 4DCT using the internal target volume (ITV), or mid-position CT using dose-probability margins. Compared with the mean respiratory tumor position, the mid-ventilation CT and mid-position CT had mean (maximum) tumor vector errors of 1.0 ± 0.5 (2.1) mm and 0.6 ± 0.3 (1.4) mm, respectively, within the image resolution. Compared with ITV-based PTV, dose-probability PTV reduced the irradiated volume by 34% ± 7% on average, up to 43%. Simplified strategies to select a mid-ventilation CT or reconstruct a mid-position CT for the liver were validated with respect to the mean respiratory position. These data sets require significantly smaller PTVs, potentially allowing

  14. Development of an autonomous treatment planning strategy for radiation therapy with effective use of population-based prior data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Dong, Peng; Liu, Hongcheng; Xing, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Current treatment planning remains a costly and labor intensive procedure and requires multiple trial-and-error adjustments of system parameters such as the weighting factors and prescriptions. The purpose of this work is to develop an autonomous treatment planning strategy with effective use of prior knowledge and in a clinically realistic treatment planning platform to facilitate radiation therapy workflow. Our technique consists of three major components: (i) a clinical treatment planning system (TPS); (ii) a formulation of decision-function constructed using an assemble of prior treatment plans; (iii) a plan evaluator or decision-function and an outer-loop optimization independent of the clinical TPS to assess the TPS-generated plan and to drive the search toward a solution optimizing the decision-function. Microsoft (MS) Visual Studio Coded UI is applied to record some common planner-TPS interactions as subroutines for querying and interacting with the TPS. These subroutines are called back in the outer-loop optimization program to navigate the plan selection process through the solution space iteratively. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by using clinical prostate and head-and-neck cases. An autonomous treatment planning technique with effective use of an assemble of prior treatment plans is developed to automatically maneuver the clinical treatment planning process in the platform of a commercial TPS. The process mimics the decision-making process of a human planner and provides a clinically sensible treatment plan automatically, thus reducing/eliminating the tedious manual trial-and-errors of treatment planning. It is found that the prostate and head-and-neck treatment plans generated using the approach compare favorably with that used for the patients' actual treatments. Clinical inverse treatment planning process can be automated effectively with the guidance of an assemble of prior treatment plans. The approach has the potential to

  15. The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Using operational research for policy, planning and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Paul M; Burton, Matthew; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David

    2006-08-01

    Trachoma is a neglected disease and also the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. It causes misery, dependency and is a barrier to development. Trachoma is controlled by a WHO-endorsed integrated strategy of surgery for trichiasis, antibiotic therapy, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, which is known by the acronym SAFE. The strategy is based on evidence from field trials and is continually being refined by operational research that informs national policy and planning; the strategy has affected both programme delivery and implementation. As a result of the findings of operational research, surgery is now frequently conducted by paramedics in communities rather than by ophthalmologists in hospitals; yearly mass distribution of a single oral dose of azithromycin has replaced the use of topical tetracycline; and the promotion of better hygiene, face-washing and the use of latrines are used to reduce transmission. Those who implement programmes have been equal partners in conducting operational research thus reducing the "know-do" gap and minimizing the lag that often exists between the completion of trials and putting their results into practice. Operational research has become a part of practice. Although there are still many questions without answers, national programme coordinators have a reasonable expectation that trachoma control programmes based on SAFE will work.

  16. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of planning strategies in the adherence to medication for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Laura Bacelar de Araujo; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Ciol, Marcia Aparecida; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Gallani, Maria-Cecília

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effect of action and coping planning strategies in the adherence to medication among outpatients with coronary artery disease. Action and coping planning strategies are based on implementation intention, which requires self-regulation by the individual, to prioritize intentionally planned responses over learned or habitual ones, from daily routines to stressful situations. Randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 115) were randomized into intervention (use of action and coping planning strategies, n = 59) or control (usual care, n = 56) groups. The study was conducted between June 2010-May 2011 in two in-person visits: baseline and 2-month follow-up. Participants in the intervention group received telephone reinforcement between baseline and 2-month follow-up. Adherence to medication for cardioprotection and symptoms relief was evaluated by proportion of adherence, global measure of adherence evaluation and Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale at both baseline and 2-month follow-up. When using the measure of global measure of adherence, participants in the intervention group reported adherence to therapy more often than controls (odds ratio = 5.3), but no statistically significant change was observed in the other two outcome measures. This study has shown that individuals who use action and coping planning report higher adherence to drug treatment, when measured by the global adherence evaluation. Further studies with longer follow-ups are needed to assess if the effect of planning strategies has long-term duration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: a remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendal E.; Abbott, Laurie B.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Schrader, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive plants in Big Bend National Park, southwest Texas, using a presence-only modeling approach. Giant reed (Arundo donax), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), horehound (Marrubium vulgare) and buffelgrass (Pennisteum ciliare) were selected for remote sensing spatial analyses. Multiple dates/seasons of imagery were used to account for habitat conditions within the study area and to capture phenological differences among targeted species and the surrounding landscape. Individual species models had high (0.91 to 0.99) discriminative ability to differentiate invasive plant suitable environments from random background locations. Average test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, indicating that plant predictive models exhibited high discriminative ability to differentiate suitable environments for invasive plant species from random locations. Omission rates ranged from <1.0 to 18%. We demonstrated that useful models estimating suitable environments for invasive plants may be created with <50 occurrence locations and that reliable modeling using presence-only datasets can be powerful tools for land managers.

  18. 入侵检测系统在仓储管理网络中的构建策略%Strategy for Building Invasion Detection System in Warehouse Management Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁磊

    2014-01-01

    为了提高仓储管理体系的网络防御性能,有效屏蔽基于物流应用网络的信息盗取、信息篡改、信息损毁等网络入侵行为,提出了一种入侵检测系统在仓储管理网络中的构建策略,给出了仓储管理网络的应用架构;根据不同的仓储应用网络给出了相应的入侵检测部署规划;并对干路、旁路入侵检测步骤进行了系统描述。最后,通过模拟实验及结果分析验证了方法的可行性。%In this paper, we proposed a strategy for the installation of a type of invasion detection system in the warehouse management network, presented the different application architectures of the network as well as the corresponding invasion detection deployment plans, and at the end, through a simulation experiment, demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  19. Management strategies for invasive species in the United States%美国对入侵种的管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓东; 叶万辉

    2001-01-01

    外来种入侵是产生当前世界生物多样性危机的重要原因之一。目前外来种入侵问题已经引起人们的普遍关注。1999年2月美国联邦政府发布总统令,号召联邦政府机构执行人员防止外来入侵种所造成的严重环境威胁,指示有关职能部门行使职权阻止引入入侵种并且恢复本地种。总统令指示建立一个入侵物种理事会,并就理事会、联邦机构的职责做了相应界定。美国农业部等部门支持的入侵植物管理国家策略项目,提出了针对入侵种的三项国家目标—入侵种的预防、控制和本地种的恢复。国家管理策略的制定为不同层次的人们提供了合作、教育和研究的机遇。美国政府部门以及有关社会团体已经就外来种入侵危害防范积极展开行动,包括制定标准防止入侵种进入,控制、根除入侵种,向民众进行有关外来种入侵的教育,增加财政年度预算等等。%The invasion of alien species is a major factor leading to the biodiversity crisis. Biological invasion is a major cause of biodiversity loss in the United States. The U.S. government is consistently paying more attention to invasive species now. On February 3, 1999, President Clinton signed an executive order(EO)-to coordinate a federal strategy to address the growing environmental and economic threat from invasive plants and animals that are not native to the United States. The President’s order directs federal agencies to use their authority to prevent the introduction of invasive species and to restore native species. The EO directs establishment of an Invasive Species Council and prescribes the duties of the Council and federal agencies. The National Strategy for Invasive Plant Management, supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other departments, proposes three national goals: prevention and control of invasive species’ and restoration. This National Strategy provides

  20. Strategies, tools and processes for succession planning: Analysis of the BC ministry of forests and range succession planning initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Succession Planning is fast becoming an urgent issue facing today's organizations. Looming mass retirements due to the baby boomer generation means that organizations can expect to lose knowledgeable and experienced workers and finding replacements will be difficult as mass retirements force a labour shortage. Consequently, many organizations are creating succession plans. In an investigation of the British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range Succession Plan, internal documents and previou...

  1. Diagnosing and Resolving Conflict Created by Strategic Plans: Where Outreach Strategies and Execution Meet at an Academic Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Robert L; Wollner, Samuel B; Weddle, Jessica; Zembrodt, James W; Birdwhistell, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    The imperative for strategic change at academic health centers has never been stronger. Underpinning the success of strategic change is an effective process to implement a strategy. Healthcare organizations, however, often fail to execute on strategy because they do not activate the requisite capabilities and management processes. The University of Kentucky HealthCare recently defined its 2020 strategic plan to adapt to emerging market conditions. The authors outline the strategic importance of strengthening partnership networks and the initial challenges faced in executing their strategy. The findings are a case study in how one academic health center has approached strategy implementation.

  2. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  3. [Medical services for dementia in the Comprehensive Strategy to Accelerate Dementia Measures (New Orange Plan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Shuichi

    2016-03-01

    The way to provide medical services for dementia was reviewed in the context of the Comprehensive Strategy to Accelerate Dementia Measures (New Orange Plan). The basic structure of service providing system consists of the primary and secondary care services. Both are expected to function in the context of the community-based integrated care system. Because of regional differences, prefectural government should take measures to make the Medical Center for Dementia function depending on local circumstances. Psychiatric services and general hospitals are expected to provide mental health services and treatment for concurrent medical conditions, respectively. Home medical care is expected to be fundamental services for persons with advanced-stage dementia. In super-aging society, the standard medical service for older persons should be adapted to older persons living with dementia.

  4. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B:Progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) biotype B,called a "superbug",is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide.In this report,the invasive mechanism and management of B.tabaci biotype B,based on our 5-year studies,are presented.Six B.tabaci biotypes,B,Q,ZHJ1,ZHJ2,ZHJ3 and FJ1,have been identified in China.Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country.Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant,geographical conditions,and/or insecticidal application.The activities of CarE(carboxylesterase) and GSTs(glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants,which might have increased its resistance to insecticides.The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants.Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes.The indigenous B.tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d.The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes.B.tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions.Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T.vaporariorum.Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants,which might enable it to better compete with T.vaporariorum.Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B.tabaci under field conditions.The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids.The present results provide useful information in explaining the mechanisms of genetic diversity

  5. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  6. Application of Physical Planning Strategies to Flood Control in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Bwala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood is a global natural disaster that has hugely cost the world in human and property loss with Nigeria having her own share of the menace at different times, the greatest of which occurred in 2012 when the country lost up to 363 people and 1.4% of her GDP to flood. This study which aims at providing permanent solutions to flooding and its attendant’s effects in the study area was carried out in the six wards of Maiduguri metropolis most vulnerable to flood. Data obtained in respect of socio-economic characteristics indicated most inhabitants of the areas are in low income cadre earning living from farming, petty trading and artisanship with 0nly 17.6% as civil servants. Findings revealed that the area which though according to master plan, was originally designated for farming has been fully built up. About 62% of inhabitants had hitherto experienced flood, yet are still occupying the area for various reasons ranging from cheapness of land and rent, poor finance, family origin and only available space. The study discovered that varying degree of efforts from government agencies, community self-help programmes and individuals are on-going to mitigate the flood hazard but the result of which are unnoticeable due to lack of policy framework, inadequate finance and crude nature of some of the efforts. An integrated approach involving relocation of residents of the High Risk Zone in areas ranging from 10-150 m radius around Rivers Ngada and Alou, flood reduction and living with flood concepts by others in the Middle Risk and Lower Risk Zones through progressive renewal, reclamation, construction of deep drainages and embankments, proper solid waste management and adequate development control strategies, are recommended as physical planning strategies much required to mitigate flood incidence and its attendants effects in Maiduguri.

  7. Resilience among IDUs: planning strategies to help injection drug users to protect themselves and others from HIV/HCV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikantraporn, Skultip; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Friedman, Samuel R; Sandoval, Milagros; Torruella, Rafael A

    2012-08-01

    Many long-term injection drug users (IDUs) engage in planning strategies. In this pilot study, we examine the relation of one planning strategy to IDUs' engaging in safer injection practices. Sixty-eight IDUs were recruited in 2010 from a New York City (NYC) needle exchange program and referrals to participate in an innovative Staying Safe Intervention that teaches strategies to stay HIV/HCV uninfected. Responses to a baseline 185-item survey were analyzed using correlations and odds ratios. Planning ahead to have steady access to clean equipment was correlated with both individually based and networks-based safety behaviors including storing clean needles; avoiding sharing needles, cookers, and filters with other injectors; and providing clean needles to sex partners. Implications related to resilience in IDUs are discussed and the study's limitations have been noted.

  8. Quality of life of coronary artery disease patients after the implementation of planning strategies for medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Laura Bacelar de Araujo; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Gallani, Maria Cecilia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam

    2015-01-01

    to compare the general and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between the Intervention (IG) and Control (CG) groups of coronary artery disease patients after the implementation of Action Planning and Coping Planning strategies for medication adherence and to verify the relationship between adherence and HRQoL. this was a controlled and randomized study. the sample (n=115) was randomized into two groups, IG (n=59) and CG (n=56). Measures of medication adherence and general and specific HRQoL were obtained in the baseline and after two months of monitoring. the findings showed that the combination of intervention strategies - Action Planning and Coping Planning for medication adherence did not affect the HRQoL of coronary artery disease patients in outpatient monitoring.

  9. Quality of life of coronary artery disease patients after the implementation of planning strategies for medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bacelar de Araujo Lourenço

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the general and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL between the Intervention (IG and Control (CG groups of coronary artery disease patients after the implementation of Action Planning and Coping Planning strategies for medication adherence and to verify the relationship between adherence and HRQoL.METHOD: this was a controlled and randomized study.RESULTS: the sample (n=115 was randomized into two groups, IG (n=59 and CG (n=56. Measures of medication adherence and general and specific HRQoL were obtained in the baseline and after two months of monitoring.CONCLUSION: the findings showed that the combination of intervention strategies - Action Planning and Coping Planning for medication adherence did not affect the HRQoL of coronary artery disease patients in outpatient monitoring.

  10. Risk Prevention Strategies and the SWOT Analysis for the Implementation of the SMEs’ Business Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This theme is targeting the importance of implementing the business plan of a small and medium company that has as aim the creation of the added value through research and innovation in the management of human resources performance based on information technology domain. The objective is to increase the economic competitiveness and development of knowledge-based economy whereas by the implementation of the project, it increases the company‟s profitability, creating a competitive advantage resulting in innovative products, as well as the effectiveness of companies that use human resources evaluation platform. The need identified on the market to which the SMEs wish to answer by implementing the plan is represented by the nationwide lack of a complex solution covering both the evaluation and the management of human resources performances. The used methodology can be found in the analysis, developing a strategy for preventing financial, human, market, marketing - image risks and also the physical ones. With the SWOT analysis it was observed one of the strengths i.e. the existence of a single management system of employee performance that includes assessment specific features. In conclusion, there are no software solutions at national level, which would assess the human resources of an organization, following specific indicators of that organization, which could combine the assessment methods in order to achieve more a more efficient and versatile assessment.

  11. Towards the Accuracy of Cybernetic Strategy Planning Models: Causal Proof and Function Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Hillbrand

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available All kind of strategic tasks within an enterprise require a deep understanding of its critical key success factors and their interrelations as well as an in-depth analysis of relevant environmental influences. Due to the openness of the underlying system, there seems to be an indefinite number of unknown variables influencing strategic goals. Cybernetic or systemic planning techniques try to overcome this intricacy by modeling the most important cause-and-effect relations within such a system. Although it seems to be obvious that there are specific influences between business variables, it is mostly impossible to identify the functional dependencies underlying such relations. Hence simulation or evaluation techniques based on such hypothetically assumed models deliver inaccurate results or fail completely. This paper addresses the need for accurate strategy planning models and proposes an approach to prove their cause-andeffect relations by empirical evidence. Based on this foundation an approach for the approximation of the underlying cause-andeffect function by the means of Artificial Neural Networks is developed.

  12. Bioeconomy and Green Economy: European Strategies, Action Plans and Impact on Life Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Socaciu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the definitions, the main concepts and vision for Bioeconomy versus Green economy. The key aspects which are discussed refers to European strategy and action plans (1, Bioeconomy and agriculture orientation (2, Biorefinery for a better life quality (3 and involvement of education, research and innovation for the progress of Bioeconomy (4. There are described the main challenges, requirements, aims related to the integration of bioeconomy in different economic sectors, the strategic plans and activities at global level  with specific consideration for European member states. Innovation and the need of an integrative knowledge, creating translational bridges and covering gaps by sustainable interdisciplinary research and technology development are  also discussed. Considering the vital links betweeen research - innovation and technlogy transfer, for the bioeconomy progress, relevant examples will be presented, related to  European programs (2014-2020, e.g. Horizon 2020,  European Innovation partnership (EIP and Partnerships Public-Private (PPP. The role of universities, as best providers of education and research will be underlined with a strong focus on the need to develop the entrepreunership culture and their role as knowledge and innovation disseminator, filling the gap research­-invention­­-innovation.

  13. Implementation and acceptability of strategies instituted for engaging men in family planning services in Kibaha district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msovela, Judith; Tengia-Kessy, Anna

    2016-11-21

    Men as the main decision makers in most of African families have an important role to play towards acceptance of family planning methods. This study sought to identify strategies used to engage men in family planning services and determine the extent to which men in Kibaha district in Tanzania accept these interventions. We conducted a cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. We used a questionnaire to interview a random sample of 365 of currently married or cohabiting men who had at least one child under the age of five years. We further conducted in-depth interviews with health workers involved in delivering reproductive health services as well as community dispensers of family planning commodities. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the extent to which men were engaged in family planning services. The data from the indepth interviews were analysed manually according to the predetermined themes, guided by the grounded theory to identify the existing strategies used to encourage male involvement in family planning services. According to the key informants, strategies that are used to encourage men to engage in family planning services include invitations through their spouses, either verbally or by using partner notification cards, incorporating family planning messages during monthly meetings and community outreach reproductive health programs. Of 365 men responding to the questionnaire, only 31 (8.4%) said they were invited to accompany their spouses to family planning clinics. Among them, 71% (22/31) visited family planning clinics. A third (32%) of the respondents had heard of community health meetings and only 20.7% of them attended these meetings. More than a third (12/34) of men who attended these meeting asserted that family planning messages targeting men featured in the agenda and subsequently half of them visited health facilities for family planning services. Existing strategies such as invitations to clinics

  14. Proteomic analysis of human skin treated with larval schistosome peptidases reveals distinct invasion strategies among species of blood flukes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ingram

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts.Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays.This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

  15. A review of the implementation and research strategies of advance care planning in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flo, E; Husebo, B S; Bruusgaard, P; Gjerberg, E; Thoresen, L; Lillemoen, L; Pedersen, R

    2016-01-21

    Nursing home (NH) patients have complex health problems, disabilities and needs for Advance Care Planning (ACP). The implementation of ACP in NHs is a neglected research topic, yet it may optimize the intervention efficacy, or provide explanations for low efficacy. This scoping review investigates methods, design and outcomes and the implementation of ACP (i.e., themes and guiding questions, setting, facilitators, implementers, and promoters/barriers). A systematic search using ACP MESH terms and keywords was conducted in CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, Embase and Cochrane libraries. We excluded studies on home-dwelling and hospital patients, including only specific diagnoses and/or chart-based interventions without conversations. Sixteen papers were included. There were large variations in definitions and content of ACP, study design, implementation strategies and outcomes. Often, the ACP intervention or implementation processes were not described in detail. Few studies included patients lacking decision-making capacity, despite the fact that this group is significantly present in most NHs. The chief ACP implementation strategy was education of staff. Among others, ACP improved documentation of and adherence to preferences. Important implementation barriers were non-attending NH physicians, legal challenges and reluctance to participate among personnel and relatives. ACP intervention studies in NHs are few and heterogeneous. Variation in ACP definitions may be related to cultural and legal differences. This variation, along with sparse information about procedures, makes it difficult to collate and compare research results. Essential implementation considerations relate to the involvement and education of nurses, physicians and leaders.

  16. A strategy for multimodal deformable image registration to integrate PET/MR into radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela [Section for Biomedical Physics, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)], e-mail: Sara.Leibfarth@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Welz, Stefan; Siegel, Christine; Zips, Daniel [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Holger Schmidt, Holger [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Lab. for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Dept. of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Background: Combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly promising for biologically individualized radiotherapy (RT). Hence, the purpose of this work was to develop an accurate and robust registration strategy to integrate combined PET/MR data into RT treatment planning. Material and methods: Eight patient datasets consisting of an FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) and a subsequently acquired PET/MR of the head and neck (HN) region were available. Registration strategies were developed based on CT and MR data only, whereas the PET components were fused with the resulting deformation field. Following a rigid registration, deformable registration was performed with a transform parametrized by B-splines. Three different optimization metrics were investigated: global mutual information (GMI), GMI combined with a bending energy penalty (BEP) for regularization (GMI + BEP) and localized mutual information with BEP (LMI + BEP). Different quantitative registration quality measures were developed, including volumetric overlap and mean distance measures for structures segmented on CT and MR as well as anatomical landmark distances. Moreover, the local registration quality in the tumor region was assessed by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the two PET datasets. Results: LMI + BEP yielded the most robust and accurate registration results. For GMI, GMI + BEP and LMI + BEP, mean landmark distances (standard deviations) were 23.9 mm (15.5 mm), 4.8 mm (4.0 mm) and 3.0 mm (1.0 mm), and mean NCC values (standard deviations) were 0.29 (0.29), 0.84 (0.14) and 0.88 (0.06), respectively. Conclusion: Accurate and robust multimodal deformable image registration of CT and MR in the HN region can be performed using a B-spline parametrized transform and LMI + BEP as optimization metric. With this strategy, biologically individualized RT based on combined PET/MRI in terms of dose painting is possible.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was

  18. RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan - Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) Part 2: Code Assessment Strategy, Procedure, and RTM Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jun Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Choi, Yong Joon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document addresses two subjects involved with the RELAP-7 Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP): (i) the principles and plan to assure the independence of RELAP-7 assessment through the code development process, and (ii) the work performed to establish the RELAP-7 assessment plan, i.e., the assessment strategy, literature review, and identification of RELAP-7 requirements. Then, the Requirements Traceability Matrices (RTMs) proposed in previous document (INL-EXT-15-36684) are updated. These RTMs provide an efficient way to evaluate the RELAP-7 development status as well as the maturity of RELAP-7 assessment through the development process.

  19. A study on in-pipe inspection mobile robots, 3; Basic strategy of inspection path planning for inspection mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshio (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Hosokai, Hidemi; Uemura, Masahiro

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with inspection path planning for in-pipe inspection mobile robots which have the capability of moving through complicated pipeline networks. It is imperative that the robot systems have an inspection path planning system for such networks for their reasonable and rational operation, controlled by themselves or by the operators. The planning mainly requires two projects: the selection of the place to put the robot in or out, and the generation of the paths in the networks. This system provides the for complicated problems with plural inspection points using a basic strategy of systematically producing patterns and dividing partial problems of simple searches based on rules. (author).

  20. Mohawk Run Shrub Fen Complex research Natural Area Non-invasive Plant Management Plan Erie National Wildlife Refuge March 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Drooping Bluegrass, Thin Leaved Cotton Grass, Slender Spikerush, and Swampfly Honeysuckle on Erie National Wildlife Refuge discusses the...

  1. An assessment of the effectiveness of a large, national-scale invasive alien plant control strategy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing 629 species and areas for management action. South African Journal of Science 100, 630 53?64. 631 Olckers, T., 2011. Biological control of Solanum mauritianum Scop...

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Implementation Strategies of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Down Syndrome Screening Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersy, E.; Die-Smulders, C.E. de; Coumans, A.B.; Smits, L.J.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de; Frints, S.G.; Veltman, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Down syndrome screening programmes requires health policy decisions about its combination with other tests and its timing in pregnancy. AIM: Our aim was to aid health policy decision makers by conducting a quantitative analysis of

  3. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orlov Alexandr K; Chubarkina Irina Y

    2017-01-01

    .... The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing...

  4. The Nature and Use of Individualized Learning Plans as a Promising Career Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, V. Scott; Phelps, L. Allen; Haakenson, Kristin A.; Durham, Julie F.; Timmons, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Individualized learning plans (ILPs) are being implemented in high schools throughout the United States as strategic planning tools that help students align course plans with career aspirations and often include the development of postsecondary plans. Initial indications are that ILPs may be an important method for helping students achieve both…

  5. Framing Climate Change: New directions in Dutch and Danish planning strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, A.; Bommel, van S.; Brandt Pedersen, A.; Orsted Nielsen, H.; Kuindersma, W.

    2013-01-01

    Planning in contemporary societies takes place under conditions of complexity and uncertainty, which stresses the politicised character of planning. Through studies of change in particular framings of planning, induced by the integration of climate change policy issues in the strategic planning of C

  6. Framing Climate Change: New directions in Dutch and Danish planning strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, A.; Bommel, van S.; Brandt Pedersen, A.; Orsted Nielsen, H.; Kuindersma, W.

    2013-01-01

    Planning in contemporary societies takes place under conditions of complexity and uncertainty, which stresses the politicised character of planning. Through studies of change in particular framings of planning, induced by the integration of climate change policy issues in the strategic planning of

  7. The application of high resolution fluxgate gradiometery as an aid to excavation planning and strategy formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lyall

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Late Roman and Anglian settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, has been one of the largest excavations undertaken in England in the last twenty years. It has been the setting for a number of developments and experiments in the application of 'the new technology' to field archaeology. Parts of the site, which extended over c.20 Ha., proved to have high magnetic susceptibility and were ideally suited for magnetic prospection techniques. Feature visibility contrasts were, however, frequently low and therefore a series of experiments were undertaken using high resolution fluxgate gradiometer surveys following removal of the topsoil. The results of the high resolution surveys undertaken on the cleaned excavation surface proved highly successful in providing an enhanced pre-excavation plan, adding considerable detail to the surveys undertaken prior to the start of the excavation. The careful examination of the results, using G-Sys geographic data management software, which enabled the magnetic data, finds plots and digitised plans to be fully integrated, indicated areas where stratigraphic relationships could be tested and assisted in the development and re-definition of the excavation strategy as it progressed. Following initial small area tests in 1991, nearly two hectares were documented in this way during 1995 facilitating the completion of a targeted sampling operation which ensured the completion of the excavation within the limited budget available. The approach proved highly successful and offers great potential for use on sites which have a high magnetic susceptibility and are liable to large area destruction as occurs in the case of mineral extraction or subsoil ploughing operations.

  8. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  9. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  10. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 13: Strategies for managing fuels and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    The public's acceptance of forest management practices, including fuels reduction, is heavily based on how forests look. Fuels managers can improve their chances of success by considering aesthetics when making management decisions. This fact sheet reviews a three-part general strategy for managing fuels and visual quality: planning, implementation, and monitoring...

  11. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  12. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  13. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  14. Implementasi Sistem ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning PT Pos Indonesia : Sebuah Inisiasi dan Strategi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Susanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Implementasi Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP PT Pos Indonesia merupakan bagian dari strategi penguatan internal bisnis perusahaan dan pilihan yang cukup penting dalam konteks karena tidak sedikit berbagai implementasi ERP oleh perusahaan-perusahaan di Indonesia yang mengalami kegagalan baik disebabkan oleh over budget, over time dalam pengerjaan proyek, kinerja sistem yang kurang dan keuntungan yang tidak sesuai harapan (Dantes & Hasibuan, 2011. Pilihan investasi ERP ini bukan karena sebab, berbagai pengaruh lingkungan internal maupun eksternal telah menjadi dorongan tersendiri bagi perlunya ERP pada PT Posindo. Faktor eksternal dimaksud seperti iklim kompetisi yang semakin meningkat, upaya IPO (Initial Public Offering yang membutuhkan penerapan tata kelola bisnis dengan standar yang berlaku best practice dan diterima secara internasional dan berbagai kebijakan dan regulasi terkati UU Perposan dan juga peraturan tentang BUMN. Sebagai sebuah sistem terintegrasi, ERP dalam konteks internal diharapkan dapat meningkatkan efisiensi dan kinerja aset produk agar lebih meningkatkan nilai tambah bagi perusahaan, seperti Layanan Pos dan bisnis retail yang secara financial memberikan value added negatif pada tahun 2012. Dalam tahap inisiasi, implementasi ERP dilakukan secara bertahap dimulai dengan modul SAP modul FICO (Financial Controlling dengan memperhatikan kesiapan infrastruktur dan pengembangan aplikasi-aplikasi existing (in-house development agar nantinya dapat diintegrasikan dengan basis data pada ERP. ABSTRACT The implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP at PT Pos Indonesia is a part of strengthening internal business strategy and important options because there is many implementation of ERP by various companies in Indonesia that have failed either due to over-budget, over- time in construction project , the performance of the system is lacking and  benefits that are not as expected (Dantes & Hasibuan , 2011. ERP investment

  15. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  16. Diagnostic strategies for invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, Maxim; Wingard, John R

    2013-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) frequently occur and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Early diagnosis of IFI in these patients facilitates prompt institution of therapy and leads to improved clinical outcomes. This article reviews widely used methodologies for diagnosing IFIs in patients with HM and HSCT recipients. Advantages and limitations of radiologic studies; microbiologic and histopathologic techniques; fungal biomarker assays, including those for galactomannan antigen and β-(1-3)-D-glucan; and molecular assays that are available to establish an early diagnosis of clinically relevant invasive fungal infections are discussed. Recommendations are provided regarding effective use of these methodologies in clinical practice.

  17. An Integrated Work Force Planning Strategy For The Health Services 2009 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health and Children

    2009-01-01

    Workforce planning identifies the composition of the workforce required to deliver health service goals. It encompasses a range of human resource activities aimed at the short, medium and long-term. Workforce planning that is integrated with service and financial planning offers the best opportunity for linking human resource decisions to the strategic goals for the health services. Systems and structures are required to support and develop workforce planning activities

  18. Action plans and coping strategies in elderly COPD patients influence the result of pulmonary rehabilitation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Patrizia; Prinzi, Giulia; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Cardaci, Vittorio; Stirpe, Emanuele; Conti, Vittoria; Fini, Massimo; Bonassi, Stefano

    2017-04-14

    COPD management needs a comprehensive assessment of clinical features (symptoms severity, co-morbidities) together with life-style, behavioural, socio-economic and multi-omics parameters. Among the other issues, psycho-cognitive assessment plays a critical role. Coping strategies are used to manage psychological stress. To evaluate the association between coping strategies and outcome of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR). Observational study. Inpatients comprehensive 3 weeks PR programme. Seventy-six patients, 70 years or older affected by COPD GOLD 3-4. Disease-specific status was examined using the Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Maugeri Respiratory Failure, Borg And Barthel Scales. Cognitive And Psychological Clinical Alterations/Disorders Using: Mini-Mental State Examination; Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Quality of Life Using Activities of Daily Living; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey General and Mental Health. Functional exercise capacity was measured at baseline and after PR using the Six-Minute Walking Test (6MWT). Coping strategies were measured with the Brief COPE. Internal consistency was determined examining Cronbach's α values. Concurrent validity was determined by examining Spearman r correlations between the single-item and multi-items. Brief-COPE scores after PR between patients who had a different response to respiratory outcomes was evaluated using Student's t and Mann-Whitney U tests. The change in distance (Delta6MWD) between final and baseline value in meters was positively associated with Self-distraction, Active Coping, and Planning strategies. Respiratory disease-specific health status outcomes, as well as the presence of use of long-term oxygen therapy, were not associated with coping strategies. Self-distraction and Planning strategies are associated to the success of

  19. The Impact of Fluency Strategy Training on Iranian EFL Learners' Speech under Online Planning Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifoori, Zohreh; Vahidi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The research findings reported on here confirm the facilitative role of pre-task planning on fluency and of online task planning on accuracy of speech. This quasi-experimental research was conducted to examine whether learners could be trained to attend to the fluency of their speech while planning online and whether such training might compensate…

  20. Information Operations Versus Civilian Marketing and Advertising: A Comparative Analysis to Improve IO Planning and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Marketing.....................................................................23 2. Basic Marketing Strategy ..................................................................24...involved with developing marketing strategy will be defined as they are used throughout the rest of this chapter. 2. Basic Marketing Strategy Since...aspects of marketing strategy based on two Universities that are widely accepted as the best business schools in the United States. It is not the

  1. Heavy Precipitation impacts and emergency planning - developing applicable strategies for a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    area. It shows that most of the damage is caused by spilled sewage drains flooding basements and streets. Besides less fire brigade operations are observed in rural areas with constant amount of rainfall. The occurrence of heavy rain events is spatially limited, hot-spot areas with higher probability can be detected. Based on this finding, a resource management strategy for the fire brigade can be developed. Keywords: emergency planning strategy, critical infrastructure, heavy rainfall, fire-brigade resource management

  2. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.ferramosca@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora; Felline, Serena [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Rimoli, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Mollo, Ernesto [Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli (Italy); Zara, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Terlizzi, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-05-13

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.

  3. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  4. Are there national strategies, plans and guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis C in people who inject drugs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maticic, Mojca; Videcnik Zorman, Jerneja; Gregorcic, Sergeja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major global health problem, which in high-income countries now mostly affects people who inject drugs (PWID). Many studies show that the treatment of HCV infection is as successful among PWID as among other populations and recently PWID...... have been included in the international guidelines for the treatment of HCV infection. The aim of this survey was to collect data from European countries on the existence of national strategies, action plans and clinical guidelines for HCV treatment in the general population and PWID in particular....... METHODS: Thirty-three European countries were invited to participate. Data on available national strategies, action plans and guidelines for HCV treatment in general population and in PWID specifically were collected prospectively by means of a structured electronic questionnaire and analyzed accordingly...

  5. LOCAL ECONOMIC PLANNING STRATEGY BASED ON SECTORAL ADVANTAGED AND POTENTIAL IN EASTERN JAVA PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Rossanto Dwi Handoyo

    2005-01-01

    Legislation act no. 22/1999 about local government management and act no. 25/1999 about the balancing central and local government budgeting makes local authority to improve and widen their local development planning. The consequences of getting wider of local government planning to manage their own local potential capacity makes all initiative planning must come from local government themselves. The central government now has nothing to do with this. Now, the question is, are they well prepa...

  6. Cortical regions recruited for complex active-learning strategies and action planning exhibit rapid reactivation during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; Galvan, Ashley; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2011-12-01

    Memory retrieval can involve activity in the same sensory cortical regions involved in perception of the original event, and this neural "reactivation" has been suggested as an important mechanism of memory retrieval. However, it is still unclear if fragments of experience other than sensory information are retained and later reactivated during retrieval. For example, learning in non-laboratory settings generally involves active exploration of memoranda, thus requiring the generation of action plans for behavior and the use of strategies deployed to improve subsequent memory performance. Is information pertaining to action planning and strategic processing retained and reactivated during retrieval? To address this question, we compared ERP correlates of memory retrieval for objects that had been studied in an active manner involving action planning and strategic processing to those for objects that had been studied passively. Memory performance was superior for actively studied objects, and unique ERP retrieval correlates for these objects were identified when subjects remembered the specific spatial locations at which objects were studied. Early-onset frontal shifts in ERP correlates of retrieval were noted for these objects, which parallel the recruitment of frontal cortex during learning object locations previously identified using fMRI with the same paradigm. Notably, ERPs during recall for items studied with a specific viewing strategy localized to the same supplementary motor cortex region previously identified with fMRI when this strategy was implemented during study, suggesting rapid reactivation of regions directly involved in strategic action planning. Collectively, these results implicate neural populations involved in learning in important retrieval functions, even for those populations involved in strategic control and action planning. Notably, these episodic features are not generally reported during recollective experiences, suggesting that

  7. The relevance of outsourcing and leagile strategies in performance optimization of an integrated process planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Felix T S; Kumar, Vikas; Tiwari, Manoj Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years growing global competition has forced the manufacturing industries to upgrade their old production strategies with the modern day approaches. As a result, recent interest has been developed towards finding an appropriate policy that could enable them to compete with others, and facilitate them to emerge as a market winner. Keeping in mind the abovementioned facts, in this paper the authors have proposed an integrated process planning and scheduling model inheriting the...

  8. WE-A-304-02: Strategies and Technologies for Cranial Radiosurgery Planning: Gamma Knife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, D. [University of Virginia Health Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The high fractional doses, stringent requirements for accuracy and precision, and surgical perspective characteristic of intracranial radiosurgery create considerations for treatment planning which are distinct from most other radiotherapy procedures. This session will introduce treatment planning techniques specific to two popular intracranial SRS modalities: Gamma Knife and MLC-based Linac. The basic treatment delivery characteristics of each device will be reviewed with a focus on how those characteristics determine the paradigm used for treatment planning. Basic techniques for treatment planning will be discussed, including considerations such as isodose selection, target and organ-at-risk definition, quality indices, and protection of critical structures. Future directions for SRS treatment planning will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: Introduce the basic physical principles of intracranial radiosurgery and how they are realized in the treatment planning paradigms for Gamma Knife and Linac radiosurgery. Demonstrate basic treatment planning techniques. Discuss metrics for evaluating SRS treatment plan quality. Discuss recent and future advances in SRS treatment planning. D. Schlesinger receives research support from Elekta, AB.

  9. Real-time inverse high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning with catheter optimization by compressed sensing-inspired optimization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthier, C V; Aschenbrenner, K P; Müller, R; Polster, L; Cormack, R A; Hesser, J W

    2016-08-21

    This paper demonstrates that optimization strategies derived from the field of compressed sensing (CS) improve computational performance in inverse treatment planning (ITP) for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following an approach applied to low-dose-rate brachytherapy, we developed a reformulation of the ITP problem with the same mathematical structure as standard CS problems. Two greedy methods, derived from hard thresholding and subspace pursuit are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art ITP solvers. Applied to clinical prostate brachytherapy plans speed-up by a factor of 56-350 compared to state-of-the-art methods. Based on a Wilcoxon signed rank-test the novel method statistically significantly decreases the final objective function value (p  plans are either clinically equivalent or show a better performance with respect to dosimetric measures.

  10. Equilibrium Investment Strategy for DC Pension Plan with Inflation and Stochastic Income under Heston’s SV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio selection problem for a defined contribution (DC pension plan under the mean-variance criteria. We take into account the inflation risk and assume that the salary income process of the pension plan member is stochastic. Furthermore, the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, an inflation-linked bond, and a risky asset with Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV. Under the framework of game theory, we derive two extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations systems and give the corresponding verification theorems in both the periods of accumulation and distribution of the DC pension plan. The explicit expressions of the equilibrium investment strategies, corresponding equilibrium value functions, and the efficient frontiers are also obtained. Finally, some numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are presented to verify our theoretical results.

  11. SU-E-T-276: Treatment Planning Strategies for Lung Injury Studies in Rat Models in 6 MV Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, M; Ybarra, N; Lee, S; Jeyaseelan, K; Seuntjens, J

    2012-06-01

    To study planning strategies that can be used in small animal radiation-induced lung toxicity experiments using 6 MV accelerator with high density MLC. Three different types of plans were designed on CT images of a Sprague Dawley rat model to irradiate 50% of the total lung volume (lung divided into apex and base) with a prescription dose of 24 Gy to the partial lung. Two VMAT arc therapy plans were optimized to cover to the prescription dose, either the apex or base of the lung. Two AP- PA plans were designed to completely block either lung apex or base while irradiating the remaining 50% of the lung. Finally, two AP-PA plans were designed to cover, to the prescription dose, the apex or base of the lung. The plans were designed and optimized using the Eclipse AAA algorithm and recalculated using the MMCTP/EGS/Beam Monte Carlo system. When completely blocking the lung base, the apex will be underdosed by up to 30%; when completely covering the apex by the prescribed dose, the base will receive overdosing (V50%=73%). The VMAT plan leads to a more conformal dose distribution and spares unnecessary skin exposure when compared to AP-PA MV or kV delivery. Despite the small size of rat model, the 6 MV VMAT delivery is superior in terms of dose conformality and sparing of the heart and the non-irradiated 50% of the lung compared to the standard, simpler, AP-PA delivery. MC dosimetry in lung shows that the delivered dose is 10% higher than predicted by AAA because of the predominance of small fields in the delivery. Clinical state-of- the-art planning and delivery techniques can be scaled down accurately to rats. The use of these techniques is essential in small animal studies to render conclusions of radiation response investigations translatable to human studies. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Using community surveys to inform the planning and implementation of environmental change strategies: participatory research in 12 Washington communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Roy M; Leichtling, Gillian J; Bolan, Marc; Becker, Linda G

    2013-03-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of environmental change strategies (ECS) in effecting community-level change on attitudes and behaviors related to underage drinking (Treno and Lee in Alcohol Res Health 26:35-40, 2002; Birckmayer et al. in J Drug Educ 34(2):121-153, 2004). Primary data collection to inform the design of these strategies, however, can be resource intensive and exceed the capacity of community stakeholders. This study describes the participatory planning and implementation of community-level surveys in 12 diverse communities in the state of Washington. These surveys were conducted through collaborations among community volunteers and evaluation experts assigned to each community. The surveys were driven by communities' prevention planning needs and interests; constructed from collections of existing, field-tested items and scales; implemented by community members; analyzed by evaluation staff; and used in the design of ECS by community-level leaders and prevention practitioners. The communities varied in the content of their surveys, in their sampling approaches and in their data collection methods. Although these surveys were not conducted using traditional rigorous population survey methodology, they were done within limited resources, and the participatory nature of these activities strengthened the communities' commitment to using their results in the planning of their environmental change strategies.

  13. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankolo X. Lethoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs, which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs.Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; mitigation; Integrated Development Plan; vulnerable municipalities

  14. Five Recession-Driven Strategies for Planning and Managing Campus Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities continue to face significant fiscal challenges in the current recession. A review of ongoing campus facilities planning projects, coupled with a review of more than 30 recent campus master planning requests for proposals and the relevant literature, indicates that colleges and universities are finding innovative ways to…

  15. It's about time: WHO and partners release programming strategies for postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffield, Mary Eluned; Egan, Shannon; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-02-01

    The postpartum period is a critical time to address high unmet family planning need and to reduce the risks of closely spaced pregnancies. Practical tools are included in the new resource for integrating postpartum family planning at points when women have frequent health system contact, including during antenatal care, labor and delivery, postnatal care, immunization, and child health care.

  16. Comparison of VMAT and IMRT strategies for cervical cancer patients using automated planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfo, Abdul Wahab M; Voet, Peter W J; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Mens, Jan Willem M; Hoogeman, Mischa S; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2015-03-01

    In a published study on cervical cancer, 5-beam IMRT was inferior to single arc VMAT. Here we compare 9, 12, and 20 beam IMRT with single and dual arc VMAT. For each of 10 patients, automated plan generation with the in-house Erasmus-iCycle optimizer was used to assist an expert planner in generating the five plans with the clinical TPS. For each patient, all plans were clinically acceptable with a high and similar PTV coverage. OAR sparing increased when going from 9 to 12 to 20 IMRT beams, and from single to dual arc VMAT. For all patients, 12 and 20 beam IMRT were superior to single and dual arc VMAT, with substantial variations in gain among the study patients. As expected, delivery of VMAT plans was significantly faster than delivery of IMRT plans. Often reported increased plan quality for VMAT compared to IMRT has not been observed for cervical cancer. Twenty and 12 beam IMRT plans had a higher quality than single and dual arc VMAT. For individual patients, the optimal delivery technique depends on a complex trade-off between plan quality and treatment time that may change with introduction of faster delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Five Recession-Driven Strategies for Planning and Managing Campus Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities continue to face significant fiscal challenges in the current recession. A review of ongoing campus facilities planning projects, coupled with a review of more than 30 recent campus master planning requests for proposals and the relevant literature, indicates that colleges and universities are finding innovative ways to…

  18. Independent Planning System and Public Administration in Metropolitan Development: Agglomeration Strategies of Greater Chaoshan in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines independent planning system as a means of public administration in regional economic development. It proposes a new strategy based on the theories of public administrative resources, to agglomerate and unify the cities of Shantou, Jieyang, and Chaozhou into a new administrative entity as a metropolis with the status of independent planning and the preferred policies of a Special Economic Region to lead regional development. The optimal allocation of public administrative resources has played a key role in the fundamental economic development in China in recent years. The new administrative system of large cities (metropolises with independent planning has become an innovative format to utilize the renewable soft resources of administration, which in fact is a new attempt to reform the economic system by the Chinese government. The greater Chaoshan area needs to be agglomerated and unified to further develop the regional economy with the implementation of independent planning system. The current research conducted from a practical and political point of view is of significant value to the overall planning and strategic layout of the economic and social development of the whole eastern Guangdong region.

  19. Detecting and responding to a dengue outbreak: evaluation of existing strategies in country outbreak response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Julia; Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans.

  20. In-hospital complications after invasive strategy for the management of Non STEMI: women fare as well as men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roul Gerald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the in-hospital complication rate in women suffering from non-ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI compared to men. Methods The files of 479 consecutive patients (133 women and 346 men suffering from a Non STEMI (Non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction between the January 1st 2006 and March 21st 2009 were retrospectively analyzed with special attention to every single complication occurring during hospital stay. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and are reported as median unless otherwise specified. A p value Results As compared to men, women were significantly older (75.8 vs. 65.2 years; p vs. 26% - p = NS, no single event was significantly gender related. The logistic regression identified age and CRP concentration as the only predictive variables in the whole group. After splitting for genders, these parameters were still predictive of events in men. In women however, CRP was the only one with a borderline p value. Conclusions Our study does not support any gender difference for in-hospital adverse events in patients treated invasively for an acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and elevated troponin.

  1. Investigating Invasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  2. Implementing PlanCheyenne: Strategies and Opportunities for Smarter Growth in Cheyenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is from a technical assistance project with Cheyenne, WY, to identify policy options that would implement PlanCheyenne and illustrate development that would help to achieve the community's goals.

  3. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation. Strategy plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed.

  4. From Tragedy To Strategy: Assessing The FDNY’s Post 9/11 Strategic Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Strategic Planning,” Harvard Business Review , January– February (1994), https://hbr.org/1994/01/the-fall-and-rise-of-strategic-planning; Lawrence, Strategic...134 Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, “Strategic Intent,” Harvard Business Review 83, no. 7/8 (August 7, 2005): 161. 62 to...K. Prahalad. “Strategic Intent.” Harvard Business Review 83, no. 7/ 8 (August 7, 2005). Heracleous, Loizos. “Strategic Thinking or Strategic

  5. In-hospital complications after invasive strategy for the management of Non STEMI: women fare as well as men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To analyze the in-hospital complication rate in women suffering from non-ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to men. Methods The files of 479 consecutive patients (133 women and 346 men) suffering from a Non STEMI (Non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) between the January 1st 2006 and March 21st 2009 were retrospectively analyzed with special attention to every single complication occurring during hospital stay. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and are reported as median unless otherwise specified. A p value < .05 was considered significant. Results As compared to men, women were significantly older (75.8 vs. 65.2 years; p < .005). All cardiovascular risk factors but tobacco and hypertension were similar between the groups: men were noticeably more often smoker (p < .0001) and women more hypertensive (p < .005). No difference was noticed for pre-hospital cardiovascular drug treatment. However women were slightly more severe at entry (more Killip class IV; p = .0023; higher GRACE score for in-hospital death - p = .008 and CRUSADE score for bleeding - p < .0001). All the patients underwent PCI of the infarct-related artery after 24 or 48 hrs post admission without sex-related difference either for timing of PCI or primary success rate. During hospitalization, 130 complications were recorded. Though the event rate was slightly higher in women (30% vs. 26% - p = NS), no single event was significantly gender related. The logistic regression identified age and CRP concentration as the only predictive variables in the whole group. After splitting for genders, these parameters were still predictive of events in men. In women however, CRP was the only one with a borderline p value. Conclusions Our study does not support any gender difference for in-hospital adverse events in patients treated invasively for an acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and elevated

  6. Real-time inverse high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning with catheter optimization by compressed sensing-inspired optimization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthier, C. V.; Aschenbrenner, K. P.; Müller, R.; Polster, L.; Cormack, R. A.; Hesser, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that optimization strategies derived from the field of compressed sensing (CS) improve computational performance in inverse treatment planning (ITP) for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following an approach applied to low-dose-rate brachytherapy, we developed a reformulation of the ITP problem with the same mathematical structure as standard CS problems. Two greedy methods, derived from hard thresholding and subspace pursuit are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art ITP solvers. Applied to clinical prostate brachytherapy plans speed-up by a factor of 56-350 compared to state-of-the-art methods. Based on a Wilcoxon signed rank-test the novel method statistically significantly decreases the final objective function value (p  <  0.01). The optimization times were below one second and thus planing can be considered as real-time capable. The novel CS inspired strategy enables real-time ITP for HDR brachytherapy including catheter optimization. The generated plans are either clinically equivalent or show a better performance with respect to dosimetric measures.

  7. Adapting the "managing by walking around" methodology as a leadership strategy to communicate a hospital-wide strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marcie Sara; Stone, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Hospital Center (MHC) in East Harlem, New York, has undergone significant leadership changes within the past few years, and the current leadership team developed a long-term strategic plan for the organization that it wanted to effectively communicate to all hospital staff. The spread of information is a challenge at MHC, as it is in many hospitals, because of the large number of staff working various shifts, and the inability of staff to leave their units at the same time to attend general staff meetings. Because of the recent success of the hospital's Executive WalkRounds Program and Breakthough Program, which embody principles of the leadership strategy Managing By Walking Around (MBWA), the senior leadership team decided to roll out their new strategic plan in a 2-week series of rounds to each unit/department throughout the hospital during each shift. Utilizing this method, 69 percent of MHC staff attended the rounds, and 88.9 percent of management level staff and 64.5 percent of unionized/labor who participated in the hospital's Employee Satisfaction Survey stated that they understood the hospital's new strategic plan. MHC's successful strategy is easily applicable within other similar settings.

  8. Preparedness strategy and procedures. Annual report 1996. Plans for 1997; Beredskabsstrategi og -procedure. Aarsrapport 1996. Planer for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    EKO-3 Preparedness Strategy and Procedures, a title that covers the subjects - collection, quality assurance, and the use of data in a preparedness situation. The term data is used here in its widest sense covering measurements, samples, radioecological background information, etc. The following sub-projects are part of EKO-3: EKO-3.1 Mobile measurements; EKO-3.2 Quality Assurance in sampling and analysis; EKO-3.3 Operational intervention levels; EKO-3.4 Measurement strategy, basis for decisions, and interventions in agriculture. EKO-3.1 which was the first started project is more or less completed. The sub-project will, however, continue with reference to a common NKS-EU follow-up exercise on RESUME-95 in 1998 - RESUME-98. In 1996 most funds has been given to EKO-3.2. The different parts of the project have been launched and the first of them are approaching their conclusion, this is the case for for example Quality assurance in gamma spectroscopy with accreditation as a goal. For 1997 a number of `typical` Nordic scenarios is planned. EKO-3.4 too has proceeded as planned in 1996. Also in this project the work has partly been on planning. The project work proceeds well and a draft version of the final report is expected ultimo 1996. (EG).

  9. Determining the appropriate strategies for emergency planning through AHP-SWOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    During an unexpected incident, companies should demonstrate appropriate behaviour based on predetermined and rehearsed emergency strategies. This paper describes how to select the proper strategies for emergency situations via means of the AHP-SWOT tool, where the initial SWOT analysis is conducted for the emergency management system, and the final strategies are selected via the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Alternative response strategies comprise internal, shared and external responses. Most of the scenarios investigated for this study demanded a shared response. These findings highlight the importance of mutual aid agreements, cooperative exercises and the improvement of communication systems. Organisations can take advantage of integrated approaches to select the best strategies and tactics for normal situations in general and emergency situations in particular.

  10. Novel lung IMRT planning algorithms with nonuniform dose delivery strategy to account for respiratory motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Pengpeng; Mah, Dennis; Gewanter, Richard; Kutcher, Gerald

    2006-09-01

    To effectively deliver radiation dose to lung tumors, respiratory motion has to be considered in treatment planning. In this paper we first present a new lung IMRT planning algorithm, referred as the dose shaping (DS) method, that shapes the dose distribution according to the probability distribution of the tumor over the breathing cycle to account for respiratory motion. In IMRT planning a dose-based convolution method was generally adopted to compensate for random organ motion by performing 4-D dose calculations using a tumor motion probability density function. We modified the CON-DOSE method to a dose volume histogram based convolution method (CON-DVH) that allows nonuniform dose distribution to account for respiratory motion. We implemented the two new planning algorithms on an in-house IMRT planning system that uses the Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) planning workstation as the dose calculation engine. The new algorithms were compared with (1) the conventional margin extension approach in which margin is generated based on the extreme positions of the tumor, (2) the dose-based convolution method, and (3) gating with 3 mm residual motion. Dose volume histogram, tumor control probability, normal tissue complication probability, and mean lung dose were calculated and used to evaluate the relative performance of these approaches at the end-exhale phase of the respiratory cycle. We recruited six patients in our treatment planning study. The study demonstrated that the two new methods could significantly reduce the ipsilateral normal lung dose and outperformed the margin extension method and the dose-based convolution method. Compared with the gated approach that has the best performance in the low dose region, the two methods we proposed have similar potential to escalate tumor dose, but could be more efficient because dose is delivered continuously.

  11. Developing a Robust Strategy for Implementing a Water Resources Master Plan in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.

  12. Applying the knowledge to action framework to plan a strategy for implementing breast cancer screening guidelines: an interprofessional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munce, Sarah; Kastner, Monika; Cramm, Heidi; Lal, Shalini; Deschêne, Sarah-Maude; Auais, Mohammad; Stacey, Dawn; Brouwers, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) interventions may be one solution to improving the uptake of clinical guidelines. IKT research initiatives are particularly relevant for breast cancer research and initiatives targeting the implementation of clinical guidelines and guideline implementation initiatives, where collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of practitioners, patients, caregivers, and policy makers is needed for producing optimum patient outcomes. The objective of this paper was to describe the process of developing an IKT strategy that could be used by guideline developers to improve the uptake of their new clinical practice guidelines on breast cancer screening. An interprofessional group of students as well as two faculty members met six times over three days at the KT Canada Summer Institute in 2011. The team used all of the phases of the action cycle in the Knowledge to Action Framework as an organizing framework. While the entire framework was used, the step involving assessing barriers to knowledge use was judged to be particularly relevant in anticipating implementation problems and being able to inform the specific KT interventions that would be appropriate to mitigate these challenges and to accomplish goals and outcomes. This activity also underscored the importance of group process and teamwork in IKT. We propose that an a priori assessment of barriers to knowledge use (i.e., level and corresponding barriers), along with the other phases of the Knowledge to Action Framework, is a strategic approach for KT strategy development, implementation, and evaluation planning and could be used in the future planning of KT strategies.

  13. Exploitative strategies of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and native ant species in a southern Spanish pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, S; Retana, J; Cerdá, X; Reyes-López, J; Arias de Reyna, L

    2007-10-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868), is displacing native ant species in Doñana National Park (Spain). This paper discusses the results of experiments aimed at analyzing exploitation competition between the invading species and other ant species in a park community. The Argentine ant was found to implement several strategies favoring its success in exploitation competition: mass recruitment, use of various microhabitats (on the ground and in trees), and activity over a wide range of temperatures. Although these strategies were not exclusive to L. humile, their joint use, together with the large number of workers forming each "unicolony," conferred a clear advantage for resource exploitation. Some native species were more severely affected than others by the presence of L. humile in terms of both abundance and behavior. The worst affected species were those whose ecological characteristics were similar to those of the Argentine ant, e.g., Pheidole pallidula (Nylander, 1849); the species least affected was Cataglyphis floricola Tinaut, 1993, possibly because of its subordinate and thermophilous nature (little overlap of daily activity rhythms with the exotic species).

  14. Developing a Robust Strategy Map in Balanced Scorecard Model Using Scenario Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to successful strategy implementation in an organization is for people in the organization to understand it, which requires the establishment of complicated but vital processes whereby the intangible assets are converted into tangible outputs. In this regard, a strategy map is a useful tool that helps execute this difficult task. However, such maps are typically developed based on ambiguous cause-effect relationships that result from the extrapolation of past data and flawed links with possible futures. However, if the strategy map is a mere reflection of the status quo but not future conditions and does not embrace real-world uncertainties, it will endanger the organization since it posits that the current situation will continue. In order to compensate for this deficiency, the environmental scenarios affecting an organization were identified in the present study. Then the strategy map was developed in the form of a scenario-based balanced scorecard. Besides, the effect of environmental changes on the components of the strategy map was investigated using the strategy maps illustrated over time together with the corresponding cash flow vectors. Subsequently, a method was proposed to calculate the degree of robustness of every component of the strategy map for the contingency of every scenario. Finally, the results were applied to a post office.

  15. HZT企业发展战略规划与实施策略探究%HZT enterprise development strategy planning and Implementation Strategy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锦华

    2016-01-01

    文章先是对该课题的研究背景与目的以及HZT公司的发展现状进行了分析,又对企业战略管理基本理论进行了解释,再对HZT公司的内外部环境进行了分析,对HZT企业发展战略的SWOT分析与优选进行了介绍,最终对HZT公司的发展战略的规划与实施进行了介绍和说明。%First on the subject research background and purpose,and the HZT company development status were analyzed,and the basic theory of enterprise strategy management were explained to,again of HZT company's internal and external environment are analyzed,of HZT enterprise development strategy SWOT analysis and optimization are introduced,finally of HZT company development strategy planning and implementation were introduced.

  16. Public policy discourse, planning and measures toward sustainable energy strategies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, Huang [Department of International Economics and Trade, Jinan University (China); Haque, Emdad [Natural Resources Institute, The University of Manitoba (Canada); Barg, Stephan [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. ''From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes''. In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy. Canada has a higher aggregate intensity - absolute energy use per capita or per unit of GDP - than most International Energy Agency (IEA) countries, ranking second and fourth, respectively. In 2000, Canada used only a small amount of renewable energy (without hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste), accounting for 1.3% of its primary energy supply. Canada has made little use of wind power compared to other industrialized countries. By June 2004, Canada's installed capacity was 341 megawatts (MW), compared to 13,407 MW installed by late 2003 in Germany, the country with the largest installed capacity. Canada's current small-scale hydroelectric capacity is about 2000 MW. Canada also has a few grid-connected wood-waste-fired power plants operational or under construction, with a maximum capacity of 60 MW. By 1999, Canada was generating 85.3 MW of electricity from captured municipal landfill gas. It is also worth noting that solar power is now finding niche applications in Canada, despite the fact that its cost remains relatively high (although falling). Canada is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. It has committed to reducing its emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. But Canada

  17. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms.

  18. An improved artificial bee colony algorithm based on balance-evolution strategy for unmanned combat aerial vehicle path planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms.

  19. Stereoscopic networking planning strategy in residential districts%住宅小区立体组网规划策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙同伦; 姜永涛

    2014-01-01

    本文结合网络建设经验,提出一套新型的立体组网策略,对城市住宅小区各场景立体网进行合理化覆盖,为以后城市住宅小区立体组网规划及深度覆盖建设提供一点借鉴。%Combing with internet construction experience, the article puts forward a series of creative stereoscopic networking strategies, which has a reasonable coverage to each scene three-dimensional network planning in urban residential districts, so as to lay a foundation for the later-on stereoscopic network planning and deep coverage construction in urban residential districts.

  20. Integration of solar energy into utility-system planning and strategies: 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of the conference was to address the following questions that the utility industry must face as they make short and long-range plans to meet the nation's energy needs: (1) How do utilities develop plans for solar energy in demand forecasting, plant expansion, capital requirements, load management, and consumer relations. (2) Which solar technologies will emerge as dominant in the future. (3) What rate of growth in the utilization of solar energy can be expected by utility managers. (4) How can utilities use information on developments in solar technology in their operations, planning, and management. (5) What part can utilities expect to play in the financing and control of major solar energy technologies. The views and information presented at the conference are recorded in 17 speeches and presentations.

  1. Planning Strategies for Teaching the Concept of Number to ESN(S) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlow, David J.; Winteridge, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The psychology of learning is used to analyze learning difficulties of educationally sub-normal (severe) children. Implications for more effective teaching strategies in dealing with number concepts as well as general considerations are given. (MN)

  2. Some remarks with regard to international tax planning, tax risk management and tax strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The recent state aid investigations may be an incentive for the corporate boards and senior management of companies to have a closer look at their tax strategy and its implementation in the company's business and organization to avoid unexpected outcomes.

  3. Adaptive planning strategy for high dose rate prostate brachytherapy—a simulation study on needle positioning errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot de Battisti, M; Denis de Senneville, B; Maenhout, M; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Lagendijk, J J W; van Vulpen, M; Moerland, M A

    2016-03-01

    The development of magnetic resonance (MR) guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer has gained increasing interest for delivering a high tumor dose safely in a single fraction. To support needle placement in the limited workspace inside the closed-bore MRI, a single-needle MR-compatible robot is currently under development at the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU). This robotic device taps the needle in a divergent way from a single rotation point into the prostate. With this setup, it is warranted to deliver the irradiation dose by successive insertions of the needle. Although robot-assisted needle placement is expected to be more accurate than manual template-guided insertion, needle positioning errors may occur and are likely to modify the pre-planned dose distribution.In this paper, we propose a dose plan adaptation strategy for HDR prostate brachytherapy with feedback on the needle position: a dose plan is made at the beginning of the interventional procedure and updated after each needle insertion in order to compensate for possible needle positioning errors. The introduced procedure can be used with the single needle MR-compatible robot developed at the UMCU. The proposed feedback strategy was tested by simulating complete HDR procedures with and without feedback on eight patients with different numbers of needle insertions (varying from 4 to 12). In of the cases tested, the number of clinically acceptable plans obtained at the end of the procedure was larger with feedback compared to the situation without feedback. Furthermore, the computation time of the feedback between each insertion was below 100 s which makes it eligible for intra-operative use.

  4. REVISED NATIONAL PLAN - STRATEGY FOR HARMONISATION OF SERBIAN QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE WITH EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislava Jakšić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Every country candidate for European Union has to fulfill a number of criteria for the membership including political (democracy, human rights and economic (functioning of market economy as well as to adopt "Acquis communautaire" (the entire European legislation of about 11.000 acts. Preparation for membership to European Union is a process that requires very careful planning and organization. Serbia has to take all necessary steps in order to remove technical barriers to trade and gradually to achieve conformity with Community technical regulations and standards within the National Quality Plan.

  5. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 2: Low-level waste strategy and planning, decontamination and decommissioning, compliance monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Nineteen papers are presented in volume 2. The 11 papers in the LLW Strategy and Planning section discuss plans for disposal facilities in Texas, Pennsylvania, Hanford, the Southwest and Southeast Compacts, and others. Three papers discuss decontamination technology and activities. Environmental monitoring requirements and recommendations at LLW facilities are discussed in 5 papers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. A comparison of information functions and search strategies for sensor planning in target classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxian; Ferrari, Silvia; Cai, Chenghui

    2012-02-01

    This paper investigates the comparative performance of several information-driven search strategies and decision rules using a canonical target classification problem. Five sensor models are considered: one obtained from classical estimation theory and four obtained from Bernoulli, Poisson, binomial, and mixture-of-binomial distributions. A systematic approach is presented for deriving information functions that represent the expected utility of future sensor measurements from mutual information, Rènyi divergence, Kullback-Leibler divergence, information potential, quadratic entropy, and the Cauchy-Schwarz distance. The resulting information-driven strategies are compared to direct-search, alert-confirm, task-driven (TS), and log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) search strategies. Extensive numerical simulations show that quadratic entropy typically leads to the most effective search strategy with respect to correct-classification rates. In the presence of prior information, the quadratic-entropy-driven strategy also displays the lowest rate of false alarms. However, when prior information is absent or very noisy, TS and LLR strategies achieve the lowest false-alarm rates for the Bernoulli, mixture-of-binomial, and classical sensor models.

  7. An Integrated Planning for Reuse and Wetland Strategy of Waste Water from Rural Enterprises:A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUQI-XING; R.W.BELL; 等

    1995-01-01

    A waste water reuse engineering was designed and then operated in Hongshan,a small town in Zhejiang Province,China,in order to solve pollution and shortage of water resources due to the development of rural enterprises.The results showed that series-structure design and cycling model were two effective modes of saving water and decreasing pollutants into environment,and wetland strategy should be a component part of the integrated planning for waste water reuse of rural enterprises.This case study could provide a basis for the optimum utilization and pollution avoidance of water resources.

  8. Same-day transfer for the invasive strategy of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome admitted to spoke hospitals: Data from the Emilia-Romagna Regional Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Gianluca; Menozzi, Mila; Guastaroba, Paolo; Vignali, Luigi; Belotti, Laura Mb; Casella, Gianni; Berti, Elena; Solinas, Emilia; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Biscaglia, Simone; Pavasini, Rita; De Palma, Rossana; Manari, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The service strategy (same-day transfer between spoke hospital and hub centre with catheterisation laboratory (cath-lab) facility to perform invasive procedures) has been suggested to improve the management of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) admitted to spoke hospitals. We used data from a large prospective Italian registry to describe application, performance and outcome of the service strategy in the daily clinical practice. This study was based on an observational, post-hoc analysis of all consecutive NSTEACS patients admitted to spoke non-invasive hospitals of the Emilia-Romagna regional network and receiving coronary artery angiography (CAA)±percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated: application of service strategy, time to cath-lab access, hospital stay length, 30-days occurrence of adverse events. From January 2011-December 2012, 2952 NSTEACS consecutive patients were admitted to spoke non-invasive hospitals and received CAA. Overall, 1765 (60%) patients were managed with a service strategy. After multivariable analysis, service strategy emerged as independent predictor of faster access to cath-lab (within 72 h: hazard ratio (HR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.7, pstrategy significantly reduced hospital stay length (-5.5 days, pstrategy. Thirty-day occurrence of adverse events did not differ between patients managed with or without a service strategy. In our daily clinical practice, a service strategy seems to be an effective approach to optimise the invasive management of NSTEACS patients admitted to spoke hospitals. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  9. Conditional Allele Mouse Planner (CAMP): software to facilitate the planning and design of breeding strategies involving mice with conditional alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Jason D; Pisitkun, Trairak; Miller, R Lance

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic and conditional knockout mouse models play an important role in biomedical research and their use has grown exponentially in the last 5-10 years. Generating conditional knockouts often requires breeding multiple alleles onto the background of a single mouse or group of mice. Breeding these mice depends on parental genotype, litter size, transmission frequency, and the number of breeding rounds. Therefore, a well planned breeding strategy is critical for keeping costs to a minimum. However, designing a viable breeding strategy can be challenging. With so many different variables this would be an ideal task for a computer program. To facilitate this process, we created a Java-based program called Conditional Allele Mouse Planner (CAMP). CAMP is designed to provide an estimate of the number of breeders, amount of time, and costs associated with generating mice of a particular genotype. We provide a description of CAMP, how to use it, and offer it freely as an application.

  10. Developing an international market entry strategy and tactical plan for the cultural tourism of Turkey in South Korea market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since international tourism market is more competitive and lucrative, most of countries want to give their emphasis on their promotional activities in order to increase their market share. This aim can be achieved either through the product diversification or penetrating new markets. In this regard, this paper primarily focuses on developing market entry strategy and tactical plan for cultural tourism of Turkey in Korean market. After the justification of Korean outbound tourism based on analysis of political, legal, economical, and technological factors, marketing strategy including segmentation, targeting, positioning, and marketing objectives are dealt with in this article. Then, a marketing mix based on 7P is suggested for Turkish cultural tourism. Finally, recommendations for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey are suggested.

  11. Ant Colony Optimization Combined With Immunosuppression and Parameters Switching Strategy for Solving Path Planning Problem of Landfill Inspection Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved ant colony optimization (ACO combined with immunosuppression and parameters switching strategy is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a novel judgment criterion for immunosuppression is introduced, that is, if the optimum solution has not changed for default iteration number, the immunosuppressive strategy is carried out. Moreover, two groups of parameters in ACO are switched back and forth according to the change of optimum solution as well. Therefore, the search space is expanded greatly and the problem of the traditional ACO such as falling into local minima easily is avoided effectively. The comparative simulation studies for path planning of landfill inspection robots in Asahikawa, Japan are executed, and the results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance characterized by higher search quality and faster search speed.

  12. Developing an international market entry strategy and tactical plan for the cultural tourism of Turkey in south Korea market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since international tourism market is more competitive and lucrative, most of countries want to give their emphasis on their promotional activities in order to increase their market share. This aim can be achieved either through the product diversification or penetrating new markets. In this regard, this paper primarily focuses on developing market entry strategy and tactical plan for cultural tourism of Turkey in Korean market. After the justification of Korean outbound tourism based on analysis of political, legal, economical, and technological factors, marketing strategy including segmentation, targeting, positioning, and marketing objectives are dealt with in this article. Then, a marketing mix based on 7P is suggested for Turkish cultural tourism. Finally, recommendations for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey are suggested.

  13. Optimal Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a DC Pension Plan with the Return of Premiums Clauses and Annuity Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined contribution and annuity contract are merged into one pension plan to study both accumulation phase and distribution phase, which results in such effects that both phases before and after retirement being “defined”. Under the Heston’s stochastic volatility model, this paper focuses on mean-variance insurers with the return of premiums clauses to study the optimal time-consistent investment strategy for the DC pension merged with an annuity contract. Both accumulation phase before retirement and distribution phase after retirement are studied. In the time-consistent framework, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with the optimization problem are established. Applying stochastic optimal control technique, the time-consistent explicit solutions of the optimal strategies and the efficient frontiers are obtained. In addition, numerical analysis illustrates our results and also deepens our knowledge or understanding of the research results.

  14. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  15. Spatial Perception and Cognition Review. Considering Geotechnologies as Urban Planning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a review of the spatial cognition and perception principles, referring to the definition proposed by Cullen and Lynch, through the geotechnology tools. It presents a case study to be analyzed through Geographical Information Systems (GIS, 3D Modeling, Spatial Analysis and Data Base Structure. This proposition presents reflections about the concepts and values of the early foundations of the spatial perception and cognition theories as a base to promote participative planning, investigating how geotechnologies can favor the registration and identification of landscape values to be considered in urban planning. The downtown of Belo Horizonte (Brazil was defined as a case study to promote the exercise of these reflections, aiming to present a practical illustration of the methodological proposition. This work tried to reach its purpose inquiring how geotechnologies could enhance knowledge gain in the Urban Planning practice. It points out some research paths that could be followed, as well as new approaches to the development of academic understanding of the geotechnologies role in the urban planning scenario.

  16. Integrating water management and spatial planning - Strategies based on the dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, Johan; Al, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A close connection is emerging between water management and spatial planning in the Netherlands as a result of a new acceptance of water on land, and the European Union's recent emphasis on managing water at the scale of entire river basins. We review Dutch and European trends in water management

  17. Adaptive planning : Generating conditions for urban adaptability.Lessons from Dutch organic development strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward; de Roo, Gert

    2016-01-01

    The development of cities includes a wide variety of uncertainties which challenge spatial planners and decision makers. In response, planning approaches which move away from the ambition to achieve predefined outcomes are being explored in the literature. One of them is an adaptive approach to

  18. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  19. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  20. Digital Problems and Strategies of Partial Revision in Overall Plan of Land Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The technical route of partial revision in overall plan of land use is briefly described.It is pointed out that problems of area measuring in the technical route are mainly due to the digital process.The digital problems of partial revision in overall plan of land use are presented as follows:the maps are not proofread before digitalization;the coordinate matching and projection transformation are not conducted on the maps;the information is asymmetrical pre and post the digitalization;the location lacks precision;the result maps are substandard.The causes of these problems are analyzed,which cover the following aspects.The lack of united management regulations;uneven working abilities of the staff in the compilation units;unawareness of the importance of map digilalization;poor basic conclitions of the original plan maps.At last,the relevant suggestions are put forward,for instance,releasing the national united management methods and technical criteria,establishing industrial admittance system and qualification system of complication units,setting up the mechanism of supervising digitalized results and controlling the quality,conducting coordinate matching and projection transformation and unifying the specification and mode of the results of maps so as to provide technical support for the overall plan of land use,play the micro-regulating role of land use and take a leading role in the sustainable development of social economy.

  1. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  2. Integrating water management and spatial planning - Strategies based on the dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, Johan; Al, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A close connection is emerging between water management and spatial planning in the Netherlands as a result of a new acceptance of water on land, and the European Union's recent emphasis on managing water at the scale of entire river basins. We review Dutch and European trends in water management an

  3. Perceptions Regarding Planning Activities and Supervision Strategies for Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swortzel, Kirk A.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 71% of 150 Tennessee agriculture teachers surveyed indicated that those teaching in multiple departments, subscribing to "Agricultural Education Magazine," and including supervised agricultural experiences (SAE) in grading were more positive about planning. Those not having agricultural education in high school, including…

  4. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galabert, Jose, E-mail: jose.galabert@f4e.europa.eu [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); Hopper, Dave [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom); Neviere, Jean-Cristophe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Nodwell, David [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); White, Gareth [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q{sub 2} Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  5. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict implementation of harm reduction strategies among MDMA/ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to test whether the variables proposed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were associated with baseline intention to implement and subsequent use of 2 MDMA/ecstasy-specific harm reduction interventions: preloading/postloading and pill testing/pill checking. Using targeted Facebook advertisements, an international sample of 391 recreational ecstasy users were recruited to complete questionnaires assessing their ecstasy consumption history, and their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, habit strength (past strategy use), and intention to use these two strategies. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significantly associated with baseline intention to preload/postload and pill test/pill check. Out of the 391 baseline participants, 100 completed the two-month follow-up assessment. Baseline habit strength and frequency of ecstasy consumption during the three months prior to baseline were the only significant predictors of how often participants used the preloading/postloading strategy during the follow-up. Baseline intention to pill test/pill check was the only significant predictor of how often participants used this strategy during the follow-up. These findings provide partial support for TPB variables as both correlates of baseline intention to implement and predictors of subsequent use of these two strategies. Future investigations could assess whether factors related to ecstasy consumption (e.g., subjective level of intoxication, craving, negative consequences following consumption), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility and availability of harm reduction resources) improve the prediction of how often ecstasy users employ these and other harm reduction strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Summary and Recommendations from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Seth P; Bajorin, Dean F; Dinney, Colin P; Efstathiou, Jason A; Groshen, Susan; Hahn, Noah M; Hansel, Donna; Kwiatkowski, David; O'Donnell, Michael; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Svatek, Robert; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Apolo, Andrea B; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Callahan, Margaret; Cha, Eugene K; Drake, Charles; Jarow, Jonathan; Kamat, Ashish; Kim, William; Knowles, Margaret; Mann, Bhupinder; Marchionni, Luigi; McConkey, David; McShane, Lisa; Ramirez, Nilsa; Sharabi, Andrew; Sharpe, Arlene H; Solit, David; Tangen, Catherine M; Amiri, Abdul Tawab; Van Allen, Eliezer; West, Pamela J; Witjes, J A; Quale, Diane Zipursky

    2016-04-27

    The NCI Bladder Cancer Task Force convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) Workshop focused on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC). Meeting attendees included a broad and multi-disciplinary group of clinical and research stakeholders and included leaders from NCI, FDA, National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), advocacy and the pharmaceutical and biotech industry. The meeting goals and objectives were to: 1) create a collaborative environment in which the greater bladder research community can pursue future optimally designed novel clinical trials focused on the theme of molecular targeted and immune-based therapies in NMIBC; 2) frame the clinical and translational questions that are of highest priority; and 3) develop two clinical trial designs focusing on immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Despite successful development and implementation of large Phase II and Phase III trials in bladder and upper urinary tract cancers, there are no active and accruing trials in the NMIBC space within the NCTN. Disappointingly, there has been only one new FDA approved drug (Valrubicin) in any bladder cancer disease state since 1998. Although genomic-based data for bladder cancer are increasingly available, translating these discoveries into practice changing treatment is still to come. Recently, major efforts in defining the genomic characteristics of NMIBC have been achieved. Aligned with these data is the growing number of targeted therapy agents approved and/or in development in other organ site cancers and the multiple similarities of bladder cancer with molecular subtypes in these other cancers. Additionally, although bladder cancer is one of the more immunogenic tumors, some tumors have the ability to attenuate or eliminate host immune responses. Two trial concepts emerged from the meeting including a window of opportunity trial (Phase 0) testing an FGFR3 inhibitor and a second multi-arm multi-stage trial testing combinations

  7. Summary and Recommendations from the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Seth P.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Dinney, Colin P.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Groshen, Susan; Hahn, Noah M.; Hansel, Donna; Kwiatkowski, David; O’Donnell, Michael; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Svatek, Robert; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Apolo, Andrea B.; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Callahan, Margaret; Cha, Eugene K.; Drake, Charles; Jarow, Jonathan; Kamat, Ashish; Kim, William; Knowles, Margaret; Mann, Bhupinder; Marchionni, Luigi; McConkey, David; McShane, Lisa; Ramirez, Nilsa; Sharabi, Andrew; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Solit, David; Tangen, Catherine M.; Amiri, Abdul Tawab; Van Allen, Eliezer; West, Pamela J.; Witjes, J. A.; Quale, Diane Zipursky

    2016-01-01

    The NCI Bladder Cancer Task Force convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) Workshop focused on Novel Therapeutics for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC). Meeting attendees included a broad and multi-disciplinary group of clinical and research stakeholders and included leaders from NCI, FDA, National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), advocacy and the pharmaceutical and biotech industry. The meeting goals and objectives were to: 1) create a collaborative environment in which the greater bladder research community can pursue future optimally designed novel clinical trials focused on the theme of molecular targeted and immune-based therapies in NMIBC; 2) frame the clinical and translational questions that are of highest priority; and 3) develop two clinical trial designs focusing on immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Despite successful development and implementation of large Phase II and Phase III trials in bladder and upper urinary tract cancers, there are no active and accruing trials in the NMIBC space within the NCTN. Disappointingly, there has been only one new FDA approved drug (Valrubicin) in any bladder cancer disease state since 1998. Although genomic-based data for bladder cancer are increasingly available, translating these discoveries into practice changing treatment is still to come. Recently, major efforts in defining the genomic characteristics of NMIBC have been achieved. Aligned with these data is the growing number of targeted therapy agents approved and/or in development in other organ site cancers and the multiple similarities of bladder cancer with molecular subtypes in these other cancers. Additionally, although bladder cancer is one of the more immunogenic tumors, some tumors have the ability to attenuate or eliminate host immune responses. Two trial concepts emerged from the meeting including a window of opportunity trial (Phase 0) testing an FGFR3 inhibitor and a second multi-arm multi-stage trial testing combinations

  8. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  9. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Han; Wu Qiuwen, E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2011-08-07

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  10. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  11. VISION, STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR SHELLFISH FARMING DEVELOPMENT IN THE KRKA RIVER ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Maguš

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the vision, strategic guidelines/measures and the action plan for shellfish farming development in the Krka river estuary. They came as a result from several discussions that were held with shellfish farmers of the estuary area in year 2008 while writing the Integrated Plan for Shellfish Farming for Krka Estuary Area, which was realized in the framework of the Green Business Support Programme (UNDP COST Project — Conservation, and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Dalmatian Coast through Greening Coastal Development. For a short–term, a considerable impetus for the development of shellfish farming in the Krka river estuary could be the construction of common distribution and purification center, building of warehouse for shellfish farming equipment, and providing work space for the preparation of the equipment as well as the space for waste disposal; for a long–term it could be building of shellfish hatchery at the location of Martinska marine station.

  12. Continuity of Operations Plans: Policy and Strategy for K-12 Schools in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Standard Operating Procedure TT&E Test, Training and Exercise USDOE United States Department of Education WTC World Trade Center x THIS...programs without the means or plans to do so, which was evidenced by the terrorist attacks that resulted in the destruction and loss of the several...Prior to September 11, 2001, no one considered such an attack on the World Trade Center ( WTC ) occurring, much less utilizing fueled aircraft as manned

  13. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  14. Succession planning and leadership development: critical business strategies for healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2007-01-01

    As labor shortages intensify, succession planning and leadership development have become strategic initiatives requiring rigorous consideration. Traditional methods of replacing personnel will not accommodate the vacancies expected to plague healthcare organizations. Managers should focus on identifying potential gaps of key personnel and adapting programs to accommodate organizational need. Attention should be placed on capturing the intellectual capital existent in the organization and developing diverse groups of leadership candidates.

  15. Proposal of a generics individual competence development plan lined up to enterprise strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Bündchen; Anielson Barbosa da Silva

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that propose a Competencies Development Plan for an Agency of a traditional Brazilian financial institution from the identification of generic individual competencies. The study disclosed that the Agency needs to develop six competencies: communication, products and services, negotiation, internal self-development, internal processes and teamwork. The research results, in relation to the domain level, denote to a technics competence priorization. ...

  16. Strategies on Enterprise Tax Planning%论企业税收筹划策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华

    2011-01-01

    税务筹划有助于提高企业自身的经营管理水平,尤其是财务和会计的管理水平。税务筹划的基本特征具有合法性、事先性、时效性。在现有税制框架内,纳税筹划有再造流程思路、缔结契约思路和合理转化思路三种模式。税收筹划工作主要有选择低税负方案;滞延纳税时间两种途径。通过纳税筹划,可以令企业在合理合法的前提下减轻纳税负担,降低企业经营成本,最大限度增加企业效益。%Tax planning will help increase enterprise self-management,especially,its financial and accounting management.The basic features of tax planning are legal,prearranged,and timely.In current frame of tax system,tax planning contains the modes of reconstruct

  17. "One Big Happy Family": How to Plan an Internal Communications Strategy. Specialisms for Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Peter; Harwood, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the strategic importance of internal communications, and offers a simple model for managing the process of effective internal communications. Discussion includes defining internal communications, strategic importance of internal communications, integrating internal communications strategy as a natural part of everyday working…

  18. PetroChina's Natural Gas Development Strategy for Tenth Five-Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xinhua; Chen Jianjun; Zhou Zhaohua

    2001-01-01

    @@ PetroChina's long-term and medium-term development strategy for natural gas Characteristics of natural gas resources and estimated recoverable resources volume Characteristics of natural gas resources in China ● With a heterogeneous distribution,natural gas resources mainly located in Central and Western China

  19. The Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan: Cardiac rehabilitation as an exemplar of chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, H M; Suskin, N; Bayley, M; Fortin, M; Howlett, J; Heckman, G; Lewanczuk, R

    2010-01-01

    In October 2006, federal funding was announced for the development of a national strategy to fight cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada. The comprehensive, independent, stakeholder-driven Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan (CHHS-AP) was delivered to the Minister of Health on February 24, 2009. The mandate of CHHS-AP Theme Working Group (TWG) 6 was to identify the optimal chronic disease management model that incorporated timely access to rehabilitation services and end-of-life planning and care. The purpose of the present paper was to provide an overview of worldwide approaches to CVD and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) strategies and recommendations for CR care in Canada, within the context of the well-known Chronic Care Model (CCM). A separate paper will address end-of-life issues in CVD. TWG 6 was composed of content representatives, primary care representatives and patients. Input in the area of Aboriginal and indigenous cardiovascular health was obtained through individual expert consultation. Information germane to the present paper was gathered from international literature and best practice guidelines. The CCM principles were discussed and agreed on by all. Prioritization of recommendations and overall messaging was discussed and decided on within the entire TWG. The full TWG report was presented to the CHHS-AP Steering Committee and was used to inform the recommendations of the CHHS-AP. Specific actionable recommendations for CR are made in accordance with the key principles of the CCM. The present CR blueprint, as part of the CHHS-AP, will be a first step toward reducing the health care burden of CVD in Canada.

  20. Evidence-based stillbirth prevention strategies: combining empirical and theoretical paradigms to inform health planning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mary Lou; Aden, Amna; Tapa, Stephany; Jumah, Reem; Khan, Salma

    2014-08-01

    A global health project undertaken in Qatar on the Arabian Peninsula immersed undergraduate nursing students in hands-on learning to address the question: What strategies are effective in preventing stillbirth? Worldwide stillbirth estimates of 2.6 million per year and the high rate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of 27 per 1,000 total live births provided the stimulus for this inquiry. We used a dual empirical and theoretical approach that combined the principles of evidence-based practice and population health planning. Students were assisted to translate pre-appraised literature based on the 6S hierarchical pyramid of evidence. The PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) model served as an organizing template to assemble data extracted from the appraisal of 21 systematic literature reviews ± meta-analyses, 2 synopses of synthesized reports, and 9 individual studies summarizing stillbirth prevention strategies in low, middle, and high income countries. Consistent with elements of the P-P model, stillbirth prevention strategies were classified as social, epidemiological, educational, ecological, administrative, or policy. Ten recommendations with clear evidence of effectiveness in preventing stillbirth in low, middle, or high income countries were identified. Several other promising interventions were identified with weak, uncertain, or inconclusive evidence. These require further rigorous testing. Two complementary paradigms--evidence-based practice and an ecological population health program planning model--helped baccalaureate nursing students transfer research evidence into useable knowledge for practice. They learned the importance of comprehensive assessments and evidence-informed interventions. The multidimensional elements of the P-P model sensitized students to the complex interrelated factors influencing stillbirth and its prevention. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M; Crona, Kristina; Greene, Devin; Meza, Juan C; Sturmfels, Bernd; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype "TEM-1" through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM) and the Equal Probability Model (EPM). We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans.

  2. Plans, Projections and Practitioners: Engaging with Communities to Explore Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picketts, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a significant climate change adaptation concern because it is: costly; designed for long operational lives; susceptible to both episodic and seasonal deterioration; and a significant safety concern. While examples of adaptation exist in transportation design, many communities do not have the capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into infrastructure planning and management. This presentation will overview the process and outcomes of research conducted in collaboration with the communities of Prince George and Squamish, both located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Previous research in Prince George (in northern BC) involved applying downscaled climate projection information to assess local climate impacts, and identified transportation infrastructure as the top priority for ongoing study. In Prince George the adaptation process was oriented toward determining how the City could plan, design, and maintain roads and other structures to account for climate change. A local steering committee was formed, and created and evaluated 23 potential research topics. Two focus areas were selected for further investigation and explored during a workshop with practitioners, researchers, consultants and other representatives. The workshop precipitated additional modelling of projected impacts of climate change on road maintenance and road safety, and plans to explore the viability of alternative paving techniques. Outcomes of the case study provide insights regarding how researchers can 'combine' top down and bottom up approaches by using modelling information as part of an engagement process with local experts to explore adaptation. Ongoing research in Squamish seeks to apply lessons learned from the Prince George case study (both related to process and the application of modelling information) to a more temperate coastal region with a more climate-concerned population. In Squamish there also lies an opportunity to explicitly focus

  3. Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia M Mira

    Full Text Available The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype "TEM-1" through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM and the Equal Probability Model (EPM. We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans.

  4. Rational Design of Antibiotic Treatment Plans: A Treatment Strategy for Managing Evolution and Reversing Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Portia M.; Crona, Kristina; Greene, Devin; Meza, Juan C.; Sturmfels, Bernd; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype “TEM-1” through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM) and the Equal Probability Model (EPM). We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans. PMID:25946134

  5. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M. E.; Curry, M. G.; Greene, M. R.; Melber, B. D.; Merwin, D. J.

    1978-08-01

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment. (ERB)

  6. Deployment Strategy for Charging Piles Based on Distribution Network Capacity Planning and Users’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are the most potential transports in the future. However, the large scale of charging facilities will make a great influence on gird. There is a need to make a research on the construction of charging facilities. Based on the power demand characteristics of electric vehicle charging, distribution network capacity, charging system performance and other aspects, this paper mainly researched the deployment strategy of charging piles. First, the authors built up a model with characteristics of charging power demand of electric vehicle and a model of charging service system. The characteristic of daily load curve is analyzed. Second, based on these works, the authors designed the progress of strategy making. At last, the progress was verified by the actual use case.

  7. Strategic Forum. Number 287, May 2014. Strategy and Force Planning in a Time of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    technology and ac - quisition and trades size for high-end capability: ◆◆ The Army would be reduced from the 490,000 currently planned to between 380,000...and 450,000 Ac - tive-duty Soldiers for the future force. ◆◆ The Navy would be reduced from 11 carriers to 8 or 9 carriers. ◆◆ The Marine Corps would be...Greenspan Commission and the Social Security Reforms of 1983,” in Triumphs and Tragedies of the Modern Presidency: Seventy-Six Case Studies in

  8. Smile design: rules, tools and strategies to help plan aesthetic restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    This article is intended to provide dentists with a framework to help in objectively assessing upper anterior aesthetic restorations. Not all of the areas discussed will be equally important in all cases, and a degree of subjectivity, based on clinical experience, is essential. There has been a huge increase in settlements in cases when aesthetic treatment has not led to patient satisfaction. The author hopes that this type of approach, in conjunction with good patient communication and detailed records, will minimise the potential for litigation, should problems arise. Success or failure is largely defined during the planning stage.

  9. Essays on Strategy. Hostage Rescue Planning, Maritime Theater Nuclear Capability, Strategic Psychological Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    lation.ý Only the Carter adminit rat ions, top-level personnel were awrare’ Ot the mission, tol inCILude the %’I(e President AMon- dLe,1) Secretary of D... principal actors with roles to play in persuasive com- munications. The USIA, the National Security Council (NSC), the Department of State, the Department...11ri V At t iirs Amrong its, principal responsibi lit ies are diplomiat i and tel h nical planning related to Mo dernizat ion (it US international

  10. An implementation of infrared thermography in maintenance plans within a world class manufacturing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Petar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to show the implementation of infrared thermography within World Class Manufacturing (WCM maintenance strategy. The results from infrared thermography inspections in a food processing and packaging solutions company were presented. Applicability of the infrared thermography, during a two-year period, caused a substantial reduction the potential breakdown in the pilot area. Upon feasibility confirmation, the proposed method was spread to other production equipment of the company.

  11. Strategy Planning of Technology Development for High Speed Railways : Electrical Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Rim, G. H.; Ha, H. D.; Park, K. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kang, D. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    At the beginning of 1996, Government has set up the Technology Development Program for High Speed Railways as a national project. Accordingly, the detailed action planning has been established with the collaboration works between Ministry of Construction and Transport and Ministry of Commerce and Trade. On the other hand, the current technology status of domestic manufacturer and many related organizations in Korea only reveals the lack of capabilities in producing the high speed trains. Without the technology transfer programs from the advanced foreign manufacturer (GEC-Alsthom), the domestic manufacturers could not produce HSR. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute has steered the study to integrate the domestic engineering and technology units specialized in the diversified areas by formulating the feasible collaboration structure between KERI and many organizations on the technology basis. The long term action planning both with the strategic guide and on the technology basis shall be the key function to upgrade the current technology status feasibly for development of the advanced high speed train of 350 km/h. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  12. Global coverage measurement planning strategies for mobile robots equipped with a remote gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Muhammad Asif; Trincavelli, Marco; Cirillo, Marcello; Schaffernicht, Erik; Lilienthal, Achim J

    2015-03-20

    The problem of gas detection is relevant to many real-world applications, such as leak detection in industrial settings and landfill monitoring. In this paper, we address the problem of gas detection in large areas with a mobile robotic platform equipped with a remote gas sensor. We propose an algorithm that leverages a novel method based on convex relaxation for quickly solving sensor placement problems, and for generating an efficient exploration plan for the robot. To demonstrate the applicability of our method to real-world environments, we performed a large number of experimental trials, both on randomly generated maps and on the map of a real environment. Our approach proves to be highly efficient in terms of computational requirements and to provide nearly-optimal solutions.

  13. Optimal Planning Strategy for Large PV/Battery System Based on Long-Term Insolation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, Atsushi; Uchida, Kosuke; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as some of the best alternative energy sources. Usually the power output of PV system fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In order to control the fluctuating power output for PV system, it requires control method of energy storage system. This paper proposes an optimization approach to determine the operational planning of power output for PV system with battery energy storage system (BESS). This approach aims to obtain more benefit for electrical power selling and to smooth the fluctuating power output for PV system. The optimization method applies genetic algorithm (GA) considering PV power output forecast error. The forecast error is based on our previous works with the insolation forecasting at one day ahead by using weather reported data, fuzzy theory and neural network(NN). The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by the computer simulations.

  14. Global Coverage Measurement Planning Strategies for Mobile Robots Equipped with a Remote Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Arain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of gas detection is relevant to many real-world applications, such as leak detection in industrial settings and landfill monitoring. In this paper, we address the problem of gas detection in large areas with a mobile robotic platform equipped with a remote gas sensor. We propose an algorithm that leverages a novel method based on convex relaxation for quickly solving sensor placement problems, and for generating an efficient exploration plan for the robot. To demonstrate the applicability of our method to real-world environments, we performed a large number of experimental trials, both on randomly generated maps and on the map of a real environment. Our approach proves to be highly efficient in terms of computational requirements and to provide nearly-optimal solutions.

  15. JOINT OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF EXISTING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Reimann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Keen competition and increasingly demanding customers have forced companies to use their resources more efficiently and to integrate production and transportation planning. In the last few years more and more researchers have also focused on this challenging problem by trying to determine the complexity of the individual problems and then developing fast and robust algorithms to solve them. This paper reviews existing literature on integrated production and distribution decisions at the tactical and operational level, where the distribution part is modelled as some variation of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. The focus is thereby on problems that explicitly consider deliveries to multiple clients in a less-than-truckload fashion. In terms of the production decisions we distinguish in our review between tactical and operational production problems by considering lot-sizing/capacity allocation and scheduling models, respectively.

  16. Radiotherapy Planning Using an Improved Search Strategy in Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiri, Arezoo; Gu, Xuejun; Hagan, Aaron M.; Sawant, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evolutionary stochastic global optimization algorithms are widely used in large-scale, non-convex problems. However, enhancing the search efficiency and repeatability of these techniques often requires well-customized approaches. This study investigates one such approach. Methods We use particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve a 4-dimensional radiation therapy (RT) inverse planning problem, where the key idea is to use respiratory motion as an additional degree of freedom in lung cancer RT. The primary goal is to administer a lethal dose to the tumor target while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. Our iteratively adjusts radiation fluence-weights for all beam apertures across all respiratory phases. We implement three PSO-based approaches: conventionally-used unconstrained, hard-constrained and our proposed virtual search. As proof of concept, five lung cancer patient cases are optimized over ten runs using each PSO approach. For comparison, a dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm- a popular RT optimization technique is also implemented and used. Results The proposed technique significantly improves the robustness to random initialization while requiring fewer iteration cycles to converge across all cases. DPL manages to find the global optimum in 2 out of 5 RT cases over significantly more iterations. Conclusion The proposed virtual search approach boosts the swarm search efficiency and, consequently, improves the optimization convergence rate and robustness for PSO. Significance RT planning is a large-scale, non-convex optimization problem, where finding optimal solutions in a clinically practical time is critical. Our proposed approach can potentially improve the optimization efficiency in similar time-sensitive problems. PMID:27362755

  17. Risk-reduction strategies to expand radon care planning with vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Planning cancer prevention strategies based on epidemiologic characteristics: an Egyptian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, A S; Levin, B; El-Badawy, S; Nasser, S S; Raouf, A A; Khaled, H; El-Hattab, O H; Chamberlain, R M

    2001-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology, cancer prevention strategies, and educational messages to be learned from four characteristic cancers in Egypt: urinary bladder, liver, lung, and early-onset colorectal cancers. For bladder cancer, effective and convenient treatment of schistosomiasis, using social marketing and mass media in public and medical education has contributed dramatically to primary prevention of bladder cancer in Egypt. For liver cancer, educating hospital administrators to remove structural barriers to good practice may help the control of hepatitis transmission and related liver cancer. For lung cancer, the 50-year American experience for controlling tobacco smoking, beginning with physicians, could be very effective in Egypt and other countries with increasing smoking rates in the young so as to avert the expected epidemics of lung cancer. For colorectal cancer, more attention to physician and public education about the importance of interviewing colorectal cancer patients about a family history of cancer and the screening of at-risk families could be very effective in early detection of colorectal cancer. Countries with similar cancer epidemiology experience should make use of successful cancer prevention and education strategies that could be translated from the Egyptian experience.

  19. Unmet need for family planning in Indonesia and the policy strategy of intervention in several countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnaniarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to analyse the unmet need situation in Indonesia, identify determining factors and the intervention policy strategy in several countries. This paper was a literature study, taken from the data of the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS and various other sources. It is seen that unmet need level in Indonesia decreases from time to time. During the 1991 to 2012 IDHS, total unmet need decreased from 17% to 11% (4.5% for spacing and 6.9% for limiting. However, the number is considered still quiet high so an effort to solve it is needed. Determinants of unmet need can be associated with various factors such as demographical characteristic and social economic, education, culture, geographical access and condition in the area. Recommended to the government in order to develop policy strategy focused on intervention of unmet need determinants, improve financial resource allocation for access improvement of contraception service and develop capacity, improve service quality including staff training, and also public education in big scale to decrease social barriers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1680-1685

  20. Planning and development of the Better Bites program: a pricing manipulation strategy to improve healthy eating in a hospital cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Mina L; Patsch, Amy J; Smith, Jennifer Howard; Behrens, Timothy K; Charles, Tami; Bailey, Taryn R

    2013-07-01

    The Better Bites program, a hospital cafeteria nutrition intervention strategy, was developed by combining evidence-based practices with hospital-specific formative research, including key informant interviews, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants, hospital employee surveys, and nutrition services staff surveys. The primary program components are pricing manipulation and marketing to promote delicious, affordable, and healthy foods to hospital employees and other cafeteria patrons. The pricing manipulation component includes decreasing the price of the healthy items and increasing the price of the unhealthy items using a 35% price differential. Point-of-purchase marketing highlights taste, cost, and health benefits of the healthy items. The program aims to increase purchases of healthy foods and decrease purchases of unhealthy foods, while maintaining revenue neutrality. This article addresses the formative research, planning, and development that informed the Better Bites program.

  1. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Kaźmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

  2. Unauthorised building as a factor in the recession. Analysis, strategies and plans for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Vitrano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How can we turn the tide on the indiscriminate sale of land? What sort of development would conform to environmental and economic needs? With a view to laying the foundations for effectively redressing criticalities determined by the abuse or improper use of buildings, the University of Palermo has promoted: the APRAE Project (Analysis, Prevention and Recovery of unauthorized construction, the HERA Project (Habitat Recovery Environment, Aegean-Med Project, arose from virtuous collaboration with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture (Greece. The research explored the phenomenological structure of unauthorized building and its negative impact on balance of the «housing system» in depth on one hand; on the other it has identified competitive rehabilitation strategies based on sustainability, innovation and participation.

  3. DETERMINATION OF STRATEGIES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN TOURIST TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Cristina HONTUS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the guidelines for sustainable tourism development and management. The link between protected areas and tourism is as old as the history of these spaces. Although their relationships are complex and sometimes conflicting, tourism is still an essential element to be taken into account in the establishment of protected areas and their management. These guidelines regarding sustainable development strategy has the aim to better understand the role and management of tourism in the protected areas. They provide both a theoretical framework and practical guidance to the tourism managers. The main goal is as tourism to contribute to the objectives of protected areas and not to undermine the motivation of these spaces.

  4. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rostamigooran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals’ chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5th 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5th5YDP:2011-2015, listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5th5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5th5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization.

  5. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan 1990-1999 : Environmental Strategy. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    In operating and maintaining its regional power transmission system, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must address environmental concerns. Pollution sources and pathways for pollution migration, including potential contamination from hazardous or toxic materials, are present. BPA must develop and follow precautionary measures, respond to emergencies, minimize wastes, redress past problems, alert and train employees to problems and safety needs, constantly evaluate this effort and update the program for improvements and changes in regulations and technology. Part of BPA's mission is to conduct its operation, maintenance, and replacement programs in an environmentally sound manner. BPA recognizes its responsibility to be good stewards of the environment. BPA will meet its environmental obligations as set forth in environmental laws and regulations. BPA intends to make consistent and measurable progress toward meeting these responsibilities. The target for the 10-Year Plan is to achieve environmental compliance and meet the following goals: (1) protect human health and the environment; (2) avoid or limit liability (3) set up an effective internal management structure to maintain compliance; and (4) achieve cost-effective compliance. 6 figs.

  6. USING ANALYTIC NETWORK FOR SELECTION OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP ALIGNED TO BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Medeiros Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP must be made judiciously by the high costs involved in the acquisition of such systems. Managers in areas such as accounting, financial and information technology need support and tools that help in selecting an appropriate ERP for their business. With this article, we present a study aimed at investigating the possibility of a Decision Support System (DSS to be used for this selection interrelating evaluation criteria, which could allow to contemplate the strategic alignment between Business and Information Technology. From the literature review 28 factors related to the selection of software packages, with special emphasis on ERP were identified. For the research procedures, the qualitative ones were adopted, in that the 18 factors considered relevant to a good selection of ERP were classified with the Delphi technique and used as input in a DSS: Analytical Network Process (ANP, applied as a Case Study in a small business that hired the ERP. The results showed that the ANP was efficient in interrelated criteria and evaluated the strategic alignment between Business and Information Technology.

  7. Dyna-H: a heuristic planning reinforcement learning algorithm applied to role-playing-game strategy decision systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Matilde; Lopez, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    In a Role-Playing Game, finding optimal trajectories is one of the most important tasks. In fact, the strategy decision system becomes a key component of a game engine. Determining the way in which decisions are taken (e.g. online, batch or simulated) and the consumed resources in decision making (e.g. execution time, memory) will influence, in mayor degree, the game performance. When classical search algorithms such as A* can be used, they are the very first option. Nevertheless, such methods rely on precise and complete models of the search space, and so there are many interesting scenarios where its application is not possible, hence model free methods for sequential decision making under uncertainty are the best choice. In this paper, we propose a heuristic planning strategy to incorporate, into a Dyna agent, the ability of heuristic-search in path-finding. The proposed Dyna-H algorithm, as A* does, selects branches more likely to produce outcomes than other branches. However, it has the advantages, A* ha...

  8. The Economic Merits of Flexible Carbon Capture and Sequestration as a Compliance Strategy with the Clean Power Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo; Klima, Kelly

    2017-02-07

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may be a key technology for achieving large CO2 emission reductions. Relative to "normal" CCS, "flexible" CCS retrofits include solvent storage that allows the generator to temporarily reduce the CCS parasitic load and increase the generator's net efficiency, capacity, and ramp rate. Due to this flexibility, flexible CCS generators provide system benefits that normal CCS generators do not, which could make flexible CCS an economic CO2 emission reduction strategy. Here, we estimate the system-level cost effectiveness of reducing CO2 emissions with flexible CCS compared to redispatching (i.e., substituting gas- for coal-fired electricity generation), wind, and normal CCS under the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and a hypothetical more stringent CO2 emission reduction target ("stronger CPP"). Using a unit commitment and economic dispatch model, we find flexible CCS achieves more cost-effective emission reductions than normal CCS under both reduction targets, indicating that policies that promote CCS should encourage flexible CCS. However, flexible CCS is less cost effective than wind under both reduction targets and less and more cost effective than redispatching under the CPP and stronger CPP, respectively. Thus, CCS will likely be a minor CPP compliance strategy but may play a larger role under a stronger emission reduction target.

  9. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  10. Swimming strategy and body plan of the world’s largest fish: implications for foraging efficiency and thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMeekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest animals in the oceans eat prey that are orders of magnitude smaller than themselves, implying strong selection for cost-effective foraging to meet their energy demands. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus may be especially challenged by warm seas that elevate their metabolism and contain sparse prey resources. Using a combination of biologging and satellite tagging, we show that whale sharks use four strategies to save energy and improve foraging efficiency: 1 fixed, low power swimming, 2 constant low speed swimming, 3 gliding and 4 asymmetrical diving. These strategies increase foraging efficiency by 22 – 32% relative to swimming horizontally and resolve the energy-budget paradox of whale sharks. However, sharks in the open ocean must access food resources that reside in relatively cold waters (up to 20oC cooler than the surface at depths of 250-500 m during the daytime, where long, slow gliding descents, continuous ram ventilation of the gills and filter-feeding could rapidly cool the circulating blood and body tissues. We suggest that whale sharks may overcome this problem through their large size and a specialized body plan that isolates highly vascularized red muscle on the dorsal surface, allowing heat to be retained near the centre of the body within a massive core of white muscle. This could allow a warm-adapted species to maintain enhanced function of organs and sensory systems while exploiting food resources in deep, cool water.

  11. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ramsbottom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term care (LTC homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descriptive study conducted 34 individual semistructured interviews in two LTC homes, located in Canada. The participants were 31 family members and three staff, consisting of a front line care worker, a registered nurse, and a nurse practitioner. All participants perceived ACP conversations as valuable to provide “resident-centred care”; however, none of the participants had a good understanding of ACP, limiting its effectiveness. Strategies generated through the research to improve ACP were as follows: educating families and staff on ACP and end-of-life care options; better preparing staff for ACP conversations; providing staff skills training and guidelines; and LTC staff initiating systematic, proactive conversations using careful timing. These strategies can guide quality improvement of palliative care and development of ACP tools and resources specific to the LTC home sector.

  12. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  13. A mini-midwifery business institute in a midwifery professional roles course: an innovative teaching strategy for successful career planning and business management of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, D Elizabeth; Dewees, Connie; McDowell, William C

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to include teaching strategies in midwifery education that address career planning and the business aspects of practice. This article presents the Mini-Midwifery Business Institute (M-MBI), an innovative teaching strategy for midwives that can also be applied to other advanced practice professions. The M-MBI can be integrated into a professional roles course. Before and after graduation, midwifery students and other advanced practice professionals can use the information to gain confidence and skills for successful career planning and the business management of practice.

  14. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  15. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engagement processes, support, ... Carel Schoeman • The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning and environmental ..... NDOT: Public Transport Strategy (2007) .... Community Land Reform Act 28 of 1996 (CLARA).

  16. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wegscheider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1 identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2 bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3 can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk.

    Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  17. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  18. An Evolving Assessment Strategy: Sustaining Interactions with Users to Inform Planning and Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that in addition to reports, decision makers need to access climate science through a range of products such as scenarios, observed data, maps, technical guidelines, and other materials. This presentation will describe an evolving strategy for leveraging climate research and assessments conducted by the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to provide usable climate information to build society's capacity to manage climate variability and change. The approach is called "sustained assessment" and is intended to be more interactive and to empower individuals and organizations to participate more fully and in an ongoing basis to evaluate the implications of climate change using state of the art scientific information. The speaker will describe the necessary conditions for sustained assessment, including mechanisms to facilitate ongoing communication between users and the climate science community in co-design and implementation of assessment activities. It will also review some of the needed scientific foundations for sustained assessment. The speaker is chair of the recently established Federal Advisory Committee. He has been involved in previous US National Climate Assessments (NCAs), including as a lead author of a special advisory report on establishing a sustained US national assessment process. He will speak in his personal capacity and provide publicly-available information on the role of the new Advisory Committee and steps towards establishing a sustained assessment process.

  19. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  20. 安溪茶产业的财务战略规划研究%Analysis of Strategy of Financial Planning of Anxi Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏淮彬; 马正凯

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies Anxi tea industry, plans its financial strategy and explains the roles the financial strategy planning played in rapid and sustainable development of Anxi tea industry.The financial strategy of Anxi tea industry, such as financing, investment and profit allocation, should contain both the financial strategy of tea enterprises and the financial planning strategy of Anxi County Government.Therefore, tea enterprises should have endogenous financing, international financing, enterprises integration, while the government should carry out the fi-nancing strategy and investment strategy planning to support the tea industry;at the same time, the county govern-ment and tea enterprises should make a reasonable and effective profit allocation strategy.%选择福建安溪茶产业作为研究对象,对其财务战略进行规划,说明财务战略规划对安溪茶产业谋求高速与可持续发展的作用。安溪茶产业的融资、投资、收益分配等的财务战略规划,既包括茶企业自身的财务战略规划,也包括安溪县政府对茶产业支持的财务战略规划。因此,茶企业应从内源融资、国际融资、整合兼并、核心聚集投资等方面进行财务战略规划;政府应进行融资战略和投资战略规划对茶产业进行支持;同时县政府和茶企业应综合制定合理有效的收益分配战略。

  1. Middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms: an anatomic classification scheme for planning optimal surgical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Chad W; Ju, Tao; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G

    2014-03-01

    Changing landscapes in neurosurgical training and increasing use of endovascular therapy have led to decreasing exposure in open cerebrovascular neurosurgery. To ensure the effective transition of medical students into competent practitioners, new training paradigms must be developed. Using principles of pattern recognition, we created a classification scheme for middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms that allows their categorization into a small number of shape pattern groups. Angiographic data from patients with MCA aneurysms between 1995 and 2012 were used to construct 3-dimensional models. Models were then analyzed and compared objectively by assessing the relationship between the aneurysm sac, parent vessel, and branch vessels. Aneurysms were then grouped on the basis of the similarity of their shape patterns in such a way that the in-class similarities were maximized while the total number of categories was minimized. For each category, a proposed clip strategy was developed. From the analysis of 61 MCA bifurcation aneurysms, 4 shape pattern categories were created that allowed the classification of 56 aneurysms (91.8%). The number of aneurysms allotted to each shape cluster was 10 (16.4%) in category 1, 24 (39.3%) in category 2, 7 (11.5%) in category 3, and 15 (24.6%) in category 4. This study demonstrates that through the use of anatomic visual cues, MCA bifurcation aneurysms can be grouped into a small number of shape patterns with an associated clip solution. Implementing these principles within current neurosurgery training paradigms can provide a tool that allows more efficient transition from novice to cerebrovascular expert.

  2. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  3. Ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography with high pitch: diagnostic yield of a volumetric planning scan and effects on dose reduction and imaging strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, B; Huppertz, A; Lembcke, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of an ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scan with high pitch for delimiting the range of the subsequent standard CTCA scan. Methods: 30 patients with an indication for CTCA were prospectively examined using a two-scan dual-source CTCA protocol (2.0 × 64.0 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 3.4; rotation time of 280 ms; 100 kV): Scan 1 was acquired with one-fifth of the tube current suggested by the automatic exposure control software [CareDose 4D™ (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using 100 kV and 370 mAs as a reference] with the scan length from the tracheal bifurcation to the diaphragmatic border. Scan 2 was acquired with standard tube current extending with reduced scan length based on Scan 1. Nine central coronary artery segments were analysed qualitatively on both scans. Results: Scan 2 (105.1 ± 10.1 mm) was significantly shorter than Scan 1 (127.0 ± 8.7 mm). Image quality scores were significantly better for Scan 2. However, in 5 of 6 (83%) patients with stenotic coronary artery disease, a stenosis was already detected in Scan 1 and in 13 of 24 (54%) patients with non-stenotic coronary arteries, a stenosis was already excluded by Scan 1. Using Scan 2 as reference, the positive- and negative-predictive value of Scan 1 was 83% (5 of 6 patients) and 100% (13 of 13 patients), respectively. Conclusion: An ultra-low-dose CTCA planning scan enables a reliable scan length reduction of the following standard CTCA scan and allows for correct diagnosis in a substantial proportion of patients. Advances in knowledge: Further dose reductions are possible owing to a change in the individual patient's imaging strategy as a prior ultra-low-dose CTCA scan may already rule out the presence of a stenosis or may lead to a direct transferal to an invasive catheter procedure. PMID:25710210

  4. Understanding of Student Task Interpretation, Design Planning, and Cognitive Strategies during Engineering Design Activities in Grades 9-12. Final Report. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the task interpretation of students engaged in a design activity and determine the extent to which students translate their understanding of their design task to their planning and cognitive strategies. Twenty-nine students at one Colorado high school participated in this study. Students worked…

  5. A randomized trail comparing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅向华

    2003-01-01

    A randomized trail comparing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction!050000$河北医科大学第二医院河北医科大学心脏介入中心@傅向华

  6. Long-term adherence to a physical activity intervention: the role of telephone-assisted vs. self-administered coping plans and strategy use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Ziegelmann, J.P.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of coping plans and the use of selection, optimisation and compensation (SOC) strategies within an experimental evaluation of a 26-week physical exercise intervention. METHODS: Older women (N=86, M (age)=73.7 years) were randomly assigned to a

  7. Long-term adherence to a physical activity intervention: the role of telephone-assisted vs. self-administered coping plans and strategy use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Ziegelmann, J.P.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of coping plans and the use of selection, optimisation and compensation (SOC) strategies within an experimental evaluation of a 26-week physical exercise intervention. METHODS: Older women (N=86, M (age)=73.7 years) were randomly assigned to a telephone-as

  8. 安图县旅游业规划策略研究%The Study of Tourism Planning Strategy in Antu County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 韩聪; 王红春; 吴向向

    2015-01-01

    Tourism in Antu County has become the pillar industry. But Autu County is a small-medium city, its tourism planning consciousness was weak for a long time. It has rarely mentioned planning in their master planning and leads to a weakened effect of tourism on the economy. In this paper, through describing the relationship between Antu County tourism planning and the master planning, it draws up the tourism planning strategy in Antu County. It provides an important reference for tourism planning design and master planning design of Antu County and other small-medium tourist cities.%安图县的旅游产业已经成为其支柱型产业,但作为中小城市的安图县长期以来对于旅游业规划意识淡薄,在城市总体规划中鲜有提及,严重弱化了旅游业对于经济的推动作用。文章通过阐述安图县旅游业规划与总体规划之间的关系,制定了安图县旅游业规划策略,对安图县的总体规划设计、旅游业规划设计具有参考价值。

  9. Invasion history of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Fujian, China based on mitochondrial DNA and its implications in development of a control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Hou, You-Ming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most invasive species worldwide, Solenopsis invicta Buren, has been described in China since 2003. Recent studies have suggested that China populations are the result of introductions from the USA; however, detailed molecular studies need to be performed in order to understand the expansion and potential multiple introductions from other countries into China. As there were populations of red imported fire ant, S. invicta in different areas and with different methods of introduction, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene was used as a marker from 12 populations in four cities in Fujian Province, China, to determine the relationship of invasion among these populations. The three most common haplotypes previously describe in invasive populations of S. invicta: H5, H22 and H36, were found in Fujian. However, frequencies in each city were different. For instance, three populations from Longyan city which invaded with waste plastics, shared haplotype H5. Populations from Xiamen city and Jinjiang city which dispersed with nursery stock, sward and scrap leather, shared haplotype H22. The population from Nanyan village of Xinluo district, Longyan city, bore haplotype H36. Mitochondrial data reveals that the invasion history of S. invicta in Fujian Province is complex, including multiple invasions probably from other provinces within China. Security measures to prevent S. invicta spreading within China are as important as from overseas. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. A Systematic Review of Cost-Sharing Strategies Used within Publicly-Funded Drug Plans in Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods & Findings Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries), and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status), or with age (in 15 countries). Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. Conclusions There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24618721

  11. A systematic review of cost-sharing strategies used within publicly-funded drug plans in member countries of the organisation for economic co-operation and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Barnieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publicly-funded drug plans vary in strategies used and policies employed to reduce continually increasing pharmaceutical expenditures. We systematically reviewed the utilization of cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations in publicly-funded formularies within member nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using the OECD nations as the sampling frame, a search for cost-sharing strategies and physician-directed prescribing regulations was done using published and grey literature. Collected data was verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country, to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across plans. Significant variation in the use of cost-sharing mechanisms was seen. Copayments were the most commonly used cost-containment measure, though their use and amount varied for those with certain conditions, most often chronic diseases (in 17 countries, and by socio-economic status (either income or employment status, or with age (in 15 countries. Caps and deductibles were only used by five systems. Drug cost-containment strategies targeting physicians were also identified in 24 countries, including guideline-based prescribing, prescription monitoring and incentive structures. CONCLUSIONS: There was variable use of cost-containment strategies to limit pharmaceutical expenditures in publicly funded formularies within OECD countries. Further research is needed to determine the best approach to constrain costs while maintaining access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  12. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  13. Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone

  14. Predictors of nurses' intention and behavior in using health literacy strategies in patient education based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Reisi, Mahnouush; Mahaki, Behzad; Javadzade, Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Esfahani, Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-02-01

    Health literacy is one of the most important priorities for improving health care quality through enhancing patient-provider communication. Implementing health literacy strategies enable nurses to provide information and instructions for patients in a manner that is more commensurate and understandable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting nurses' intention to implement health literacy strategies in patient education based on theory of planned behavior. A cross-sectional study was done on 148 nurse practitioners of AL-Zahra educational hospital in Isfahan, Iran, using a descriptive-analytic method. Data collected via a standardized questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior constructed and analyzed by SPSS v.17 using ANOVA, Independent T-test, Pearson correlation and linear regression. There was statistically significant correlation between using health literacy strategies and marriage status, attending in retraining courses, employment type, job history, and job status. Perceived behavioral control was the most powerful predictor of intention (β=0.417) and use health literacy strategies in patient education and behavior of nurses (β=0.33). According to the findings of this study, perceived behavioral control is a powerful determinant of nurses' intention and behavior of using health literacy strategies in patient education. Hence we recommend nurse educators to pay special attention to the constructs of this theory mainly perceived behavioral control in retrain courses about patient education and health literacy strategies.

  15. Information Strategy Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    is based on the businesss data requirements are more flexible, are changed less frequently, and need less maintenance over time. To evolve to this...department level, which is a level sufficient for ISP purposes. Finer analytical granularity will occur during the analysis stage of the methodology. The

  16. Erie National Wildlife Refuge Mohawk Run Shrub Fen Complex Invasive Plant Species Management Plan For Erie National Wildlife Refuge 2003-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Drooping Bluegrass, Thin Leaved Cotton Grass, Slender Spikerush, and Swampfly Honeysuckle on Erie National Wildlife Refuge discusses the...

  17. Shifting Resources and Focus to Meet the Goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A; Purcell, David W; Fisher, Holly H; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N; Galindo, Carla A; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D; Mermin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals.

  18. Discussion on the Digitization Strategy of Landscape Planning%试论风景园林规划数字化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬

    2014-01-01

    本文重点阐述了风景园林规划的数字策略,重点介绍了数字策略的概念,并结合数字策略模型进行了分析。最终,阐述了其应用过程中的实践效果,分析了数字策略化对风景园林的作用。%This article elaborated the digital strategy of land-scape planning, emphatical y introducing the conception of di-gital strategy, and made an analysis combining digital strategy model. Final y, the author expounded its practical effect of ap-plication in the process, and analyzed the effects of digital str-ategy on landscape.

  19. Successful and cost neutral strategies to increase organic food used in public kitchens: results from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Brorson, B.; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    of practical strategies being effective in increasing the organic food used in the public kitchens.MethodsStudy design included baseline data collection, training sessions for all kitchens employees, goal setting, strategy development and implementation for each kitchen, and end point data collection...... baseline to end point were 29 percentage points (Ptrained in the principles of organic food production. The organic price premium was covered within...... existing budget by optimizing the budget and menu planning, minimizing food waste, increase production of homemade food, focusing on seasonal food, and optimizing meat and fish consumption.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates a large potential for public kitchens to increase the level of organic food...

  20. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with approaches to the analysis of competitiveness in the construction field. The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure was developed. Implementation of the proposed methodological provisions will allow improving investment efficiency in the course of construction projects implementation and enhancing the competitive ability of the developer.

  1. Hepatic artery reconstruction first for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma bismuth type IIIB with contralateral arterial invasion: a novel technical strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santibañes, Eduardo; Ardiles, Victoria; Alvarez, Fernando A; Pekolj, Juan; Brandi, Claudio; Beskow, Axel

    2012-01-01

    En-bloc liver resection with the extrahepatic bile duct is mandatory to obtain tumour-free surgical margins and better long-term outcomes in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). One of the most important criteria for irresectability is local extensive invasion to major vessels. As hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB often requires a major left hepatic resection, the invasion of the right hepatic artery (RHA) usually contraindicates this procedure. The authors describe a novel technique that allowed an oncological resection in two patients with hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB and contralateral arterial invasion. Arterial reconstruction between the posterior branch of the RHA and the left hepatic artery (LHA) was performed as the first surgical step. Once arterial vascular flow was restored, a left trisectionectomy with caudate lobe resection and portal vein reconstruction was performed. In both patients an R0 resection was achieved. Both patients made a full recovery and were discharged within 14 days of surgery. Both patients remain free of disease at 18 months. This new technique allows a R0 resection to be achieved in patients with Bismuth type IIIB hilar CC with contralateral arterial involvement. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Etude probabiliste de l'invasion d'un labyrinthe plan. Contribution à l'étude des milieux poreux Probabilistic Study of the Invasion of a Plane Labyrinth Contribution to Research on Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houpeurt A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On calcule ci-après la distribution statistique de l'espace envahi dans un modèle mathématique de milieu poreux occupant un demi-plan et de structure aléatoire, en fonction des 3 fréquences définissant les distributions bernoulliennes de ses portes d'entrée et de ses portes de liaison transversales et longitudinales. Ces résultats peuvent conduire à une meilleure compréhension de la relation pression capillaire-saturation. This article describes the statistical distribution of the invaded space in a mathematical model of a porous medium occupying a half-plane and having a random structure, as a function of three frequences defining the Bernoulli distributions of its inlet doors and of its crosswise and lengthwise linking doors. These results may lead to a better understanding of the capiIlary-pressure/saturation relation.

  3. Strategic market approach for entering the Indian solar water pump market : plan the marketing strategy for solar off-grid applications

    OpenAIRE

    Almanasreh, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the strategic market approach for investing in solar water pumps market (SWP) in India, and Punjab state as a business case. The main research question is: What is an appropriate strategic market approach to invest in solar water pump market in India? The study focuses on the marketing strategy and strategic planning to enter the Indian market. The thesis follows the qualitative study design where the data was collected by observing the market and interviewing main sta...

  4. The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From – To) December 2013 – April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and...Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The problem of suicide among our military members is one of growing concern for military commanders and political leaders alike

  5. An Assessment of Family Planning Decision Makers' and Advocates' Needs and Strategies in Three East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen; Musila, Ruth; Murunga, Violet; Godbole, Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Despite decades of evidence-based advocacy for family planning in developing countries, research on how decision makers perceive and respond to such efforts is lacking. A literature review yielded 10 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1999 and 2012 on decision makers' needs for and experiences with health advocacy and evidence. Two sets of questions about family planning research and advocacy-one for decision makers and another for advocates-were developed from emerging themes and used in structured interviews with 68 key informants in Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. Decision makers reported understanding family planning's value and confirmed that advocacy had helped to spur recent favorable shifts in government support of family planning. Key informants stressed that advocacy messages and formats must be tailored to the needs and interests of particular audiences to be effective. Messages must also consider barriers to decision makers' support for family planning: constituents' negative attitudes; fear that increased adherence to family planning will shrink the size and influence of specific voting blocs and ethnic groups; and competing economic, social, cultural, religious and political priorities. Decision makers reported valuing the contributions of international family planning organizations and donors, but were more comfortable receiving advocacy messages from local sources. According to decision makers, sustained and strategic family planning advocacy developed and delivered by culturally attuned national actors, with support from international actors, can diminish barriers to government support for family planning.

  6. WE-A-304-01: Strategies and Technologies for Cranial Radiosurgery Planning: MLC-Based Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G. [University of California, San Diego (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The high fractional doses, stringent requirements for accuracy and precision, and surgical perspective characteristic of intracranial radiosurgery create considerations for treatment planning which are distinct from most other radiotherapy procedures. This session will introduce treatment planning techniques specific to two popular intracranial SRS modalities: Gamma Knife and MLC-based Linac. The basic treatment delivery characteristics of each device will be reviewed with a focus on how those characteristics determine the paradigm used for treatment planning. Basic techniques for treatment planning will be discussed, including considerations such as isodose selection, target and organ-at-risk definition, quality indices, and protection of critical structures. Future directions for SRS treatment planning will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: Introduce the basic physical principles of intracranial radiosurgery and how they are realized in the treatment planning paradigms for Gamma Knife and Linac radiosurgery. Demonstrate basic treatment planning techniques. Discuss metrics for evaluating SRS treatment plan quality. Discuss recent and future advances in SRS treatment planning. D. Schlesinger receives research support from Elekta, AB.

  7. Strategies and Methods of the Tax Planning for SMEs%浅谈中小企业税务筹划的策略与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英艳

    2011-01-01

    The tax cost has become an important part of the total cost, so the enterprises pay more attention to the tax planning related to tax-business to reduce tax costs. This article discusses the strategies of tax planning for SMEs, and describes the specific methods of tax planning for SMEs.%税务成本已成为企业总成本中的一个重要部分,企业日益重视对涉税业务进行税务筹划,以降低税务成本.本文论述了中小企业进行税务筹划时的策略,阐述了中小企业进行税务筹划时的采用的具体方法.

  8. Riding Elvis's Motorcycle: Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development To PLAN and WRITE for a State Writing Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Owen, Bonnie; Harris, Karen R.; Graham, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This article describes implementation of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach to help students learn a specific essay writing strategy in preparation for a state writing test. It also reviews the theoretical and research bases for using SRSD to teaching writing strategies. (Contains references.) (DB)

  9. Strategies of the Waterfront Landscape Planning of Small Towns in China%我国小城镇滨水区的景观规划策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建国; 金倩

    2015-01-01

    讨论我国小城镇滨水区景观规划的实践情况,并从中发现问题,总结经验教训,合理运用到实际的项目操作中,并提出适宜我国小城镇滨水区景观规划的谋划策略。研究表明:该策略模式对于我国大部分小城镇具有普适性,当然不同地区的小城镇的实际情况不同,可根据当地的具体情况调整模式的内容,故具有一定的指导弹性。%The practical situations about the waterfront landscape planning of small towns in China were discussed,some problems were found,experience was summarized,and lesson was learned from the planning.Based on these results,the actual projects can be operated more reasonably.Furthermore,this paper also focused on proposing appropriate strategies about the waterfront landscape of small towns in China.There exists universality among.these strategy patterns.The contents of the planning patterns can be adjusted according to the specific local situation of the small towns in different ar-eas.So these strategy patterns have certain flexibility.

  10. Urbanism of proximity: gender-expertise or shortsighted strategy? Re-introducing Gender Impact Assessments in spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    The theorizing of gender, diversity and spatial planning began over three decades ago, both \\vithin and from outside the planning profession. It has evaluated from representing 'specific-gender/role connected- interests' to analysing the djTiamics of inequality and difference. It is important to dis

  11. Envisioning a Post-Conflict Tripoli: The Inclusive Urban Strategy and Action Plan for Bab Al-Tabbaneh and Jebel Mohsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Micocci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Inclusive Urban Strategy and Action Plan is a study conducted by a multi-disciplinary international team focused on the post-conflict area of Tripoli, the second largest city of Lebanon. The project includes the neighbourhoods of Bab Al-Tabbaneh and Jebel Mohsen and the conflict zone in between where hostilities ended thanks to the implementation of a security plan in 2014. The aim of the proposal is to initiate and foster peace and reconciliation between the conflicting communities, while addressing spatial, social and economic segregations by a holistic and tactical urban approach.The strategy results from a deep study and understanding of the actual fragile conditions in Tripoli, and derives its guidelines from the fractures and the intrinsic resources of the place. It is structured in three main layers (urban armature, functional injections and placemaking and envisions the possibility to establish new relations and synergies inside the hugely fragmented environment.Instead of proposing concrete solutions, the strategy aims at initially generating the necessary conditions to trigger processes of recovery and therefore development, encountering positive outcomes and opportunities as well as possible threats. Adaptability and retrofitting thus became keywords in developing a realistic strategy that can take into consideration the difficulty of programming and making decisions in the context of post-conflict reconstruction.

  12. Doing Business Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Galavan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Key Learning Objectives � Understand what strategy is. � Get an introduction to the key tools of strategy. � Identify the key elements of the strategy planning process. � Learn what contributes to successful (and unsuccessful) strategy implementation.

  13. Less invasive surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Less invasive surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. In this thesis various strategies were employed to evaluate the posibilities of reducing the invasiveness of the surgical treatment of traumatic thoracolumbar fractures. A systematic review of the literature suggested that adequ

  14. Planning as a learning process : a strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den A.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction

    The challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This n

  15. Planning as a learning process. A strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den A.I.

    1992-01-01

    IntroductionThe challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This need is felt in particular for upland areas

  16. Planning as a learning process : a strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van den A.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction

    The challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This

  17. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

  18. Priority threat management of invasive animals to protect biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Maggini, Ramona; Chadès, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; Walters, Belinda; Reeson, Andy; Martin, Tara G; Possingham, Hugh P; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Ponce-Reyes, Rocio; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity, and its impacts can act synergistically to heighten the severity of other threats. Most research on projecting species range shifts under climate change has not been translated to informing priority management strategies on the ground. We develop a prioritization framework to assess strategies for managing threats to biodiversity under climate change and apply it to the management of invasive animal species across one-sixth of the Australian continent, the Lake Eyre Basin. We collected information from key stakeholders and experts on the impacts of invasive animals on 148 of the region's most threatened species and 11 potential strategies. Assisted by models of current distributions of threatened species and their projected distributions, experts estimated the cost, feasibility, and potential benefits of each strategy for improving the persistence of threatened species with and without climate change. We discover that the relative cost-effectiveness of invasive animal control strategies is robust to climate change, with the management of feral pigs being the highest priority for conserving threatened species overall. Complementary sets of strategies to protect as many threatened species as possible under limited budgets change when climate change is considered, with additional strategies required to avoid impending extinctions from the region. Overall, we find that the ranking of strategies by cost-effectiveness was relatively unaffected by including climate change into decision-making, even though the benefits of the strategies were lower. Future climate conditions and impacts on range shifts become most important to consider when designing comprehensive management plans for the control of invasive animals under limited budgets to maximize the number of threatened species that can be protected.

  19. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  20. Planning as a learning process : a strategy for planning land use programmes at local level with special reference to the uplands of Java

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, van den, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Introduction

    The challenge for land use management in the nineties is to initiate a people- centered development process which creates opportunities for local people to make their own choices about which development strategy to follow. This need is felt in particular for upland areas where government initiated blue- print programmes for land use management have a record of failure. The major reason is that these programmes are often no...