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Sample records for planetary system wasp-5

  1. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  2. Multi-band characterization of the hot Jupiters: WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, M.; Almeida, L. A.; von Essen, C.; Jablonski, F.; Pereira, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We have carried out a campaign to characterize the hot Jupiters WASP-5b, WASP-44b and WASP-46b using multiband photometry collected at the Observatório do Pico Dos Dias in Brazil. We have determined the planetary physical properties and new transit ephemerides for these systems. The new orbital parameters and physical properties of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are consistent with previous estimates. In the case of WASP-46b, there is some quota of disagreement between previous results. We provide a new determination of the radius of this planet and help clarify the previous differences. We also studied the transit time variations including our new measurements. No clear variation from a linear trend was found for the systems WASP-5b and WASP-44b. In the case of WASP-46b, we found evidence of deviations indicating the presence of a companion but statistical analysis of the existing times points to a signal due to the sampling rather than a new planet. Finally, we studied the fractional radius variation as a function of wavelength for these systems. The broad-band spectrums of WASP-5b and WASP-44b are mostly flat. In the case of WASP-46b we found a trend, but further measurements are necessary to confirm this finding.

  3. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  4. Forming different planetary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Lin Zhou; Ji-Wei Xie; Hui-Gen Liu; Hui Zhang; Yi-Sui Sun

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples,the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer.In this review,we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations,and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation,especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars.Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems,we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs:hot Jupiter systems,standard systems and distant giant planet systems.The standard systems can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances:solar-like systems,hot Super-Earth systems,and subgiant planet systems.We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  5. Planetary ring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miner, Ellis D; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N

    2007-01-01

    This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date book on the topic of planetary rings systems yet written. The book is written in a style that is easily accessible to the interested non expert. Each chapter includes notes, references, figures and tables.

  6. Strongly Interacting Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Both ground-based Doppler surveys and NASA's Kepler mission have discovered a diversity of planetary system architectures that challenge theories of planet formation. Systems of tightly-packed or near-resonant planets are particularly useful for constraining theories of orbital migration and the excitation of orbital eccentricities and inclinations. In particular, transit timing variations (TTVs) provide a powerful tool to characterize the masses and orbits of dozens of small planets, including many planets at orbital periods beyond the reach of both current Doppler surveys and photoevaporation-induced atmospheric loss. Dynamical modeling of these systems has identified some ``supper-puffy'' planets, i.e., low mass planets with surprisingly large radii and low densities. I will describe a few particularly interesting planetary systems and discuss the implications for the formation of planets ranging from gaseous super-Earth-size planets to rocky planets the size of Mars.

  7. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dominik, M

    2010-01-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows to derive all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their r...

  8. Measurements of Transit Timing Variations for WASP-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Akihiko; Tristram, Paul J; Sumi, Takahiro; Abe, Fumio; Itow, Yoshitaka; Sullivan, Denis J; Bond, Ian A; Hirano, Teruyuki; Tamura, Motohide; Bennett, David P; Furusawa, Kei; Hayashi, Fumiya; Hearnshaw, John B; Hosaka, Shun; Kamiya, Koki; Kobara, Shuhei; Korpela, Aarno; Kilmartin, Pam M; Lin, Wei; Ling, Cho Hong; Makita, Shota; Masuda, Kimiaki; Matsubara, Yutaka; Miyake, Noriyuki; Muraki, Yasushi; Nagaya, Maiko; Nishimoto, Kenta; Ohnishi, Kouji; Omori, Kengo; Perrott, Yvette; Rattenbury, Nicholas; Saito, Toshiharu; Skuljan, Ljiljana; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sweatman, Winston L; Wada, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    We have observed 7 new transits of the 'hot Jupiter' WASP-5b using a 61 cm telescope located in New Zealand, in order to search for transit timing variations (TTVs) which can be induced by additional bodies existing in the system. When combined with other available photometric and radial velocity (RV) data, we find that its transit timings do not match a linear ephemeris; the best fit \\chi^2 values of 32.2 with 9 degrees of freedom indicates that a marginal TTV signal has been observed at a confidence level of 99.982 %, or 3.7 \\sigma. The standard deviation of the TTVs is as large as 70 s, and if this is real, it cannot be explained by other effects than that due to an additional body or bodies. We put the upper limit on the RV amplitude due to the possible secondary body as 21 m s^{-1}, which corresponds to its mass of 22-70 M_{Earth} over the period ratio from 0.2 to 5.0. From the TTVs data, using the numerical simulations, we place more stringent limits down to 2 M_{Earth} near 1:2 and 2:1 MMRs at the 3 \\s...

  9. Planetary systems in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Cai, Maxwell Xu; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of confirmed and candidate exoplanets have been identified in recent years. Consequently, theoretical research on the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems has seen a boost, and the processes of planet-planet scattering, secular evolution, and interaction between planets and gas/debris disks have been well-studied. Almost all of this work has focused on the formation and evolution of isolated planetary systems, and neglect the effect of external influences, such as the gravitational interaction with neighbouring stars. Most stars, however, form in clustered environments that either quickly disperse, or evolve into open clusters. Under these conditions, young planetary systems experience frequent close encounters with other stars, at least during the first 1-10 Myr, which affects planets orbiting at any period range, as well as their debris structures.

  10. Evolution of Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1995-01-01

    The last few decades have seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuition (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  11. Ground-based detection of the near-infrared emission from the dayside of WASP-5b

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Seemann, Ulf; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) WASP-5b is a highly irradiated dense hot Jupiter orbiting a G4V star every 1.6 days. We observed two secondary eclipses of WASP-5b in the J, H and K bands simultaneously. Thermal emission of WASP-5b is detected in the J and K bands. The retrieved planet-to-star flux ratios in the J and K bands are 0.168 +0.050/-0.052% and 0.269+/-0.062%, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 2996 +212/-261K and 2890 +246/-269K, respectively. No thermal emission is detected in the H band, with a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.166%, corresponding to a maximum temperature of 2779K. On the whole, our J, H, K results can be explained by a roughly isothermal temperature profile of ~2700K in the deep layers of the planetary dayside atmosphere that are probed at these wavelengths. Together with Spitzer observations, which probe higher layers that are found to be at ~1900K, a temperature inversion is ruled out in the range of pressures probed by the combined data set. While an oxygen-rich model is unable to explain all the ...

  12. Dynamical evolution of planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The apparent regularity of the motion of the giant planets of our solar system suggested for decades that said planets formed onto orbits similar to the current ones and that nothing dramatic ever happened during their lifetime. The discovery of extra-solar planets showed astonishingly that the orbital structure of our planetary system is not typical. Many giant extra-solar planets have orbits with semi major axes of $\\sim 1$ AU, and some have even smaller orbital radii, sometimes with orbital periods of just a few days. Moreover, most extra-solar planets have large eccentricities, up to values that only comets have in our solar system. Why such a big diversity between our solar system and the extra-solar systems, as well as among the extra-solar systems themselves? This chapter aims to give a partial answer to this fundamental question....

  13. The Roles of Discs for Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, L C; Yeh, Li-Chin; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the discs are detected for some of the extra-solar planetary systems. It is also likely that there was a disc mixing with planets and small bodies while our Solar System was forming. From our recent results, we conclude that the discs play two roles: the gravity makes planetary systems more chaotic and the drag makes planetary systems more resonant.

  14. Tidal Evolution of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2017-07-01

    We review the orbital and rotational evolution of single and two-planet systems under tidal dissipation. In the framework of mutual gravitational perturbation and tidal interaction between the star and the innermost planet, we shall present the main results for the variations of eccentricities in both cases. These results are obtained through the numerical solution of the exact equations of motions. Moreover, we will also give an analysis of the planetary rotation, which can be temporarily trapped in special configurations such as spin-orbit resonances. Results will be shown using a Maxwell viscoelastic deformation law for the inner planet. This rheology is characterized by a viscous relaxation time, τ, that can be seen as the characteristic average time that the planet requires to achieve a new equilibrium shape after being disturbed by an external forcing (tides of the star).

  15. Planetary Data System (PDS) Strategic Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily; McNutt, Ralph; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the SMD at NASA Headquarters has directed the PDS to set up a Roadmap team to formulate a PDS Roadmap for the period 2017-2026. The purpose of this activity is to provide a forecast of both the rapidly changing Information Technology (IT) environment and the changing expectations of the planetary science communities with respect to Planetary Data archives including, specifically, increasing assessability to all planetary data. The Roadmap team will also identify potential actions that could increase interoperability with other archive and curation elements within NASA and with the archives of other National Space Agencies. The Roadmap team will assess the current state of the PDS and report their findings to the PSD Director by April 15, 2017. This presentation will give an update of this roadmap activity and serve as an opportunity to engage the planetary community at large to provide input to the Roadmap.

  16. Liberating exomoons in white dwarf planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew J; Gaensicke, Boris T

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that more than a quarter of all white dwarf (WD) atmospheres are polluted by remnant planetary material, with some WDs being observed to accrete the mass of Pluto in 10^6 years. The short sinking timescale for the pollutants indicate that the material must be frequently replenished. Moons may contribute decisively to this pollution process if they are liberated from their parent planets during the post-main-sequence evolution of the planetary systems. Here, we demonstrate that gravitational scattering events among planets in WD systems easily triggers moon ejection. Repeated close encounters within tenths of a planetary Hill radii are highly destructive to even the most massive, close-in moons. Consequently, scattering increases both the frequency of perturbing agents in WD systems, as well as the available mass of polluting material in those systems, thereby enhancing opportunities for collision and fragmentation and providing more dynamical pathways for smaller bodies to reach the ...

  17. Dust in the 55 Cancri planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R; Greaves, J S; Dent, W R F; Marcy, G W; Hartmann, L W; Fazio, G G; Jayawardhana, Ray; Holland, Wayne S.; Greaves, Jane S.; Dent, William R. F.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Hartmann, Lee W.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of debris disks around $\\sim$ 1-Gyr-old main sequence stars suggests that an appreciable amount of dust may persist even in mature planetary systems. Here we report the detection of dust emission from 55 Cancri, a star with one, or possibly two, planetary companions detected through radial velocity measurements. Our observations at 850$\\mu$m and 450$\\mu$m imply a dust mass of 0.0008-0.005 Earth masses, somewhat higher than that in the the Kuiper Belt of our solar system. The estimated temperature of the dust grains and a simple model fit both indicate a central disk hole of at least 10 AU in radius. Thus, the region where the planets are detected is likely to be significantly depleted of dust. Our results suggest that far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations are powerful tools for probing the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems.

  18. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  19. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.;

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  20. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  1. Earth-like Habitats in Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Jörg; Kührt, Ekkehard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Tornow, Carmen; Wünnemann, Kai; Fernandes, Vera A; Grenfell, Lee J; Rauer, Heike; Wagner, Roland; Werner, Stephanie C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the concept of habitability is related to an evolutionary knowledge of the particular planet-in-question. Additional indications so-called "systemic aspects" of the planetary system as a whole governs a particular planet's claim on habitability. Here we focus on such systemic aspects and discuss their relevance to the formation of an 'Earth-like' habitable planet. We summarize our results obtained by lunar sample work and numerical models within the framework of the Research Alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". We consider various scenarios which simulate the dynamical evolution of the Solar System and discuss the likelihood of forming an Earth-like world orbiting another star. Our model approach is constrained by observations of the modern Solar System and the knowledge of its history. Results suggest that the long-term presence of terrestrial planets is jeopardized due to gravitational interactions if giant planets are present. But habitability of inner rocky planets may be supported in th...

  2. The final fate of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  3. Late evolution of planetary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, A [CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, B P 4299, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Levison, H F [SWRI, 1050 Walnut St, Suite 300 Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)], E-mail: morby@obs-nice.fr, E-mail: hal@boulder.swri.edu

    2008-08-15

    This chapter discusses some of the main effects of the interaction of planets with remnant planetesimal disks, after the disappearance of the gas. It focuses on planet migration and its possible outcomes. In particular, we discuss the possibility that the migration of the planets leads them into an unstable configuration which changes drastically the structure of the system. The late heavy bombardment (LHB) of the terrestrial planets, occurring 650 Myr after planet formation, is a strong indication that this kind of evolution occurred in our solar system. Other stars show evidence of intense comet showers, which may indicate that LHB-analogs are ongoing in those systems at the current time.

  4. History of the Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, J. L. E.

    2014-10-01

    Introduction. The earliest cosmological ideas; 1. The early Greek philosophers; 2. The Pythagorean school; 3. Plato; 4. The homocentric spheres of Eudoxus; 5. Aristotle; 6. Herakleides and Aristarchus; 7. The theory of Epicycles; 8. The dimensions of the world; 9. The Ptolemaic system; 10. Medieval cosmology; 11. Oriental astronomers; 12. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 13. Copernicus; 14. Tycho Brahe and his contemporaries; 15. Kepler; 16. Conclusion; Index.

  5. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE EXOPLANET WASP-5b WITH WARM SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Nathaniel J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present secondary eclipse photometry of the extrasolar planet WASP-5b taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera as part of the extended warm mission. By estimating the depth of the secondary eclipse in these two bands we can place constraints on the planet's atmospheric pressure-temperature profile and chemistry. We measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.197% {+-} 0.028% and 0.237% {+-} 0.024% in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively. For the case of a solar-composition atmosphere and chemistry in local thermal equilibrium, our observations are best matched by models showing a hot dayside and, depending on our choice of model, a weak thermal inversion or no inversion at all. We measure a mean offset from the predicted center of eclipse of 3.7 {+-} 1.8 minutes, corresponding to ecos {omega} = 0.0025 {+-} 0.0012 and consistent with a circular orbit. We conclude that the planet's orbit is unlikely to have been perturbed by interactions with another body in the system as claimed by Fukui et al.

  6. Ground-based detection of the near-infrared emission from the dayside of WASP-5b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; van Boekel, R.; Madhusudhan, N.; Wang, H.; Nikolov, N.; Seemann, U.; Henning, Th.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Observations of secondary eclipses of hot Jupiters allow one to measure the dayside thermal emission from the planets' atmospheres. The combination of ground-based near-infrared observations and space-based observations at longer wavelengths constrains the atmospheric temperature structure and chemical composition. Aims: This work aims at detecting the thermal emission of WASP-5b, a highly irradiated dense hot Jupiter orbiting a G4V star every 1.6 days, in the J, H and K near-infrared photometric bands. The spectral energy distribution is used to constrain the temperature-pressure profile and to study the energy budget of WASP-5b. Methods: We observed two secondary-eclipse events of WASP-5b in the J, H, K bands simultaneously using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. The telescope was in nodding mode for the first observation and in staring mode for the second observation. The occultation light curves were modeled to obtain the flux ratios in each band, which were then compared with atmospheric models. Results: Thermal emission of WASP-5b is detected in the J and K bands in staring mode. The retrieved planet-to-star flux ratios are 0.168-0.052+0.050% in the J band and 0.269 ± 0.062% in the K band, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 2996-261+212 K and 2890-269+246 K, respectively. No thermal emission is detected in the H band, with a 3σ upper limit of 0.166% on the planet-to-star flux ratio, corresponding to a maximum temperature of 2779 K. On the whole, our J, H, K results can be explained by a roughly isothermal temperature profile of ~2700 K in the deep layers of the planetary dayside atmosphere that are probed at these wavelengths. Together with Spitzer observations, which probe higher layers that are found to be at ~1900 K, a temperature inversion is ruled out in the range of pressures probed by the combined data set. While an oxygen-rich model is unable to explain all the data, a carbon-rich model provides a reasonable fit

  7. Mathematical optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yegor; Bukhtoyarov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Planetary formation is mostly a random process. When the humanity reaches the point when it can transform planetary systems for the purpose of interstellar life expansion, the optimal distribution of matter in a planetary system will determine its population and expansive potential. Maximization of the planetary system carrying capacity and its potential for the interstellar life expansion depends on planetary sizes, orbits, rotation, chemical composition and other vital parameters. The distribution of planetesimals to achieve maximal carrying capacity of the planets during their life cycle, and maximal potential to inhabit other planetary systems must be calculated comprehensively. Moving much material from one planetary system to another is uneconomic because of the high amounts of energy and time required. Terraforming of the particular planets before the whole planetary system is configured might drastically decrease the potential habitability the whole system. Thus a planetary system is the basic unit for calculations to sustain maximal overall population and expand further. The mathematical model of optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration includes the input observed parameters: the map of material orbiting in the planetary system with specified orbits, masses, sizes, and the chemical compound for each, and the optimized output parameters. The optimized output parameters are sizes, masses, the number of planets, their chemical compound, and masses of the satellites required to make tidal forces. Also the magnetic fields and planetary rotations are crucial, but they will be considered in further versions of this model. The optimization criteria is the maximal carrying capacity plus maximal expansive potential of the planetary system. The maximal carrying capacity means the availability of essential life ingredients on the planetary surface, and the maximal expansive potential means availability of uranium and metals to build

  8. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  9. Observations of an extreme planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such extreme orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this extreme planetary system.

  10. Characterization of the Wolf 1061 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.; von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Waters, Miranda A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Mann, Andrew W.

    2017-02-01

    A critical component of exoplanetary studies is an exhaustive characterization of the host star, from which the planetary properties are frequently derived. Of particular value are the radius, temperature, and luminosity, which are key stellar parameters for studies of transit and habitability science. Here we present the results of new observations of Wolf 1061, known to host three super-Earths. Our observations from the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy interferometric array provide a direct stellar radius measurement of 0.3207 ± 0.0088 R⊙, from which we calculate the effective temperature and luminosity using spectral energy distribution models. We obtained 7 yr of precise, automated photometry that reveals the correct stellar rotation period of 89.3 ± 1.8 days, finds no evidence of photometric transits, and confirms that the radial velocity signals are not due to stellar activity. Finally, our stellar properties are used to calculate the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ) for the Wolf 1061 system, for which the optimistic boundaries are 0.09–0.23 au. Our simulations of the planetary orbital dynamics show that the eccentricity of the HZ planet oscillates to values as high as ∼0.15 as it exchanges angular momentum with the other planets in the system.

  11. The ultimate fate of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachlin, F. C.; Vauclair, S.; Vauclair, G.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increasing evidence that a significant fraction of white dwarfs is accreting matter from a debris disk has triggered a significant scientific interest. Its mere existence suggests that the planetary system which had formed around the star was able to survive all previous phases of stellar evolution, including those implying dramatic size changes as well as mass loss events of the central star. The computation of accretion rates provides us important information about the original planetary system. Unfortunately the present estimations do not take into account a physical process that may happen when heavy material falls ontop a lighter one, generating turbulences that dilutes the accreted material. This process affects directly the computed accretion rates, since if it takes place, larger accretion rates become necessary in order to explain the amount of surface contamination observed. In this work we present the results of numerical simulations that show that this destabilizing physical process actually occurs. Its impact on an accreting DA white dwarf model is presented.

  12. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  13. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  14. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  15. PDS4: Developing the Next Generation Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Beebe, R.; Hughes, S.; Stein, T.; Grayzeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is in the midst of a major upgrade to its system. This upgrade is a critical modernization of the PDS as it prepares to support the future needs of both the mission and scientific community. It entails improvements to the software system and the data standards, capitalizing on newer, data system approaches. The upgrade is important not only for the purpose of capturing results from NASA planetary science missions, but also for improving standards and interoperability among international planetary science data archives. As the demands of the missions and science community increase, PDS is positioning itself to evolve and meet those demands.

  16. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  17. The Rocky World of Young Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Panel A of Inset Panel B of Inset Panel C of Inset This artist's concept illustrates how planetary systems arise out of massive collisions between rocky bodies. New findings from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that these catastrophes continue to occur around stars even after they have developed full-sized planets, when they are as old as one hundred million years. For reference, our own Sun, at 4.5 billion years old, is far past this late stage of planet formation. In this image, a young star is shown circled by full-sized planets, and rings of dust beyond. These rings, also called 'debris discs,' arise when embryonic planets smash into each other. One of these collisions is illustrated in the inset of Figure 1. Spitzer was able to see the dust generated by these collisions with its powerful infrared vision.

  18. A system architecture for a planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. B.; Matijevic, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Each planetary mission requires a complex space vehicle which integrates several functions to accomplish the mission and science objectives. A Mars Rover is one of these vehicles, and extends the normal spacecraft functionality with two additional functions: surface mobility and sample acquisition. All functions are assembled into a hierarchical and structured format to understand the complexities of interactions between functions during different mission times. It can graphically show data flow between functions, and most importantly, the necessary control flow to avoid unambiguous results. Diagrams are presented organizing the functions into a structured, block format where each block represents a major function at the system level. As such, there are six blocks representing telecomm, power, thermal, science, mobility and sampling under a supervisory block called Data Management/Executive. Each block is a simple collection of state machines arranged into a hierarchical order very close to the NASREM model for Telerobotics. Each layer within a block represents a level of control for a set of state machines that do the three primary interface functions: command, telemetry, and fault protection. This latter function is expanded to include automatic reactions to the environment as well as internal faults. Lastly, diagrams are presented that trace the system operations involved in moving from site to site after site selection. The diagrams clearly illustrate both the data and control flows. They also illustrate inter-block data transfers and a hierarchical approach to fault protection. This systems architecture can be used to determine functional requirements, interface specifications and be used as a mechanism for grouping subsystems (i.e., collecting groups of machines, or blocks consistent with good and testable implementations).

  19. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions

  20. Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA’s Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has blossomed as a new technique for characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets. TTVs can provide precise, but complex, constraints on planetary masses, densities, and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. In the coming years, astronomers will translate TTV observations into increasingly powerful constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets. Between TTVs, improved Doppler surveys, high-contrast imaging campaigns, and microlensing surveys, astronomers can look forward to a much better understanding of planet formation in the coming decade. PMID:24778212

  1. The evolution of planetary nebulae VII. Modelling planetary nebulae of distant stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberner, D; Sandin, C; Steffen, M

    2010-01-01

    By means of hydrodynamical models we do the first investigations of how the properties of planetary nebulae are affected by their metal content and what can be learned from spatially unresolved spectrograms of planetary nebulae in distant stellar systems. We computed a new series of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics planetary nebulae model sequences with central stars of 0.595 M_sun surrounded by initial envelope structures that differ only by their metal content. At selected phases along the evolutionary path, the hydrodynamic terms were switched off, allowing the models to relax for fixed radial structure and radiation field into their equilibrium state with respect to energy and ionisation. The analyses of the line spectra emitted from both the dynamical and static models enabled us to systematically study the influence of hydrodynamics as a function of metallicity and evolution. We also recomputed selected sequences already used in previous publications, but now with different metal abundances. These sequences w...

  2. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    The Planetary Sciences in the last decades has accumulated an amount of knowledge that is comparable to other Earth Sciences. The study of planets is not any more a computation of orbital data, but the investigation and description of surface features of dozens of planetary bodies, including our own Earth. This way, it is only an extention of the present Earth sciences like geography, geology, geophisics, meteorolgy etc. In Hungary, Planetary Science studies has been made for decades, but especially today, numerous popular scientific works are published, and the subject of planetology (and also exobiology linked to it) is taught in more and more secondary schools and universities. This ma kes a demand for a Hungarian language terminology and nomenclature in the relatively new discipline of Planetology. It is needed because the present terminology of geosciences is not adequeate for the description of the surface conditions and structures in other planetary bodies. In the mean time it has to be in accord with the Earth-based system. Since this is areal discipline in its subject, it is of high importance that the areas studied be identifiable easily, unambiguously and descriptively. This make s the translation/transcription of IAU's nomenclature our second goal. This is not a simple transliteration of the proper names used in planetary body nomenclatures, but the task is also the setting of the basic rules used in the making of Hungarian nomenclature system. It would be useful, if the system would be useable for any body of the solar system. It has to fit into the system of both the IAU's nomenlcature and the Hungarian geographic name system [1]. This makes a double task: to make a system that is appropriate both linguistically and scientifically. At the same time, in popular science and elementary education, the planetary features' common names and some basic terms should be in the mother languages of the readers, and not in latin or English (outside the anglophone

  3. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  4. Dynamical architectures of planetary systems induced by orbital migration

    CERN Document Server

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to present the most recent advances in establishing plausible planetary system architectures determined by the gravitational tidal interactions between the planets and the disc in which they are embedded during the early epoch of planetary system formation. We concentrate on a very well defined and intensively studied process of the disc-planet interaction leading to the planet migration. We focus on the dynamics of the systems in which low-mass planets are present. Particular attention is devoted to investigation of the role of resonant configurations. Our studies, apart from being complementary to the fast progress occurring just now in observing the whole variety of planetary systems and uncovering their structure and origin, can also constitute a valuable contribution in support of the missions planned to enhance the number of detected multiple systems.

  5. Reflection seismology systems for planetary geology: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, P.A.W.; Gill, E.K.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Foing, B.H.; Toxopeus, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study is conducted to determine whether reflection seismology systems can be used for planetary geology research. The focus is on systems with up to 20,000 seismic detectors, such as used today in Earth geological research and energy companies. The study follows a top-down systems engi

  6. Solar System Processes Underlying Planetary Formation, Geodynamics, and the Georeactor

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2006-01-01

    Only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are responsible for the diversity of matter in the Solar System and are directly responsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear fission reactors, and for dynamical processes, including and especially, geodynamics. These processes are: (i) Low-pressure, low-temperature condensation from solar matter in the remote reaches of the Solar System or in the interstellar medium; (ii) High-pressure, high-temperature condensation from solar matter associated with planetary-formation by raining out from the interiors of giant-gaseous protoplanets, and; (iii) Stripping of the primordial volatile components from the inner portion of the Solar System by super-intense solar wind associated with T-Tauri phase mass-ejections, presumably during the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun. As described herein, these processes lead logically, in a causally related manner, to a coherent vision of planetary formation with profound imp...

  7. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  8. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  9. The NASA Planetary Data System's Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node and the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, L. R.; Laura, J.; Hare, T.; Hagerty, J.

    2017-06-01

    Here we address the role of the PSDI initiative in the context of work to archive and deliver planetary data by NASA’s Planetary Data System, and in particular by the PDS Cartography and Imaging Sciences Discipline Node (aka “Imaging” or IMG).

  10. Multiple planetary systems: Properties of the current sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Melissa J.; Gomez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    We carry out analyses on stellar and planetary properties of multiple exoplanetary systems in the currently available sample. With regards to the stars, we study their temperature, distance from the Sun, and metallicity distributions, finding that the stars that harbour multiple exoplanets tend to have subsolar metallicities, in contrast to metal-rich Hot Jupiter hosts; while non-Hot Jupiter single planet hosts form an intermediate group between these two, with approximately solar metallicities. With regards to the planetary systems, we select those with four or more planets and analyse their configurations in terms of stability (via Hill radii), compactness, and size variations. We find that most planetary pairs are stable, and that the compactness correlates to the size variation: More compact systems have more similarly sized planets and vice versa. We also investigate the spectral energy distributions of the stars hosting multiple exoplanetary systems, seeking infra-red excesses that could indicate the presence of debris disks. These disks would be leftovers from the planetary formation process, and could be considered as analogues of the Solar System's Asteroid or Kuiper belts. We identify potential candidates for disks that are good targets for far infra-red follow-up observations to confirm their existence.

  11. AMD-stability and the classification of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, J.; Petit, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    We present here in full detail the evolution of the angular momentum deficit (AMD) during collisions as it was described in Laskar (2000, Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, 3240). Since then, the AMD has been revealed to be a key parameter for the understanding of the outcome of planetary formation models. We define here the AMD-stability criterion that can be easily verified on a newly discovered planetary system. We show how AMD-stability can be used to establish a classification of the multiplanet systems in order to exhibit the planetary systems that are long-term stable because they are AMD-stable, and those that are AMD-unstable which then require some additional dynamical studies to conclude on their stability. The AMD-stability classification is applied to the 131 multiplanet systems from The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia database for which the orbital elements are sufficiently well known. The AMD-stability coefficients of selected planetary systems are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A72

  12. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  13. New approaches to planetary exploration - Spacecraft and information systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A. V.; Neugebauer, M.; Stuart, J.; Miller, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Approaches are recommended for use by the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in lowering the costs of planetary missions. The inclusion of off-the-shelf hardware, i.e., configurations currently in use for earth orbits and constructed on a nearly assembly-line basis, is suggested. Alterations would be necessary for the thermal control, power supply, telecommunications equipment, and attitude sensing in order to be serviceable as a planetary observer spacecraft. New technology can be developed only when cost reduction for the entire mission would be realized. The employment of lower-cost boost motors, or even integrated boost motors, for the transfer out of earth orbit is indicated, as is the development of instruments that do not redundantly gather the same data as previous planetary missions. Missions under consideration include a Mars geoscience climatology Orbiter, a lunar geoscience Orbiter, a near-earth asteroid rendezvous, a Mars aeronomy Orbiter, and a Venus atmospheric probe.

  14. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  15. On the dynamics of the three dimensional planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I; Hadjidemetriou, John D

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been a tremendous increase in research on extrasolar planets. Many exosolar systems, which consist of a Star and two inclined Planets, seem to be locked in 4/3, 3/2, 2/1, 5/2, 3/1 and 4/1 mean motion resonance (MMR). We herewith present the model used to simulate three dimensional planetary systems and provide planar families of periodic orbits (PO), which belong to all possible configurations that each MMR has, along with their linear horizontal and vertical stability. We focus on depicting stable spatial families (most of them up to mutual inclination of $60^\\circ$) generated by PO of planar circular families, because the trapping in MMR could be a consequence of planetary migration process. We attempt to connect the linear stability of PO with long-term stability of a planetary system close to them. This can stimulate the search of real planetary systems in the vicinity of stable spatial PO-counterbalanced by the planets' orbital elements, masses and MMR; all of which could...

  16. Long-term evolution and stability of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    This dissertation studies the dynamical evolution and stability of planetary systems over long time spans (10 8 -10 9 years). I investigated the dynamical evolution of few-planet systems by simulating ensembles of systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of randomly constructed members. I looked at ways to classify the systems according to their dynamical activity, and found the median Hill separation of an ensemble to be a sufficiently good criterion for separation into active (those exhibiting frequent planetary close encounters, collisions or ejections) and inactive ensembles. I examined the evolution of dynamical parameters in active systems. I found that in ensembles of dynamically active (initially unstable) systems the eccentricity distribution evolves towards the same equilibrium form, irrespective of the distribution it began with. Furthermore, this equilibrium distribution is indistinguishable, within observational errors, from the distribution found in extrasolar planets. This is to my knowledge the first successful detailed theoretical reproduction of the form of observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution. I further looked for quantities that can be used as indicators of long-term stability of planetary systems, specifically the angular momentum deficit (AMD) as originally proposed by Laskar. I found that the quantity Q , defined as the ratio of minimum AMD required for a planetary collision to occur in secular theory and the total AMD of the system, may be used to predict the likelihood of decay of a planetary system. Qualitatively, the decay in systems having Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 is highly probable, while systems with Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 were found to be stable. To conduct the above investigations, I developed a new integrator package (VENUS), and the HYBRID/EE integration scheme designed for nearly-symplectic long-term integrations. VENUS implements integration algorithms for few-body planetary system integrations

  17. Architectures of Planetary Systems and Implications for their Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely-spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variatio...

  18. The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772) that successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research have further confirmed that: (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system ...

  19. Chaotic Diffusion in the Gliese-876 Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, J G; Beaugé, C

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic diffusion is supposed to be responsible for orbital instabilities in planetary systems after the dissipation of the protoplanetary disk, and a natural consequence of irregular motion. In this paper we show that resonant multi-planetary systems, despite being highly chaotic, not necessarily exhibit significant diffusion in phase space, and may still survive virtually unchanged over timescales comparable to their age.Using the GJ-876 system as an example, we analyze the chaotic diffusion of the outermost (and less massive) planet. We construct a set of stability maps in the surrounding regions of the Laplace resonance. We numerically integrate ensembles of close initial conditions, compute Poincar\\'e maps and estimate the chaotic diffusion present in this system. Our results show that, the Laplace resonance contains two different regions: an inner domain characterized by low chaoticity and slow diffusion, and an outer one displaying larger values of dynamical indicators. In the outer resonant domain, th...

  20. Planetary Systems Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Ollivier, Marc; Casoli, Fabienne; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Selsis, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different fr...

  1. Dynamical Simulations of the Planetary System HD69830

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Matthew J; Wyatt, Mark C; Booth, Mark

    2008-01-01

    HD 69830 exhibits radial velocity variations attributed to three planets as well as infrared emission attributed to a warm debris disk. Previous studies have developed models for the planet migration and mass growth (Alibert et al. 2006) and the replenishment of warm grains (Wyatt et al. 2007). We perform n-body integrations in order to explore the implications of these models for: 1) the excitation of planetary eccentricity, 2) the accretion and clearing of a putative planetesimal disk, 3) the distribution of planetesimal orbits following migration, and 4) the implications for the origin of the IR emission. We find that: i) It is not possible to explain the observed planetary eccentricities (e~0.1) purely as the result of planetary perturbations during migration unless the planetary system is nearly face-on. ii) The rate of accretion of planetesimals onto planets in our n-body simulations is significantly different to that assumed in the semi-analytic models, suggesting that one cannot successfully treat pla...

  2. Planetary systems based on a quantum-like model

    CERN Document Server

    T., N Poveda; C, N Y Buitrago

    2015-01-01

    Planetary systems have their origin in the gravitational collapse of a cloud of gas and dust. Through a process of accretion, is formed a massive star and a disk of planetesimals orbiting the star. Using a formalism analogous to quantum mechanics (quantum-like model), the star-planetesimal system is described and the flow quantizing the gravitational field theoretical model parameters are obtained. Goodness of fit (chi-square) of the observed data with model quantum-like, to the solar system, satellites, exoplanets and protoplanetary disk around HL Tauri is determined. Shows that the radius, eccentricity, energy, angular momentum and orbital inclination of planetary objects formed take discrete values depending only on the mass star.

  3. The Rings Node for the Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Bollinger, Kenneth J.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    1994-01-01

    The Planetary Data System's Rings Node is devoted to the archiving and distributing of scientific data sets relevant to planetary ring systems. The two major classes of ring data are images and occultation profiles, although a variety of additional data types (e.g. spectra, particle absorption signatures, etc.) are also of interest. A large fraction of our data sets are from the Voyager missions to the outer planets, but Earth-based and Hubble Space Telescope data sets are also represented. Archiving work often includes re-formatting the data into standardized formats and reconstructing some of the data processing steps. The Rings Node also performs a variety of services to support research into these data sets. These services include developing on-line catalogs and information systems, filling orders for data, developing software tools, and coordinating special observing campaigns.

  4. Planetary systems and real planetary nebulae from planets destruction near white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that tidal destruction of Earth-like and icy planets near a white dwarf (WD) might lead to the formation of one or more low-mass planets in tight orbits around the WD. More massive planets contain hydrogen which will start burning on the surface of the WD and inflate an envelope, part of which be ejected to form a nebula. This nebula will be ionized and be observed as a planetary nebulae. The formation of the WD planetary system starts with a tidal break-up of icy or lower mass planets to planetesimals near their tidal radius of about 1Rsun. Internal stress forces keep the planetesimal from tidal break-up when their radius is less than about 100km. We suggest that the planetesimals then bind together to form new sub-Earth-like planets around the WD at a few solar radii. More massive planets that contain hydrogen will supply the WD with fresh nuclear fuel to reincarnate its stellar-giant phase. Some of the hydrogen will be inflated in a large envelope that will cause the planetesimal formed from the...

  5. New Ideas in Orreries and Planetary System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.; Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Harman, P.

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Kepler EPO team has created models and simulations of planetary systems (orreries) to use in demonstrating the transit technique of finding exoplanets. The first successful orrery, consisting of a three-planet orrery with an electric lamp (model star) at the center, and a Vernier light sensor system connected to a laptop computer with real-time graphing software, was first on display at the Kepler booth at the 2006 AAS conference. That system was extended to a four-planet model (one planet with a moon as well) and has been on display at many astronomy and teacher education conferences in the past few years. Construction of duplicate models costs about 60 for LEGO parts, plus 100 or so for light sensor hardware and software. The LEGO orrery effort stemmed from successful work in creating a large museum-grade orrery that was used in the Planet-Finding portion of the ``Alien Earths'' exhibit, a collaboration of Space Science Institute, NSF, NASA Kepler mission EPO and other NASA EPO groups. Replication of that model would cost in the neighborhood of $25,000. In recent months, Kepler EPO has worked on design of a more rudimentary, inexpensive orrery made of cardboard, paper plates, wine corks, and rubber bands. Work is also underway on a new plastic-geared orrery for use in classrooms with a Full Option Science System (FOSS) Planetary Science Unit for middle school. This presentation relays results and status of these new developments in planetary model systems.

  6. Stability of Satellites in Closely Packed Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew J; Perets, Hagai B

    2013-01-01

    We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely-spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to $\\sim 0.4 R_H$ (where $R_H$ is the Hill Radius) as opposed to $\\sim 0.5 R_H$ in the single-planet case. A similarly small restriction in the stable parameter-space for retrograde satellites is observed, where planetary close approaches in the range 2.5 to 4.5 mutual Hill radii destabilize most satellites orbits only if $a\\sim 0.65 R_H$. In very close planetary pairs (e.g. the 12:11 resonance) the addition of a satellite frequently destabilizes the entire system, causing extreme close-approaches and the loss of satellites over a range of cir...

  7. Stability Limits in Resonant Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the boundaries for Hill and Lagrange stability in orbital element space is modified in the case of resonantly interacting planets. Hill stability requires the ordering of the planets to remain constant while Lagrange stability also requires all planets to remain bound to the central star. The Hill stability boundary is defined analytically, but no equations exist to define the Lagrange boundary, so we perform numerical experiments to estimate the location of this boundary. To explore the effect of resonances, we consider orbital element space near the conditions in the HD 82943 and 55 Cnc systems. Previous studies have shown that, for non-resonant systems, the two stability boundaries are nearly coincident. However the Hill stability formula are not applicable to resonant systems, and our investigation shows how the two boundaries diverge in the presence of a mean-motion resonance, while confirming that the Hill and Lagrange boundaries are similar otherwise. In resonance the region of...

  8. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  9. Nanotube-based Sensors and Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, F.; Hunt, B. D.; Hoenk, M. E.; Choi, D.; Kowalczyk, R.; Williams, R.; Xu, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2001-01-01

    Direct sensing and processing at the nanometer scale offer NASA the opportunity to expand its capabilities in deep space exploration, particularly for the search for signatures of life, the analysis of planetary oceans and atmospheres, and communications systems. Carbon nanotubes, with their unique mechanical, electrical, and radiation-tolerant properties, are a promising tool for this exploration. We are developing devices based on carbon nanotubes, including sensors, actuators, and oscillators. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Searching for stable orbits in the HD 10180 planetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskar J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A planetary system with at least seven planets has been found around the star HD 10180. However, the traditional Keplerian and n-body fits to the data provide an orbital solution that becomes unstable very quickly, which may quest the reliability of the observations. Here we show that stable orbital configurations can be obtained if general relativity and long-term dissipation raised by tides on the innermost planet are taken into account.

  11. On the GJ 436 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Nowak, G; Pallé, E; Tingley, B; Errmann, R; Neuhäuser, R

    2015-01-01

    The GJ 436 system contains a transiting planet GJ 436 b which is a hot analogue of Neptune on an eccentric orbit. Recently, two additional transiting sub-Earth planets have been postulated in the literature. We observed three transits of GJ 436 b over the course of 3 years using two-meter class telescopes, each with a photometric precision better than one millimagnitude. We studied system dynamics based on the existence of the additional planets. We redetermined system parameters, which were in agreement with those found in the literature. We refined the orbital period of GJ 436 b and found no evidence of transit timing variations. The orbital motion of the GJ 436 c planet candidate was found to be significantly affected by the planet b with variations in transit times at a level of 20 minutes. As the orbital period of the GJ 436 d planet candidate remains unknown, our numerical experiments rule out orbits in low-order resonances with GJ 436 b. The GJ 436 system with the hot Neptune and additional two Earth-l...

  12. Planetary Sample Caching System Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Younse, Paulo; Backes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Potential Mars Sample Return missions would aspire to collect small core and regolith samples using a rover with a sample acquisition tool and sample caching system. Samples would need to be stored in individual sealed tubes in a canister that could be transfered to a Mars ascent vehicle and returned to Earth. A sample handling, encapsulation and containerization system (SHEC) has been developed as part of an integrated system for acquiring and storing core samples for application to future potential MSR and other potential sample return missions. Requirements and design options for the SHEC system were studied and a recommended design concept developed. Two families of solutions were explored: 1)transfer of a raw sample from the tool to the SHEC subsystem and 2)transfer of a tube containing the sample to the SHEC subsystem. The recommended design utilizes sample tool bit change out as the mechanism for transferring tubes to and samples in tubes from the tool. The SHEC subsystem design, called the Bit Changeout Caching(BiCC) design, is intended for operations on a MER class rover.

  13. On Some General Regularities of Formation of the Planetary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept has been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macro- contours formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form — independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. The possibility of formation of Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.

  14. High spatial resolution mid-infrared studies of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew

    I present the results of six papers related the formation and evolution of planets and planetary systems, all of which are based on high-resolution, ground-based, mid-infrared observations. The first three chapters are studies of T Tauri binaries. T Tauri stars are young, low mass stars, whose disks form the building blocks of extrasolar planets. The first chapter is a study of the 0.68"/0.12" triple system, T Tauri. Our spatially resolved N-band photometry reveals silicate absorption towards one component, T Tau Sa, indicating the presence of an edge-on disk, which is in contrast to the other components. The second chapter is an adaptive optics fed N-band spectroscopy study of the 0.88" binary, UY Aur. We find that the dust grains around UY Aur A are ISM-like, while the mineralogy of the dust around UY Aur B is more uncertain, due to self-extinction. The third chapter presents a survey of spatially resolved silicate spectroscopy for nine T Tauri binaries. We find with 90%-95% confidence that the silicate features of the binaries are more similar than those of randomly paired single stars. This implies that a shared binary property, such as age or composition, is an important parameter in dust grain evolution. The fourth chapter is a study of the planetary system, 2MASS 1207. We explore the source of 2MASS 1207 b's under-luminosity, which has typically been explained as the result of an edge-on disk of large, grey-extincting dust grains. We find that the edge-on disk theory is incompatible with several lines of evidence, and suggest that 2MASS 1207 b's appearance can be explained by a thick cloudy atmosphere, which might be typical among young, planetary systems. The fifth chapter is a study of the white dwarf, Sirius B, which in the context of this thesis is being studied as a post-planetary system. Our N-band imaging demonstrates that Sirius B does not have an infrared excess, in contrast to previous results. The sixth chapter is a study of mid

  15. Tandem planet formation for solar system-like planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imaeda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new united theory of planet formation, which includes magneto-rotational instability (MRI and porous aggregation of solid particles in a consistent way. We show that the “tandem planet formation” regime is likely to result in solar system-like planetary systems. In the tandem planet formation regime, planetesimals form at two distinct sites: the outer and inner edges of the MRI suppressed region. The former is likely to be the source of the outer gas giants, and the latter is the source for the inner volatile-free rocky planets. Our study spans disks with a various range of accretion rates, and we find that tandem planet formation can occur for M˙=10−7.3-10−6.9M⊙yr−1. The rocky planets form between 0.4–2 AU, while the icy planets form between 6–30 AU; no planets form in 2–6 AU region for any accretion rate. This is consistent with the gap in the solid component distribution in the solar system, which has only a relatively small Mars and a very small amount of material in the main asteroid belt from 2–6 AU. The tandem regime is consistent with the idea that the Earth was initially formed as a completely volatile-free planet. Water and other volatile elements came later through the accretion of icy material by occasional inward scattering from the outer regions. Reactions between reductive minerals, such as schreibersite (Fe3P, and water are essential to supply energy and nutrients for primitive life on Earth.

  16. Imaging exo-solar planetary systems with Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatchel, Andrew Lynn

    The concept of building a space based telescope capable of directly imaging extra-solar planetary systems has been in existence for more than a decade. While the basic ideas of how such an instrument might work have already been discussed in the literature, specific details of the design have not been addressed that will enable a telescope of this class to be functionally realized. A straw man configuration of the instrument is examined here for its ability to acquire data of sufficient informational content and quality to produce images and spectra of distant planetary systems and to find what technical problems arise from analyzing the interferograms it delivers. Computer programs that simulate the signals expected to be produced by a structurally connected instrument (SCI) version of Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and reconstruct images from those signals will be presented along with programs that extract planetary parameters. An abbreviated radiometric performance analysis will also be provided that will assist astronomers in designing an appropriate mission.

  17. Selected topics on extrasolar planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric B.

    This thesis investigates the capabilities of planet searches to detect extrasolar planets and measure their mass and orbital parameters. I developed and demonstrated a new technique based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of extrasolar planets using actual radial velocity observations. It is hoped that future astrometric searches will build upon the successes of radial velocity searches, providing new information about currently known planets and discovering new ones. In particular, the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be capable of detecting low-mass planets around nearby stars. I simulated astrometric observations to evaluate the planet-finding capabilities of SIM and estimate the number of planets which SIM planet searches would detect and characterize and explore how various factors would affect SIM's sensitivity. For example, I investigated the tradeoffs between observing more stars at lower precision and observing less stars at higher precision. I also determined that the choice of observing schedule has relatively little effect on SIM's efficiency, so it is likely best to schedule observations so as to minimize overhead (e.g., slewing, measuring grid stars). Similarly, I quantified how much SIM's efficiency is reduced when a target star has an acceleration due to a wide-binary companion, concluding that it is generally preferable to target a nearby star in a wide-binary system rather than a more distant single star. Finally, I explored how the presence of two planets around a star can make it more difficult for SIM to measure the masses and orbital parameters of either planet. I find that the presence a giant planet can significantly reduce the sensitivity of SIM for measuring the low-mass mass and orbital parameters of a low-mass planet. Each of these studies will help guide decisions, so that SIM's valuable observing time can be used most productively.

  18. On the HU Aquarii planetary system hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Słowikowska, Aga; Beuermann, Klaus; Kanbach, Gottfried; Gauza, Bartosz; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Schwarz, Robert; Schwope, Axel D.; Hinse, Tobias C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Burwitz, Vadim; Słonina, Mariusz; Rau, Arne

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the eclipse timing of the polar binary HU Aquarii that has been observed for almost two decades. Recently, Qian et al. attributed large (O-C) deviations between the eclipse ephemeris and observations to a compact system of two massive Jovian companions. We improve the Keplerian, kinematic model of the light travel time effect and re-analyse the whole currently available data set. We add almost 60 new, yet unpublished, mostly precision light curves obtained using the time high-resolution photopolarimeter Optical Timing Analyzer (OPTIMA), as well as photometric observations performed at the Monitoring Network of Telescopes/North, Physics Innovations Robotic Astronomical Telescope Explorer and Carlos Sánchez Telescope. We determine new mid-egress times with a mean uncertainty at the level of 1 s or better. We claim that because the observations that currently exist in the literature are non-homogeneous with respect to spectral windows (ultraviolet, X-ray, visual and polarimetric mode) and the reported mid-egress measurements errors, they may introduce systematics that affect orbital fits. Indeed, we find that the published data, when taken literally, cannot be explained by any unique solution. Many qualitatively different and best-fit two-planet configurations, including self-consistent, Newtonian N-body solutions may be able to explain the data. However, using high-resolution, precision OPTIMA light curves, we find that the (O-C) deviations are best explained by the presence of a single circumbinary companion orbiting at a distance of ˜4.5 au with a small eccentricity and having ˜7 Jupiter masses. This object could be the next circumbinary planet detected from the ground, similar to the announced companions around close binaries HW Vir, NN Ser, UZ For, DP Leo, FS Aur or SZ Her, and planets of this type around Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35.

  19. The Planetary Data System--preparing for a New Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; Knopf, William P.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve NASA’s ability to serve the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) has been transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA’s Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. The new institute structure will facilitate our efforts within the PDS to improve both archive searchability and product discoverability. We will continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the community of space faring nations (through the IPDA). PDS science nodes will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented.The Science nodes were selected through a Cooperative Agreement Notice (NNH15ZDA006C) which specifically allowed the community to propose specific archive concepts. The selected nodes are: Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Rings-Moon Systems, Planetary Geosciences, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Atmospheres, and Small Bodies. Other elements of the PDS include an Engineering Node, the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, and a small project office.The prime role of the PDS is unchanged. We archive and distribute scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research.In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on the new Institute. Near term efforts include developing a PDS Roadmap for the next decade lead by PDS Chief Scientist, Dr

  20. The dynamics of post-main sequence planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustill, Alexander James

    2017-06-01

    The study of planetary systems after their host stars have left the main sequence is of fundamental importance for exoplanet science, as the most direct determination of the compositions of extra-Solar planets, asteroids and comets is in fact made by an analysis of the elemental abundances of the remnants of these bodies accreted into the atmospheres of white dwarfs.To understand how the accreted bodies relate to the source populations in the planetary system, and to model their dynamical delivery to the white dwarf, it is necessary to understand the effects of stellar evolution on bodies' orbits. On the red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) prior to becoming a white dwarf, stars expand to a large size (>1 au) and are easily deformed by orbiting planets, leading to tidal energy dissipation and orbital decay. They also lose half or more of their mass, causing the expansion of bodies' orbits. This mass loss increases the planet:star mass ratio, so planetary systems orbiting white dwarfs can be much less stable than those orbiting their main-sequence progenitors. Finally, small bodies in the system experience strong non-gravitational forces during the RGB and AGB: aerodynamic drag from the mass shed by the star, and strong radiation forces as the stellar luminosity reaches several thousand Solar luminosities.I will review these effects, focusing on planet--star tidal interactions and planet--asteroid interactions, and I will discuss some of the numerical challenges in modelling systems over their entire lifetimes of multiple Gyr.

  1. FOREVER ALONE? TESTING SINGLE ECCENTRIC PLANETARY SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang Songhu; Zhou Jilin [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Butler, R. P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Jones, H. R. A. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, College Lane, AL10 9AB Hatfield (United Kingdom); O' Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carter, B. D., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  2. Forever alone? Testing single eccentric planetary systems for multiple companions

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Carter, B D; Salter, G S; Wright, D

    2013-01-01

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly-circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  3. Photochemical hazes in planetary atmospheres: solar system bodies and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Cruikshank, Dale P.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent transit observations of exoplanets have demonstrated the possibility of a wide prevalence of haze/cloud layers at high altitudes. Hydrocarbon photochemical haze could be the candidate for such haze particles on warm sub-Neptunes, but the lack of evidence for methane poses a puzzle for such hydrocarbon photochemical haze. The CH4/CO ratios in planetary atmospheres vary substantially from their temperature and dynamics. An understanding of haze formation rates and plausible optical properties in a wide diversity of planetary atmospheres is required to interpret the current and future observations.Here, we focus on how atmospheric compositions, specifically CH4/CO ratios, affect the haze production rates and their optical properties. We have conducted a series of cold plasma experiments to constrain the haze mass production rates from gas mixtures of various CH4/CO ratios diluted either in H2 or N2 atmosphere. The mass production rates in the N2-CH4-CO system are much greater than those in the H2-CH4-CO system. They are rather insensitive to the CH4/CO ratios larger than at 0.3. Significant formation of solid material is observed both in H2-CO and N2-CO systems without CH4 in the initial gas mixtures. The complex refractive indices were derived for haze samples from N2-CH4, H2-CH4, and H2-CO gas mixtures. These are the model atmospheres for Titan, Saturn, and exoplanets, respectively. The imaginary part of the complex refractive indices in the UV-Vis region are distinct among these samples, which can be utilized for modeling these planetary atmospheres.

  4. Perturbation of Compact Planetary Systems by Distant Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bradley M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the effect of secular perturbations by giant planets on systems of multiple, lower mass planets orbiting Sun-like stars and compare our results to the statistics of the observed Kepler data. We cannot reproduce the observed excess of single transitting planets by pumping only inclination without driving most systems to dynamical instability. Thus we expect the underlying planetary population for single transitting planets to contain an intrinsically low multiplicity component. We can reproduce the Kepler statistics and occurrence rates for R leave the imprint of high obliquities and eccentricities amongst the surviving planets. The histories of our perturbed populations also produce a significant number of planets that are lost by collision with the star and some that are driven to short orbital periods by the combined action of secular evolution and tidal dissipation. Some of our simulations also produce planetary systems with planets that survive in the habitable zone but have no planets interior to them - much as in the case of our Solar System. Such configurations may occur around a few percent of FGK stars.

  5. Journal Bearing Analysis Suite Released for Planetary Gear System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, David E.; Clark, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary gear systems are an efficient means of achieving high reduction ratios with minimum space and weight. They are used in helicopter, aerospace, automobile, and many industrial applications. High-speed planetary gear systems will have significant dynamic loading and high heat generation. Hence, they need jet lubrication and associated cooling systems. For units operating in critical applications that necessitate high reliability and long life, that have very large torque loading, and that have downtime costs that are significantly greater than the initial cost, hydrodynamic journal bearings are a must. Computational and analytical tools are needed for sufficiently accurate modeling to facilitate optimal design of these systems. Sufficient physics is needed in the model to facilitate parametric studies of design conditions that enable optimal designs. The first transient journal bearing code to implement the Jacobsson-Floberg-Olsson boundary conditions, using a mass-conserving algorithm devised by Professor Emeritus Harold Elrod of Columbia University, was written by David E. Brewe of the U.S. Army at the NASA Lewis Research Center1 in 1983. Since then, new features and improved modifications have been built into the code by several contributors supported through Army and NASA funding via cooperative agreements with the University of Toledo (Professor Ted Keith, Jr., and Dr. Desikakary Vijayaraghavan) and National Research Council Programs (Dr. Vijayaraghavan). All this was conducted with the close consultation of Professor Elrod and the project management of David Brewe.

  6. GMRT Low Frequency Observations of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    George, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Extrasolar planets are expected to emit detectable low frequency radio emission. In this paper we present results from new low frequency observations of two extrasolar planetary systems (Epsilon Eridani and HD 128311) taken at 150 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). These two systems have been chosen because the stars are young (with ages < 1 Gyr) and are likely to have strong stellar winds, which will increase the expected radio flux. The planets are massive (presumably) gas giant planets in longer period orbits, and hence will not be tidally locked to their host star (as is likely to be the case for short period planets) and we would expect them to have a strong planetary dynamo and magnetic field. We do not detect either system, but are able to place tight upper limits on their low frequency radio emission, at levels comparable to the theoretical predictions for these systems. From these observations we have a 2.5sigma limit of 7.8 mJy for Epsilon Eri and 15.5 mJy for HD 128311. In addi...

  7. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  8. The Planetary System: Executable Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Papers

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Christoph; David, Catalin; Ginev, Deyan; Kohlhase, Andrea; Matican, Bogdan; Mirea, Stefan; Zholudev, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    Executable scientific papers contain not just layouted text for reading. They contain, or link to, machine-comprehensible representations of the scientific findings or experiments they describe. Client-side players can thus enable readers to "check, manipulate and explore the result space". We have realized executable papers in the STEM domain with the Planetary system. Semantic annotations associate the papers with a content commons holding the background ontology, the annotations are exposed as Linked Data, and a frontend player application hooks modular interactive services into the semantic annotations.

  9. Sources of Chaos in Planetary Systems Formed Through Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of the solar system’s terrestrial planets has been numerically modeled in countless works, and many other studies have been devoted to char- acterizing our modern planets’ chaotic dynamical state. However, it is still not known whether our planets fragile chaotic state is an expected outcome of terrestrial planet accretion. We use a large suite of numerical simulations to present a detailed analysis and characterization of the dynamical chaos in 145 different systems produced via terrestrial planet formation in Kaib & Cowan (2015). These systems were created in the presence of a fully formed Jupiter and Saturn, using a variety of different initial conditions. We provide the first analysis of the dynamical states of fully evolved (4.5 Gyr) planetary systems formed using numerical simulations. We find that dynamical chaos is preva- lent in roughly half of the systems, with the largest source of the chaos being perturbations from Jupiter. Chaos is most prevalent in systems that form 4 or 5 terrestrial planets. Additionally, an eccentric Jupiter and Saturn is shown to enhance the prevalence of chaos in systems. Furthermore, systems with a center of mass highly concentrated between 0.8-1.2 AU generally prove to be less chaotic than systems with more exotic mass distributions. Through the process of evolving systems to the current epoch, we show that late instabilities are quite common in our systems. Of greatest interest, many of the sources of chaos observed in our own solar system (such as the secularly driven chaos between Mercury and Jupiter) are shown to be common outcomes of terrestrial planetary formation. Thus, the solar system’s marginally stable, chaotic state may naturally arise from the process of terrestrial planet formation.

  10. Evidence for Terrestrial Planetary System Remnants at White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2010-01-01

    The last several years have brought about a dynamic shift in the view of exoplanetary systems in the post-main sequence, perhaps epitomized by the evidence for surviving rocky planetary bodies at white dwarfs. Coinciding with the launch of the Spitzer Space Telescope, both space- and ground-based data have supported a picture whereby asteroid analogs persist at a significant fraction of cool white dwarfs, and are prone to tidal disruption when passing close to the compact stellar remnant. The ensuing debris can produce a detectable infrared excess, and the material gradually falls onto the star, polluting the atmosphere with heavy elements that can be used to determine the bulk composition of the destroyed planetary body. Based on the observations to date, the parent bodies inferred at white dwarfs are best described as asteroids, and have a distinctly rocky composition similar to material found in the inner Solar System. Their minimum masses are typical of large asteroids, and can approach or exceed the mass...

  11. Nonlinear Vibroimpact Characteristics of a Planetary Gear Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the vibroimpact characteristics of a planetary gear transmission system under high speed and lightly loaded conditions, a new modeling method is proposed. In the modeling process, linear spring was used to simulate gear mesh elasticity under heavy load cases, and Hertz contact theory was used to calculate the contact force of gear pair under light load cases. Then, effects of the working conditions on the system vibroimpact characteristics are analyzed. The results show that, with input speed growing, the mesh force produced obvious fluctuations on the resonance frequencies of the sun gear and carrier torsion vibration, ring gear’s transverse vibration under the heavy load. Under light load condition, the collision vibration occurs in the gear pair; the changing trend of the contact force shows strongly nonlinear characteristics. The time of mesh-apart in gears pair decreases gradually as the load is increased; until it reaches collision vibration threshold value, the gear pair is no longer mesh-apart. With increasing of the input speed, the time of mesh-apart is decreased gradually; the fluctuation amplitude of contact force shows a linearly increasing trend. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for planetary gear transmission low-noise design.

  12. Isotopic enrichment of forming planetary systems from supernova pollution

    CERN Document Server

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Meyer, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Heating by short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) such as aluminum-26 and iron-60 fundamentally shaped the thermal history and interior structure of Solar System planetesimals during the early stages of planetary formation. The subsequent thermo-mechanical evolution, such as internal differentiation or rapid volatile degassing, yields important implications for the final structure, composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. SLR-driven heating in the Solar System is sensitive to the absolute abundance and homogeneity of SLRs within the protoplanetary disk present during the condensation of the first solids. In order to explain the diverse compositions found for extrasolar planets, it is important to understand the distribution of SLRs in active planet formation regions (star clusters) during their first few Myr of evolution. By constraining the range of possible effects, we show how the imprint of SLRs can be extrapolated to exoplanetary systems and derive statistical predictions for the distribution of alumi...

  13. Perturbation of Compact Planetary Systems by Distant Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Bradley M S

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of secular perturbations by giant planets on systems of multiple, lower mass planets orbiting Sun-like stars. We simulate the effects of forcing both eccentricity and inclination, separately and together. We compare our results to the statistics of the observed Kepler data and examine whether these results can be used to explain the observed excess of single transiting planets. We cannot explain the observed excess by pumping only inclination without driving most systems over the edge of dynamical instability. Thus, we expect the underlying planetary population for systems with a single transitting planet to contain an intrinsically low multiplicity population. We can explain the Kepler statistics and occurrence rates for R< 2 Rearth planets with a perturber population consistent with that inferred from radial velocity surveys, but require too many giant planets if we wish to explain all planets with R < 4 Rearth. These numbers can be brought into agreement if we posit the existenc...

  14. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than ten degrees, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masse...

  15. Prevalence of chaos in planetary systems formed through embryo accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew S.; Kaib, Nathan A.

    2017-05-01

    The formation of the solar system's terrestrial planets has been numerically modeled in various works, and many other studies have been devoted to characterizing our modern planets' chaotic dynamical state. However, it is still not known whether our planets fragile chaotic state is an expected outcome of terrestrial planet accretion. We use a suite of numerical simulations to present a detailed analysis and characterization of the dynamical chaos in 145 different systems produced via terrestrial planet formation in Kaib and Cowan (2015). These systems were created in the presence of a fully formed Jupiter and Saturn, using a variety of different initial conditions. They are not meant to provide a detailed replication of the actual present solar system, but rather serve as a sample of similar systems for comparison and analysis. We find that dynamical chaos is prevalent in roughly half of the systems we form. We show that this chaos disappears in the majority of such systems when Jupiter is removed, implying that the largest source of chaos is perturbations from Jupiter. Chaos is most prevalent in systems that form 4 or 5 terrestrial planets. Additionally, an eccentric Jupiter and Saturn is shown to enhance the prevalence of chaos in systems. Furthermore, systems in our sample with a center of mass highly concentrated between ∼0.8-1.2 AU generally prove to be less chaotic than systems with more exotic mass distributions. Through the process of evolving systems to the current epoch, we show that late instabilities are quite common in our systems. Of greatest interest, many of the sources of chaos observed in our own solar system (such as the secularly driven chaos between Mercury and Jupiter) are shown to be common outcomes of terrestrial planetary formation. Thus, consistent with previous studies such as Laskar (1996), the solar system's marginally stable, chaotic state may naturally arise from the process of terrestrial planet formation.

  16. Predicting the frequencies of diverse exo-planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Wyatt, M C; Beichman, C A; Bryden, G

    2007-01-01

    Extrasolar planetary systems range from hot Jupiters out to icy comet belts more distant than Pluto. We explain this diversity in a model where the mass of solids in the primordial circumstellar disk dictates the outcome. The star retains measures of the initial heavy-element (metal) abundance that can be used to map solid masses onto outcomes, and the frequencies of all classes are correctly predicted. The differing dependences on metallicity for forming massive planets and low-mass cometary bodies are also explained. By extrapolation, around two-thirds of stars have enough solids to form Earth-like planets, and a high rate is supported by the first detections of low-mass exo-planets.

  17. Habitability in the Solar System and New Planetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Pauli Erik

    2013-01-01

    Definition of habitability depends on the organisms under consideration. One way to determine habitability of some environment is to compare its certain parameters to environments where extremophilic micro-organisms thrive on Earth. We can also define more common habitability criteria from the life as we know it. These criteria include basic elements, liquid water and an energy source. We know that some locations in our Solar System provide at least some of these limits and criteria. This article describes the aims and technical specifications of some planetary missions, such as NASAs MSL in 2012, ESAs ExoMars missions in 2016 and 2018, and JUICE in 2033. These missions will explore habitability of Mars, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Here we compare defined habitability criteria to instrumentation documentation to determine whether these missions could validate the habitability of Mars and those Jovian moons. These missions have about 13 habitability assessment related instruments for Mars, 3 for Europa, 5 f...

  18. Formation, Orbital and Internal Evolutions of Young Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruteau, Clément; Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The growing body of observational data on extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks has stimulated intense research on planet formation and evolution in the past few years. The extremely diverse, sometimes unexpected physical and orbital characteristics of exoplanets lead to frequent updates on the mainstream scenarios for planet formation and evolution, but also to the exploration of alternative avenues. The aim of this review is to bring together classical pictures and new ideas on the formation, orbital and internal evolutions of planets, highlighting the key role of the protoplanetary disk in the various parts of the theory. We begin by briefly reviewing the conventional mechanism of core accretion by the growth of planetesimals, and discuss a relatively recent model of core growth through the accretion of pebbles. We review the basic physics of planet-disk interactions, recent progress in this area, and discuss their role in observed planetary systems. We address the most important effects of planets i...

  19. Isotopic enrichment of forming planetary systems from supernova pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Parker, Richard J.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2016-11-01

    Heating by short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) such as 26Al and 60Fe fundamentally shaped the thermal history and interior structure of Solar system planetesimals during the early stages of planetary formation. The subsequent thermo-mechanical evolution, such as internal differentiation or rapid volatile degassing, yields important implications for the final structure, composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. SLR-driven heating in the Solar system is sensitive to the absolute abundance and homogeneity of SLRs within the protoplanetary disc present during the condensation of the first solids. In order to explain the diverse compositions found for extrasolar planets, it is important to understand the distribution of SLRs in active planet formation regions (star clusters) during their first few Myr of evolution. By constraining the range of possible effects, we show how the imprint of SLRs can be extrapolated to exoplanetary systems and derive statistical predictions for the distribution of 26Al and 60Fe based on N-body simulations of typical to large clusters (103-104 stars) with a range of initial conditions. We quantify the pollution of protoplanetary discs by supernova ejecta and show that the likelihood of enrichment levels similar to or higher than the Solar system can vary considerably, depending on the cluster morphology. Furthermore, many enriched systems show an excess in radiogenic heating compared to Solar system levels, which implies that the formation and evolution of planetesimals could vary significantly depending on the birth environment of their host stars.

  20. Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVincenzi, D L; Stabekis, P D

    1984-01-01

    In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., orbiter, lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

  1. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 70 VIRGINIS PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Henry, Gregory W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Feng, Y. Katherina; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Braun, Kaspar von [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    An on-going effort in the characterization of exoplanetary systems is the accurate determination of host star properties. This effort extends to the relatively bright host stars of planets discovered with the radial velocity method. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) is aiding in these efforts as part of its observational campaign for exoplanet host stars. One of the first known systems is that of 70 Virginis, which harbors a jovian planet in an eccentric orbit. Here we present a complete characterization of this system with a compilation of TERMS photometry, spectroscopy, and interferometry. We provide fundamental properties of the host star through direct interferometric measurements of the radius (1.5% uncertainty) and through spectroscopic analysis. We combined 59 new Keck HIRES radial velocity measurements with the 169 previously published from the ELODIE, Hamilton, and HIRES spectrographs, to calculate a refined orbital solution and construct a transit ephemeris for the planet. These newly determined system characteristics are used to describe the Habitable Zone of the system with a discussion of possible additional planets and related stability simulations. Finally, we present 19 years of precision robotic photometry that constrain stellar activity and rule out central planetary transits for a Jupiter-radius planet at the 5σ level, with reduced significance down to an impact parameter of b = 0.95.

  3. Chaotic diffusion in the Gliese-876 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, J. G.; Cincotta, P. M.; Beaugé, C.

    2016-07-01

    Chaotic diffusion is supposed to be responsible for orbital instabilities in planetary systems after the dissipation of the protoplanetary disc, and a natural consequence of irregular motion. In this paper, we show that resonant multiplanetary systems, despite being highly chaotic, not necessarily exhibit significant diffusion in phase space, and may still survive virtually unchanged over time-scales comparable to their age. Using the GJ-876 system as an example, we analyse the chaotic diffusion of the outermost (and less massive) planet. We construct a set of stability maps in the surrounding regions of the Laplace resonance. We numerically integrate ensembles of close initial conditions, compute Poincaré maps and estimate the chaotic diffusion present in this system. Our results show that, the Laplace resonance contains two different regions: an inner domain characterized by low chaoticity and slow diffusion, and an outer one displaying larger values of dynamical indicators. In the outer resonant domain, the stochastic borders of the Laplace resonance seem to prevent the complete destruction of the system. We characterize the diffusion for small ensembles along the parameters of the outermost planet. Finally, we perform a stability analysis of the inherent chaotic, albeit stable Laplace resonance, by linking the behaviour of the resonant variables of the configurations to the different sub-structures inside the three-body resonance.

  4. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terquem, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 M⊕ at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 M⊕ at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year time-scales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 and 1 M⊕ cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au, respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete on to the star on a smaller time-scale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 M⊕. In low-mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few Earth-mass planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not migrate significantly, the type of systems that are produced resembles our Solar system. This study suggests that low-mm flux transition discs may not form systems of planets on short orbits but may instead harbour Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone.

  5. A Dynamical Analysis of the 47 UMa Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, G; Fischer, D; Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John; Fischer, Debra

    2002-01-01

    The mass and period ratios of the two planets orbiting 47 UMa suggest a possible kinship to the Jupiter-Saturn pair in our solar system. We explore the current dynamical state of the 47 UMa system with numerical integrations, and compare the results with analytic secular theory. We find that the planets in the system are likely participating in a secular resonance in which the difference in the longitudes of pericenter librates around zero. Alternately, it is possible that the system is participating in the 7:3 mean motion resonance. We show that stability considerations restrict the mutual inclination between the two planets to 40 degrees or less, and that this result is relatively insensitive to the total mass of the two planets. We present hydrodynamical simulations which measure the torques exerted on the planets by a hypothesized external protoplanetary disk. We show that planetary migration in response to torques from the disk may have led to capture of the system into a 7:3 mean-motion resonance, altho...

  6. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  7. The 3-dimensional architecture of the Upsilon Andromedae planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Deitrick, Russell; McArthur, Barbara; Quinn, Thomas R; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne; Benedict, G Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The Upsilon Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the 3-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full 3-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the 3 planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer 2 planets, c and d, are inclined by about 30 degrees, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable 3-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or about 8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict b's mass is in the range 2 - 9 $M_{Jup}$ and has an inclination angle from the...

  8. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Systems with three Jupite...

  9. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  10. Planetary Nebulae that Cannot Be Explained by Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2017-03-01

    We examine the images of hundreds of planetary nebulae (PNe) and find that for about one in six PNe the morphology is too “messy” to be accounted for by models of stellar binary interaction. We speculate that interacting triple stellar systems shaped these PNe. In this preliminary study, we qualitatively classify PNe by one of four categories. (1) PNe that show no need for a tertiary star to account for their morphology. (2) PNe whose structure possesses a pronounced departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry. We classify these, according to our speculation, as “having a triple stellar progenitor.” (3) PNe whose morphology possesses departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry, but not as pronounced as in the previous class, and are classified as “likely shaped by triple stellar system.” (4) PNe with minor departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry that could have been also caused by an eccentric binary system or the interstellar medium. These are classified as “maybe shaped by a triple stellar system.” Given a weight η t = 1, η l = 0.67, and η m = 0.33 to classes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, we find that according to our assumption about 13%–21% of PNe have been shaped by triple stellar systems. Although in some evolutionary scenarios not all three stars survive the evolution, we encourage the search for a triple stellar systems at the center of some PNe.

  11. Multi-Robot Systems for Subsurface Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a heterogeneous multi-robot team developed as a platform for effective subsurface planetary exploration. State-of-art robotic exploration...

  12. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Fosca; Alex,; Pentland,; Lukowicz, Paul; Kossmann, Donald; Crowley, James; Helbing, Dirk; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01688-9

    2013-01-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining, and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level.Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across ...

  13. HR 8799: The Benchmark Directly-Imaged Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne

    2016-01-01

    HR 8799 harbors arguably the first and best-studied directly-imaged planets. In this brief article, I describe how the HR 8799 planetary system is a benchmark system for studying the atmospheres, orbital properties, dynamical stability, and formation of young superjovian planets. Multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy show that HR 8799 bcde appear to have thicker clouds than do field brown dwarfs of similar effective temperatures and exhibit evidence for non-equilibrium carbon chemistry, features that are likely connected to the planets' low surface gravities. Over 17 years of astrometric data constrain the planets' orbits to not be face on but possibly in multiple orbital resonances. At orbital separations of 15--70 au and with masses of $\\approx$ 5--7 $M_{\\rm J}$, HR 8799 bcde probe the extremes of jovian planet formation by core accretion: medium-resolution spectroscopy may provide clues about these planets' formation conditions. Data from the next generation of 30 m-class telescopes should better co...

  14. Transits and starspots in the WASP-6 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Burgdorf, M; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Finet, F; Jørgensen, U G; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Proft, S; Ricci, D; Snodgrass, C; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Dodds, P; Gerner, T; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Sahu, K; Scarpetta, G; Schäfer\\, S; Schönebeck, F; Skottfelt, J; Surdej, J

    2015-01-01

    We present updates to \\textsc{prism}, a photometric transit-starspot model, and \\textsc{gemc}, a hybrid optimisation code combining MCMC and a genetic algorithm. We then present high-precision photometry of four transits in the WASP-6 planetary system, two of which contain a starspot anomaly. All four transits were modelled using \\textsc{prism} and \\textsc{gemc}, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be $0.836\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ and $0.864\\pm0.024\\,{\\rm R}_\\odot$, respectively. For the planet we find a mass of $0.485\\pm 0.027\\,{\\rm M}_{\\rm Jup}$, a radius of $1.230\\pm0.035\\,{\\rm R}_{\\rm Jup}$ and a density of $0.244\\pm0.014\\,\\rho_{\\rm Jup}$. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. In the likely hypothesis that the two spot anomalies are caused by the same starspot or starspot complex, we measure the stars rotation period and velocity to be $23.80 \\pm 0.15$\\,d and $1.78 \\pm 0.20$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$, respectively, at a co-l...

  15. The Inner Debris Structure in the Fomalhaut Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Kate Y L; Defrere, Denis; Wang, Kuo-Song; Lai, Shih-Ping; Wilner, David J; van Lieshout, Rik; Lee, Chin-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice-line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 \\mu m (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.45"x0.37" (~3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and a rms of 26 \\mu Jy/beam. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3\\sigma\\ are detected in the central 15 AU x 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range ~8-15 AU. This is ...

  16. On the formation of planetary systems in photoevaporating transition discs

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In protoplanetary discs, planetary cores must be at least 0.1 earth mass at 1 au for migration to be significant; this mass rises to 1 earth mass at 5 au. Planet formation models indicate that these cores form on million year timescales. We report here a study of the evolution of 0.1 earth mass and 1 earth mass cores, migrating from about 2 and 5 au respectively, in million year old photoevaporating discs. In such a disc, a gap opens up at around 2 au after a few million years. The inner region subsequently accrete onto the star on a smaller timescale. We find that, typically, the smallest cores form systems of non-resonant planets beyond 0.5 au with masses up to about 1.5 earth mass. In low mass discs, the same cores may evolve in situ. More massive cores form systems of a few earth masses planets. They migrate within the inner edge of the disc gap only in the most massive discs. Delivery of material to the inner parts of the disc ceases with opening of the gap. Interestingly, when the heavy cores do not mig...

  17. Pebble Accretion and the Diversity of Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, J E

    2016-01-01

    I examine the standard model of planet formation, including pebble accretion, using numerical simulations. Planetary embryos large enough to become giant planets do not form beyond the ice line within a typical disk lifetime unless icy pebbles stick at higher speeds than in experiments using rocky pebbles. Systems like the Solar System (small inner planets, giant outer planets) can form if (i) icy pebbles are stickier than rocky pebbles, and (ii) the planetesimal formation efficiency increases with pebble size, which prevents the formation of massive terrestrial planets. Growth beyond the ice line is dominated by pebble accretion. Most growth occurs early, when the surface density of pebbles is high due to inward drift of pebbles from the outer disk. Growth is much slower after the outer disk is depleted. The outcome is sensitive to the disk radius and turbulence level, which control the lifetime and maximum size of pebbles. The outcome is sensitive to the size of the largest planetesimals since there is a th...

  18. Refined Properties of the HD 130322 Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R; Henry, Gregory W; Feng, Y Katherina; Boyajian, Tabetha; Wright, Jason; Fischer, Debra A; Howard, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems closest to the Sun, with the brightest host stars, provide the most favorable opportunities for characterization studies of the host star and their planet(s). The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey uses both new radial velocity measurements and photometry in order to greatly improve planetary orbit uncertainties and the fundamental properties of the star, in this case HD 130322. The only companion, HD 130322b, orbits in a relatively circular orbit, e = 0.029 every ~10.7 days. Radial velocity measurements from multiple sources, including 12 unpublished from the Keck I telescope, over the course of ~14 years have reduced the uncertainty in the transit midpoint to ~2 hours. The transit probability for the b-companion is 4.7%, where M_p sin i = 1.15 M_J and a = 0.0925 AU. In this paper, we compile photometric data from the T11 0.8m Automated Photoelectric Telescope at Fairborn Observatory taken over ~14 years, including the constrained transit window, which results in a dispos...

  19. Magnetism, planetary rotation and convection in the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    On the 6th, 7th' and 8th April 1983, a conference entitled "Magnetism, planetary rotation and convection in the Solar System" was held in the School of Physics at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. The purpose of the meeting was to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Stanley Keith Runcorn and his, and his students' and associates', several decades of scientific achievement. The social programme, which consisted of excursions in Northumberland and Durham with visits to ancient castles and churches, to Hexham Abbey and Durham Cathedral, and dinners in Newcastle and Durham, was greatly enjoyed by those attending the meeting and by their guests. The success ofthe scientific programme can be judged by this special edition of Geophysical Surveys which is derived mainly from the papers given at the meeting. The story starts in the late 1940s when the question of the origin of the magnetic field of the Earth and such other heavenly bodies as had at that time been discovered as having a magnetic field, was exerci...

  20. Carrier-less, anti-backlash planetary drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier-less, anti-backlash planetary gear system that has an input sun gear, a force-balancing and planet-alignment 'speeder' gear above the sun gear, a split ring gear that has a fixed lower ring gear coaxial with the sun gear and a rotating upper ring gear also coaxial with the sun gear. A preload bolt is used for securing the split ring gears together. Within the split ring gear is an even number of planet gears between the split ring gear and the sun gear. Each planet gear consists of an upper planet gear, and lower planet gear with the upper and lower planet gears splined together and pushed apart by a spring which causes separation and relative twist between the upper and lower planet gears. The lower planet gear meshes with the input sun gear and the fixed ring gear while the upper planet gear is driven by the lower planet gear and meshes with the rotating ring gear.

  1. On the Formation Age of the First Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Tetsuya; Shigeyasu, Masanobu; Kajiura, Daigo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been observed the extreme metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, which must be formed just after Pop III objects. On the other hand, the first gas clouds of mass $\\sim 10^6 M_{\\odot}$ are supposed to be formed at $ z \\sim $ 10, 20, and 30 for the $1\\sigma$, $2\\sigma $ and $3\\sigma$, where the density perturbations are assumed of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. If we could apply this gaussian distribution to the extreme small probability, the gas clouds would be formed at $ z \\sim $40, 60, and 80 for the $4\\sigma$, $6\\sigma$, and $8\\sigma$. The first gas clouds within our galaxy must be formed around $z\\sim 40$. Even if the gas cloud is metal poor, there is a lot of possibility to form the planets around such stars. The first planetary systems could be formed within $\\sim 6\\times 10^7$ years after the Big Bang in the universe. Even in our galaxies, it could be formed within $\\sim 1.7\\times 10^8$ years. It is interesting to wait the observations of planets around metal-poor stars. For the ...

  2. Formation, Orbital and Internal Evolutions of Young Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, Clément; Bai, Xuening; Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The growing body of observational data on extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks has stimulated intense research on planet formation and evolution in the past few years. The extremely diverse, sometimes unexpected physical and orbital characteristics of exoplanets lead to frequent updates on the mainstream scenarios for planet formation and evolution, but also to the exploration of alternative avenues. The aim of this review is to bring together classical pictures and new ideas on the formation, orbital and internal evolutions of planets, highlighting the key role of the protoplanetary disk in the various parts of the theory. We begin by briefly reviewing the conventional mechanism of core accretion by the growth of planetesimals, and discuss a relatively recent model of core growth through the accretion of pebbles. We review the basic physics of planet-disk interactions, recent progress in this area, and discuss their role in observed planetary systems. We address the most important effects of planets internal evolution, like cooling and contraction, the mass-luminosity relation, and the bulk composition expressed in the mass-radius and mass-mean density relations.

  3. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  4. THE INNER DEBRIS STRUCTURE IN THE FOMALHAUT PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Defrére, Denis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wang, Kuo-Song; Lee, Chin-Fei [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lieshout, Rik van, E-mail: ksu@as.arizona.edu [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-10

    Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 μm (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.″45 × 0.″37 (∼3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and an rms of 26 μJy beam{sup −1}. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3σ are detected in the central 15 AU × 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range of ∼8–15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. The 3σ upper limit for such a belt is <1.3 mJy at 870 μm. We also interpret the 2 and 8–13 μm interferometric measurements to reveal the structure in the inner 10 AU region as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting–Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nanograins.

  5. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all

  6. Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual

  7. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  8. Saturn's magnetosphere: An example of dynamic planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary magnetospheres are prime examples of interacting plasma regimes at different scales. There is the principal interaction with the solar wind that seems to be the main driver of the dynamics at Mercury and Earth. But these inner planet magnetospheres are relatively simple when compared to those of the outer planets which are primarily driven by planetary rotation and include internal plasma sources from various moons and rings, in addition to those from the planetary ionospheres and the solar wind. Io's volcanic source at Jupiter is a prime example, but now Enceladus at Saturn has joined the fray, while Titan is a surprisingly minor player despite its thick nitrogen atmosphere and its continued bombardment by energetic particles. Mass loading of plasma leads to interchange instability in the inner magnetospheres at both Jupiter and Saturn, while ionospheric slippage, among other processes, seems to contribute to a variable rotation period in the spin-aligned dipole field of Saturn, manifested in auroral kilometric radiation (SKR), components of the magnetic field itself, and the plasma periodicities measured at several energies. Through use of the ENA (energetic neutral atom) technique, it is now possible to observe bulk motions of the plasma and their connection to planetary auroral processes. Such imaging at Saturn by Cassini has revealed the location of a region of post-midnight acceleration events that seem to corotate with the planet and coincide with auroral brightening and SKR. Periodic injections of plasma have been identified and repeat at the Kronian rotation period of 10.8 hours. A semi-permanent but asymmetric ring current has also been imaged, located between the orbits of the satellites Rhea (~9 RS) and Titan (~20 RS), with a maximum at ~10+/- 1RS and dominated by the hot (>3 keV) plasma component.

  9. The Fate of Exomoons in White Dwarf Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Matthew J; Gaensicke, Boris T; Holman, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Roughly 1000 white dwarfs are known to be polluted with planetary material, and the progenitors of this material are typically assumed to be asteroids. The dynamical architectures which perturb asteroids into white dwarfs are still unknown, but may be crucially dependent on moons liberated from parent planets during post-main-sequence gravitational scattering. Here, we trace the fate of these exomoons, and show that they more easily achieve deep radial incursions towards the white dwarf than do scattered planets. Consequently, moons are likely to play a significant role in white dwarf pollution, and in some cases may be the progenitors of the pollution itself.

  10. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  11. Young Planetary Nebulae: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and a New Morphological Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae, most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNs). Unlike previous classification studies, we have focussed primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many...

  12. On the dynamical stability of the proposed planetary system orbiting NSVS 14256825

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Marshall, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed dynamical analysis of the orbital stability of the two circumbinary planets recently proposed to orbit the evolved eclipsing binary star system NSVS 14256825. As is the case for other recently proposed circumbinary planetary systems detected through the timing of mutual eclipses between the central binary stars, the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. The proposed orbits for the two planets are extremely unstable on timescales of less than a thousand years, regardless of the mutual inclination between the planetary orbits. For the scenario where the planetary orbits are coplanar, a small region of moderate stability was observed, featuring orbits that were somewhat protected from destabilisation by the influence of mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance between the orbits of the planets. Even in this stable region, however, the systems tested typically only survived on timescales of order 1 million years, far shorter than the age of the system. Our results suggest that, if ...

  13. Misaligned spin-orbit in the XO-3 planetary system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, G.; Bouchy, F.; Pont, F.; Loeillet, B.; Rabus, M.; Bonfils, X.; Moutou, C.; Boisse, I.; Delfosse, X.; Desort, M.; Eggenberger, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2008-09-01

    The transiting extrasolar planet XO-3b is remarkable, with a high mass and eccentric orbit. These unusual characteristics make it interesting to test whether its orbital plane is parallel to the equator of its host star, as it is observed for other transiting planets. We performed radial velocity measurements of XO-3 with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the 1.93 m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory during a planetary transit and at other orbital phases. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and, together with a new analysis of the transit light curve, to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint of a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration due to interaction with the accretion disk. This surprising result requires confirmation by additional observations, especially at lower airmass, to fully exclude the possibility that the signal is due to systematic effects. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE Consortium (program 07A.PNP.CONS).

  14. Architecture of Planetary Systems Based on Kepler Data: Number of Planets and Coplanarity

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Julia

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the underlying architecture of planetary systems by deriving the distribution of planet multiplicity (number of planets) and the distribution of orbital inclinations based on the sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our study included solar-like stars and planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and with radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters 1 through 6. We created models of planetary systems with different distributions of planet multiplicity and inclinations, simulated observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the properties of the transits of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Specifically, we compared with both the Kepler sample's transit numbers and normalized transit duration ratios in order to determine each model's goodness-of-fit. We did not include any constraints from radial velocity surveys. Based on our best-fit models, 75-80% of planetary...

  15. Optimisation of the 3-body dynamics applied to extra-solar planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Windmiller, Gur; Orosz, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The body of work presented here revolves around the investigation of the existence and nature of extra-solar planetary systems. The fitting of stellar radial velocity time series data is attempted by constructing a model to quantify the orbital properties of a star-planetary system. This is achieved with the Planetary Orbit Fitting Process (POFP). Though specific to the investigated problem, the POFP is founded on two separate, more general ideas. One is a Solver producing the gravitational dynamics of a Three-Body system by integrating its Newtonian equations of motion. The other is an independent optimisation scheme. Both have been devised using MATLAB. Applying the optimisation to the Solver results in a realistic Three-Body dynamics that best describes the radial velocity data under the model-specific orbital-observational constraints. Combining these aspects also allows for the study of dynamical instability derived from interaction, which is reaffirmed as a necessary criterion for evaluating the fit. Th...

  16. Long-term stability of the HR 8799 planetary system without resonant lock

    CERN Document Server

    Gotberg, Ylva; Mustill, Alexander; Johansen, Anders; Church, Ross P

    2016-01-01

    HR 8799 is a star accompanied by four massive planets on wide orbits. The observed planetary configuration has been shown to be unstable on a timescale much shorter than the estimated age of the system (~ 30 Myr) unless the planets are locked into mean motion resonances. This condition is characterised by small-amplitude libration of one or more resonant angles that stabilise the system by preventing close encounters. We simulate planetary systems similar to the HR 8799 planetary system, exploring the parameter space in separation between the orbits, planetary masses and distance from the Sun to the star. We find systems that look like HR 8799 and remain stable for longer than the estimated age of HR 8799. None of our systems are forced into resonances. We find, with nominal masses and in a narrow range of orbit separations, that 5 of 100 systems match the observations and lifetime. Considering a broad range of orbit separations, we find 12 of 900 similar systems. The systems survive significantly longer beca...

  17. The Period-Ratio and Mass-Ratio Correlation in Extra-Solar Multiple Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Hung, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Employing the data from orbital periods and masses of extra-solar planets in 166 multiple planetary systems, the period-ratio and mass-ratio of adjacent planet pairs are studied. The correlation between the period-ratio and mass-ratio is confirmed and found to have a correlation coefficient of 0.5303 with a 99% confidence interval (0.3807, 0.6528). A comparison with the distribution of synthetic samples from a Monte Carlo simulation reveals the imprint of planet-planet interactions on the formation of adjacent planet pairs in multiple planetary systems.

  18. Habitable Planet Formation in Extreme Planetary Systems: Systems with Multiple Stars and/or Multiple Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of habitable planets in extrasolar planetary systems is a challenging task. In this respect, systems with multiple giant planets and/or multiple stars present special complications. The formation of habitable planets in these environments is strongly affected by the dynamics of their giant planets and/or their stellar companions. These objects have profound effects on the structure of the disk of planetesimals and protoplanetary objects in which terrestrial-class planets are formed. To what extent the current theories of planet formation can be applied to such "extreme" planetary systems depends on the dynamical characteristics of their planets and/or their binary stars. In this paper, I present the results of a study of the possibility of the existence of Earth-like objects in systems with multiple giant planets (namely Upsilon Andromedae, 47 UMa, GJ 876, and 55 Cnc) and discuss the dynamics of the newly discovered Neptune-size object in 55 Cnc system. I wi...

  19. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N . I. A multiple planetary system around the red giant star TYC 1422-614-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Adamów, M.; Kowalik, K.; Maciejewski, G.; Nowak, G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Deka, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stars that have evolved off the main sequence are crucial for expanding the frontiers of knowledge on exoplanets toward higher stellar masses and for constraining star-planet interaction mechanisms. These stars have an intrinsic activity, however, which complicates the interpretation of precise radial velocity (RV) measurements, and therefore they are often avoided in planet searches. Over the past ten years, we have monitored about 1000 evolved stars for RV variations in search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search program with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision measurements have been followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars, to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: We obtained 69 epochs of precise RV measurements for TYC 1422-614-1 collected over 3651 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and 17 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 408 days. We complemented these RV data with photometric time-series from the All Sky Automatic Survey archive. Results: We report the discovery of a multiple planetary system around the evolved K2 giant star TYC 1422-614-1. The system orbiting the 1.15 M⊙ star is composed of a planet with mass msini = 2.5 MJ in a 0.69 AU orbit, and a planet or brown dwarf with msini = 10 MJ in an orbit of 1.37 AU. The multiple planetary system orbiting TYC 1422-614-1 is the first finding of the TAPAS project, a HARPS-N monitoring of evolved planetary systems identified with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  20. Formation and evolution of planetary systems: the impact of high angular resolution optical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, Olivier; 10.1007/s00159-009-0028-y

    2009-01-01

    The direct images of giant extrasolar planets recently obtained around several main sequence stars represent a major step in the study of planetary systems. These high-dynamic range images are among the most striking results obtained by the current generation of high angular resolution instruments, which will be superseded by a new generation of instruments in the coming years. It is therefore an appropriate time to review the contributions of high angular resolution visible/infrared techniques to the rapidly growing field of extrasolar planetary science. During the last 20 years, the advent of the Hubble Space Telescope, of adaptive optics on 4- to 10-m class ground-based telescopes, and of long-baseline infrared stellar interferometry has opened a new viewpoint on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. By spatially resolving the optically thick circumstellar discs of gas and dust where planets are forming, these instruments have considerably improved our models of early circumstellar environments...

  1. Limits of photosynthesis in extrasolar planetary systems for earth-like planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, S; von Bloh, W; Bounama, C; Steffen, M; Schonberner, D; Schellnhuber, H J

    2001-01-01

    We present a general modeling scheme for investigating the possibility of photosynthesis-based life on extrasolar planets. The scheme focuses on the identification of the habitable zone in main-sequence-star planetary systems with planets of Earth mass and size. Our definition of habitability is based on the long-term possibility of photosynthetic biomass production as a function of mean planetary surface temperature and atmospheric CO2-content. All the astrophysical, climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamic key processes involved in the generation of photosynthesis-driven life conditions are taken into account. Implicitly, a co-genetic origin of the central star and the orbiting planet is assumed. The numerical solution of an advanced geodynamic model yields realistic look-up diagrams for determining the limits of photosynthesis in extrasolar planetary systems, assuming minimum CO2 levels set by the demand of C4 photosynthesis.

  2. The Evolution of Accretion Phenomena in Massive Proto-Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.

    Recent advances in our understanding of massive pre-main sequence stars have revealed that most of the optical, IR, and UV characteristics of these objects are dominated by processes associated with on-going accretion from the circumstellar disk. The IUE archives, while well stocked with observations of high accretion rate systems viewed essentially pole-on to the disk, are notably deficient in observations of the systems we now recognize as viewed through the circumstellar disk. Yet this is the orientation which is identical to the more evolved beta Pic system. Similarly, observations of proto-planetary systems in associations for which age estimates are available, and for which the IR and optical data suggest that we view the system through the disk are currently restricted to 1 object. We propose obtaining IUE data for the remaining edge-on Herbig Ae/Be stars accessible to IUE for which low dispersion spectra in both cameras are unavailable, one additional object, R CrA, for which there are no high dispersion spectra, and a group of high dispersion spectra of near-ZAMS proto-planetary candidates lacking IUE data, to study the evolution of continuum and spectral signatures of accretion in the innermost portions of the circumstellar disks of these proto-planetary systems. This study complements detailed studies of individual objects, and is needed to plan observing strategies for proto-planetary disk systems with ISO and HST.

  3. The planetary system to KIC 11442793: A compact analogue to the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, Ph. [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Lehmann, H.; Hatzes, A. [Thüringer Landessternwarte, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Dvorak, R. [Universitätssternwarte Wien, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Gandolfi, D. [Research and Scientific Support Department, ESTEC/ESA, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2014-01-20

    We announce the discovery of a planetary system with seven transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e, and f are reported for the first time in this work. Planets d, g, and h were previously reported in the literature, although here we revise their orbital parameters and validate their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such a way that its orbital period changes by 25.7 hr between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e, and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our solar system, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, however, more compact. The outer planet has an orbital distance around 1 AU, and the relative position of the gas giants is opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn, which is closer to the expected result of planet formation theories. The dynamical interactions between planets are also much richer.

  4. Underlying Architecture of Planetary Systems Based on Kepler Data: Number of Planets and Coplanarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Julia; Margot, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the underlying architecture of planetary systems by deriving the distribution of planet multiplicity (number of planets) and the distribution of orbital inclinations based on the sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our study included solar-like stars and planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and with radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters 1 through 6. Our analysis improves on previous work by including all available quarters, extending to 200-day periods, and fitting models to observables such as normalized transit duration ratios that contain information on mutual orbital inclinations; these improvements lend to a deeper investigation of the intrinsic distributions of planetary systems. We created models of planetary systems with different distributions of planet multiplicity and orbital inclinations, simulated observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the number and properties of the transits of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Based on the underlying distributions of our best-fit models, 75-80% of planetary systems have 1 or 2 planets with orbital periods less than 200 days. In addition, over 85% of planets have orbital inclinations less than 3 degrees. This high degree of coplanarity is comparable to that seen in our Solar System, with the exception of Mercury. These results provide important constraints and insights into theories of planet formation and evolution.

  5. A Search for Wide Companions to the Extrasolar Planetary System HR 8799

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Laird M

    2009-01-01

    The extrasolar planetary system around HR 8799 is the first multiplanet system ever imaged. It is also, by a wide margin, the highest mass system with >27 Jupiters of planetary mass past 25 AU. This is a remarkable system with no analogue with any other known planetary system. In the first part of this paper we investigate the nature of two faint objects imaged near the system. These objects are considerably fainter (H=20.4, and 21.6 mag) and more distant (projected separations of 612, and 534 AU) than the three known planetary companions b, c, and d (68-24 AU). It is possible that these two objects could be lower mass planets (of mass ~5 and ~3 Jupiters) that have been scattered to wider orbits. We make the first direct comparison of newly reduced archival Gemini adaptive optics images to archival HST/NICMOS images. With nearly a decade between these epochs we can accurately assess the proper motion nature of each candidate companion. We find that both objects are unbound to HR 8799 and are background. We es...

  6. Planetary Systems and the Formation of Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Burger, Christoph; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2015-01-01

    As part of a national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitability' the formation of planets and the delivery of water onto these planets is a key question as water is essential for the development of life. In the first part of the paper we summarize the state of the art of planet formation - which is still under debate in the astronomical community - before we show our results on this topic. The outcome of our numerical simulations depends a lot on the choice of the initial distribution of planetesimals and planetary embryos after gas disappeared in the protoplanetary disk. We also take into account that some of these planetesimals of sizes in the order of the mass of the Moon already contained water; the quantity depends on the distance from the Sun - close-by bodies are dry, but starting from a distance of about 2 AU they can contain substantial amounts of water. We assume that the gas giants and terrestrial planets are already formed when we check the collisions of the small bodies containing water (in th...

  7. Doppler Monitoring of five K2 Transiting Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Fei; Albrecht, Simon; Arriagada, Pamela; Bieryla, Allyson; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Hirano, Teriyuki; Johnson, John Asher; Kiilerich, Amanda; Latham, David W; Narita, Norio; Nowak, Grzegorz; Palle, Enric; Ribas, Ignasi; Rogers, Leslie A; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Shectman, Stephen A; Teske, Johanna K; Thompson, Ian B; Van Eylen, Vincent; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Yu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to measure the masses of planets discovered by the NASA {\\it K2} mission, we have conducted precise Doppler observations of five stars with transiting planets. We present the results of a joint analysis of these new data and previously published Doppler data. The first star, an M dwarf known as K2-3 or EPIC~201367065, has three transiting planets ("b", with radius $2.1~R_{\\oplus}$; "c", $1.7~R_{\\oplus}$; and "d", $1.5~R_{\\oplus}$). Our analysis leads to the mass constraints: $M_{b}=8.1^{+2.0}_{-1.9}~M_{\\oplus}$ and $M_{c}$ < $ 4.2~M_{\\oplus}$~(95\\%~conf.). The mass of planet d is poorly constrained because its orbital period is close to the stellar rotation period, making it difficult to disentangle the planetary signal from spurious Doppler shifts due to stellar activity. The second star, a G dwarf known as K2-19 or EPIC~201505350, has two planets ("b", $7.7~R_{\\oplus}$; and "c", $4.9~R_{\\oplus}$) in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance, as well as a shorter-period planet ("d", $1.1~R_{\\oplus}$). We f...

  8. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial planets form in a series of dynamical steps from the solid component of circumstellar disks. First, km-sized planetesimals form likely via a combination of sticky collisions, turbulent concentration of solids, and gravitational collapse from micron-sized dust grains in the thin disk midplane. Second, planetesimals coalesce to form Moon- to Mars-sized protoplanets, also called "planetary embryos". Finally, full-sized terrestrial planets accrete from protoplanets and planetesimals. This final stage of accretion lasts about 10-100 Myr and is strongly affected by gravitational perturbations from any gas giant planets, which are constrained to form more quickly, during the 1-10 Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the disk. It is during this final stage that the bulk compositions and volatile (e.g., water) contents of terrestrial planets are set, depending on their feeding zones and the amount of radial mixing that occurs. The main factors that influence terrestrial planet formation are the mass an...

  9. The Evolution of Small Bodies in Exo-Planetary Systems through All Stages of Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew John

    2017-06-01

    I will review the evolution of exo-planetary systems through all stages of stellar evolution, concentrating on the implications for exo-asteroids, exo-moons and exo-Oort clouds as the central star ages of the main sequence and ultimately becomes a white dwarf. I will discuss recent progress in the field and the related outstanding dynamical questions.

  10. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters. PMID:27790984

  11. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Coughlin, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-25

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined ([Formula: see text]17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  12. A population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1--Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a distinct population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly one-day orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (>~17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  13. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasuhiro.hasegawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  14. Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

  15. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Gavin A L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion onto planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low mass multi-planet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since ...

  16. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  17. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit, and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. But in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter- (rather than Mercury-) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present new results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations.

  18. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-09-02

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations.

  19. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  20. A History of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node's Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) Imaging Node’s Map-A-Planet Legacy Web Services have served the planetary data community for more than fifteen years. Here we look back at the evolution and development of the services over the that time.

  1. Exoplanets and Formation of Planetary Systems: Studies With Esa Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    Several space missions from the ESA Science Horizons 2000 Programme address key questions on the formation/evolution of planetary systems and on the study of ex- oplanets: - How do solar systems form ? (with HST, ISO, NGST, FIRST/Herschel, Rosetta, Gaia) - Geological evolution of terrestrial planets (with Living planet, Mars- express, SMART-1, Venus-express, Bepi-Colombo) - History and Role of impacts (with SMART-1, Bepi-Colombo, outer planets missions) - How to detect other solar systems and habitable zones (with space photometry, COROT, Eddington, Gaia, Dar- win) - Water and ices on other planets and comets (with instruments on Mars Express, Rosetta and other planetary missions) - Signature of biosphere and photosynthesis evolution (living Planet missions, Darwin) We shall review how the results from these ESA missions (and other relevant missions from other agencies) can be exploited in synergy to advance our knowledge on the formation of solar systems and on exoplanets.

  2. A New Hypothesis On The Origin and Formation of The Solar And Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical hypothesis on the origin and formation of the solar and extrasolar planetary systems is summarized and briefly discussed in the light of recent detections of extrasolar planets, and studies of shock wave interaction with molecular clouds, as well as H. Alfven's work on Sun's magnetic field and its effect on the formation of the solar system (1962). We propose that all objects in a planetary system originate from a small group of dense fragments in a giant molecular cloud (GMC). The mechanism of one or more shock waves, which propagate through the protoplanetary disk during the star formation is necessary to trigger rapid cascade fragmentation of dense clumps which in turn collapse quickly, simultaneously, and individually to form multi-planet and multi-satellite systems. Magnetic spin resonance may be the cause of the rotational directions of newly formed planets to couple and align in the strong magnetic field of a younger star.

  3. Turbulence in Extrasolar Planetary Systems Implies that Mean Motion Resonances are Rare

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C; Bloch, Anthony M

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of turbulence on mean motion resonances in extrasolar planetary systems and predicts that systems rarely survive in a resonant configuration. A growing number of systems are reported to be in resonance, which is thought to arise from the planet migration process. If planets are brought together and moved inward through torques produced by circumstellar disks, then disk turbulence can act to prevent planets from staying in a resonant configuration. This paper studies this process through numerical simulations and via analytic model equations, where both approaches include stochastic forcing terms due to turbulence. We explore how the amplitude and forcing time intervals of the turbulence affect the maintenance of mean motion resonances. If turbulence is common in circumstellar disks during the epoch of planet migration, with the amplitudes indicated by current MHD simulations, then planetary systems that remain deep in mean motion resonance are predicted to be rare. More specif...

  4. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  5. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  6. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems with HARPS-N (TAPAS). I. A multiple planetary system around the red giant star TYC 1422-614-1

    CERN Document Server

    Niedzielski, A; Wolszczan, A; Adamów, M; Kowalik, K; Maciejewski, G; Nowak, G; García-Hernández, D A; Deka, B; Adamczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    Context. Stars that have evolved-off the Main Sequence are crucial in expanding the frontiers of knowledge on exoplanets toward higher stellar masses, and to constrain star-planet interaction mechanisms. These stars, however suffer from intrinsic activity that complicates the interpretation of precise radial velocity measurement and are often avoided in planet searches. We have, over the last 10 years, monitored about 1000 evolved stars for radial velocity variations in search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Toru\\'n Centre for Astronomy Planet Search with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision meassurements have been followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Aims. To detect planetary systems around evolved stars, to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidences of star-planet interaction processes. ...

  7. On the Stability of Extrasolar Planetary Systems and other Closely Orbiting Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the stability of tidal equilibria for planetary systems in which stellar rotation provides a significant contribution to the angular momentum budget. We begin by applying classic stability considerations for two bodies to planetary systems --- where one mass is much smaller than the other. The application of these stability criteria to a subset of the Kepler sample indicates that the majority of the systems are not in a stable equilibrium state. Motivated by this finding, we generalize the stability calculation to include the quadrupole moment for the host star. In general, a stable equilibrium requires that the total system angular momentum exceeds a minimum value (denoted here as $L_X$) and that the orbital angular momentum of the planet exceeds a minimum fraction of the total. Most, but not all, of the observed planetary systems in the sample have enough total angular momentum to allow an equilibrium state. Even with the generalizations of this paper, however, most systems have too lit...

  8. Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), a project for the whole Italian Community

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, Ennio; Claudi, Riccardo; Cosentino, Rosario; Covino, Elvira; Desidera, Silvano; Gratton, Raffaele; Lanza, Antonino F; Maggio, Antonio; Micela, Giuseppina; Molinari, Emilio; Pagano, Isabella; Piotto, Giampaolo; Smareglia, Riccardo; Sozzetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The GAPS project is running since 2012 with the goal to optimize the science return of the HARPS-N instrument mounted at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. A large number of astronomers is working together to allow the Italian community to gain an international position adequate to the HARPS-N capabilities in the exoplanetary researches. Relevant scientific results are being obtained on both the main guidelines of the collaboration, i.e., the discovery surveys and the characterization studies. The planetary system discovered around the southern component of the binary XO-2 and its characterization together with that of the system orbiting the northern component are a good example of the completeness of the topics matched by the GAPS project. The dynamics of some planetary systems are investigated by studying the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, while host stars are characterized by means of asteroseismology and star-planet interaction.

  9. Evolving the Technical Infrastructure of the Planetary Data System for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, S.; Grayzeck, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) was established in 1989 as a distributed system to assure scientific oversight. Initially the PDS followed guidelines recommended by the National Academies Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC, 1982) and placed emphasis on archiving validated datasets. But overtime user demands, supported by increased computing capabilities and communication methods, have placed increasing demands on the PDS. The PDS must add additional services to better enable scientific analysis within distributed environments and to ensure that those services integrate with existing systems and data. To face these challenges the Planetary Data System (PDS) must modernize its architecture and technical implementation. The PDS 2010 project addresses these challenges. As part of this project, the PDS has three fundamental project goals that include: (1) Providing more efficient client delivery of data by data providers to the PDS (2) Enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive (3) Enabling services for the data consumer to find, access and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. In order to achieve these goals, the PDS 2010 project is upgrading both the technical infrastructure and the data standards to support increased efficiency in data delivery as well as usability of the PDS. Efforts are underway to interface with missions as early as possible and to streamline the preparation and delivery of data to the PDS. Likewise, the PDS is working to define and plan for data services that will help researchers to perform analysis in cost-constrained environments. This presentation will cover the PDS 2010 project including the goals, data standards and technical implementation plans that are underway within the Planetary Data System. It will discuss the plans for moving from the current system, version PDS 3, to version PDS 4.

  10. Are Planetary Systems Filled to Capacity? A Study Based on Kepler Results

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Julia

    2013-01-01

    We used a sample of Kepler candidate planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii to determine the typical dynamical spacing of neighboring planets. To derive the intrinsic (i.e., free of observational bias) dynamical spacing of neighboring planets, we generated populations of planetary systems following various dynamical spacing distributions, subjected them to synthetic observations by the Kepler spacecraft, and compared the properties of observed planets in our simulations with actual Kepler detections. We found that, on average, neighboring planets are spaced 21.7 mutual Hill radii apart with a standard deviation of 9.5. This dynamical spacing distribution is consistent with that of adjacent planets in the Solar System. To test the packed planetary systems hypothesis, the idea that all planetary systems are dynamically packed or filled to capacity, we determined the fraction of systems that are dynamically packed by performing long-term (10^8 years) numerical si...

  11. Ancient planetary systems are orbiting a large fraction of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, B; Klein, B; Koester, D; Jura, M

    2010-01-01

    Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around ~30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval (~200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abunda...

  12. The SOAPS project – Spin-orbit alignment of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebb L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of information rendered by Kepler planets and planet candidates is indispensable for statistically significant studies of distinct planet populations, in both single and multiple systems. Empirical evidences suggest that Kepler's planet population shows different physical properties as compared to the bulk of known exoplanets. The SOAPS project, aims to shed light on Kepler's planets formation, their migration and architecture. By measuring v sini accurately for Kepler hosts with rotation periods measured from their high-precision light curves, we will assess the alignment of the planetary orbit with respect to the stellar spin axis. This degree of alignment traces the formation history and evolution of the planetary systems, and thus, allows to distinguish between different proposed migration theories. SOAPS will increase by a factor of 2 the number of spin-orbit alignment measurements pushing the parameters space down to the SuperEarth domain. Here we present our preliminary results.

  13. A Comprehensive Characterization of the 70 Virginis Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R; Henry, Gregory W; Feng, Y Katherina; Hinkel, Natalie R; Fischer, Debra A; von Braun, Kaspar; Howard, Andrew W; Wright, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    An on-going effort in the characterization of exoplanetary systems is the accurate determination of host star properties. This effort extends to the relatively bright host stars of planets discovered with the radial velocity method. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) is aiding in these efforts as part of its observational campaign for exoplanet host stars. One of the first known systems is that of 70 Virginis, which harbors a jovian planet in an eccentric orbit. Here we present a complete characterization of this system with a compilation of TERMS photometry, spectroscopy, and interferometry. We provide fundamental properties of the host star through direct interferometric measurements of the radius (1.5\\% uncertainty) and through spectroscopic analysis. We combined 59 new Keck HIRES radial velocity measurements with the 169 previously published from the ELODIE, Hamilton, and HIRES spectrographs, to calculate a refined orbital solution and construct a transit ephemeris for the plan...

  14. Dynamics and collisional evolution of closely packed planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jason A.; Steffen, Jason H.; Lombardi, J. C., Jr.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-10-01

    High-multiplicity Kepler systems (referred to as Kepler multis) are often tightly packed and may be on the verge of instability. Many systems of this type could have experienced past instabilities, where the compact orbits and often low densities make physical collisions likely outcomes. We use numerical simulations to study the dynamical instabilities and planet-planet interactions in a synthetically generated sample of closely packed, high-multiplicity systems. We focus specifically on systems resembling Kepler-11, a Kepler multi with six planets, and run a suite of dynamical integrations, sampling the initial orbital parameters around the nominal values reported in Lissauer et al. (2011a), finding that most of the realizations are unstable, resulting in orbit crossings and, eventually, collisions and mergers. We study in detail the dependence of stability on the orbital parameters of the planets and planet-pair characteristics to identify possible precursors to instability, compare the systems that emerge from dynamical instabilities to the observed Kepler sample (after applying observational corrections), and propose possible observable signatures of these instabilities. We examine the characteristics of each planet-planet collision, categorizing collisions by the degree of contact and collision energy, and find that grazing collisions are more common than direct impacts. Since the structure of many planets found in Kepler multis is such that the mass is dominated by a rocky core, but the volume is dominated by a low-density gaseous envelope, the sticky-sphere approximation may not be valid, and we present hydrodynamic calculations of planet-planet collisions clearly deviating from this approximation. Finally, we rerun a subset of our dynamical calculations using instead a modified prescription to handle collisions, finding, in general, higher multiplicity remnant systems.

  15. Guidance of an autonomous planetary rover based on a short-range hazard detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerazunis, S. W.; Frederick, D. K.; Hunter, E.; Troiani, N.

    1979-01-01

    The guidance of an autonomous planetary roving vehicle using a scanning laser/multidetector terrain sensor for short-range hazard detection has been simulated. The sensor data are used to model the terrain, thereby providing the information required by a path selection algorithm to control the motion of the rover. These simulation studies are providing the basis for developing both the real-time computer control software and the hardware systems for laboratory and field testing of rover.

  16. Can The Periods of Some Extra-Solar Planetary Systems be Quantized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Morcos, Abd

    A simple formula was derived before by Morcos (2013 ), to relate the quantum numbers of planetary systems and their periods. This formula is applicable perfectly for the solar system planets, and some extra-solar planets , of stars of approximately the same masses like the Sun. This formula has been used to estimate the periods of some extra-solar planet of known quantum numbers. The used quantum numbers were calculated previously by other authors. A comparison between the observed and estimated periods, from the given formula has been done. The differences between the observed and calculated periods for the extra-solar systems have been calculated and tabulated. It is found that there is an error of the range of 10% The same formula has been also used to find the quantum numbers, of some known periods, exo-planet. Keywords: Quantization; Periods; Extra-Planetary; Extra-Solar Planet REFERENCES [1] Agnese, A. G. and Festa, R. “Discretization on the Cosmic Scale Inspirred from the Old Quantum Mechanics,” 1998. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9807186 [2] Agnese, A. G. and Festa, R. “Discretizing ups-Andro- medae Planetary System,” 1999. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9910534. [3] Barnothy, J. M. “The Stability of the Solar Systemand of Small Stellar Systems,” Proceedings of the IAU Sympo-sium 62, Warsaw, 5-8 September 1973, pp. 23-31. [4] Morcos, A.B. , “Confrontation between Quantized Periods of Some Extra-Solar Planetary Systems and Observations”, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 28-32. [5] Nottale, L. “Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics, To-wards a Theory of Scale Relativity,” World Scientific, London, 1994. [6] Nottale , L., “Scale-Relativity and Quantization of Extra- Solar Planetary Systems,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 315, 1996, pp. L9-L12 [7] Nottale, L., Schumacher, G. and Gay, J. “Scale-Relativity and Quantization of the Solar Systems,” Astronomy & Astrophysics letters, Vol. 322, 1997, pp. 1018-10 [8

  17. X-ray Studies of Planetary Systems: An Astro2010 Decadal Survey White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, Eric; Elsner, Ronald; Glassgold, Alfred; Gudel, Manuel; Montmerle, Thierry; Ohashi, Takaya; Smith, Randall; Wargelin, Bradford; Wolk, Scott

    2009-01-01

    While it may seem counterintuitive that X-ray astronomy should give any insights into low-temperature planetary systems, planets orbit stars whose magnetized surfaces divert a small fraction of the stellar energy into high energy products: coronal UV and X-rays, flare X-rays and energetic particles, and a high-velocity stellar wind. In our Solar System, X-ray emission gives unique insights into the solar activity, planetary atmospheres, cometary comae, charge exchange physics, and space weather across the Solar System. The stellar activity of young stars is greatly elevated and can substantially affect protoplanetary disks and planet formation processes. We highlight six studies achievable with the planned International X-ray Observatory which address in unique ways issues in planetary sciences: probing X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks with the iron fluorescent line and its effects on disk turbulence; study the complex charge-exchange X-ray emission from Jupiter and the Martian exosphere; elucidate c...

  18. A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Casani, John; Elliott, John; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; MacPherson, Duncan; Nesmith, William; Houts, Michael; Bechtel, Ryan; Werner, James; Kapernick, Rick; hide

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

  19. Dynamical considerations for life in multihabitable planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the close-proximity pair of planets in the Kepler-36 system, we consider two effects that may have important ramifications for the development of life in similar systems where a pair of planets may reside entirely in the habitable zone of the hosting star. Specifically, we run numerical simulations to determine whether strong, resonant (or non-resonant) planet-planet interactions can cause large variations in planet obliquity---thereby inducing large variations in climate. We also determine whether or not resonant interactions affect the rate of lithopanspermia between the planet pair---which could facilitate the growth and maintenance of life on both planets. We find that first-order resonances do not cause larger obliquity variations compared with non-resonant cases. We also find that resonant interactions are not a primary consideration in lithopanspermia. Lithopanspermia is enhanced significantly as the planet orbits come closer together---reaching nearly the same rate as ejected material fall...

  20. Radio Search for Water in Exo-Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C.; Pluchino, S.; Salerno, E.; Montebugnoli, S.; Zoni, L.; Bartolini, M.

    By using a fast multichannel spectrometer coupled to the 32 m radiotelescope at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) we started 1999 the search for the water MASER line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) on exoplanets. Up to now 32 exoplanetary systems have been observed and suspect transient emissions have been identified in some cases. In order to confirm the observations improving the detection limits a new challenging multichannel spectrometer (SPECTRA-1) was developed.

  1. CAD/CAE system for the ring planetary reducer with small tooth number difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永春; QI; Shifeng; 等

    2002-01-01

    A CAD/CAE system of the ring-type planetary reducer with small tooth number difference is presented.It is a parameterized CAD/CAE system adopting the object-oriented technique and comprising in itself the geometric feature database(including the modules of ring-plates with ineer te4eth,eccentric shaft modules and output shaft modules),standard componentdatabase and material database.In cdomparison with design by handwork,this computer aided design and analysis system has the advantages of improved quality,shortened design period and reduced cost.The reliability of the system has been verified by a illustrative example.

  2. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  3. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  4. Detecting and Characterizing Planetary Systems with Transit Timing

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Ford, Eric B; Agol, Eric; Holman, Matthew J

    2007-01-01

    In the coming decades, research in extrasolar planets aims to advance two goals: 1) detecting and characterizing low-mass planets increasingly similar to the Earth, and 2) improving our understanding of planet formation. We present a new planet detection method that is capable of making large advances towards both of these objectives and describe a modest network of telescopes that is able to make the requisite observations. In a system where a known planet transits its host star, a second planet in that system will cause the time between transits to vary. These transit timing variations can be used to infer the orbital elements and mass of the perturbing planet even if it has a mass that is smaller than the mass of the Earth. This detection technique complements other techniques because it is most sensitive in mean-motion resonances where, due to degeneracies, other techniques have reduced sensitivity. Small ground-based observatories have already exceeded the photometric precision necessary to detect sub-Ea...

  5. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Ayres, T. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Haswell, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bohlender, D. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kochukhov, O., E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de, E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@colorado.edu, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: david.bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  6. Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear System Using a Finite Element/Contact Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Agashe, Vinayak; Vijayakar, Sandeep M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of a helicopter planetary gear system is examined over a wide range of operating speeds and torques. The analysis tool is a unique, semianalytical finite element formulation that admits precise representation of the tooth geometry and contact forces that are crucial in gear dynamics. Importantly, no a priori specification of static transmission error excitation or mesh frequency variation is required; the dynamic contact forces are evaluated internally at each time step. The calculated response shows classical resonances when a harmonic of mesh frequency coincides with a natural frequency. However, peculiar behavior occurs where resonances expected to be excited at a given speed are absent. This absence of particular modes is explained by analytical relationships that depend on the planetary configuration and mesh frequency harmonic. The torque sensitivity of the dynamic response is examined and compared to static analyses. Rotation mode response is shown to be more sensitive to input torque than translational mode response.

  7. Continued development of the radio science technique as a tool for planetary and solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A possible alternative to a spacecraft monostatic radar system for surface studies of Titan is introduced. The results of a short study of the characteristics of a bistatic radar investigation of Titan's surface, presented in terms of the Voyager 1 flyby and a proposed Galileo orbiter of Saturn are outlined. The critical factors which need to be addressed in order to optimize the radio occultation technique for the study of clouds and cloud regions in planetary atmospheres are outlined. Potential improvements in the techniques for measuring small-scale structures in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are addressed. The development of a technique for vastly improving the radial resolution from the radio occultation measurements of the rings of Saturn is discussed.

  8. Disk Inhomogeneities and the Origins of Planetary System Architectures and Observational Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations show that protoplanetary disks have various kinds of structural properties or inhomogeneities. These are the consequence of a mixture of a number of physical and chemical processes taking place in the disks. Here, we discuss the results of our comprehensive investigations on how disk inhomogeneities affect planetary migration. We demonstrate that disk inhomogeneities give rise to planet traps - specific sites in protoplanetary disks at which rapid type I migration is halted. We show that up to three types of traps (heat transitions, ice lines and dead zones) can exist in a single disk, and that they move differently as the disk accretion rate decreases with time. We also demonstrate that the position of planet traps strongly depends on stellar masses and disk accretion rates. This indicates that host stars establish preferred (initial) scales of their planetary systems. Finally, we discuss the possible observational signatures of disk inhomogeneities.

  9. The Planetary System to KIC 11442793: A Compact Analogue to the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Lehmann, H; Dvorak, R; Gandolfi, D; Rauer, H; Erikson, A; Dreyer, C; Eigmueller, Ph; Hatzes, A

    2013-01-01

    We announce the discovery of 7 transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e and f are reported for the first time in this work. Planets d, g and h were previously reported in the literature (Batalha et al. 2013), although here we revise their orbital parameters and confirm their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such way that its orbital period changes by 25.7h between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our Solar System, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, how...

  10. Study on double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion in the laminar flow mixing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has studied the impact of double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion on laminar flow mixing system using flow field visualization experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulation. Digital image processing was conducted to analyze the mixing efficiency of mixing paddle in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes. It was found that the double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion would not produce the isolated mixing regions in the laminar flow mixing system, and its mixing efficiency in counter-rotating modes was higher than that in co-rotating modes, especially at low rotating speed. According to the tracer trajectory experiment, it was found that the path line of the tracer in the flow field in co-rotating modes was distributed in the opposite direction to the path line in counter-rotating modes. Planetary motion of mixing paddle had stretching, shearing, and folding effects on the trajectory of the tracer. By means of computational fluid dynamics simulation, it was found that axial flows and tangential flows produced in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes have similar flow velocity but opposite flow directions. It is deduced from the distribution rule of axial flow, radial flow, and tangential flow in the flow field that axial flow is the main reason for causing different mixing efficiencies between co-rotating and counter-rotating modes.

  11. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  12. The Dynamical Origin of the Multi-Planetary System HD45364

    CERN Document Server

    Rein, Hanno; Kley, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The recently discovered planetary system HD45364 which consists of a Jupiter and Saturn mass planet is very likely in a 3:2 mean motion resonance. The standard scenario to form planetary commensurabilities is convergent migration of two planets embedded in a protoplanetary disc. When the planets are initially separated by a period ratio larger than two, convergent migration will most likely lead to a very stable 2:1 resonance for moderate migration rates. To avoid this fate, formation of the planets close enough to prevent this resonance may be proposed. However, such a simultaneous formation of the planets within a small annulus, seems to be very unlikely. Rapid type III migration of the outer planet crossing the 2:1 resonance is one possible way around this problem. In this paper, we investigate this idea in detail. We present an estimate for the required convergent migration rate and confirm this with N-body and hydrodynamical simulations. If the dynamical history of the planetary system had a phase of rap...

  13. A dynamical analysis of the Kepler-11 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Migaszewski, Cezary; Gozdziewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler-11 star hosts at least six transiting super-Earth planets detected through the precision photometric observations of the KEPLER mission (Lissauer et al.). In this paper, we re-analyze the available KEPLER data, using the direct N-body approach rather than an indirect TTV method in the discovery paper. The orbital modeling in the realm of the direct approach relies on the whole data set, rather than the times of mid-transits only. Most of the results in the original paper are confirmed and extended. We constrained the mass of the outermost planet g to less than 30 Earth masses. The mutual inclinations between orbits b and c as well as between orbits d and e are determined with a good precision, in the range of [1,5] degrees. Having several solutions to four qualitative orbital models of the Kepler-11 system, we analyze its global dynamics with the help of dynamical maps. They reveal very complex structure of the phase space with narrow regions of regular motion. The dynamics are governed by a dense ...

  14. An Old Disk That Can Still Form a Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, Edwin A; Gorti, Uma; Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A; Green, Joel D; Andrews, Sean M; Evans, Neal J; Henning, Thomas; Oberg, Karin; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Qi, Chunhua; Salyk, Colette; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-01-01

    From the masses of planets orbiting our Sun, and relative elemental abundances, it is estimated that at birth our Solar System required a minimum disk mass of ~0.01 solar masses within ~100 AU of the star. The main constituent, gaseous molecular hydrogen, does not emit from the disk mass reservoir, so the most common measure of the disk mass is dust thermal emission and lines of gaseous carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide emission generally probes the disk surface, while the conversion from dust emission to gas mass requires knowledge of the grain properties and gas-to-dust mass ratio, which likely differ from their interstellar values. Thus, mass estimates vary by orders of magnitude, as exemplified by the relatively old (3--10 Myr) star TW Hya, with estimates ranging from 0.0005 to 0.06 solar masses. Here we report the detection the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen deuteride, HD, toward TW Hya. HD is a good tracer of disk gas because it follows the distribution of molecular hydrogen and its emissi...

  15. On the formation of the Kepler-10 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Terquem, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the conditions required for the 3 and 17 Earth mass solid planets in the Kepler-10 system to have formed through collisions and mergers within an initial population of embryos. By performing a large number of N-body simulations, we show that the total mass of the initial population had to be significantly larger than the masses of the two planets, and that the two planets must have built-up farther away than their present location, at a distance of at least a few au from the central star. The planets had to grow fast enough so that they would detach themselves from the population of remaining, less massive, cores and migrate in to their present location. By the time the other cores migrated in, the disc's inner edge would have moved out so that these cores cannot be detected today. We also compute the critical core mass beyond which a massive gaseous envelope would be accreted and show that it is larger than 17 Earth masses if the planetesimal accretion rate onto the core is larg...

  16. Dust in the planetary system: Dust interactions in space plasmas of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Czechowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic dust particles are small solid objects observed in the solar planetary system and in many astronomical objects like the surrounding of stars, the interstellar and even the intergalactic medium. In the solar system the dust is best observed and most often found within the region of the orbits of terrestrial planets where the dust interactions and dynamics are observed directly from spacecraft. Dust is observed in space near Earth and also enters the atmosphere of the Earth where it takes part in physical and chemical processes. Hence space offers a laboratory to study dust-plasma interactions and dust dynamics. A recent example is the observation of nanodust of sizes smaller than 10 nm. We outline the theoretical considerations on which our knowledge of dust electric charges in space plasmas are founded. We discuss the dynamics of the dust particles and show how the small charged particles are accelerated by the solar wind that carries a magnetic field. Finally, as examples for the space observation of cosmic dust interactions, we describe the first detection of fast nanodust in the solar wind near Earth orbit and the first bi-static observations of PMSE, the radar echoes that are observed in the Earth ionosphere in the presence of charged dust.

  17. Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis of a planetary entry (SAPE), descent, and landing (EDL) is a multidisciplinary activity in nature. SAPE improves the performance of the systems analysis team by automating and streamlining the process, and this improvement can reduce the errors that stem from manual data transfer among discipline experts. SAPE is a multidisciplinary tool for systems analysis of planetary EDL for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. It performs EDL systems analysis for any planet, operates cross-platform (i.e., Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems), uses existing software components and open-source software to avoid software licensing issues, performs low-fidelity systems analysis in one hour on a computer that is comparable to an average laptop, and keeps discipline experts in the analysis loop. SAPE uses Python, a platform-independent, open-source language, for integration and for the user interface. Development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE currently includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and interface for structural sizing.

  18. Kepler detection of a new extreme planetary system orbiting the subdwarf-B pulsator KIC10001893

    CERN Document Server

    Silvotti, R; Green, E; Fontaine, G; Telting, J H; Ostensen, R H; Van Grootel, V; Baran, A S; Schuh, S; Machado, L Fox

    2014-01-01

    KIC10001893 is one out of 19 subdwarf-B (sdB) pulsators observed by the Kepler spacecraft in its primary mission. In addition to tens of pulsation frequencies in the g-mode domain, its Fourier spectrum shows three weak peaks at very low frequencies, which is too low to be explained in terms of g modes. The most convincing explanation is that we are seeing the orbital modulation of three Earth-size planets (or planetary remnants) in very tight orbits, which are illuminated by the strong stellar radiation. The orbital periods are P1=5.273, P2=7.807, and P3=19.48 hours, and the period ratios P2/P1=1.481 and P3/P2=2.495 are very close to the 3:2 and 5:2 resonances, respectively. One of the main pulsation modes of the star at 210.68 {\\mu}Hz corresponds to the third harmonic of the orbital frequency of the inner planet, suggesting that we see, for the first time in an sdB star, g-mode pulsations tidally excited by a planetary companion. The extreme planetary system that emerges from the Kepler data is very similar ...

  19. Measurement of Spin-Orbit Alignment in an Extrasolar Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Winn, J N; Holman, M J; Charbonneau, D; Ohta, Y; Taruya, A; Suto, Y; Narita, N; Turner, E L; Johnson, J A; Marcy, G W; Butler, R P; Vogt, S S; Winn, Joshua N.; Noyes, Robert W.; Holman, Matthew J.; Charbonneau, David; Ohta, Yasuhiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Narita, Norio; Turner, Edwin L.; Johnson, John A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Vogt, Steven S.

    2005-01-01

    We determine the stellar, planetary, and orbital properties of the transiting planetary system HD 209458, through a joint analysis of high-precision radial velocities, photometry, and timing of the secondary eclipse. Of primary interest is the strong detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, the alteration of photospheric line profiles that occurs because the planet occults part of the rotating surface of the star. We develop a new technique for modeling this effect, and use it to determine the inclination of the planetary orbit relative to the apparent stellar equator [lambda = (-4.4 +/- 1.4) degrees], and the line-of-sight rotation speed of the star [v*sin(I) = (4.70 +/- 0.16) km/s]. The uncertainty in these quantities has been reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the pioneering measurements by Queloz and collaborators. The small but nonzero misalignment is probably a relic of the planet formation epoch, because the expected timescale for tidal coplanarization is larger than the age of the star. ...

  20. A Prediction of an Additional Planet of the Extrasolar Planetary System Kepler-62 Based on the Planetary Distances' Long-Range Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discovery of the extrasolar planetary system Kepler-62 comprising five planets were reported. The present paper explores whether (i the sequence of semimajor axis values of the planets shows a long-range order, and whether (ii it is possible to predict any additional planets of this system. The analysis showed that the semimajor axis values of the planets are indeed characterized by a long-range order, i.e. the logarithmic positions of the planets are correlated. Based on this characteristic, an additional planet at 0.22 AU in the Kepler-62 system is predicted.

  1. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  2. Eclipse, transit and occultation geometry of planetary systems at exo-syzygy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Breedt, Elmé

    2017-07-01

    Although conjunctions and oppositions frequently occur in planetary systems, eclipse-related phenomena are usually described from an Earth-centric perspective. Space missions to different parts of the Solar system, as well as the mounting number of known exo-planets in habitable zones and the possibility of sending featherweight robot spacecraft to them, prompt broader considerations. Here, we derive the geometry of eclipses, transits and occultations from a primarily exo-Earth viewpoint, and apply the formulation to the Solar system and three types of three-body extrasolar planetary systems: with one star and two planets (Case I), with two stars and one planet (Case II) and with one planet, one star and one moon (Case III). We derive the general conditions for total, partial and annular eclipses to occur at exo-syzygy, and implement them in each case in concert with stability criteria. We then apply the formalism to the TRAPPIST-1, Kepler-444 and Kepler-77 systems - the first of which contains multiple potentially habitable planets - and provide reference tables of both Solar system and TRAPPIST-1 syzygy properties. We conclude by detailing a basic algebraic algorithm that can be used to quickly characterize eclipse properties in any three-body system.

  3. The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Over the past two decades ongoing radial velocity and transit surveys have been astoundingly successful in detecting thousands of new planetary systems around nearby stars. These systems include apparently single gas giant planets on short period orbits, closely packed systems of up to 5-6 “super-Earths”, and relatively empty systems with either one or no small planets interior to 0.5 AU. Despite our success in cataloguing the diverse properties of these systems, we are still struggling to develop narratives that can explain their apparently divergent formation and migration histories. This is in large part due to our lack of knowledge about the potential presence of massive outer companions in these systems, which can play a pivotal role in the shaping the final properties of the inner planets. In my talk I will discuss current efforts to complete the census for known planetary systems by searching for outer gas giant planets with long term radial velocity monitoring and wide separation stellar companions with high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. I will then demonstrate how statistical constraints on this population of outer companions can be used to test current theories for planet formation and migration.

  4. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  5. Planetary Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks, and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft. Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 1e-7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close-range and in real-time in planetary rings. We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The main rings of Saturn comprise our system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty...

  6. Photo-dynamical mass determination of the multi-planetary system K2-19

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, S C C; Demangeon, O; Tsantaki, M; Santerne, A; Armstrong, D J; Barrado, D; Brown, D; Deleuil, M; Lillo-Box, J; Osborn, H; Pollacco, D; Abe, L; Andre, P; Bendjoya, P; Boisse, I; Bonomo, A S; Bouchy, F; Bruno, G; Cerda, J Rey; Courcol, B; Díaz, R F; Hébrard, G; Kirk, J; Lachurié, J C; Lam, K W F; Martinez, P; McCormac, J; Moutou, C; Rajpurohit, A; Rivet, J -P; Spake, J; Suarez, O; Toublanc, D; Walker, S R

    2015-01-01

    K2-19 is the second multi-planetary system discovered with K2 observations. The system is composed of two Neptune size planets close to the 3:2 mean-motion resonance. To better characterise the system we obtained two additional transit observations of K2-19b and five additional radial velocity observations. These were combined with K2 data and fitted simultaneously with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) which increases the precision of the transit time measurements. The higher transit time precision allows us to detect the chopping signal of the dynamic interaction of the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Although the reflex motion of the star was not detected, dynamic modelling of the system allowed us to derive planetary masses of $M_b= 44 \\pm 12\\, M_{\\oplus}$ and $M_c = 15.9 \\pm 7.0\\, M_{\\oplus}$ for the inner and the outer planets respectively, leading to densities close to Uranus. We also show that our method allows the derivation of mass ratios using only the 80...

  7. Resolving Close Encounters: Stability in the HD 5319 and HD 7924 Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for exoplanets have detected many multi-planet systems around nearby bright stars. An advantage of this technique is that it generally samples the orbit outside of inferior/superior conjunction, potentially allowing the Keplerian elements of eccentricity and argument of periastron to be well characterized. The orbital architectures for some of these systems show signs of close planetary encounters that may render the systems unstable as described. We provide an in-depth analysis of two such systems: HD 5319 and HD 7924, for which the scenario of coplanar orbits results in rapid destabilization of the systems. The poorly constrained periastron arguments of the outer planets in these systems further emphasizes the need for detailed investigations. An exhaustive scan of parameters space via dynamical simulations reveals specific mutual inclinations between the two outer planets in each system that allow for stable configurations over long timescales. We compare these configurations with ...

  8. Chaotic exchange of solid material between planetary systems: implications for lithopanspermia

    CERN Document Server

    Belbruno, Edward; Malhotra, Renu; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We examine a low energy mechanism for the transfer of meteoroids between two planetary systems embedded in a star cluster using quasi-parabolic orbits of minimal energy. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the exchange of meteoroids could have been significantly more efficient than previously estimated. Our study is relevant to astrobiology as it addresses whether life on Earth could have been transferred to other planetary systems in the solar system's birth cluster and whether life on Earth could have been transferred here from beyond the solar system. In the solar system, the timescale over which solid material was delivered to the region from where it could be transferred via this mechanism likely extended to several hundred million years (as indicated by the 3.8-4.0 Ga epoch of the Late Heavy Bombardment). This timescale could have overlapped with the lifetime of the Solar birth cluster (~100-500 Myr). Therefore, we conclude that lithopanspermia is an open possibility if life had an early start. ...

  9. Insights into Planet Formation from Debris Disks. II. Giant Impacts in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark C.; Jackson, Alan P.

    2016-12-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10 Myr post-impact, but model uncertainties could reduce detectability to a few 100 yr window. Nevertheless the 3 % of young stars with debris at levels expected during terrestrial planet formation provide valuable constraints on formation models; implications for super-Earth formation are also discussed. Variability recently observed in some bright disks promises to illuminate the evolution during the earliest phases when vapour condensates may be optically thick and acutely affected by the collision-point geometry. The outer reaches of planetary systems may also exhibit signatures of giant impacts, such as the clumpy debris structures seen around some stars.

  10. The Dynamical Architecture and Habitable Zones of the Quintuplet Planetary System 55 Cancri

    CERN Document Server

    Jianghui, Ji; Lin, Liu; Guangyu, Li

    2009-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations to study the secular orbital evolution and dynamical structure in the quintuplet planetary system 55 Cancri with the self-consistent orbital solutions by Fischer and coworkers (2008). In the simulations, we show that this system can be stable at least for $10^{8}$ yr. In addition, we extensively investigate the planetary configuration of four outer companions with one terrestrial planet in the wide region of 0.790 AU $\\leq a \\leq $ 5.900 AU to examine the existence of potential asteroid structure and Habitable Zones (HZs). We show that there are unstable regions for the orbits about 4:1, 3:1 and 5:2 mean motion resonances (MMRs) with the outermost planet in the system, and several stable orbits can remain at 3:2 and 1:1 MMRs, which is resemblance to the asteroidal belt in solar system. In a dynamical point, the proper candidate HZs for the existence of more potential terrestrial planets reside in the wide area between 1.0 AU and 2.3 AU for relatively low eccentricities.

  11. The dynamical architecture and habitable zones of the quintuplet planetary system 55 Cancri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hui Ji; Hiroshi Kinoshita; Lin Liu; Guang-Yu Li

    2009-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations to study the secular orbital evolution and dynamical structure of the quintuplet planetary system 55 Cancri with the self-consistent orbital solutions by Fischer and coworkers. In the simulations, we show that this sys-tem can be stable for at least 108 yr. In addition, we extensively investigate the planetary configuration of four outer companions with one terrestrial planet in the wide region of 0.790 AU ≤ a ≤ 5.900 AU to examine the existence of potential asteroid structure and Habitable Zones (HZs). We show that there are unstable regions for orbits about 4:1, 3:1 and 5:2 mean motion resonances (MMRs) of the outermost planet in the system, and sev-eral stable orbits can remain at 3:2 and 1:1 MMRs, which resembles the asteroid belt in the solar system. From a dynamical viewpoint, proper HZ candidates for the existence of more potential terrestrial planets reside in the wide area between 1.0 AU and 2.3 AU with relatively low eccentricities.

  12. Planetary system, star formation, and black hole science with non-redundant masking on space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishna, Anand; Ireland, Michael; Lloyd, James; Perrin, Marshall; Soummer, Remi; McKernan, Barry; Ford, Saavik

    2009-01-01

    Non-redundant masking (NRM) is a high contrast, high resolution technique relevant to future space missions concerned with extrasolar planetary system and star formation, as well as general high angular resolution galactic and extragalactic astronomy. NRM enables the highest angular resolution science possible given the telescope's diameter and operating wavelength. It also provides precise information on a telescope's optical state. We must assess NRM contrast limits realistically to understand the science yield of NRM in space, and, simultaneously, develop NRM science for planet and star formation and extragalactic science in the UV-NIR, to help steer high resolution space-based astronomy in the coming decade.

  13. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroid J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope. Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile, and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  14. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manfroid J.; Hutsemékers D.; Chantry V.; Magain P.; Jehin E.; Gillon M.; Queloz D.; Udry S.

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope). Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here...

  15. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Magain, P; Chantry, V; Hutsemekers, D; Manfroid, J; Queloz, D; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope). Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  16. The planetary system host HR\\,8799: On its $\\lambda$ Bootis nature

    CERN Document Server

    Moya, A; Barrado, D; Hernández, A García; Aberasturi, M; Montesinos, B; Aceituno, F

    2010-01-01

    HR\\,8799 is a $\\lambda$ Bootis, $\\gamma$ Doradus star hosting a planetary system and a debris disk with two rings. This makes this system a very interesting target for asteroseismic studies. This work is devoted to the determination of the internal metallicity of this star, linked with its $\\lambda$ Bootis nature (i.e., solar surface abundances of light elements, and subsolar surface abundances of heavy elements), taking advantage of its $\\gamma$ Doradus pulsations. This is the most accurate way to obtain this information, and this is the first time such a study is performed for a planetary-system-host star. We have used the equilibrium code CESAM and the non-adiabatic pulsational code GraCo. We have applied the Frequency Ratio Method (FRM) and the Time Dependent Convection theory (TDC) to estimate the mode identification, the Brunt-Va\\"is\\"al\\"a frequency integral and the mode instability, making the selection of the possible models. When the non-seismological constraints (i.e its position in the HR diagram)...

  17. Retrograde resonances in compact multi-planetary systems: a feasible stabilizing mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Gayon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Multi-planet systems detected until now are in most cases characterized by hot-Jupiters close to their central star as well as high eccentricities. As a consequence, from a dynamical point of view, compact multi-planetary systems form a variety of the general N-body problem (with N >= 3), whose solutions are not necessarily known. Extrasolar planets are up to now found in prograde (i.e. direct) orbital motions about their host star and often in mean-motion resonances (MMR). In the present paper, we investigate a theoretical alternative suitable for the stability of compact multi-planetary systems. When the outer planet moves on a retrograde orbit in MMR with respect to the inner planet, we find that the so-called retrograde resonances present fine and characteristic structures particularly relevant for dynamical stability. We show that retrograde resonances and their resources open a family of stabilizing mechanisms involving specific behaviors of apsidal precessions. We also point up that for particular orbi...

  18. A Detailed Dynamical Investigation of the Proposed QS Virginis Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias C; Marshall, Jonathan P; Mustill, Alex J; Tinney, Chris G

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of planetary systems have been proposed to orbit evolved binary star systems. The presence of planets is invoked to explain observed variations in the timing of mutual eclipses between the primary and secondary components of the binary star system. The planets recently proposed orbiting the cataclysmic variable system QS Virginis are the latest in this on-going series of "extreme planets". The two planets proposed to orbit QS Virginis would move on mutually crossing orbits - a situation that is almost invariably unstable on very short timescales. In this work, we present the results of a detailed dynamical study of the orbital evolution of the two proposed planets, revealing that they are dynamically unstable on timescales of less than one thousand years across the entire range of orbital elements that provide a plausible fit to the observational data, and regardless of their mutual orbital inclination. We conclude that the proposed planets around the cataclysmic variable QS Virginis...

  19. Disruption of planetary orbits through evection resonance with an external companion: circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenrui; Lai, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This `evection resonance' occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited parameter space of planet and binary semimajor axes, and requires the planetary migration to be sufficiently slow.

  20. Machine Learning Algorithms For Predicting the Instability Timescales of Compact Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Cloutier, Ryan; Huang, Chelsea; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Leblanc, Rejean; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman; Obertas, Alysa; Paradise, Adiv; Petrovich, Cristobal; Rachkov, Aleksandar; Rein, Hanno; Silburt, Ari; Tacik, Nick; Valencia, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The Kepler mission has uncovered hundreds of compact multi-planet systems. The dynamical pathways to instability in these compact systems and their associated timescales are not well understood theoretically. However, long-term stability is often used as a constraint to narrow down the space of orbital solutions from the transit data. This requires a large suite of N-body integrations that can each take several weeks to complete. This computational bottleneck is therefore an important limitation in our ability to characterize compact multi-planet systems.From suites of numerical simulations, previous studies have fit simple scaling relations between the instability timescale and various system parameters. However, the numerically simulated systems can deviate strongly from these empirical fits.We present a new approach to the problem using machine learning algorithms that have enjoyed success across a broad range of high-dimensional industry applications. In particular, we have generated large training sets of direct N-body integrations of synthetic compact planetary systems to train several regression models (support vector machine, gradient boost) that predict the instability timescale. We find that ensembling these models predicts the instability timescale of planetary systems better than previous approaches using the simple scaling relations mentioned above.Finally, we will discuss how these models provide a powerful tool for not only understanding the current Kepler multi-planet sample, but also for characterizing and shaping the radial-velocity follow-up strategies of multi-planet systems from the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, given its shorter observation baselines.

  1. How do giant planetary cores shape the dust disk? HL Tau system

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We are observing, thanks to ALMA, the dust distribution in the region of active planet formation around young stars. This is a powerful tool to connect observations with theoretical models and improve our understandings of the processes at play. We want to test how a multi-planetary system shapes its birth disk and study the influence of the planetary masses and particle sizes on the final dust distribution. Moreover, we apply our model to the HL Tau system in order to obtain some insights on the physical parameters of the planets that are able to create the observed features. We follow the evolution of a population of dust particles, treated as Lagrangian particles, in two-dimensional, locally isothermal disks where two equal mass planets are present. The planets are kept in fixed orbits and they do not accrete mass. The outer planet plays a major role removing the dust particles in the co-orbital region of the inner planet and forming a particle ring which promotes the development of vortices respect to the...

  2. Equipotential Surfaces and Lagrangian points in Non-synchronous, Eccentric Binary and Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the existence and properties of equipotential surfaces and Lagrangian points in non-synchronous, eccentric binary star and planetary systems under the assumption of quasi-static equilibrium. We adopt a binary potential that accounts for non-synchronous rotation and eccentric orbits, and calculate the positions of the Lagrangian points as functions of the mass ratio, the degree of asynchronism, the orbital eccentricity, and the position of the stars or planets in their relative orbit. We find that the geometry of the equipotential surfaces may facilitate non-conservative mass transfer in non-synchronous, eccentric binary star and planetary systems, especially if the component stars or planets are rotating super-synchronously at the periastron of their relative orbit. We also calculate the volume-equivalent radius of the Roche lobe as a function of the four parameters mentioned above. Contrary to common practice, we find that replacing the radius of a circular orbit in the fitting formula of Eggl...

  3. Insights into planet formation from debris disks: II. Giant impacts in extrasolar planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10Myr post-impac...

  4. A Machine Learns to Predict the Stability of Tightly Packed Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Silburt, Ari; Valencia, Diana; Menou, Kristen; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Petrovich, Cristobal; Huang, Chelsea X.; Rein, Hanno; van Laerhoven, Christa; Paradise, Adiv; Obertas, Alysa; Murray, Norman

    2016-12-01

    The requirement that planetary systems be dynamically stable is often used to vet new discoveries or set limits on unconstrained masses or orbital elements. This is typically carried out via computationally expensive N-body simulations. We show that characterizing the complicated and multi-dimensional stability boundary of tightly packed systems is amenable to machine-learning methods. We find that training an XGBoost machine-learning algorithm on physically motivated features yields an accurate classifier of stability in packed systems. On the stability timescale investigated (107 orbits), it is three orders of magnitude faster than direct N-body simulations. Optimized machine-learning classifiers for dynamical stability may thus prove useful across the discipline, e.g., to characterize the exoplanet sample discovered by the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. This proof of concept motivates investing computational resources to train algorithms capable of predicting stability over longer timescales and over broader regions of phase space.

  5. A Detailed Analysis of the HD 73526 2:1 Resonant Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Lee, Man Hoi; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Salter, G S; Carter, B D; Jones, H R A; O'Toole, S J; Bailey, J; Wright, D; Crane, J D; Schectman, S A; Arriagada, P; Thompson, I; Minniti, D; Diaz, M

    2013-01-01

    We present six years of new radial-velocity data from the Anglo-Australian and Magellan Telescopes on the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system. We investigate both Keplerian and dynamical (interacting) fits to these data, yielding four possible configurations for the system. The new data now show that both resonance angles are librating, with amplitudes of 40 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. We then perform long-term dynamical stability tests to differentiate these solutions, which only differ significantly in the masses of the planets. We show that while there is no clearly preferred system inclination, the dynamical fit with i=90 degrees provides the best combination of goodness-of-fit and long-term dynamical stability.

  6. A detailed analysis of the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Salter, G. S.; Bailey, J.; Wright, D. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Tan, Xianyu; Lee, Man Hoi [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jones, H. R. A. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, College Lane, AL10 9AB, Hatfield (United Kingdom); O' Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Thompson, I. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Minniti, D.; Diaz, M., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2014-01-10

    We present six years of new radial velocity data from the Anglo-Australian and Magellan Telescopes on the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system. We investigate both Keplerian and dynamical (interacting) fits to these data, yielding four possible configurations for the system. The new data now show that both resonance angles are librating, with amplitudes of 40° and 60°, respectively. We then perform long-term dynamical stability tests to differentiate these solutions, which only differ significantly in the masses of the planets. We show that while there is no clearly preferred system inclination, the dynamical fit with i = 90° provides the best combination of goodness-of-fit and long-term dynamical stability.

  7. A Machine Learns to Predict the Stability of Tightly Packed Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayo, Daniel; Valencia, Diana; Menou, Kristen; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Petrovich, Cristobal; Huang, Chelsea X; Rein, Hanno; van Laerhoven, Christa; Paradise, Adiv; Obertas, Alysa; Murray, Norman

    2016-01-01

    The requirement that planetary systems be dynamically stable is often used to vet new discoveries or set limits on unconstrained masses or orbital elements. This is typically carried out via computationally expensive N-body simulations. We show that characterizing the complicated and multi-dimensional stability boundary of tightly packed systems is amenable to machine learning methods. We find that training a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm on physically motivated features yields an accurate classifier of stability in packed systems. On the stability timescale investigated ($10^7$ orbits), it is 3 orders of magnitude faster than direct N-body simulations. Optimized machine learning classifiers for dynamical stability may thus prove useful across the discipline, e.g., to characterize the exoplanet sample discovered by the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).

  8. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  9. Chemical Complementarity between the Gas Phase of the Interstellar Medium and the Rocky Material of Our Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    We compare the elemental depletions in the gas phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) with the elemental depletions in the rocky material of our Solar System. Our analysis finds a high degree of chemical complementarity: elements depleted in the gas phase of the ISM are enriched in the rocky material of our Solar System, and vice versa. This chemical complementarity reveals the generic connections between interstellar dust and rocky planetary material. We use an inheritance model to explain the formation of primordial grains in the solar nebula. The primary dust grains inherited from the ISM, in combination with the secondary ones condensed from the solar nebula, constitute the primordial rocky material of our planetary system, from which terrestrial planets are formed through the effects of the progressive accretion and sublimation. The semi-major-axis-dependence of the chemical composition of rocky planetary material is also observed by comparing elemental depletions in the Earth, CI chondrites and other ty...

  10. The Year of the Solar System: An E/PO Community's Approach to Sharing Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; Dalton, H.; Scalice, D.; Planetary Science E/Po Community

    2010-12-01

    YSS offers the opportunity to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students and the public about planetary science activities. The planetary science education and public outreach (E/PO) community is engaging and educating their audiences through ongoing mission and program activities. Based on discussion with partners, the community is presenting its products in the context of monthly thematic topics that are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved; and how did life begin and evolve on Earth, has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system, and what are characteristics that lead to the origins of life? Each month explores different compelling aspects of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life. Resources, activities, and events are interwoven in thematic context, and presented with ideas through which formal and informal educators can engage their audiences. The month-to-month themes place the big questions in a logical sequence of deepening learning experiences - and highlight mission milestones and viewing events. YSS encourages active participation and communication with its audiences. It includes nation-wide activities, such as a Walk Through the Solar System, held between October 2010 to March 2011, in which museums, libraries, science centers, schools, planetariums, amateur astronomers, and others are kicking off YSS by creating their own scale models of the solar system and sharing their events through online posting of pictures, video, and stories. YSS offers the E/PO community the opportunity to collaborate with each other and partners. The thematic approach leverages existing products, providing a home and allowing a “shelf life” that can outlast individual projects and missions. The broad themes highlight missions and programs multiple times. YSS also leverages existing online resources and social media. Hosted on

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  12. Stellar halos and elliptical galaxy formation: Origin of dynamical properties of the planetary nebular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, K; Bekki, Kenji; Peng, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) in several elliptical galaxies have revealed structural and kinematical properties of the outer stellar halo regions. In order to elucidate the origin of the properties of these planetary nebula systems (PNSs), we consider the merger scenario in which an elliptical galaxy is formed by merging of spiral galaxies. Using numerical simulations, we particularly investigate radial profiles of projected PNe number densities, rotational velocities, and velocity dispersions of PNSs extending to the outer halo regions of elliptical galaxies formed from major and unequal-mass merging. We find that the radial profiles of the project number densities can be fitted to the power-law and the mean number density in the outer halos of the ellipticals can be more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the original spiral's halo. The PNSs are found to show a significant amount of rotation (V/sigma >0.5) in the outer halo regions ($R$ $>$ $5R_{\\rm e}$) of the el...

  13. Targeting Young Stars with Kepler: Planet Formation, Migration Mechanisms and the Early History of Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, James P; Mamajek, Eric; Spiegel, David S; Covey, Kevin R; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Chavez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Aguilar, Jose Manuel Olmedo

    2013-01-01

    This white paper discusses a repurposed mission for the Kepler spacecraft that focusses on solving outstanding problems in planet formation and evolution by targeting the study of the hot Jupiter population of young stars. This mission can solve the question of the mode of migration of hot Jupiters, address the problem of whether Jupiters form by hot-start (gravitational instability) or cold-start (core accretion) mechanisms, and provide a wealth of data on the early stages of planetary system evolution during the active phases of stars which impact planetary habitability. In one year of observations of three weeks dwell time per field, Kepler would increase by more than an order of magnitude the number of known hot Jupiters, which can be followed up with fast cadence observations to to search for transit timing variations and to perform asteroseismological characterization of the host stars. This mission scenario continues to operate Kepler in the photometric monitoring mode for which it was designed, and is...

  14. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayo, Daniel; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    We present a general and simple framework for understanding the dynamical stability of planets embedded in a protoplanetary nebula over typical disk lifetimes, and provide estimates for the maximum allowable planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated dynamical constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns and numerical simulations of gap opening in such systems. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted from integer period ratios in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact shift, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This renders our results largely insensitive to an improved determination of the gaps' orbital radii, and presents an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degen...

  15. Compact planetary systems perturbed by an inclined companion: I. Vectorial representation of the secular model

    CERN Document Server

    Boué, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    The non-resonant secular dynamics of compact planetary systems are modeled by a perturbing function which is usually expanded in eccentricity and absolute inclination with respect to the invariant plane. Here, the expressions are given in a vectorial form which naturally leads to an expansion in eccentricity and mutual inclination. The two approaches are equivalent in most cases, but the vectorial one is specially designed for those where a quasi-coplanar system tilts as a whole by a large amount. Moreover, the vectorial expressions of the Hamiltonian and of the equations of motion are slightly simpler than those given in terms of the usual elliptical elements. We also provide the secular perturbing function in vectorial form expanded in semimajor axis ratio allowing for arbitrary eccentricities and inclinations. The interaction between the equatorial bulge of a central star and its planets is also provided, as is the relativistic periapse precession of any planet induced by the central star. We illustrate th...

  16. Spitzer MIPS Limits on Asteroidal Dust in the Pulsar Planetary System PSR B1257+12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Stansberry, J. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Trilling, D. E.; Turner, N. J.; Wolszczan, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the MIPS camera on Spitzer, we have searched for far-infrared emission from dust in the planetary system orbiting pulsar PSR B1257+12. With accuracies of 0.05 mJy at 24 microns and 1.5 mJy at 70 microns, photometric measurements find no evidence for emission at these wavelengths. These observations place new upper limits on the luminosity of dust with temperatures between 20 and 1000 K. They are particularly sensitive to dust temperatures of 100-200 K, for which they limit the dust luminosity to below 3 x 10(exp -5) of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity, 3 orders of magnitude better than previous limits. Despite these improved constraints on dust emission, an asteroid belt similar to the solar system's cannot be ruled out.

  17. A study of symplectic integrators for planetary system problems: error analysis and comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David M.; Dehnen, Walter

    2017-07-01

    The symplectic Wisdom-Holman map revolutionized long-term integrations of planetary systems. There is freedom in such methods of how to split the Hamiltonian and which coordinate system to employ, and several options have been proposed in the literature. These choices lead to different integration errors, which we study analytically and numerically. The Wisdom-Holman method in Jacobi coordinates and the method of Hernandez, H16, compare favourably and avoid problems of some of the other maps, such as incorrect centre-of-mass position or truncation errors even in the one-planet case. We use H16 to compute the evolution of Pluto's orbital elements over 500 million years in a new calculation.

  18. New Discoveries in Planetary Systems and Star Formation through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    WGLA, AAS; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation (PSF) is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of solar system bodies (other than the Sun) and extrasolar planets, debris disks, exobiology, the formation of individual stars, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, molecular clouds and the cold ISM, dust, and astrochemistry. Central to the progress in these areas are the corresponding advances in laboratory astro- physics which are required for fully realizing the PSF scientific opportunities in the decade 2010-2020. Laboratory astrophysics comprises both theoretical and experimental studies of the underlying physics and chemistry which produce the observed spectra and describe the astrophysical processes. We discuss four areas of laboratory astrophysics relevant to the PSF panel: atomic, molecular, solid matter, and plasma physics. Section 2 describes some of the new opportunitie...

  19. Main-sequence progenitor configurations of the NN Ser candidate circumbinary planetary system are dynamically unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Mustill, Alexander J; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Davis, Philip J; Horner, Jonathan; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the NN Serpentis post-common envelope binary system have revealed eclipse timing variations that have been attributed to the presence of two Jovian-mass exoplanets. Under the assumption that these planets are real and survived from the binary's Main Sequence state, we reconstruct initial binaries that give rise to the present NN Ser configuration and test the dynamical stability of the original system. Under standard assumptions about binary evolution, we find that survival of the planets through the entire Main Sequence life-time is very unlikely. Hence, we conclude that the planets are not survivors from before the Common Envelope phase, implying that either they formed recently out of material ejected from the primary, or that the observed signals are of non-planetary origin.

  20. Planetary wave signatures in the equatorial atmosphere ionosphere system, and mesosphere- E- and F-region coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, M. A.; Ramkumar, T. K.; Batista, I. S.; Brum, C. G. M.; Takahashi, H.; Reinisch, B. W.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2006-02-01

    Upward transport of wave energy and momentum due to gravity, tidal and planetary waves from below and extra-tropics controls the phenomenology of the equatorial atmosphere ionosphere system. An important aspect of this phenomenology is the development of small- and large-scale structures including thin layers in the mesosphere and E-region, and the formation of wide spectrum plasma structures of the equatorial F-region, widely known as equatorial spread F/plasma bubble irregularities (that are known to have significant impact on space application systems based on trans-ionospheric radio waves propagation). It seems that the effects of tidal and gravity waves at mesospheric and thermospheric heights and their control of ionospheric densities, electric fields and currents are relatively better known than are the effects originating from vertical coupling due to planetary waves. Results from airglow, radar and ionospheric sounding observations demonstrate the existence of significant planetary wave influence on plasma parameters at E- and F-region heights over equatorial latitudes. We present and discuss here some results showing planetary wave oscillations in concurrent mesospheric winds and equatorial electrojet intensity variations in the Indian sector as well as in the mesospheric airglow and F-layer height variation in Brazil. Also presented are evidences of planetary wave-scale oscillations in equatorial evening pre-reversal electric field (F-region vertical drift) and their effects on equatorial spread F /plasma bubble irregularity development and day-to-day variability.

  1. The Great Escape III: Placing post-main-sequence evolution of planetary and binary systems in a Galactic context

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark C; Tout, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Our improving understanding of the life cycle of planetary systems prompts investigations of the role of the Galactic environment before, during and after Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stellar evolution. Here, we investigate the interplay between stellar mass loss, Galactic tidal perturbations, and stellar flybys for evolving stars which host one planet, smaller body or stellar binary companion and reside in the Milky Way's bulge or disc. We find that the potential evolutionary pathways from a main sequence (MS) to a white dwarf (WD) planetary system are a strong function of Galactocentric distance only with respect to the prevalence of stellar flybys. Planetary ejection and collision with the parent star should be more common towards the bulge. At a given location anywhere in the Galaxy, if the mass loss is adiabatic, then the secondary is likely to avoid close flybys during AGB evolution, and cannot eventually escape the resulting WD because of Galactic tides alone. Partly because AGB mass loss will shrink ...

  2. Spin-orbit misalignment in the HD 80606 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, F.; Hébrard, G.; Irwin, J. M.; Bouchy, F.; Moutou, C.; Ehrenreich, D.; Guillot, T.; Aigrain, S.; Bonfils, X.; Berta, Z.; Boisse, I.; Burke, C.; Charbonneau, D.; Delfosse, X.; Desort, M.; Eggenberger, A.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lovis, C.; Nutzman, P.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2009-08-01

    We recently reported the photometric and spectroscopic detection of the primary transit of the 111-day-period, eccentric extra-solar planet HD 80606b, at Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France. The whole egress of the primary transit and a section of its central part were observed, allowing the measurement of the planetary radius, and evidence for a spin-orbit misalignment through the observation of the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly. The ingress not having been observed for this long-duration transit, uncertainties remained in the parameters of the system. We present here a refined, combined analysis of our photometric and spectroscopic data, together with further published radial velocities, ground-based photometry, and Spitzer photometry around the secondary eclipse, as well as new photometric measurements of HD 80606 acquired at Mount Hopkins, Arizona, just before the beginning of the primary transit. Although the transit is not detected in those new data, they provide an upper limit for the transit duration, which narrows down the possible behaviour of the Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly in the unobserved part of the transit. We analyse the whole data with a Bayesian approach using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo integration on all available information. We find Rp = 0.98 ± 0.03 {R}_Jup for the planetary radius, and a total primary transit duration of 11.9 ± 1.3 h from first to fourth contact. Our analysis reinforces the hypothesis of spin-orbit misalignment in this system (alignment excluded at >95% level), with a positive projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation (median solution λ ˜ 50°). As HD 80606 is a component of a binary system, the peculiar orbit of its planet could result from a Kozai mechanism. Based on observations made with the 1.20-m and 1.93-m telescopes at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE consortium (program 07A.PNP.CONS), and with a 16-inch telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, USA, by the

  3. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  4. Light Scattering and Thermal Emission by Primitive Dust Particles in Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Li, Aigen; Lebreton, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on numerical approaches to deducing the light-scattering and thermal-emission properties of primitive dust particles in planetary systems from astronomical observations. The particles are agglomerates of small grains with sizes comparable to visible wavelength and compositions being mainly magnesium-rich silicates, iron-bearing metals, and organic refractory materials in pristine phases. These unique characteristics of primitive dust particles reflect their formation and evolution around main-sequence stars of essentially solar composition. The development of light-scattering theories has been offering powerful tools to make a thorough investigation of light scattering and thermal emission by primitive dust agglomerates in such a circumstellar environment. In particular, the discrete dipole approximation, the T-matrix method, and effective medium approximations are the most popular techniques for practical use in astronomy. Numerical simulations of light scattering and thermal emission by ...

  5. Conditions for the occurrence of mean-motion resonances in a low mass planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Papaloizou, John C B

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical interactions that occur in newly formed planetary systems may reflect the conditions occurring in the protoplanetary disk out of which they formed. With this in mind, we explore the attainment and maintenance of orbital resonances by migrating planets in the terrestrial mass range. Migration time scales varying between millions of years and thousands of years are considered. In the former case, for which the migration time is comparable to the lifetime of the protoplanetary gas disk, a 2:1 resonance may be formed. In the latter, relatively rapid migration regime commensurabilities of high degree such as 8:7 or 11:10 may be formed. However, in any one large-scale migration several different commensurabilities may be formed sequentially, each being associated with significant orbital evolution. We also use a simple analytic theory to develop conditions for first order commensurabilities to be formed. These depend on the degree of the commensurability, the imposed migration and circularization rate...

  6. Collision parameters governing water delivery and water loss in early planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maindl, Thomas I

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of encounter velocities and impact angles describing collisions in the habitable zone of the early planetary system. Here we present a catalogue of collision characteristics for a particular mass ratio of the colliding bodies and seven different planetesimal masses ranging from a tenth of Ceres' mass to 10 times the mass of the Moon. We show that there are virtually no collisions with impact speeds lower than the surface escape velocity and a similar velocity-impact angle distribution for different planetesimal masses if velocities are normalized using the escape velocity. An additional perturbing Jupiter-like object distorts the collision velocity and impact picture in the sense that grazing impacts at higher velocities are promoted if the perturber's orbit is close to the habitable zone whereas a more distant perturber has more the effect of a mere widening of the velocity dispersion.

  7. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  8. Using K2 to Investigate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Schlieder, Joshua E.; K2 CHAI Consortium

    2016-10-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the repurposed Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. Unlike the original Kepler mission, which stared at a single region of the sky for four years, K2 observes each field for a much shorter timespan of roughly 80 days. While planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars would be unlikely to transit even once during an 80-day interval, planets in the habitable zones of faint low-mass stars have much shorter orbital periods and may even transit multiple times during a single K2 campaign. Accordingly, M and K dwarfs are frequently nominated as K2 Guest Observer targets and K2 has already observed significantly more low-mass stars than the original Kepler mission. While the K2 data are therefore an enticing resource for studying the properties and frequency of planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars, many K2 target stars are not well-characterized and some candidate low-mass stars are actually giants or reddened Sun-like stars. We are improving the characterization of K2 planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars by using SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and TripleSpec on the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory to acquire near-infrared spectra of K2 target stars. We then employ empirically-based relations to determine the temperatures, radii, luminosities, and metallicities of K2 planet candidate host stars. Refining the stellar parameters allows us to identify astrophysical false positives and better constrain the radii and insolation flux environments of bona fide transiting planets. I will present our resulting catalog of stellar properties and discuss the prospects for using K2 data to investigate whether planet occurrence rates for mid-M dwarfs are similar to those for early-M and late-K dwarfs.

  9. Infrared sensor system using robotics technology for inter-planetary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Takano, Yousuke; Sano, Junpei; Iwase, Kaori; Kawakami, Satoko; Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Takada, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Infrared sensor system is a major concern for inter-planetary missions in order to investigate the nature and the formation processes of planets and asteroids. Since it takes long time for the communication of inter-planetary probes, automatic and autonomous functions are essential for provisioning observation sequence including the setup procedures of peripheral equipment. Robotics technology which has been adopted on HAYABUSA2 asteroid probe provides functions for setting up onboard equipment, sensor signal calibration, and post signal processing. HAYABUSA2 was launched successfully in 2014 for the exploration of C class near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999JU3). An optical navigation camera with telephoto lens (ONC-T), a thermal-infrared imager (TIR), and a near infrared spectrometer (NIRS3) have been developed for the observation of geology, thermo-physical properties, and organic or hydrated materials on the asteroid. ONC-T and TIR are used for those scientific purposes as well as assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface for sample acquisition. NIRS3 is used to characterize the mineralogy of the asteroid surface by observing the 3-micron band, where the particular diagnostic absorption features due to hydrated minerals appear. Modifications were required in order to apply robotics technology for the probe due to the difference of operation on satellites from robot operation environment. The major difference is time line consideration, because the standardized robotics operation software development system is based on event driven framework. The consistency between the framework of time line and event driven scheme was established for the automatic and autonomous operation for HAYABUSA2.

  10. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  11. Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Livo, K.E.; Kokaly, R.F.; Sutley, S.J.; Dalton, J.B.; McDougal, R.R.; Gent, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    millions of dollars and years in cleanup time. Imaging spectroscopy data and Tetracorder analysis can be used to study both terrestrial and planetary science problems. Imaging spectroscopy can be used to probe planetary systems, including their atmospheres, oceans, and land surfaces. U.S. copyright Published in 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Steve J.; Dalton, J. Brad; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2003-12-01

    millions of dollars and years in cleanup time. Imaging spectroscopy data and Tetracorder analysis can be used to study both terrestrial and planetary science problems. Imaging spectroscopy can be used to probe planetary systems, including their atmospheres, oceans, and land surfaces.

  13. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IV. A planetary system around XO-2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desidera, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Claudi, R. U.; Damasso, M.; Biazzo, K.; Sozzetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Benatti, S.; Gandolfi, D.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Nascimbeni, V.; Andreuzzi, G.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Bignamini, A.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Calcidese, P.; Christille, J. M.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Harutyunyan, A.; Latham, D.; Lattanzi, M.; Leto, G.; Lodato, G.; Lovis, C.; Maggio, A.; Malavolta, L.; Mancini, L.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Mordasini, C.; Munari, U.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Ribas, I.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Silvotti, R.; Southworth, J.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2014-07-01

    We performed an intensive radial velocity monitoring of XO-2S, the wide companion of the transiting planet-host XO-2N, using HARPS-N at TNG in the framework of the GAPS programme. The radial velocity measurements indicate the presence of a new planetary system formed by a planet that is slightly more massive than Jupiter at 0.48 au and a Saturn-mass planet at 0.13 au. Both planetary orbits are moderately eccentric and were found to be dynamically stable. There are also indications of a long-term trend in the radial velocities. This is the first confirmed case of a wide binary whose components both host planets, one of which is transiting, which makes the XO-2 system a unique laboratory for understanding the diversity of planetary systems. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC as part of the programme Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), and on observations made at Asiago, Serra La Nave, and Valle D'Aosta observatories.Table 2 and Fig. 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems: Cold Outer Disks Associated with Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J S; Backman, D E; Hillenbrand, L A; Meyer, M R; Rodmann, J; Moro-Martin, A; Carpenter, J M; Silverstone, M D; Bouwman, J; Mamajek, E E; Wolf, S; Malhotra, R; Pascucci, I; Najita, J; Padgett, D L; Henning, T; Brooke, T Y; Cohen, M; Strom, S E; Stobie, E B; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Misselt, K; Morrison, J E; Muzerolle, J; Su, K Y L; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Hines, Dean C.; Backman, Dana E.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Meyer, Michael R.; Rodmann, Jens; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Carpenter, John M.; Silverstone, Murray D.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Mamajek, Eric E.; Wolf, Sebastian; Malhotra, Renu; Pascucci, Ilaria; Najita, Joan; Padgett, Deborah L.; Henning, Thomas; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Cohen, Martin; Strom, Stephen E.; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, Karl; Morrison, Jane E.; Muzerolle, James; Su, Kate Y. L.

    2005-01-01

    We present the discovery of debris systems around three solar mass stars based upon observations performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of a Legacy Science Program, ``the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems'' (FEPS). We also confirm the presence of debris around two other stars. All the stars exhibit infrared emission in excess of the expected photospheres in the 70 micron band, but are consistent with photospheric emission at <= 33 micron. This restricts the maximum temperature of debris in equilibrium with the stellar radiation to T < 70 K. We find that these sources are relatively old in the FEPS sample, in the age range 0.7 - 3 Gyr. Based on models of the spectral energy distributions, we suggest that these debris systems represent materials generated by collisions of planetesimal belts. We speculate on the nature of these systems through comparisons to our own Kuiper Belt, and on the likely planet(s) responsible for stirring the system and ultimately releasing dust through coll...

  15. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  16. Resonances Required: Dynamical Analysis of the 24 Sex and HD 200964 Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Tinney, C G

    2012-01-01

    We perform several suites of highly detailed dynamical simulations to investigate the architectures of the 24 Sextantis and HD 200964 planetary systems. The best fit orbital solution for the two planets in the 24 Sex system places them on orbits with periods that lie very close to 2:1 commensurability, while that for the HD 200964 system places the two planets therein in orbits whose periods lie close to a 4:3 commensurability. In both cases, the proposed best-fit orbits are mutually crossing - a scenario that is only dynamically feasible if the planets are protected from close encounters by the effects of mutual mean motion resonance. Our simulations reveal that the best fit orbits for both systems lie within narrow islands of dynamical stability, and are surrounded by much larger regions of extreme instability. As such, we show that the planets are only feasible if they are currently trapped in mutual mean-motion resonance - the 2:1 resonance in the case of 24 Sex b and c, and the 4:3 resonance in the case ...

  17. A Dynamical Analysis of the Proposed Circumbinary HW Virginis Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Marshall, J P; Tinney, C G

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the discovery of two planets orbiting the evolved binary star system HW Virginis was announced, based on systematic variations in the timing of eclipses between the two stars. The planets invoked in that work were significantly more massive than Jupiter, and moved on orbits that were mutually crossing - an architecture which suggests that mutual encounters and strong gravitational interactions are almost guaranteed. In this work, we perform a highly detailed analysis of the proposed HW Vir planetary system. First, we consider the dynamical stability of the system as proposed in the discovery work. Through a mapping process involving 91,125 individual simulations, we find that the system is so unstable that the planets proposed simply cannot exist, due to mean lifetimes of less than a thousand years across the whole parameter space. We then present a detailed re-analysis of the observational data on HW Vir, deriving a new orbital solution that provides a very good fit to the observational data. Our ne...

  18. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems, I.: The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry (NRM) on the Keck-II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of 0.4; we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6 sigma deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a_cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S_bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside a_cut = 47 +59/-23 AU, the planet occurrence rate in...

  19. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  20. A unique basaltic micrometeorite expands the inventory of solar system planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Engrand, Cécile; Zolensky, Michael E.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    Micrometeorites with diameter ≈100–200 μm dominate the flux of extraterrestrial matter on Earth. The vast majority of micrometeorites are chemically, mineralogically, and isotopically related to carbonaceous chondrites, which amount to only 2.5% of meteorite falls. Here, we report the discovery of the first basaltic micrometeorite (MM40). This micrometeorite is unlike any other basalt known in the solar system as revealed by isotopic data, mineral chemistry, and trace element abundances. The discovery of a new basaltic asteroidal surface expands the solar system inventory of planetary crusts and underlines the importance of micrometeorites for sampling the asteroids' surfaces in a way complementary to meteorites, mainly because they do not suffer dynamical biases as meteorites do. The parent asteroid of MM40 has undergone extensive metamorphism, which ended no earlier than 7.9 Myr after solar system formation. Numerical simulations of dust transport dynamics suggest that MM40 might originate from one of the recently discovered basaltic asteroids that are not members of the Vesta family. The ability to retrieve such a wealth of information from this tiny (a few micrograms) sample is auspicious some years before the launch of a Mars sample return mission. PMID:19366660

  1. A new paradigm for reproducing and analyzing N-body simulations of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Hanno; Tamayo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is one of the main principles of the scientific method. However, numerical N-body experiments, especially those of planetary systems, are currently not reproducible. In the most optimistic scenario, they can only be replicated in an approximate or statistical sense. Even if authors share their full source code and initial conditions, differences in compilers, libraries, operating systems or hardware often lead to qualitatively different results. We provide a new set of easy-to-use, open-source tools that address the above issues, allowing for exact (bit-by-bit) reproducibility of N-body experiments. In addition to generating completely reproducible integrations, we show that our framework also offers novel and innovative ways to analyze these simulations. As an example, we present a high-accuracy integration of the Solar System spanning 10 Gyrs, requiring several weeks to run on a modern CPU. In our framework we can not only easily access simulation data at predefined intervals for which we save snapshots, but at any time during the integration. We achieve this by integrating an on-demand reconstructed simulation forward in time from the nearest snapshot. This allows us to extract arbitrary quantities at any point in the saved simulation exactly (bit-by-bit), and within seconds rather than weeks. We believe that the tools we present in this paper offer a new paradigm for how N-body simulations are run, analyzed, and shared across the community.

  2. Long-term orbital stability of exosolar planetary systems with highly eccentric orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many extrasolar planetary systems possessing at least one planet on a highly eccentric orbit have been discovered. In this work, we study the possible long-term stability of such systems. We consider the general three body problem as our model. Highly eccentric orbits are out of the Hill stability regions. However, mean motion resonances can provide phase protection and orbits with long-term stability exist. We construct maps of dynamical stability based on the computation of chaotic indicators and we figure out regions in phase space, where the long-term stability is guaranteed. We focus on regions where at least one planet is highly eccentric and attempt to associate them with the existence of stable periodic orbits. The values of the orbital elements, which are derived from observational data, are often given with very large deviations. Generally, phase space regions of high eccentricities are narrow and thus, our dynamical analysis may restrict considerably the valid domain of the system's locat...

  3. Long-term orbital stability of exosolar planetary systems with highly eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Voyatzis, George

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, many extrasolar planetary systems possessing at least one planet on a highly eccentric orbit have been discovered. In this work, we study the possible long-term stability of such systems. We consider the general three body problem as our model. Highly eccentric orbits are out of the Hill stability regions. However, mean motion resonances can provide phase protection and orbits with long-term stability exist. We construct maps of dynamical stability based on the computation of chaotic indicators and we figure out regions in phase space, where the long-term stability is guaranteed. We focus on regions where at least one planet is highly eccentric and attempt to associate them with the existence of stable periodic orbits. The values of the orbital elements, which are derived from observational data, are often given with very large deviations. Generally, phase space regions of high eccentricities are narrow and thus, our dynamical analysis may restrict considerably the valid domain of the system's location.

  4. Planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal

    2016-01-01

    We examine the images of hundreds of planetary nebulae (PNe) and find that about one in six PNe might have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar progenitor. For resolved images we classify PNe by one of four categories. (1) PNe that show no need for a tertiary star to account for their morphology. (2) PNe whose structure posses a pronounced departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry. We classify these as `having a triple stellar progenitor'. (3) PNe whose morphology possesses departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror-symmetry, but not as pronounced as in the previous class, and are classified as `likely shaped by triple stellar system'. (4) PNe with minor departure from axial-symmetry and/or mirror symmetry that could have been as well caused by an eccentric binary system or the inter-stellar medium. These are classified as `maybe shaped by a triple stellar system'. Given a weight eta_t=1, eta_l=0.67, eta_m=0.33 to classes 2, 3 and 4, respectively, we find that about 13 - 21% of PNe have be...

  5. Revisiting the proposed planetary system orbiting the eclipsing polar HU Aquarii

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenmyer, Robert A; Marshall, J P; Butters, O W; Tinney, C G

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been proposed, on the basis of eclipse-timing data, that the eclipsing polar cataclysmic variable HU Aquarii is host to at least two giant planets. However, that result has been called into question based upon the dynamical stability of the proposed planets. In this work, we present a detailed re-analysis of all eclipse timing data available for the HU Aquarii system, making use of standard techniques used to fit orbits to radial-velocity data. We find that the eclipse timings can be used to obtain a two-planet solution that does not require the presence of additional bodies within the system. We then perform a highly detailed dynamical analysis of the proposed planetary system. We show that the improved orbital parameters we have derived correspond to planets that are dynamically unstable on unfeasibly short timescales (of order 10^4 years or less). Given these results, we discuss briefly how the observed signal might in fact be the result of the intrinsic properties of the eclipsing polar, r...

  6. A unique basaltic micrometeorite expands the inventory of solar system planetary crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Engrand, Cécile; Zolensky, Michael E; McKeegan, Kevin D

    2009-04-28

    Micrometeorites with diameter approximately 100-200 microm dominate the flux of extraterrestrial matter on Earth. The vast majority of micrometeorites are chemically, mineralogically, and isotopically related to carbonaceous chondrites, which amount to only 2.5% of meteorite falls. Here, we report the discovery of the first basaltic micrometeorite (MM40). This micrometeorite is unlike any other basalt known in the solar system as revealed by isotopic data, mineral chemistry, and trace element abundances. The discovery of a new basaltic asteroidal surface expands the solar system inventory of planetary crusts and underlines the importance of micrometeorites for sampling the asteroids' surfaces in a way complementary to meteorites, mainly because they do not suffer dynamical biases as meteorites do. The parent asteroid of MM40 has undergone extensive metamorphism, which ended no earlier than 7.9 Myr after solar system formation. Numerical simulations of dust transport dynamics suggest that MM40 might originate from one of the recently discovered basaltic asteroids that are not members of the Vesta family. The ability to retrieve such a wealth of information from this tiny (a few micrograms) sample is auspicious some years before the launch of a Mars sample return mission.

  7. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Meuller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This NIAC project investigated an innovative approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. Such in situ developed heat shields have been suggested before by Lewis. Prior research efforts have shown that regolith properties can be compatible with very-high temperature resistance. Our project team is highly experienced in regolith processing and thermal protection systems (TPS). Routine access to space and return from any planetary surface requires dealing with heat loads experienced by the spacecraft during reentry. Our team addresses some of the key issues with the EDL of human-scale missions through a highly innovative investigation of heat shields that can be fabricated in space by using local resources on asteroids and moons. Most space missions are one-way trips, dedicated to placing an asset in space for economical or scientific gain. However, for human missions, a very-reliable heat-shield system is necessary to protect the crew from the intense heat experienced at very high entry velocities of approximately 11 km/s at approximately Mach 33 (Apollo). For a human mission to Mars, the return problem is even more difficult, with predicted velocities of up to 14 km/s, at approximately Mach 42 at the Earth-atmosphere entry. In addition to human return, it is very likely that future space-travel architecture will include returning cargo to the Earth, either for scientific purposes or for commercial reasons

  8. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  9. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  10. SP-100 planetary mission/system preliminary design study. Final report, technical information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M. [ed.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains a discussion on many aspects of a nuclear electric propulsion planetary science mission and spacecraft using the proposed SP-100 nuclear power subsystem. A review of the science rationale for such missions is included. A summary of eleven nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions is presented. A conceptual science payload, mission design, and spacecraft design is included for the Saturn Ring Rendezvous mission. Spacecraft and mission costs have been estimated for two potential sequences of nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions. The integration issues and requirements on the proposed SP-100 power subsystems are identified.

  11. The Planetary Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  12. Planetary boundary layer (PBL) monitoring by means of two laser radar systems: experimental results and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Serafini, C.; Ventura, P.

    2010-10-01

    The PBL is the lower layer of the atmosphere that is sensitive to the effect of the Earths surface, it controls the flow of heat and momentum between the surface and the free atmosphere, thus playing a key role in atmospheric circulation. At University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Quantum Electronic and Plasma Laboratories (EQP), two mobile Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems have been developed. With these systems the monitoring of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) has been performed. The first mobile Lidar system is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG Q-Switched laser source operating at three wavelengths: 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. Acquiring the elastic backscattered signals, it has been possible to estimate the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient at the aim to reconstruct the vertical aerosol profiles. The second one is a Differential Absorption Lidar system (DIAL), composed by a CO2 laser, working in the window spectral range between 9 and 11μm. With this system it has been estimated the water vapour concentration in the PBL region using the two wavelengths 10R20 (10.591 μm) and 10R18 (10.571 μm), which represent, respectively, the absorbing wavelength and non-absorbing one of the water molecule. The comparison of the backscattered radiation at these wavelengths yields the trace gas number density as a function of distance along the field-of-view of the receiving telescope. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements have been performed simultaneity using the two Lidar/Dial systems. Vertical profiles of the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient and water vapour concentration profiles have been estimated. The results and their comparison will be present in this work.

  13. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disks damping effects

    CERN Document Server

    Picogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected to affect the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by an hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is in fact comparable to circumstellar disk's lifetime. We have modelled in 3D a system made of a solar type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star, of similar mass and with its own disk. We focus on extreme configurations where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar fly...

  14. Physical properties of the WASP-67 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Ciceri, S; Novati, S Calchi; Dominik, M; Henning, Th; Jorgensen, U G; Korhonen, H; Nikolov, N; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; D'Ago, G; Jaimes, R Figuera; Galianni, P; Gu, S -H; Harpsoe, K; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Kains, N; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Street, R; Surdej, J; Tsapras, Y; Vilela, C; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O

    2014-01-01

    The extrasolar planet WASP-67 b is the first hot Jupiter definitively known to undergo only partial eclipses. The lack of the second and third contact point in this planetary system makes it difficult to obtain accurate measurements of its physical parameters. Aims. By using new high-precision photometric data, we confirm that WASP-67 b shows grazing eclipses and compute accurate estimates of the physical properties of the planet and its parent star. Methods. We present high-quality, multi-colour, broad-band photometric observations comprising five light curves covering two transit events, obtained using two medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. One transit was observed through a Bessel-R filter and the other simultaneously through filters similar to Sloan griz. We modelled these data using jktebop. The physical parameters of the system were obtained from the analysis of these light curves and from published spectroscopic measurements. Results. All five of our light curves satisfy t...

  15. Constraints of the gravitational Local Position Invariance from Solar System planetary precessions

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism, we calculate the long-term Preferred Location (PL) effects, proportional to the Whitehead parameter \\xi, affecting all the Keplerian orbital elements of a localized two-body system, apart from the semimajor axis a. They violate the gravitational Local Position Invariance (LPI), fulfilled by General Relativity (GR). We constrain \\xi by using the latest results in the field of the Solar System planetary ephemerides. The non-detection of any anomalous perihelion precession for Mars allows us to indirectly infer |\\xi| <= 5.8 x 10^-6. The ratio of the anomalous perihelion precessions for Venus and Jupiter, preliminarily determined with the EPM2011 ephemerides at the < 3\\sigma level, if confirmed as genuine physical effects needing explanation by future studies, rules out the hypothesis \\xi not equal to 0. A critical discussion of the |\\xi| <= 10^-6-10^-7 upper bounds obtained in the literature from the close alignment of the Sun's spin ...

  16. Stellar rotation-planetary orbit period commensurability in the HAT-P-11 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Béky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Kipping, David M., E-mail: bbeky@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    A number of planet host stars have been observed to rotate with a period equal to an integer multiple of the orbital period of their close planet. We expand this list by analyzing Kepler data of HAT-P-11 and finding a period ratio of 6:1. In particular, we present evidence for a long-lived spot on the stellar surface that is eclipsed by the planet in the same position four times, every sixth transit. We also identify minima in the out-of-transit light curve and confirm that their phase with respect to the stellar rotation is mostly stationary for the 48 month time frame of the observations, confirming the proposed rotation period. For comparison, we apply our methods to Kepler-17 and confirm the findings of Bonomo and Lanza that the period ratio is not exactly 8:1 in that system. Finally, we provide a hypothesis on how interactions between a star and its planet could possibly result in an observed commensurability for systems where the stellar differential rotation profile happens to include a period at some latitude that is commensurable to the planetary orbit.

  17. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - II. The transiting planetary system WASP-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M. J.;

    2009-01-01

    We present and analyse light curves of four transits of the Southern hemisphere extrasolar planetary system WASP-4, obtained with a telescope defocused so the radius of each point spread function was 17 arcsec (44 pixels). This approach minimizes both random and systematic errors, allowing us...... to achieve scatters of between 0.60 and 0.88 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The light curves are augmented by published observations and analysed using the JKTEBOP code. The results of this process are combined with theoretical stellar model predictions to derive the physical properties...... of the WASP-4 system. We find that the mass and radius of the planet are Mb = 1.289+0.090-0.090+0.039-0.000MJup and Rb = 1.371+0.032-0.035+0.021-0.000RJup, respectively (statistical and systematic uncertainties). These quantities give a surface gravity and density of gb = 17.03+0.97-0.54ms-2 and ρb = 0...

  18. Empirical evidence for tidal spin-up in transiting planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Most transiting planets orbit very close to their parent star, causing strong tidal forces between the two bodies. Tidal interaction can modify the dynamics of the system through orbital alignment, circularisation and synchronisation, and orbital decay by exchange of angular moment. Evidence for tidal circularisation in close-in giant planet is well-known. Here we review the evidence for tidal spin-up of the parent stars due to the pull of tidal forces towards spin-orbit synchronisation. We find suggestive empirical evidence for such a process in the present sample of transiting planetary systems. The corresponding angular momentum exchange would imply that some planets have spiralled towards their star by substantial amounts since the dissipation of the protoplanetary disc. We show that this could quantitatively account for the observed mass-period relation of close-in gas giants. Finally, we discuss how this scenario can be further tested and point out some consequences for theoretical studies of tidal inte...

  19. A Planetary System Exploration Project for Introductory Astronomy and Astrobiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    I have created three-part projects for the introductory astronomy and astrobiology courses at Westfield State University which simulate the exploration of a fictional planetary system. The introductory astronomy project is an initial reconnaissance of the system by a robotic spacecraft, culminating in close flybys of two or three planets. The astrobiology project is a follow-up mission concluding with the landing of a roving lander on a planet or moon. Student responses in earlier parts of each project can be used to determine which planets are targeted for closer study in later parts. Highly realistic views of the planets from space and from their surfaces can be created using programs such as Celestia and Terragen; images and video returned by the spacecraft are thus a highlight of the project. Although designed around the particular needs and mechanics of the introductory astronomy and astrobiology courses for non-majors at WSU, these projects could be adapted for use in courses at many different levels.

  20. Super Earths and Dynamical Stability of Planetary Systems: First Parallel GPU Simulations Using GENGA

    CERN Document Server

    Elser, S; Stadel, J G

    2013-01-01

    We report on the stability of hypothetical Super-Earths in the habitable zone of known multi-planetary systems. Most of them have not yet been studied in detail concerning the existence of additional low-mass planets. The new N-body code GENGA developed at the UZH allows us to perform numerous N-body simulations in parallel on GPUs. With this numerical tool, we can study the stability of orbits of hypothetical planets in the semi-major axis and eccentricity parameter space in high resolution. Massless test particle simulations give good predictions on the extension of the stable region and show that HIP 14180 and HD 37124 do not provide stable orbits in the habitable zone. Based on these simulations, we carry out simulations of 10 Earth mass planets in several systems (HD 11964, HD 47186, HD 147018, HD 163607, HD 168443, HD 187123, HD 190360, HD 217107 and HIP 57274). They provide more exact information about orbits at the location of mean motion resonances and at the edges of the stability zones. Beside the ...

  1. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    term (e.g., solar cycle) evolution of space climate. Capable instrumentation on planetary missions can and should be planned to contribute to knowledge of interplanetary space environments. Evolving data system technologies such as virtual observatories should be explored for more interdisciplinary application to the science of planetary surface, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and interplanetary interactions.

  2. Early Solar System Bombardment: Exploring the Echos of Planetary Migration and Lost Ice Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William

    2017-01-01

    Heavily cratered surfaces on the Moon, Mars, Mercury show the terrestrial planets were battered by an intense bombardment during their first billion years or more, but the timing, sources, and dynamical implications of these impacts are controversial. The Late Heavy Bombardment refers to impact events that occurred after stabilization of planetary lithospheres such that they could be preserved as craters. Lunar melt rocks and meteorite shock ages point toward a discrete episode of elevated impact flux between ~3.5 to ~4.2 Ga and a relative quiescence between ~4.0-4.2 to ~4.4 Ga. Evidence from Precambrian impact spherule layers suggest a long-lived tail of terrestrial impactors lasted to ~2.0-2.5 Ga.Dynamical models that include populations residual from primary accretion and destabilized by giant planet migration can potentially account for observations, although all have pros and cons. The most parsimonious solution to match constraints is a hybrid model with discrete early, post-accretion and later, planetary instability-driven impactor populations.For the latter, giant planet instability models can successfully reproduce the orbits of the giant planets, the origin/properties of Jupiter/Neptune Trojans, irregular satellites, the structure of the main asteroid and Kuiper belts, and the presence of comet-like bodies in the main belt, Hilda, and Trojan asteroid populations. The best solutions, however, postulate there were once five giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, and three ice giants, one that was eventually ejected out of the Solar System by a Jupiter encounter. Intriguing evidence for this “lost” ice giant planet can be found in the orbital properties of bodies captured in the main asteroid belt.The applicability of giant planet instabilities to exoplanet systems seems likely, with the initial configuration of giant planet orbits a byproduct of their early migration and subsequent capture into mutual mean motion resonances. The question is how long can a

  3. The radial dependence of pebble accretion rates: a source of diversity in planetary systems I. Analytical formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Shigeru; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Context. The classical "planetesimal" accretion scenario for the formation of planets has recently evolved with the idea that "pebbles", centimeter- to meter-sized icy grains migrating in protoplanetary disks, can control planetesimal and/or planetary growth. Aims. We investigate how pebble accretion depends on disk properties and affects the formation of planetary systems Methods. We construct analytical models of pebble accretion onto planetary embryos that consistently account for the mass and orbital evolution of the pebble flow and reflect disk structure. Results. We derive simple formulas for pebble accretion rates in the so-called "settling" regime for planetary embryos with more than 100 km in size. For relatively smaller embryos or in outer disk regions, the accretion mode is 3D, meaning that the thickness of the pebble flow must be taken into account, and resulting in an accretion rate that is independent of the embryo mass. For larger embryos or in inner regions, the accretion is in a 2D mode, i.e....

  4. Detection and Localization of Tooth Breakage Fault on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear System considering Gear Manufacturing Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidebands of vibration spectrum are sensitive to the fault degree and have been proved to be useful for tooth fault detection and localization. However, the amplitude and frequency modulation due to manufacturing errors (which are inevitable in actual planetary gear system lead to much more complex sidebands. Thus, in the paper, a lumped parameter model for a typical planetary gear system with various types of errors is established. In the model, the influences of tooth faults on time-varying mesh stiffness and tooth impact force are derived analytically. Numerical methods are then utilized to obtain the response spectra of the system with tooth faults with and without errors. Three system components (including sun, planet, and ring gears with tooth faults are considered in the discussion, respectively. Through detailed comparisons of spectral sidebands, fault characteristic frequencies of the system are acquired. Dynamic experiments on a planetary gear-box test rig are carried out to verify the simulation results and these results are of great significances for the detection and localization of tooth faults in wind turbines.

  5. Outer-planet scattering can gently tilt an inner planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratia, Pierre; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Chaotic dynamics are expected during and after planet formation, and a leading mechanism to explain large eccentricities of gas giant exoplanets is planet-planet gravitational scattering. The same scattering has been invoked to explain misalignments of planetary orbital planes with respect to their host star's spin. However, an observational puzzle is presented by Kepler-56, which has two inner planets (b and c) that are nearly coplanar with each other, yet are more than 45° inclined to their star's equator. Thus, the spin-orbit misalignment might be primordial. Instead, we further develop the hypothesis in the discovery paper, that planets on wider orbits generated misalignment through scattering, and as a result gently torqued the inner planets away from the equator plane of the star. We integrated the equations of motion for Kepler-56 b and c along with an unstable outer system initialized with either two or three Jupiter-mass planets. We address here whether the violent scattering that generates large mutual inclinations can leave the inner system intact, tilting it gently. In almost all of the cases initially with two outer planets, either the inner planets remain nearly coplanar with each other in the star's equator plane, or they are scattered violently to high mutual inclination and high spin-orbit misalignment. On the contrary, of the systems with three unstable outer planets, a spin-orbit misalignment large enough to explain the observations is generated 28 per cent of the time for coplanar inner planets, which is consistent with the observed frequency of this phenomenon reported so far. We conclude that multiple-planet scattering in the outer parts of the system may account for this new population of coplanar planets hosted by oblique stars.

  6. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE υ ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G., E-mail: deitrr@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The υ Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ∼30°, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ∼8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M {sub Jup} and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25°. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ({sup p}hase curve{sup )}, our results imply that planet b's radius is ∼1.8 R {sub Jup}, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10{sup 19} W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations.

  7. Outer-planet scattering can gently tilt an inner planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Gratia, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic dynamics are expected during and after planet formation, and a leading mechanism to explain large eccentricities of gas giant exoplanets is planet-planet gravitational scattering. The same scattering has been invoked to explain misalignments of planetary orbital planes with respect to their host star's spin. However, an observational puzzle is presented by Kepler-56, which has two inner planets (b and c) that are nearly coplanar with each other, yet are more than 45 degrees inclined to their star's equator. Thus the spin-orbit misalignment might be primordial. Instead, we further develop the hypothesis in the discovery paper, that planets on wider orbits generated misalignment through scattering, and as a result gently torqued the inner planets away from the equator plane of the star. We integrated the equations of motion for Kepler-56 b and c along with an unstable outer system initialized with either two or three Jupiter-mass planets. We address here whether the violent scattering that generates lar...

  8. Fast and reliable symplectic integration for planetary system N-body problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David M.

    2016-06-01

    We apply one of the exactly symplectic integrators, which we call HB15, of Hernandez & Bertschinger, along with the Kepler problem solver of Wisdom & Hernandez, to solve planetary system N-body problems. We compare the method to Wisdom-Holman (WH) methods in the MERCURY software package, the MERCURY switching integrator, and others and find HB15 to be the most efficient method or tied for the most efficient method in many cases. Unlike WH, HB15 solved N-body problems exhibiting close encounters with small, acceptable error, although frequent encounters slowed the code. Switching maps like MERCURY change between two methods and are not exactly symplectic. We carry out careful tests on their properties and suggest that they must be used with caution. We then use different integrators to solve a three-body problem consisting of a binary planet orbiting a star. For all tested tolerances and time steps, MERCURY unbinds the binary after 0 to 25 years. However, in the solutions of HB15, a time-symmetric HERMITE code, and a symplectic Yoshida method, the binary remains bound for >1000 years. The methods' solutions are qualitatively different, despite small errors in the first integrals in most cases. Several checks suggest that the qualitative binary behaviour of HB15's solution is correct. The Bulirsch-Stoer and Radau methods in the MERCURY package also unbind the binary before a time of 50 years, suggesting that this dynamical error is due to a MERCURY bug.

  9. Physical properties of the HAT-P-23 and WASP-48 planetary systems from multi-colour photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; Bruni, I; Nikolov, N; D'Ago, G; Schroeder, T; Bozza, V; Tregloan-Reed, J; Henning, Th

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and repeated photometric follow-up observations of planetary-transit events are important to precisely characterize the physical properties of exoplanets. A good knowledge of the main characteristics of the exoplanets is fundamental to trace their origin and evolution. Multi-band photometric observations play an important role in this process. By using new photometric data, we computed precise estimates of the physical properties of two transiting planetary systems. We present new broad-band, multi-colour, photometric observations obtained using three small class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. For each of the two targets, one transit event was simultaneously observed through four optical filters. One transit of WASP-48 b was monitored with two telescopes from the same observatory. The physical parameters of the systems were obtained by fitting the transit light curves with {\\sc jktebop} and from published spectroscopic measurements. We have revised the physical parameters of the ...

  10. The formation and evolution of planetary systems: Grain growth and chemical processing of dust in T Tauri systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwman, J; Hillenbrand, L A; Meyer, M R; Pascucci, I; Carpenter, J; Hines, D; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Hollenbach, D; Wolf, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper is one in a series presenting results obtained within the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Legacy Science Program on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Here we present a study of dust processing and growth in seven protoplanetary disks. Our spectra indicate that the circumstellar silicate dust grains have grown to sizes at least 10 times larger than observed in the interstellar medium, and show evidence for a non-negligible (~5 % in mass fractions) contribution from crystalline species. These results are similar to those of other studies of protoplanetary disks. In addition, we find a correlation between the strength of the amorphous silicate feature and the shape of the spectral energy distribution. This latter result is consistent with the growth and subsequent gravitational settling of dust grains towards the disk mid-plane. Further, we find a change in the relative abundance of the different crystalline species: more enstatite relative to forsterite is observed in the inner warm du...

  11. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe, Bruno; Spilker, Linda J.; Anderson, John D.; André, Nicolas; Asmar, Sami W.; Aurnou, Jonathan; Banfield, Don; Barucci, Antonella; Bertolami, Orfeu; Bingham, Robert; Brown, Patrick; Cecconi, Baptiste; Courty, Jean-Michel; Dittus, Hansjörg; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2011-01-01

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere a...

  12. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Molliere, P; Southworth, J; Brahm, R; Ciceri, S; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multi-band photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g,r,i,z), using the telescope-defocussing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, Fe/H]=-0.49, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H]=-0.60. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multi-band light curves were used to cons...

  13. Chemical Clues on the Formation of Planetary Systems: C/O vs Mg/Si for HARPS GTO Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Elisa Delgado; González-Hernández, Jonay I; Bond, Jade C; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stephane; Mayor, Mayor

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that C/O and Mg/Si are the most important elemental ratios in determining the mineralogy of terrestrial planets. The C/O ratio controls the distribution of Si among carbide and oxide species, while Mg/Si gives information about the silicate mineralogy. We present a detailed and uniform study of C, O, Mg and Si abundances for 61 stars with detected planets and 270 stars without detected planets from the homogeneous high-quality unbiased HARPS GTO sample, together with 39 more planet-host stars from other surveys. We determine these important mineralogical ratios and investigate the nature of the possible terrestrial planets that could have formed in those planetary systems. We find mineralogical ratios quite different from those of the Sun, showing that there is a wide variety of planetary systems which are not similar to Solar System. Many of planetary host stars present a Mg/Si value lower than 1, so their planets will have a high Si content to form species such as MgSiO$_{3}$. Th...

  14. Habitable Zones for Earth-Like Planets in the 47UMa Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Lin

    The Habitable zones are usually believed to be appropriate environment for terrestrial planets that can provide the liquid-water, subtle temperature, atmosphere components of CO2, H2O, and N2 [Kasting et al., Icarus 101 (1993) 108], supporting the development and biological evolution of life on their surfaces. In this work [see an accompanied paper, Ji et al., Astrophysical Journal 631 (2005) 1191 for details], we investigated the dynamical architecture of 47 UMa with the planetary configuration of the best-fit orbital solutions by Fischer et al. [Astrophysical Journal 586 (2003) 1394], to study the existence of the Earth-like planets in the region for 0.05 AU ≤ a ≤ 2.0 AU for 47 UMa by numerical simulations. In the study, we found that the “hot Earths” at 0.05 AU ≤ a ≤ 0.4 AU can dynamically survive at least for 1 Myr. The Earth-like planets can eventually remain in the system for 10 Myr at the areas involved in mean motion resonance (MMR) (e.g., 3:2 MMR and 9:5 MMR) with the inner companion. Moreover, we showed that the 2:1 and 3:1 resonances could be marginally stable, but the 5:2 MMR is unstable. In a dynamical sense, we point out that the most possible candidate habitable environment is that the Earth-like planets may bear the orbits of 0.8 AU ≤ a ≤ 1.0 AU and 1.0 AU ≤ a ≤ 1.30 AU (except 5:2 MMR) for relatively lower eccentricities. We also conducted similar studies in other multi-planet systems and found the potential existence of the Earth-like planets in habitable zones.

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  16. Microalgae as part of the autotrophic component of life support systems for future planetary bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita

    Research and development of human life support systems incorporating biospheric components performed in the USSR and Russia for over 50 years resulted in a well- structured and rational step-by-step approach to this area of activities. The development of biological life support systems (BLSS) was based on the theory of biocenology advanced by V.N. Sukachev, according to which organic matter turnover is a result of combined activities of plants, animals and microorganisms. Hence, a BLSS with its semi-closed matter turnover needs to incorporate all the components of natural ecosystems, i.e., plants (photoautotrophic organisms), animals, including humans, and microorganisms (heterotrophic organisms). The photoautotrophic component of the BLSS designed to support humans should meet a number of specific requirements, the most important of which are: - high productivity - stability of functional parameters within their normal fluctuation ranges - compatibility with other system components to preclude additional load on them - minimum of un-utilizable compounds in the material balance of the component. The photosynthetic component may consist of lower and higher plants, which may function separately or jointly. In either case, microalgae will play a key role, as they do on Earth, in the production of organic compounds and oxygen as well as in the support of BLSS reliability. The construction of a planetary base begins with the assembly of major engineering facilities whereas the construction of a BLSS starts after the assembly is complete and the base interior is fully separated from the outside environment. At early stages of base operation the autotrophic component of the system will consist of algae alone, which will provide photosynthetic regeneration of air and water. At later stages the autotrophic component will progress from lower to higher plants; when the greenhouses reach adequate sizes, higher plants will occupy the major portion of the autotrophic component

  17. Revisiting a gravity-darkened and precessing planetary system PTFO 8-8695: spin-orbit non-synchronous case

    CERN Document Server

    Kamiaka, Shoya; Xue, Yuxin; Suto, Yasushi; Nishioka, Tsubasa; Murakami, Risa; Inayama, Koichiro; Saitoh, Madoka; Tanaka, Michisuke; Yonehara, Atsunori

    2015-01-01

    We reanalyse the time-variable lightcurves of the transiting planetary system PTFO 8-8695, in which a planet of 3 to 4 Jupiter mass orbits around a rapidly rotating pre-main-sequence star. Both the planetary orbital period of 0.448 days and the stellar spin period less than 0.671 days are unusually short, which makes PTFO 8-8695 an ideal system to check the model of gravity darkening and nodal precession. While the previous analysis of PTFO 8-8695 assumed that the stellar spin and planetary orbital periods are the same, we extend the analysis by discarding the spin-orbit synchronous condition, and find three different classes of solutions roughly corresponding to the nodal precession periods of 199$\\pm$16, 475$\\pm$21, and 827$\\pm$53 days that reproduce the transit lightcurves observed in 2009 and 2010. We compare the predicted lightcurves of the three solutions against the photometry data of a few percent accuracy obtained at Koyama Astronomical Observatory in 2014 and 2015, and find that the solution with th...

  18. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-05-23

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level.

  19. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level.

  20. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  1. On the Abundance of Water in Extrasolar Planetary Systems as a Function of Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The discovery, to date, of several hundred confirmed extra solar planets and a statistical analysis of their properties has revealed intriguing patterns in the abundance and types of extrasolar planets. The metallicity of the host star appears to be a driver in determining extrasolar planetary system characteristics, although a mechanistic understanding of these relationships is not currently available. Understanding the broad relationship(s) between the characteristics of extrasolar planets and stellar metallicity thus appears timely.Recent work examining the timescales for water production in protoplanetary disks suggest that ionizing radiation required to drive surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks is insufficient and production timescales too slow to account for a significant amount of water in protoplanetary disks. Here we focus on the timescales for water production in cold molecular clouds and examine the relationship of this timescale as a function of molecular cloud metallicity. To do this, we consider the distribution of surface area concentration (dA/dV) in molecular clouds as a function of their metallicity and various MRN-like dust grain size distributions. We find that molecular cloud metallicity is a significant factor in determining upper-limits to the availability of water in molecular clouds and by extension, protoplanetary disks. The spectral index of the MRN distribution affects the upper-limits to H2O abundance, but the effect is not as significant as metallicity. We find that the ratio of H2O/SiO2 produced in a molecular cloud of solar metallicity can easily account for Earth’s present day ratio , supporting the “wet” hypothesis for the origins of Earth’s water. Future studies will focus on the retention of water on interstellar dust grain surfaces in protoplanetary disk environments inside the water line, the abundance of other volatile species, more detailed estimates of H2O destruction timescales in molecular clouds, and

  2. Comets as a possible source of nanodust in the Solar System cloud and in planetary debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid

    2017-05-01

    Comets, comet-like objects and their fragments are the most plausible source for the dust in both the inner heliosphere and planetary debris discs around other stars. The smallest size of dust particles in debris discs is not known and recent observational results suggest that the size distribution of the dust extends down to sizes of a few nanometres or a few tens of nanometres. In the Solar System, electric field measurements from spacecraft observe events that are explained with high-velocity impacts of nanometre-sized dust. In some planetary debris discs an observed mid- to near-infrared emission supposedly results from hot dust located in the vicinity of the star. And the observed emission is characteristic of dust of sizes a few tens of nanometres. Rosetta observations, on the other hand, provide little information on the presence of nanodust near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This article describes why this is not in contradiction to the observations of nanodust in the heliosphere and in planetary debris discs. The direct ejection of nanodust from the nucleus of the comet would not contribute significantly to the observed nanodust fluxes. We discuss a scenario that nanodust forms in the interplanetary dust cloud through the high-velocity collision process in the interplanetary medium for which the production rates are highest near the Sun. Likewise, fragmentation by collisions occurs near the star in planetary debris discs. The collisional fragmentation process in the inner Solar System occurs at similar velocities to those of the collisional evolution in the interstellar medium. A question for future studies is whether there is a common magic size of the smallest collision fragments and what determines this size. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  3. Comets as a possible source of nanodust in the Solar System cloud and in planetary debris discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid

    2017-07-13

    Comets, comet-like objects and their fragments are the most plausible source for the dust in both the inner heliosphere and planetary debris discs around other stars. The smallest size of dust particles in debris discs is not known and recent observational results suggest that the size distribution of the dust extends down to sizes of a few nanometres or a few tens of nanometres. In the Solar System, electric field measurements from spacecraft observe events that are explained with high-velocity impacts of nanometre-sized dust. In some planetary debris discs an observed mid- to near-infrared emission supposedly results from hot dust located in the vicinity of the star. And the observed emission is characteristic of dust of sizes a few tens of nanometres. Rosetta observations, on the other hand, provide little information on the presence of nanodust near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This article describes why this is not in contradiction to the observations of nanodust in the heliosphere and in planetary debris discs. The direct ejection of nanodust from the nucleus of the comet would not contribute significantly to the observed nanodust fluxes. We discuss a scenario that nanodust forms in the interplanetary dust cloud through the high-velocity collision process in the interplanetary medium for which the production rates are highest near the Sun. Likewise, fragmentation by collisions occurs near the star in planetary debris discs. The collisional fragmentation process in the inner Solar System occurs at similar velocities to those of the collisional evolution in the interstellar medium. A question for future studies is whether there is a common magic size of the smallest collision fragments and what determines this size.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effenhauser Rainer

    2007-05-01

    following spaceflight. Conclusion The immune system changes described during the HMP field deployment validate the use of the HMP as a ground-based spaceflight/planetary exploration analog for some aspects of human physiology. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune studies in remote terrestrial field locations. Elements of this protocol could possibly be adapted for future in-flight immunology studies conducted during space missions.

  5. Periodic solutions of planetary systems with satellites and the averaging method in systems with fast and slow variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtseva, Elena A

    2012-01-01

    We study the partial case of the planar $N+1$ body problem, $N\\ge2$, of the type of planetary system with satellites. We assume that one of the bodies (the Sun) is much heavier than the other bodies ("planets" and "satellites"), moreover the planets are much heavier than the satellites, and the "years" are much longer than the "months". We prove that, under a nondegeneracy condition which in general holds, there exist at least $2^{N-2}$ smooth 2-parameter families of symmetric periodic solutions in a rotating coordinate system such that the distances between each planet and its satellites are much shorter than the distances between the Sun and the planets. We describe generating symmetric periodic solutions and prove that the nondegeneracy condition is necessary. We give sufficient conditions for some periodic solutions to be orbitally stable in linear approximation. Via the averaging method, the results are extended to a class of Hamiltonian systems with fast and slow variables close to the systems of semi-d...

  6. Effects of stellar flybys on planetary systems: 3D modeling of the circumstellar disk's damping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picogna, G.; Marzari, F.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Stellar flybys in star clusters are suspected of affecting the orbital architecture of planetary systems causing eccentricity excitation and orbital misalignment between the planet orbit and the equatorial plane of the star. Aims: We explore whether the impulsive changes in the orbital elements of planets, caused by a hyperbolic stellar flyby, can be fully damped by the circumstellar disk surrounding the star. The time required to disperse stellar clusters is comparable to the circumstellar disk's lifetime. Since we perform 3D simulations, we can also test the inclination, excitation, and damping. Methods: We have modeled in 3D with the SPH code VINE, a system made of a solar-type star surrounded by a low density disk with a giant planet embedded in it approached on a hyperbolic encounter trajectory by a second star of similar mass and with its own disk. Different inclinations between the disks, planet orbit, and star trajectory have been considered to explore various encounter geometries. We focus on an extreme configuration where a very deep stellar flyby perturbs a Jovian planet on an external orbit. This allows us to test in full the ability of the disk to erase the effects of the stellar encounter. Results: We find that the amount of mass lost by the disk during the stellar flyby is less than in 2D models where a single disk was considered. This is mostly related to the mass exchange between the two disks at the encounter. The damping in eccentricity is slightly faster than in 2D models and it occurs on timescales on the order of a few kyr. During the flyby both the disks are warped owing to the mutual interaction and to the stellar gravitational perturbations, but they quickly relax to a new orbital plane. The planet is quickly dragged back within the disk by the tidal interaction with the gas. The only trace of the flyby left in the planet system, after about 104 yr, is a small misalignment, lower than 9°, between the star equatorial plane and the

  7. The Planetary Data System — Renewing Our Science Nodes in Order to Better Serve Our Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T. H.; McLaughlin, S.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Crichton, D. J.; New, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve NASA's ability to provide an agile response to the needs of the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) is being transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA's Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. We expect the new PDS will improve both archive searchability and product discoverability, continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the International community of space faring nations (through the International Planetary Data Alliance). PDS will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on these changes. Please visit our User Support Area at the meeting (Booth #446) if you have questions accessing our data sets or providing data to the PDS or about the new PDS structure.

  8. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  9. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  10. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. I - Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Murphy, Brian W.; Cramer, Nichael Lynn; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    1989-01-01

    Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.

  11. CONTROL STRATEGY OF A PARALLEL HYBRID CAR WITH A METAL BELT-PLANETARY GEAR CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The most remarkable characteristic of a metal belt-planetary gear continuously variable transmission is a wider ratio range and a bigger torque capacity than a conventional metal pushing belt continuously variable transmission. A parallel hybrid car with this transmission system not only can reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emission at a ECE city cycle, but also can keep the motor working in the most efficiency area and can be started by a lower power motor by oneself. At the same time, the continuously variable transmission system can realize the smooth switch between the motor and the engine.

  12. Japanese Exploration to Solar System Small Bodies: Rewriting a Planetary Formation Theory with Astromaterial Connection (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H.

    2013-12-01

    space probe with hybrid propulsion of solar photon sail and ion engine system that will enable Japan to reach out deep interplanetary space beyond the main asteroid belt. Since 2002, Japanese scientists and engineers have been investigating the solar power sail mission to Jupiter Trojans and interdisciplinary cruising science, such as infrared observation of zodiacal light due to cosmic dust, which at the same time hit a large cross section of the solar sail membrane dust detector, concentrating inside the main asteroid belt. Now the mission design has extended from cruising and fly-by only to rendezvous and sample return options from Jupiter Trojan asteroids. Major scientific goal of Jupiter Trojan exploration is to constrain its origin between two competing hypothesis such as remnants of building blocks the Jovian system as the classic model and the second generation captured EKBOs as the planetary migration models, in which several theories are in deep discussion. Also important is to better understand mixing process of material and structure of the early Solar System just beyond snow line. The current plan involves its launch and both solar photon and IES accelerations combined with Earth and Jupiter gravity assists in 2020's, detailed rendezvous investigation of a few 10-km sized D-type asteroid among Jupiter Trojans in early 2030's and an optional sample return of its surface materials to the Earth in late 2030's.

  13. PDS4: Meeting Big Data Challenges Via a Model-Driven Planetary Science Data Architecture and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S. H.; Joyner, R.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    Big science data management entails cataloging, processing, distribution, multiple ways of analyzing and interpreting the data, long-term preservation, and international cooperation of massive amount of scientific data. PDS4, the next generation of the Planetary Data System (PDS), uses an information model-driven architectural approach coupled with modern information technologies and standards to meet theses challenges of big science data management. PDS4 is an operational example of the use of an explicit data system architecture and an ontology-base information model to drive the development, operations, and evolution of a scalable data system along the entire science data lifecycle from ground systems to the archives. This overview of PDS4 will include a description of its model-driven approach and its overall systems architecture. It will illustrate how the system is being used to help meet the expectations of modern scientists for interoperable data systems and correlatable data in the Big Data era.

  14. A modular gas-cooled cermet reactor system for planetary base power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahshan, Salim N.; Borkowski, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Fission nuclear power is foreseen as the source for electricity in planetary colonization and exploration. A six module gas-cooled, cermet-fueled reactor is proposed that can meet the design objectives. The highly enriched core is compact and can operate at high temperature for a long life. The helium coolant powers six modular Brayton cycles that compare favorably with the SP-100-based Brayton cycle.

  15. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  16. A Balloon-Borne Telescope System for Planetary Atmosphere and Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kanazawa, T.; Shoji, Y.; Sawakami, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    A telescope floating in the polar stratosphere can continuously monitor planets for more than 24 hours. Thin, clear and stable air of the stratosphere makes it possible to observe planets in a condition free from cloud with fine seeing and high atmospheric transmittance. Moreover, a balloon-borne telescope system is less expensive compared with a huge terrestrial telescope or a direct planetary probe mission. Targets of a balloon-borne telescope system will extend over various atmospheric and plasma phenomena on almost all the planets, i.e., a sodium tail of Mercury, lightning, airglow and aurora in the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, escaping atmospheres of the Earth-type planets, satellite-induced luminous events in the Jovian atmosphere, etc. The first target is global dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere by detecting cloud motion in UV and NIR imagery. A decoupling mechanism and a pair of control moment gyros (CMGs) are mounted at the top of the gondola. The decoupling mechanism isolates the gondola from a balloon and also transfers an excess angular momentum of the CMGs to the balloon. The attitude of the gondola is stabilized at a constant sun azimuthal angle so that a solar cell panel faces to the sun. A 300 mm F30 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope is installed at the bottom of the gondola. DC/DC converters, a PC, a high voltage power supply for a piezo-electrically moving mirror and digital video recorders are contained in a sealed cell. The azimuthal angle is detected by a sun-sensor. A PC processes sensor output to control DC motors used in the decoupling mechanism and CMGs with an accuracy in azimuthal attitude of about 0.5 deg. The two-axis gimbal mount of the telescope is controlled by the same PC, guiding an object within a field-of-view of a guide telescope. Residual tracking error is detected by a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and corrected by the two-axis moving mirror installed in the optical system. The optical path is divided into

  17. The short-lived production of exozodiacal dust in the aftermath of a dynamical instability in planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonsor, Amy; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Excess emission, associated with warm, dust belts, commonly known as exozodis, has been observed around a third of nearby stars. The high levels of dust required to explain the observations are not generally consistent with steady-state evolution. A common suggestion is that the dust results from the aftermath of a dynamical instability, an event akin to the Solar System's Late Heavy Bombardment. In this work, we use a database of N-body simulations to investigate the aftermath of dynamical instabilities between giant planets in systems with outer planetesimal belts. We find that, whilst there is a significant increase in the mass of material scattered into the inner regions of the planetary system following an instability, this is a short-lived effect. Using the maximum lifetime of this material, we determine that even if every star has a planetary system that goes unstable, there is a very low probability that we observe more than a maximum of 1% of sun-like stars in the aftermath of an instability, and tha...

  18. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  19. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. I - Scientific objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R. J.; Kok, B.; Martin, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    We describe an approach for the remote detection and characterization of life in planetary soil samples. A mass spectrometer is used as the central sensor to monitor changes in the gas phase in eleven test cells filled with soil. Many biological assays, ranging from general 'in situ' assays to specific metabolic processes (such as photosynthesis, respiration, denitrification, etc.) can be performed by appropriate additions to the test cell via attached preloaded injector capsules. The system is also compatible with a number of chemical assays such as the analysis of atmospheric composition (both chemical and isotopic), the status of soil water, and the determination of compounds of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the soil.

  20. Planetary boundary layer as an essential component of the earth's climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Following the traditional engineering approach proposed by Prandtl, the turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) are considered in the climate science as complex, non-linear, essential but nevertheless subordinated components of the earth's climate system. Correspondingly, the temperature variations, dT - a popular and practically important measure of the climate variability, are seen as the system's response to the external heat forcing, Q, e.g. in the energy balance model of the type dT=Q/C (1). The moderation of this response by non-linear feedbacks embedded in the effective heat capacity, C, are to a large degree overlooked. The effective heat capacity is globally determined by the depth of the ocean mixed layer (on multi-decadal and longer time scales) but regionally, over the continents, C is much smaller and determined (on decadal time scales) by the depth, h, of the PBL. The present understanding of the climatological features of turbulent boundary layers is set by the works of Frankignoul & Hasselmann (1976) and Manabe & Stauffer (1980). The former explained how large-scale climate anomalies could be generated in the case of a large C (in the sea surface temperature) by the delta-correlated stochastic forcing (white noise). The latter demonstrated that the climate response to a given forcing is moderated by the depth, h, so that in the shallow PBL the signal should be significantly amplified. At present there are more than 3000 publications (ISI Web of Knowledge) which detail this understanding but the physical mechanisms, which control the boundary layer depth, and statistical relationships between the turbulent and climatological measures remain either unexplored or incorrectly attributed. In order to identify the climatic role of the PBL, the relationships between the PBL depth, h, - as the integral measure of the turbulent processes and micro-circulations due to the surface heterogeneity - and the climatic variability (variations and trends) of

  1. Dynamics of the 3/1 planetary mean-motion resonance. An application to the HD60532 b-c planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, A J; Santos, M Tadeu dos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we use a semi-analytical approach to analyze the global structure of the phase space of the planar planetary 3/1 mean-motion resonance, in cases where the outer planet is more massive than its inner companion. We show that the resonant dynamics can be described using only two fundamental parameters, the total angular momentum and the scaling parameter. The topology of the Hamiltonian function describing the resonant behaviour is studied on the representative planes that allows us to investigate a large domain of the phase space of the three-body problem without time-expensive numerical integrations of the equations of motion, and without any restriction on the magnitude of the planetary eccentricities. The families of the well known Apsidal Corotation Resonances (ACR) parameterized by the planetary mass ratio are obtained and their stability is analyzed. The main dynamical features in the domains around ACR are also investigated in detail by means of spectral analysis techniques, which allow us...

  2. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    elements of external orientation, provides new image processing of previous missions to outer planetary system. Using Photomod software (http://www.racurs.ru/) we have generated a new control point network in 3-D and orthomosaics for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus. Based on improved orbit data for Galileo we have used larger numbers of images than were available before, resulting in a more rigid network for Ganymede. The obtained results will be used for further processing and improvement of the various parameters: body shape parameters and shape modeling, libration, as well as for studying of the surface interesting geomorphological phenomena, for example, distribution of bright and dark surface materials on Ganymede and their correlations with topography and slopes [6]. Acknowledgments: The Ganymede study was partly supported by ROSKOSMOS and Space Research Institute under agreement № 36/13 “Preliminary assessment of the required coordinate and navigation support for selection of landing sites for lander mission “Laplace” and partly funding by agreement № 11-05-91323 for “Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos” References: [1] Nadezhdina et al. Vol. 14, EGU2012-11210, 2012. [2] Zhukov et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [3] Zubarev et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [4] Lazarev et al. Izvestia VUZov. 2012, No 6, pp. 9-11 http://miigaik.ru/journal.miigaik.ru/2012/20130129120215-2593.pdf (in Russian). [5] Kokhanov et al. Current problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space. 2013. Vol. 10. No 4. pp. 136-153. http://d33.infospace.ru/d33_conf/sb2013t4/136-153.pdf (in Russian). [6] Oberst et al., 2013 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space

  3. How to design a planetary system for different scattering outcomes: giant impact sweet spot, maximising exocomets, scattered disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, M C; Jackson, A P; Marino, S; Shannon, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the dynamics of scattering of planetesimals or planetary embryos by a planet on a circumstellar orbit. We classify six regions in the planet's mass versus semimajor axis parameter space according to the dominant outcome for scattered objects: ejected, accreted, remaining, escaping, Oort Cloud, depleted Oort Cloud. We use these outcomes to consider which planetary system architectures maximise the observability of specific signatures, given that signatures should be detected first around systems with optimal architectures (if such systems exist in nature). Giant impact debris is most readily detectable for 0.1-10Mearth planets at 1-5au, depending on detection method and spectral type. While A stars have putative giant impact debris at 4-6au consistent with this sweet spot, that of FGK stars is typically <<1au contrary to expectations; an absence of 1-3au giant impact debris could indicate a low frequency of terrestrial planets there. Three principles maximise cometary influx from exo...

  4. Diversity of planetary systems in low-mass disks: Terrestrial-type planet formation and water delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Ronco, María Paula

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, observational and theoretical, suggest that planetary systems with only rocky planets should be the most common in the Universe. We study the diversity of planetary systems that might form around Sun-like stars in low-mass disks without giant planets. We focus on the formation process of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and analyze their water contents with the goal to determine systems of astrobiological interest. Besides, we study the formation of planets on wide orbits because they can be detected with the microlensing technique. N-body simulations of high resolution (embryos + planetesimals) are developed for a wide range of surface density profiles. The surface density profile combines a power law to the inside of the disk of the form r^{-gamma}, with an exponential decay to the outside. We adopt a disk of 0.03M_sun and values of gamma = 0.5, 1 and 1.5. All our simulations form planets in the HZ with different masses and final water contents depending on the 3 profiles. For...

  5. Circumstellar multi-planetary systems in binary stars: secular resonances and a semi-analytical approach to determine the location

    CERN Document Server

    Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars are of special interest for studies of planetary motion and habitability as most of the stars in the solar neighborhood are part of such stellar systems. Since a secondary star causes gravitational perturbations the planetary motion is restricted to certain regions of the phase space depending on the binary configuration. In case a binary system hosts a giant planet it is obvious that additional perturbations will occur. These perturbations will be studied in detail in this investigation where we take into account various binary-planet configurations. We show how the dynamics of another test-planet is influenced by mean motion and secular resonances. Therefore, it is important to know the locations of these resonances. First, we study the binary system HD41004AB to visualize the perturbations on the dynamics of test-planets caused by the secondary star and the detected giant planet. Then we perform a frequency analysis of the orbits to identify of the secular resonance. And finally, we develop a ...

  6. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  7. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This work was also based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub −1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  9. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multi-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciceri, S; Southworth, J; Lendl, M; Tregloan-Reed, J; Brahm, R; Chen, G; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Galianni, P; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Jørgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Rabus, M; Bonomo, A S; Bott, K; Henning, Th; Jordan, A; Sozzetti, A; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bajek, D; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Gu, S-H; Hundertmark, M; Kains, N; Penny, M; Popovas, A; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Surdej, J; Vilela, C; Wang, X-B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the physical characteristics of a large number of exoplanets are useful to strongly constrain theoretical models of planet formation and evolution, which lead to the large variety of exoplanets and planetary-system configurations that have been observed. We present a study of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46, both composed of a main-sequence star and a close-in hot Jupiter, based on 29 new high-quality light curves of transits events. In particular, one transit of WASP-45 b and four of WASP-46 b were simultaneously observed in four optical filters, while one transit of WASP-46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly three minutes. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of four the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less massive and smaller than previously reported. Both planets now have a more accurate measurement of th...

  10. HIP 3678: a hierarchical triple stellar system in the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 246

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of a new low-mass stellar companion to the white dwarf HIP 3678 A, the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 246. The newly found companion is located about 1 arcsec (at projected separation of about 500 au) north-east of HIP 3678 A, and shares a common proper motion with the white dwarf and its known comoving companion HIP 3678 B. The hypothesis that the newly detected companion is a non-moving background object can be rejected on a significance level of more than 8 $\\sigma$, by combining astrometric measurements from the literature with follow-up astrometry, obtained with Wild Field Planetary Camera 2/\\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} and NACO/Very Large Telescope. From our deep NACO imaging data, we can rule out additional stellar companions of the white dwarf with projected separations between 130 up to 5500 au. In the deepest high-contrast NACO observation, we achieve a detection limit in the \\textit{Ks} band of about 20 mag, which allows the detection of brown dwarf companions w...

  11. Transit Timing Variation of Near-Resonance Planetary Pairs. II. Confirmation of 30 planets in 15 Multiple Planet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ji-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Following on from Paper I in our series (Xie 2012), we report the confirmation by Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) of a further 30 planets in 15 multiple planet systems, using the publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q16). All of these fifteen pairs are near first-order Mean Motion Resonances (MMR), showing sinusoidal TTVs consistent with theoretically predicted periods, which demonstrate they are orbiting and interacting in the same systems. Although individual masses cannot be accurately extracted based only on TTVs (because of the well known degeneracy between mass and eccentricity), the measured TTV phases and amplitudes can still place relatively tight constraints on their mass ratios and upper limits on their masses, which confirm their planetary nature. Some of these systems (KOI-274, KOI-285, KOI-370 and KOI-2672) are relatively bright and thus suitable for further follow-up observations.

  12. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  13. Future planetary X-ray and gamma-ray remote sensing system and in situ requirements for room temperature solid state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trombka, J I; Starr, R; Clark, P E; Floyd, S R

    1999-01-01

    X-Ray and gamma-ray remote sensing observations find important applications in the study of the development of the planets. Orbital measurements can be carried out on solar-system bodies whose atmospheres and trapped radiation environments do not interfere significantly with the emissions. Elemental compositions can be inferred from observations of these line emissions. Future planetary missions also will involve landing both stationery and roving probes on planetary surfaces. Both X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will be used for performing elemental analysis of surface samples. These future planetary missions will impose a number of constraints: the flight instruments must be significantly reduced in weight from those previously flown; for many missions, gravity assist will be required, greatly increasing mission duration, resulting in the passage of several years before the first scientific measurement of a solar system body. The detector systems must operate reliably after years of cosmic-ray irradiation...

  14. The resonant structure of Jupiter's Trojan asteroids - II. What happens for different configurations of the planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robutel, P.; Bodossian, J.

    2009-10-01

    In a previous paper, we have found that the resonance structure of the present Jupiter Trojan swarms could be split up into four different families of resonances. Here, in a first step, we generalize these families in order to describe the resonances occurring in Trojan swarms embedded in a generic planetary system. The location of these families changes under a modification of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and we show how the resonant structure would evolve during a planetary migration. We present a general method, based on the knowledge of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and on those that can be reached by the Trojans, which makes it possible to predict and localize the main events arising in the swarms during migration. In particular, we show how the size and stability of the Trojan swarms are affected by the modification of the frequencies of the planets. Finally, we use this method to study the global dynamics of the Jovian Trojan swarms when Saturn migrates outwards. Besides the two resonances found by Morbidelli et al. which could have led to the capture of the current population just after the crossing of the 2:1 orbital resonance, we also point out several sequences of chaotic events that can influence the Trojan population.

  15. The resonant structure of Jupiter's Trojans asteroids-II. What happens for different configurations of the planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Robutel, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we have found that the resonance structure of the present Jupiter Trojans swarms could be split up into four different families of resonances. Here, in a first step, we generalize these families in order to describe the resonances occurring in Trojans swarms embedded in a generic planetary system. The location of these families changing under a modification of the fundamental frequencies of the planets, we show how the resonant structure would evolve during a planetary migration. We present a general method, based on the knowledge of the fundamental frequencies of the planets and on those that can be reached by the Trojans, which makes possible the prediction and the localization of the main events arising in the swarms during migration. In particular, we show how the size and stability of the Trojans swarms are affected by the modification of the frequencies of the planets. Finally, we use this method to study the global dynamics of the Jovian Trojans swarms when Saturn migrates outward....

  16. Sciences for Exoplanets and Planetary Systems : web sites and E-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, F.; Balança, C.; Bénilan, Y.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Marcq, E.; Navarro, T.; Renner, S.; Schneider, J.; Schott, C.

    2015-10-01

    The websites « Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires » (SESP) and « Exoplanètes » have been created in the context of the LabEx ESEP (Laboratoire d'excellence Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires) [1]. They present planetary and exoplanetary sciences with courses, interactive tools, and a didactic catalogue connected to the Encyclopedia http://exoplanet.eu [2]. These resources are directed towards undergraduate level. They will be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. In the future, we will translate some contents into English and create e-learning degree courses.

  17. Tour Through the Solar System: A Hands-On Planetary Geology Course for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a course in planetary geology for high school students, the primary goals of which are to help students learn how to learn, to reduce the fear and anxiety associated with learning science and math, and to encourage an interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Our emphasis in this course is on active learning in a learner-centered environment. All students scored significantly higher on the post-knowledge survey compared with the pre-knowledge survey, and there is a good correlation between the post-knowledge survey and the final exam. Student evaluations showed an increased interest in STEM fields as a result of this course.

  18. In situ XFEL measurement system for Earth and planetary materials under laser-induced ultrahigh-pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Y.; Ozaki, N.; Matsuoka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Albertazzi, B.; Habara, H.; Takahashi, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamauchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Kodama, R.; Sato, T.; Sekine, T.; Seto, Y.; Okuchi, T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    High-pressure and high-temperature in situ experiments have revealed behaviors of the earth and planetary constituents under extreme conditions, and contribute to progress our understandings about physical and chemical structure of planetary interiors. These in situ techniques have developed with the third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities such as APS, ESRF, and SPring-8 mainly using large volume presses and diamond anvil cells. In addition to the synchrotron light source, recently X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities have been developed as LCLS and SACLA. The brilliant and extremely short-pulsed XFELs make it possible to carry out femto-second time-resolve measurements, and to observe materials under dynamic/shock compression clearly. Techniques using high-power laser and XFEL are expected to be a next-generation experimental platform, and a pump-probe measurement system using high-power lasers and XFEL was installed at BL3EH5 in SPring-8/SACLA interoperable experimental facility. The system is composed of 45 TW X-ray focusing system (KB mirrors), vacuumed sample chamber, and the MPCCD detector developed for the 10-fs ultra-short pulsed XFEL light source. The high-power laser enables us to generate up to 100 GPa for metal, simple oxide, and natural/synthesized mineral samples. Samples are mounted on sample holders and aligned at the center of the vacuum chamber using a 4-axis Goniometer head. In this presentation, we will overview the experimental setups and typical results of current pump-probe system using XFEL in SACLA.

  19. Physical properties of the HAT-P-23 and WASP-48 planetary systems from multi-colour photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Bruni, I.; Nikolov, N.; D'Ago, G.; Schröder, T.; Bozza, V.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Henning, Th.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Accurate and repeated photometric follow-up observations of planetary transit events are important to precisely characterize the physical properties of exoplanets. A good knowledge of the main characteristics of the exoplanets is fundamental in order to trace their origin and evolution. Multi-band photometric observations play an important role in this process. Aims: By using new photometric data, we computed precise estimates of the physical properties of two transiting planetary systems at equilibrium temperatures of ~2000 K. Methods: We present new broadband, multi-colour photometric observations obtained using three small class telescopes and the telescope-defocussing technique. In particular we obtained 11 and 10 light curves covering 8 and 7 transits of HAT-P-23 and WASP-48, respectively. For each of the two targets, one transit event was simultaneously observed through four optical filters. One transit of WASP-48 b was monitored with two telescopes from the same observatory. The physical parameters of the systems were obtained by fitting the transit light curves with jktebop and from published spectroscopic measurements. Results: We have revised the physical parameters of the two planetary systems, finding a smaller radius for both HAT-P-23 b and WASP-48 b, Rb = 1.224 ± 0.037 RJup and Rb = 1.396 ± 0.051 RJup, respectively, than those measured in the discovery papers (Rb = 1.368 ± 0.090 RJup and Rb = 1.67 ± 0.10 RJup). The density of the two planets are higher than those previously published (ρb ~ 1.1 and ~0.3 ρjup for HAT-P-23 and WASP-48, respectively) hence the two hot Jupiters are no longer located in a parameter space region of highly inflated planets. An analysis of the variation of the planet's measured radius as a function of optical wavelength reveals flat transmission spectra within the experimental uncertainties. We also confirm the presence of the eclipsing contact binary NSVS-3071474 in the same field of view of WASP-48, for which

  20. An optical transmission spectrum of the transiting hot Jupiter in the metal-poor WASP-98 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Giordano, M.; Mollière, P.; Southworth, J.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2016-09-01

    The WASP-98 planetary system represents a rare case of a hot Jupiter hosted by a metal-poor main-sequence star. We present a follow-up study of this system based on multiband photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy. Two new transit events of WASP-98 b were simultaneously observed in four passbands (g', r', i', z'), using the telescope-defocusing technique, yielding eight high-precision light curves with point-to-point scatters of less than 1 mmag. We also collected three spectra of the parent star with a high-resolution spectrograph, which we used to remeasure its spectral characteristics, in particular its metallicity. We found this to be very low, [Fe/H] = -0.49 ± 0.10, but larger than was previously reported, [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.19. We used these new photometric and spectroscopic data to refine the orbital and physical properties of this planetary system, finding that the stellar and planetary mass measurements are significantly larger than those in the discovery paper. In addition, the multiband light curves were used to construct an optical transmission spectrum of WASP-98 b and probe the characteristics of its atmosphere at the terminator. We measured a lower radius at z' compared with the other three passbands. The maximum variation is between the r' and z' bands, has a confidence level of roughly 6σ and equates to 5.5 pressure scale heights. We compared this spectrum to theoretical models, investigating several possible types of atmospheres, including hazy, cloudy, cloud-free, and clear atmospheres with titanium and vanadium oxide opacities. We could not find a good fit to the observations, except in the extreme case of a clear atmosphere with TiO and VO opacities, in which the condensation of Ti and V was suppressed. As this case is unrealistic, our results suggest the presence of an additional optical-absorbing species in the atmosphere of WASP-98 b, of unknown chemical nature.

  1. How to design a planetary system for different scattering outcomes: giant impact sweet spot, maximizing exocomets, scattered discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M. C.; Bonsor, A.; Jackson, A. P.; Marino, S.; Shannon, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the dynamics of the scattering of planetesimals or planetary embryos by a planet on a circumstellar orbit. We classify six regions in the planet's mass versus semimajor axis parameter space according to the dominant outcome for scattered objects: ejected, accreted, remaining, escaping, Oort Cloud, and depleted Oort Cloud. We use these outcomes to consider which planetary system architectures maximize the observability of specific signatures, given that signatures should be detected first around systems with optimal architectures (if such systems exist in nature). Giant impact debris is most readily detectable for 0.1-10 M⊕ planets at 1-5 au, depending on the detection method and spectral type. While A stars have putative giant impact debris at 4-6 au consistent with this sweet spot, that of FGK stars is typically ≪1 au contrary to expectations; an absence of 1-3 au giant impact debris could indicate a low frequency of terrestrial planets there. Three principles maximize the cometary influx from exo-Kuiper belts: a chain of closely separated planets interior to the belt, none of which is a Jupiter-like ejector; planet masses not increasing strongly with distance (for a net inward torque on comets); and ongoing replenishment of comets, possibly by embedded low-mass planets. A high Oort Cloud comet influx requires no ejectors and architectures that maximize the Oort Cloud population. Cold debris discs are usually considered classical Kuiper belt analogues. Here we consider the possibility of detecting scattered disc analogues, which could be betrayed by a broad radial profile and lack of small grains, as well as spherical 100-1000 au mini-Oort Clouds. Some implications for escaping planets around young stars, detached planets akin to Sedna, and the formation of super-Earths are also discussed.

  2. Is the central binary system of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428 a Type Ia supernova progenitor?

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    We account for recent observations of the binary system at the center of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428 by the presence of one degenerate core with a low-mass main sequence companion, rather than by two degenerate objects. We argue that the variability of the He II 5412A spectral line can be accounted for by a time-varying broad absorption line from the central star on top of which there is a time-varying narrow emission line from the compact nebula. The two (almost) symmetric broad minima in the light curve are attributed to tidal distortion caused by a companion. We find problems in the recently proposed and competing explanation of two equal-mass degenerate objects that supposedly will eventually merge, possibly leading to a SN Ia. We conclude that Henize 2-428 cannot be claimed yet to support the double-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae.

  3. An extreme planetary system around HD219828. One long-period super Jupiter to a hot-neptune host star

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Faria, J P; Rey, J; Correia, A C M; Laskar, J; Udry, S; Adibekyan, V; Bouchy, F; Delgado-Mena, E; Melo, C; Dumusque, X; Hébrard, G; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Montalto, M; Mortier, A; Pepe, F; Figueira, P; Sahlmann, J; Ségransan, D; Sousa, S G

    2016-01-01

    With about 2000 extrasolar planets confirmed, the results show that planetary systems have a whole range of unexpected properties. We present a full investigation of the HD219828 system, a bright metal-rich star for which a hot neptune has previously been detected. We used a set of HARPS, SOPHIE, and ELODIE radial velocities to search for the existence of orbiting companions to HD219828. A dynamical analysis is also performed to study the stability of the system and to constrain the orbital parameters and planet masses. We announce the discovery of a long period (P=13.1years) massive (msini=15.1MJup) companion (HD219828c) in a very eccentric orbit (e=0.81). The same data confirms the existence of a hot-neptune, HD219828b, with a minimum mass of 21 MEarth and a period of 3.83days. The dynamical analysis shows that the system is stable. The HD219828 system is extreme and unique in several aspects. First, among all known exoplanet systems it presents an unusually high mass ratio. We also show that systems like H...

  4. Analysis of impact crater populations and the geochronology of planetary surfaces in the inner solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.

    2016-10-01

    Analyzing the density of impact craters on planetary surfaces is the only known technique for learning their ages remotely. As a result, crater statistics have been widely analyzed on the terrestrial planets, since the timing and rates of activity are critical to understanding geologic process and history. On the Moon, the samples obtained by the Apollo and Luna missions provide critical calibration points for cratering chronology. On Mercury, Venus, and Mars, there are no similarly firm anchors for cratering rates, but chronology models have been established by extrapolating from the lunar record or by estimating their impactor fluxes in other ways. This review provides a current perspective on crater population measurements and their chronological interpretation. Emphasis is placed on how ages derived from crater statistics may be contingent on assumptions that need to be considered critically. In addition, ages estimated from crater populations are somewhat different than ages from more familiar geochronology tools (e.g., radiometric dating). Resurfacing processes that remove craters from the observed population are particularly challenging to account for, since they can introduce geologic uncertainty into results or destroy information about the formation age of a surface. Regardless of these challenges, crater statistics measurements have resulted in successful predictions later verified by other techniques, including the age of the lunar maria, the existence of a period of heavy bombardment in the Moon's first billion years, and young volcanism on Mars.

  5. A New Paradigm for Habitability in Planetary Systems: the Extremophilic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot-Pacheco, E., Bernardes, L., Lage, C. A. S.

    2014-03-01

    More than a thousand exoplanets have been discovered so far. Planetary surface temperature may strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions. We have fed exoplanets from the Encyclopedia database with a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere and plate tectonics. As CO2 is the main agent responsible for the greenhouse effect, its partial pressure has been taken as a free parameter to estimate the surface temperature of some known planets. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets in the Habitable Zone capable of harbour dynamic stability, to retain an atmosphere and to keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Biological data on earthly micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell on the surface of many exoplanets and exomoons. We thus propose an extension of the mainly astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically one, the "Extremophililic Zone", that takes into account other parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms. This contribution comes from an ongoing project developed by a French-Brazilian colaboration in Astrophysics and Biophysics to search for living fingerprints in astrobiologically promising exoplanets.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF INTEGRATING A MINING RIGHT-ANGLE PLANETARY GEARBOX WITH TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej WIECZOREK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A key factor enabling the achievement of the required capacity by longwall mining systems is to obtain a satisfactory service life for individual components of such systems. Such components include right-angle planetary gearboxes for armoured face conveyors. An increase in the service life of such equipment can be achieved by ensuring adequacy in terms of design, materials and organization. As a part of organizational changes, the use of individual diagnostics systems may have the greatest impact on the service life of mining gearboxes; however, their widespread implementation is limited by economic and operational barriers. This paper presents an analysis of the possibility of integrating mining gearboxes with electronic systems of technical diagnostics, as well as expanding the scope of the technical condition monitoring by the machines operating together with these gearboxes. As a result of the calculation and design work performed, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to integrate technical diagnostics systems with advanced data transmission capabilities inside gearboxes.

  7. Galactic planetary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  8. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel, E-mail: mulders@lpl.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R{sub ⨁}) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R{sub ⨁}) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M{sub ⨁} in F stars to 5 M{sub ⨁} in G and K stars to 7 M{sub ⨁} in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  9. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XII. Characterization of the planetary system around HD 108874

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, S.; Desidera, S.; Damasso, M.; Malavolta, L.; Lanza, A. F.; Biazzo, K.; Bonomo, A. S.; Claudi, R. U.; Marzari, F.; Poretti, E.; Gratton, R.; Micela, G.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Sozzetti, A.; Boccato, C.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Maggio, A.; Molinari, E.; Smareglia, R.; Affer, L.; Andreuzzi, G.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; di Fabrizio, L.; Esposito, M.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Messina, S.; Giacobbe, P.; Harutyunyan, A.; Knapic, C.; Maldonado, J.; Masiero, S.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Silvotti, R.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the observed physical and orbital diversity of extrasolar planetary systems, a full investigation of these objects and of their host stars is necessary. Within this field, one of the main purposes of the GAPS observing project with HARPS-N at TNG is to provide a more detailed characterization of already known systems. In this framework we monitored the star, hosting two giant planets, HD 108874, with HARPS-N for three years in order to refine the orbits, to improve the dynamical study and to search for additional low-mass planets in close orbits. We subtracted the radial velocity (RV) signal due to the known outer planets, finding a clear modulation of 40.2 d period. We analysed the correlation between RV residuals and the activity indicators and modelled the magnetic activity with a dedicated code. Our analysis suggests that the 40.2 d periodicity is a signature of the rotation period of the star. A refined orbital solution is provided, revealing that the system is close to a mean motion resonance of about 9:2, in a stable configuration over 1 Gyr. Stable orbits for low-mass planets are limited to regions very close to the star or far from it. Our data exclude super-Earths with Msini ≳ 5M⊕ within 0.4 AU and objects with Msini ≳ 2M⊕ with orbital periods of a few days. Finally we put constraints on the habitable zone of the system, assuming the presence of an exomoon orbiting the inner giant planet. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the programme Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS).Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A90

  10. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Christophe, Bruno; Anderson, John D; André, Nicolas; Asmar, Sami W; Aurnou, Jonathan; Banfield, Don; Barucci, Antonella; Bertolami, Orfeu; Bingham, Robert; Brown, Patrick; Cecconi, Baptiste; Courty, Jean-Michel; Dittus, Hansjörg; Fletcher, Leigh N; Foulon, Bernard; Francisco, Frederico; Gil, Paulo J S; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Grundy, Will; Hansen, Candice; Helbert, Jörn; Helled, Ravit; Hussmann, Hauke; Lamine, Brahim; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lamy, Laurent; Lenoir, Benjamin; Levy, Agnès; Orton, Glenn; Páramos, Jorge; Poncy, Joël; Postberg, Frank; Progrebenko, Sergei V; Reh, Kim R; Reynaud, Serge; Robert, Clélia; Samain, Etienne; Saur, Joachim; Sayanagi, Kunio M; Schmitz, Nicole; Selig, Hanns; Sohl, Frank; Spilker, Thomas R; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Katrin; Touboul, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and found four rings and evidence of ring arcs above Neptune. Benefiting from a greatly improved instrumentation, it will result in a striking advance in the study of the farthest planet of the Solar System. Furthermore, OSS will provide a unique opportunity to visit a selected Kuiper Belt object subsequent to the passage of the Neptunian system. It will consolidate the hypothesis of the origin of Triton as a KBO captured by Neptune, and improve our knowledge on the formation of the Solar system. The probe will embark inst...

  11. Close-in planets around giant stars. Lack of hot-Jupiters and prevalence of multi-planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lillo-Box, J; Correia, A C M

    2016-01-01

    Extrasolar planets abound in almost any possible configuration. However, until five years ago, there was a lack of planets orbiting closer than 0.5 au to giant or subgiant stars. Since then, recent detections have started to populated this regime by confirming 13 planetary systems. We discuss the properties of these systems in terms of their formation and evolution off the main sequence. Interestingly, we find that $70.0\\pm6.6$ % of the planets in this regime are inner components of multiplanetary systems. This value is 4.2$\\sigma$ higher than for main-sequence hosts, which we find to be $42.4\\pm0.1$ %. The properties of the known planets seem to indicate that the closest-in planets (a < 0.06 au) to main-sequence stars are massive (i.e., hot Jupiters) and isolated and that they are subsequently engulfed by their host as it evolves to the red giant branch, leaving only the predominant population of multiplanetary systems in orbits 0.06 < a < 0.5 au. We discuss the implications of this emerging observa...

  12. Swarm-NG: a CUDA Library for Parallel n-body Integrations with focus on Simulations of Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dindar, Saleh; Juric, Mario; Yeo, Young In; Gao, Jianwei; Boley, Aaron C; Nelson, Benjamin; Peters, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    We present Swarm-NG, a C++ library for the efficient direct integration of many n-body systems using highly-parallel Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), such as NVIDIA's Tesla T10 and M2070 GPUs. While previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of GPUs for n-body simulations with thousands to millions of bodies, Swarm-NG focuses on many few-body systems, e.g., thousands of systems with 3...15 bodies each, as is typical for the study of planetary systems. Swarm-NG parallelizes the simulation, including both the numerical integration of the equations of motion and the evaluation of forces using NVIDIA's "Compute Unified Device Architecture" (CUDA) on the GPU. Swarm-NG includes optimized implementations of 4th order time-symmetrized Hermite integration and mixed variable symplectic integration, as well as several sample codes for other algorithms to illustrate how non-CUDA-savvy users may themselves introduce customized integrators into the Swarm-NG framework. To optimize performance, we analyze the effect of GP...

  13. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  14. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N@TNG XII: Characterization of the planetary system around HD108874

    CERN Document Server

    Benatti, S; Damasso, M; Malavolta, L; Lanza, A F; Biazzo, K; Bonomo, A S; Claudi, R U; Marzari, F; Poretti, E; Gratton, R; Micela, G; Pagano, I; Piotto, G; Sozzetti, A; Boccato, C; Cosentino, R; Covino, E; Maggio, A; Molinari, E; Smareglia, R; Affer, L; Andreuzzi, G; Bignamini, A; Borsa, F; di Fabrizio, L; Esposito, M; Fiorenzano, A Martinez; Messina, S; Giacobbe, P; Harutyunyan, A; Knapic, C; Maldonado, J; Masiero, S; Nascimbeni, V; Pedani, M; Rainer, M; Scandariato, G; Silvotti, R

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the observed physical and orbital diversity of extrasolar planetary systems, a full investigation of these objects and of their host stars is necessary. Within this field, one of the main purposes of the GAPS observing project with HARPS-N@TNG is to provide a more detailed characterisation of already known systems. In this framework we monitored the star, hosting two giant planets, HD108874, with HARPS-N for three years in order to refine the orbits, to improve the dynamical study and to search for additional low-mass planets in close orbits. We subtracted the radial velocity (RV) signal due to the known outer planets, finding a clear modulation of 40.2 d period. We analysed the correlation between RV residuals and the activity indicators and modelled the magnetic activity with a dedicated code. Our analysis suggests that the 40.2 d periodicity is a signature of the rotation period of the star. A refined orbital solution is provided, revealing that the system is close to a mean motion r...

  15. Tentative planetary orbital constraints of some scenarios for the possible new Solar System object recently discovered with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Some of the scenarios envisaged for the possible new Solar System object, whose discovery with the ALMA facility has been recently claimed in the literature, are preliminarily put to the test by means of the orbital motions of some planets of the Solar System. It turns out that the current ranges of admissible values for any anomalous secular precession of the perihelion of Saturn, determined in the recent past with either the EPM2011 and the INPOP10a planetary ephemerides without modeling the action of such a potential new member of the Solar System, do not rule out the existence of a putative Neptune-like pointlike perturber at about 2500 au. Instead, both a super-Earth at some hundreds of au and a Jovian-type planet up to 4000 au are strongly disfavored. An Earth-sized body at 100 au would have a density as little as $\\sim 0.1-0.01~\\textrm{g}~\\textrm{cm}^{-3}$, while an unusually large Centaur or (Extreme) Trans Neptunian Object with linear size of $220-880~\\textrm{km}$ at $12-25~\\textrm{au}$ would have de...

  16. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  17. Interstellar Transfer of Planetary Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Max K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Panspermia theories require the transport of micro-organisms in a viable form from one astronomical location to another. The evidence of material ejection from planetary surfaces, of dynamical orbit evolution and of potential survival on landing is setting a firm basis for interplanetary panspermia. Pathways for interstellar panspermia are less clear. We compare the direct route, whereby life-bearing planetary ejecta exit the solar system and risk radiation hazards en route to nearby stellar systems, and an indirect route whereby ejecta hitch a ride within the shielded environment of comets of the Edgeworth- Kuiper Belt that are subsequently expelled from the solar system. We identify solutions to the delivery problem. Delivery to fully-fledged planetary systems of either the direct ejecta or the ejecta borne by comets depends on dynamical capture and is of very low efficiency. However, delivery into a proto-planetary disc of an early solar-type nebula and into pre-stellar molecular clouds is effective, because the solid grains efficiently sputter the incoming material in hypervelocity collisions. The total mass of terrestrial fertile material delivered to nearby pre-stellar systems as the solar system moves through the galaxy is from kilogrammes up to a tonne. Subject to further study of bio-viability under irradiation and fragmenting collisions, a few kg of original grains and sputtered fragments could be sufficient to seed the planetary system with a wide range of solar system micro-organisms.

  18. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  19. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  20. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for a Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA’s Grand Challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase,...

  1. Maximizing Science Return on Astrobiology and Planetary Missions Using Integrated Liquid-Handling Chemical Analysis Systems - A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. A.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Kehl, F.

    2016-10-01

    Our team has been developing all components required for liquid-based analysis on planetary missions. Here we summarize our progress in this area, and highlight enhancements to science return on NASA missions that these technologies could provide.

  2. Constraining the Movement of the Spiral Features and the Locations of Planetary Bodies within the AB Aur System

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Jamie R; Grady, Carol A; McElwain, Michael W; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Fukagawa, Misato; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Currie, Thayne M; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Inoue, Akio; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; Miyama, Shoken; Momose, Munetake; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Schneider, Glenn H; Serabyn, Eugene; Sitko, Michael L; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    We present new analysis of multi-epoch, H-band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We used a Monte Carlo, radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the system's SED and H-band polarized intensity imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aur's SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aur's spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H-band total light and polarized intensity imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8 year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk-planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be >47 AU.

  3. Orbital structure of the GJ876 extrasolar planetary system, based on the latest Keck and HARPS radial velocity data

    CERN Document Server

    Baluev, Roman V

    2011-01-01

    We use full available array of radial velocity data, including recently published HARPS and Keck observatory sets, to characterize the orbital configuration of the planetary system orbiting GJ876. First, we propose and describe in detail a fast method to fit perturbed orbital configuration, based on the integration of the sensitivity equations inferred by the equations of the original $N$-body problem. Further, we find that it is unsatisfactory to treat the available radial velocity data for GJ876 in the traditional white noise model, because the actual noise appears autocorrelated (and demonstrates non-white frequency spectrum). The time scale of this correlation is about a few days, and the contribution of the correlated noise is about 2 m/s (i.e., similar to the level of internal errors in the Keck data). We propose a variation of the maximum-likelihood algorithm to estimate the orbital configuration of the system, taking into account the red noise effects. We show, in particular, that the non-zero orbital...

  4. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  5. Exponential law as a more compatible model to describe orbits of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   According to the Titus-Bode law, orbits of planets in the solar system obey a geometric progression. Many investigations have been launched to improve this law. In this paper, we apply square and exponential models to planets of solar system, moons of planets, and some extra solar systems, and compare them with each other.

  6. ESA Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Dowson, J.; Ortiz, I.; Parrilla, E.; Salgado, J.; Zender, J.

    2007-10-01

    The (ESA Planetary Science Archive {http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa} (PSA) hosts all the data from ESA's planetary missions into a single archive. It currently contains data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Rosetta, and Huygens spacecraft, some ground-based observations, and will host data from the Smart-1, Venus Express, and BepiColombo spacecraft in the future. Based on the NASA Planetary Data Systems (PDS) data dictionary, all datasets provided by the instrument teams are scientifically peer-reviewed and technically validated by software before being ingested into the Archive. Based on a modular and flexible architecture, the PSA offers a classical user-interface based on input fields, with powerful query and display possibilities. Data can be downloaded directly or through a more detailed shopping basket. Furthermore, a map-based interface is available to access Mars Express data without requiring any knowledge of the mission. Interoperability between the ESA PSA and the NASA PDS archives is also in progress, re-using concepts and experience gained from existing IVOA protocols. Prototypes are being developed to provide functionalities like GoogleMars, allowing access to both ESA PSA and NASA PDS data.

  7. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  8. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N@TNG V. A comprehensive analysis of the XO-2 stellar and planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Damasso, M; Bonomo, A S; Desidera, S; Lanza, A F; Nascimbeni, V; Esposito, M; Scandariato, G; Sozzetti, A; Cosentino, R; Gratton, R; Malavolta, L; Rainer, M; Gandolfi, D; Poretti, E; Sanchez, R Zanmar; Ribas, I; Santos, N; Affer, L; Andreuzzi, G; Barbieri, M; Bedin, L R; Benatti, S; Bernagozzi, A; Bertolini, E; Bonavita, M; Borsa, F; Borsato, L; Boschin, W; Calcidese, P; Carbognani, A; Cenadelli, D; Christille, J M; Claudi, R U; Covino, E; Cunial, A; Giacobbe, P; Granata, V; Harutyunyan, A; Lattanzi, M G; Leto, G; Libralato, M; Lodato, G; Lorenzi, V; Mancini, L; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Marzari, F; Masiero, S; Micela, G; Molinari, E; Molinaro, M; Munari, U; Murabito, S; Pagano, I; Pedani, M; Piotto, G; Rosenberg, A; Silvotti, R; Southworth, J

    2015-01-01

    XO-2 is the first confirmed wide stellar binary system where the almost twin components XO-2N and XO-2S have planets. This stimulated a detailed characterization study of the stellar and planetary components based on new observations. We collected high-resolution spectra with the HARPS-N spectrograph and multi-band light curves. Spectral analysis led to an accurate determination of the stellar atmospheric parameters and characterization of the stellar activity. We collected 14 transit light curves of XO-2Nb used to improve the transit parameters. Photometry provided accurate magnitude differences between the stars and a measure of their rotation periods. The iron abundance of XO-2N was found to be +0.054 dex greater, within more than 3-sigma, than that of XO-2S. We confirm a long-term variation in the radial velocities of XO-2N, and we detected a turn-over with respect to previous measurements. We suggest the presence of a second massive companion in an outer orbit or the stellar activity cycle as possible ca...

  9. Prospects for Characterizing Host Stars of the Planetary System Detections Predicted for the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Calen B

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the possibility of constraining the flux of the lens (i.e., host star) for the types of planetary systems the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network is predicted to find. I examine the potential to obtain lens flux measurements by 1) imaging a lens once it is spatially resolved from the source, 2) measuring the elongation of the point spread function of the microlensing target (lens+source) when the lens and source are still unresolved, and 3) taking prompt follow-up photometry. In each case I simulate observing programs for a representative example of current ground-based adaptive optics (AO) facilities (specifically NACO on VLT), future ground-based AO facilities (GMTIFS on GMT), and future space telescopes (NIRCAM on $JWST$). Given the predicted distribution of relative lens-source proper motions, I find that the lens flux could be measured to a precision of $\\sigma_{H_{\\ell}} \\leq 0.1$ for $\\gtrsim$60$\\%$ of planet detections $\\geq$5 years after each microlensing event, for a simulated observ...

  10. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  11. Pneumatic Planetary Regolith Feed System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I.; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project requires a regolith feed system that can transfer lunar regolith several meters vertically into a chemical reactor for oxygen production on the moon.

  12. Disruption of Planetary Orbits Through Evection Resonance with an External Companion: Circumbinary Planets and Multiplanet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wenrui

    2016-01-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This "evection resonance" occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited paramete...

  13. Telescope to Observe Planetary Systems (TOPS): a high throughput 1.2-m visible telescope with a small inner working angle

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, O; Bowers, C; Burge, J; Burrows, A; Codona, J; Greene, T; Iye, M; Kasting, J; Martin, H; McCarthy, D W; Meadows, V; Meyer, M; Pluzhnik, E A; Sleep, P N; Spears, T; Tamura, M; Tenerelli, D; Vanderbei, R; Woodgate, B; Woodruff, R A; Woolf, N J; Guyon, Olivier; Angel, James R.P.; Bowers, Charles; Burge, James; Burrows, Adam; Codona, Johanan; Greene, Thomas; Iye, Masanori; Kasting, James; Martin, Hubert; Carthy, Donald W. Mc; Meadows, Victoria; Meyer, Michael; Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Sleep, Norman; Spears, Tony; Tamura, Motohide; Tenerelli, Domenick; Vanderbei, Robert; Woodgate, Bruce; Woodruff, Robert A.; Woolf, Neville J.

    2006-01-01

    The Telescope to Observe Planetary Systems (TOPS) is a proposed space mission to image in the visible (0.4-0.9 micron) planetary systems of nearby stars simultaneously in 16 spectral bands (resolution R~20). For the ~10 most favorable stars, it will have the sensitivity to discover 2 R_E rocky planets within habitable zones and characterize their surfaces or atmospheres through spectrophotometry. Many more massive planets and debris discs will be imaged and characterized for the first time. With a 1.2m visible telescope, the proposed mission achieves its power by exploiting the most efficient and robust coronagraphic and wavefront control techniques. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph used by TOPS allows planet detection at 2 lambda/d with nearly 100% throughput and preserves the telescope angular resolution. An efficient focal plane wavefront sensing scheme accurately measures wavefront aberrations which are fed back to the telescope active primary mirror. Fine wavefront control is al...

  14. Eclipsing time variations in close binary systems: Planetary hypothesis vs. Applegate mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Völschow, M; Perdelwitz, V; Banerjee, R

    2015-01-01

    The observed eclipsing time variations in post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs) can be interpreted as potential evidence for massive Jupiter-like planets, or as a result of magnetic activity, leading to quasi-periodic changes in the quadrupole moment of the secondary star. The latter is commonly referred to as the Applegate mechanism. Following Brinkworth et al. (2006), we employ here an improved version of Applegate's model including the angular momentum exchange between a finite shell and the core of the star. The framework is employed to derive the general conditions under which the Applegate mechanism can work, and is subsequently applied to a sample of 16 close binary systems with potential planets, including 11 PCEBs. Further, we present a detailed derivation and study of analytical models which allow for an straightforward extension to other systems. Using our full numerical framework, we show that the Applegate mechanism can clearly explain the observed eclipsing time variations in 4 of the systems, w...

  15. Model-Independent Stellar and Planetary Masses from Multi-Transiting Exoplanetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up radial velocity measurements are collected. We conclude this analysis would be optimal for sy...

  16. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  17. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.;

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead ...

  18. Exponential Distance Relation and Near Resonances in the Trappist-1 Planetary System

    OpenAIRE

    Pletser, Vladimir; Basano, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    We report in this paper a new exponential relation distance of planets in the newly discovered exoplanetary system of the Trappist-1 star, and we comment on near orbital mean motion resonances among the seven planets. We predict that possible smaller planets could be found inside the orbit of the innermost discovered Planet b.

  19. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montet, Benjamin T. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: btm@astro.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 170-25, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  20. Compact planetary systems perturbed by an inclined companion. II. Stellar spin-orbit evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: boue@imcce.fr [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ≅ 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  1. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  2. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  3. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  4. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXVII. Up to seven planets orbiting HD 10180: probing the architecture of low-mass planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Udry, S; Benz, W; Bertaux, J -L; Bouchy, F; Correia, A C M; Laskar, J; Curto, G Lo; Mordasini, C; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santos, N C

    2010-01-01

    Context. Low-mass extrasolar planets are presently being discovered at an increased pace by radial velocity and transit surveys, opening a new window on planetary systems. Aims. We are conducting a high-precision radial velocity survey with the HARPS spectrograph which aims at characterizing the population of ice giants and super-Earths around nearby solar-type stars. This will lead to a better understanding of their formation and evolution, and yield a global picture of planetary systems from gas giants down to telluric planets. Methods. Progress has been possible in this field thanks in particular to the sub-m/s radial velocity precision achieved by HARPS. We present here new high-quality measurements from this instrument. Results. We report the discovery of a planetary system comprising at least five Neptune-like planets with minimum masses ranging from 12 to 25 M_Earth, orbiting the solar-type star HD 10180 at separations between 0.06 and 1.4 AU. A sixth radial velocity signal is present at a longer perio...

  5. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  6. The Curious Case of HU Aquarii - Dynamically Testing Proposed Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Marshall, Jonathan P; Tinney, Chris G; Butters, Oliver W

    2012-01-01

    In early 2011, the discovery of two planets moving on surprisingly extreme orbits around the eclipsing polar cataclysmic variable system HU Aquraii was announced based on variations in the timing of mutual eclipses between the two central stars. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of the stability of the exoplanet system as proposed in that work, revealing that it is simply dynamically unfeasible. We then apply the latest rigorous methods used by the Anglo-Australian Planet Search to analyse radial velocity data to re-examine the data used to make the initial claim. Using that data, we arrive at a significantly different orbital solution for the proposed planets, which we then show through dynamical analysis to be equally unfeasible. Finally, we discuss the need for caution in linking eclipse-timing data for cataclysmic variables to the presence of planets, and suggest a more likely explanation for the observed signal.

  7. Characterization of the planetary system Kepler-101 with HARPS-N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Sozzetti, A.; Lovis, C.

    2014-01-01

    -101b, and an Earth-sized planet, Kepler-101c. These two planets orbit the slightly evolved and metal-rich G-type star in 3.49 and 6.03 days, respectively. With mass Mp = 51.1-4.7+ 5.1 M⊕, radius Rp = 5.77-0.79+ 0.85 R⊕, and density ρp = 1.45-0.48+ 0.83 g cm-3, Kepler-101b is the first fully......-in giant planet and an outer Earth-sized planet with a period ratio slightly larger than the 3:2 resonance − is certainly of interest for scenarios of planet formation and evolution. This system does not follow thepreviously reported trend that the larger planet has the longer period in the majority...... of Kepler systems of planet pairs with at least one Neptune-sized or larger planet....

  8. Pulsed neutron generator system for astrobiological and geochemical exploration of planetary bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Hatice [Schlumberger Princeton Technology Center, 20 Wallace Road, Princeton Junction, NJ 07605 (United States); Groves, Joel L. [Schlumberger Princeton Technology Center, 20 Wallace Road, Princeton Junction, NJ 07605 (United States)]. E-mail: groves@princeton.oilfield.slb.com; Trombka, Jacob [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Starr, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Evans, Larry [Computer Sciences Corporation, 7700 Hubble Drive, Lanham-Seabrook, MD 20706 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hoover, Richard [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lim, Lucy [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); James, Ralph [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McCoy, Timothy [National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 (United States); Schweitzer, Jeffrey [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    A pulsed neutron/gamma-ray detection system for use on rovers to survey the elemental concentrations of Martian and Lunar surface and subsurface materials is evaluated. A robotic survey system combining a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) and detectors (gamma ray and neutron) can measure the major constituents to a depth of about 30 cm. Scanning mode measurements can give the major elemental concentrations while the rover is moving; analyzing mode measurements can give a detailed elemental analysis of the adjacent material when the rover is stationary. A detailed map of the subsurface elemental concentrations will provide invaluable information relevant to some of the most fundamental astrobiological questions including the presence of water, biogenic activity, life habitability and deposition processes.

  9. Constraints on the Preferred-Frame {\\alpha}1, {\\alpha}2 parameters from Solar System planetary precessions

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the orbital precessions affecting the relative motion of the components of a local binary system induced by Lorentz-violating Preferred Frame Effects (PFE) are explicitly computed in terms of the PPN parameters {\\alpha}1, {\\alpha}2. A linear combination of the supplementary perihelion precessions of all the inner planets of the Solar System, able to remove the a-priori bias of unmodelled/mismodelled standard effects such as the general relativistic Lense-Thirring precessions and the classical rates due to the Sun's oblateness J2, allows to infer {\\alpha}1 <= 10^-6, {\\alpha}2 <= 10^-5. Such bounds should be improved in the near future after processing the data that are being collected by the MESSENGER spacecraft, currently orbiting Mercury. Further improvements may come in the mid-future from the approved BepiColombo mission to Mercury (Abridged).

  10. Invariant Tori in the Secular Motions of the Three-body Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Ugo; Giorgilli, Antonio

    We consider the problem of the applicability of KAM theorem to a realistic problem of three bodies. In the framework of the averaged dynamics over the fast angles for the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system we can prove the perpetual stability of the orbit. The proof is based on semi-numerical algorithms requiring both explicit algebraic manipulations of series and analytical estimates. The proof is made rigorous by using interval arithmetics in order to control the numerical errors.

  11. HD 207129: Dusty Debris at the Very Outer Edge of a Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehne, Torsten; Augereau, J.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J.; Eiroa, C.; DUNES Consortium

    2011-09-01

    Debris disks are considered natural by-products of planet formation, and as such, they are important witnesses and tracers of this process. These disks of planetesimals and dust are left over where no planets could grow, typically at a system's cold periphery. The Herschel Open Time Key Program "DUNES" (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI: C. Eiroa) is a volume-limited survey that aims at the detection, characterization, and modeling of circumstellar debris disks as faint as a few times the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt. Due to Herschel's wavelength coverage, sensitivity, and angular resolving power, the program was able to provide valuable new data points for known disks and to discover additional disks. For about one quarter of the stars in our unbiased sample, significant excess is detected, almost doubling the previous detection rates for Sun-like stars. Notably, a completely new regime of disks was explored, best described as extremely cold, both in terms of temperature and dynamical excitation. We will present these observational and modeling results, focusing on the particular case of HD 207129. That system is among the brighter, well-resolved objects of our sample and may thus serve as a calibrator for the study of unresolved disks. From HST observations, the dust in that system is known to originate from a belt at about 160 AU from the star -- the most distant birth ring known so far. Due to its sheer size, the surprisingly large grains, and the potentially major role of transport towards the star, that system may well be characterized as a key piece in a so-far poorly sampled region of the jigsaw puzzle of planet formation.

  12. Statistics of Long Period Gas Giant Planets in Known Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bryan, Marta L; Howard, Andrew W; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin; Crepp, Justin R; Fulton, B J; Hinkley, Sasha; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John A; Marcy, Geoffry W; Wright, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a Doppler survey at Keck combined with NIRC2 K-band AO imaging to search for massive, long-period companions to 123 known exoplanet systems with one or two planets detected using the radial velocity (RV) method. Our survey is sensitive to Jupiter mass planets out to 20 AU for a majority of stars in our sample, and we report the discovery of eight new long-period planets, in addition to 20 systems with statistically significant RV trends indicating the presence of an outer companion beyond 5 AU. We combine our RV observations with AO imaging to determine the range of allowed masses and orbital separations for these companions, and account for variations in our sensitivity to companions among stars in our sample. We estimate the total occurrence rate of companions in our sample to be 52 +/- 5% over the range 1 - 20 M_Jup and 5 - 20 AU. Our data also suggest a declining frequency for gas giant planets in these systems beyond 3-10 AU, in contrast to earlier studies that found a rising frequency for g...

  13. Refining Parameters of the XO-5 Planetary System with High-Precision Transit Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, G; Adam, Ch; Raetz, St; Neuhaeuser, R

    2011-01-01

    Studies of transiting extrasolar planets offer an unique opportunity to get to know the internal structure of those worlds. The transiting exoplanet XO-5 b was found to have an anomalously high Safronov number and surface gravity. Our aim was to refine parameters of this intriguing system and search for signs of transit timing variations. We gathered high-precision light curves of two transits of XO-5 b. Assuming three different limb darkening laws, we found the best-fitting model and redetermined parameters of the system, including planet-to-star radius ratio, impact parameter and central time of transits. Error estimates were derived by the prayer bead method and Monte Carlo simulations. Although system's parameters obtained by us were found to agree with previous studies within one sigma, the planet was found to be notable smaller with the radius of 1.03+0.06-0.05 Jupiter radii. Our results confirm the high Safronov number and surface gravity of the planet. With two new mid-transit times, the ephemeris was...

  14. UV Habitability of Possible Exomoons in Observed F-star Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explore the astrobiological significance of F-type stars of spectral type between F5 V and F9.5 V, which possess Jupiter-type planets within or close to their climatological habitable zones. These planets, or at least a subset of them, may also possess rocky exomoons, which potentially offer habitable environments. Our work considers eight selected systems. The Jupiter-type planets in these systems are in notably different orbits with eccentricities ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. Particularly, we consider the stellar UV environments provided by the photospheric stellar radiation in regard to the circumstellar habitability of the system. According to previous studies, DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology might be based on hydrocarbons. Thus, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar UV radiation. Atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. ...

  15. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the jet stream process. [planetary/satellite systems formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, W.-H.

    1977-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model is formulated to simulate the orbital evolution of a system of colliding particles. It is found that inelastic collision alone (even if the impact energy dissipation from collision is very large) does not lead to the formation of a narrow ring-like jet stream; instead, a flat disk structure, similar to Saturn's rings, usually results. To produce the radial focusing effect, it is argued that additional dynamical effects, which would strengthen the collisional interaction between the particles in near-circular orbits, is needed.

  17. Galactic planetary science

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets -mainly radial velocity and transit - or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next...

  18. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  19. The impact of secular resonances on habitable zones in circumstellar planetary systems of known binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bazsó, Ákos; Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Bancelin, David

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey on binary star systems with stellar separations less than 100 astronomical units. For a selection of 11 binaries with a detected (giant) planet in circumstellar motion we determine the conditions that would allow additional planets to be present inside or nearby the habitable zone (HZ) of the host star. First we calculate the three-body HZ for these systems, in order to investigate the dynamics of bodies in those regions. After adding the giant planet's influence the final HZ is considerably modified in particular by mean motion and secular resonances. We apply a semi-analytical method to determine the locations of linear secular resonances, which is based on finding the apsidal precession frequencies of the massive bodies. For very close-in giant planets we also take the general relativistic precession of the pericenter into account. Our results demonstrate that there is a qualitative difference in the dynamics whether the giant planet is located exterior or interior to the HZ. An exterio...

  20. Correlations between the stellar, planetary and debris components of exoplanet systems observed by $\\textit{Herschel}$

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J P; Eiroa, C; Kennedy, G; Mora, A; Sibthorpe, B; Lestrade, J -F; Maldonado, J; Sanz-Forcada, J; Wyatt, M C; Matthews, B; Horner, J; Montesinos, B; Bryden, G; del Burgo, C; Greaves, J S; Ivison, R J; Meeus, G; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    The $\\textit{Herschel}$ DEBRIS, DUNES and GT programmes observed 37 exoplanet host stars within 25 pc at 70, 100 and 160 $\\mu$m with the sensitivity to detect far-infrared excess emission at flux density levels only an order of magnitude greater than that of the Solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. Here we present an analysis of that sample, using it to more accurately determine the (possible) level of dust emission from these exoplanet host stars and thereafter determine the links between the various components of these exoplanetary systems through statistical analysis. We have fitted the flux densities measured from recent \\textit{Herschel} observations with a simple two parameter ($T_{d}$, $L_{\\rm IR}/L_{\\star}$) black body model (or to the 3-$\\sigma$ upper limits at 100 $\\mu$m). From this uniform approach we calculate the fractional luminosity, radial extent, dust temperature and disc mass. We then plotted the calculated dust luminosity or upper limits against the stellar properties, e.g. effective tempe...

  1. Stellar rotation--planetary orbit period commensurability in the HAT-P-11 system

    CERN Document Server

    Béky, Bence; Kipping, David M; Noyes, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A number of planet-host stars have been observed to rotate with a period equal to an integer multiple of the orbital period of their close planet. We expand this list by analyzing Kepler data of HAT-P-11 and finding a period ratio of 6:1. In particular, we present evidence for a long-lived spot on the stellar surface that is eclipsed by the planet in the same position four times, every sixth transit. We also identify minima in the out-of-transit lightcurve and confirm that their phase with respect to the stellar rotation is mostly stationary for the 48-month timeframe of the observations, confirming the proposed rotation period. For comparison, we apply our methods to Kepler-17 and confirm the findings of Bonomo & Lanza (2012) that the period ratio is not exactly 8:1 in that system. Finally, we provide a hypothesis on how interactions between a star and its planet could possibly result in an observed commensurability for systems where the stellar differential rotation profile happens to include a period a...

  2. Diversity of the initial rocky planetary building materials at the edge of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Asteroids and comets are surviving members of the vast planetesimal population that was distributed across the early solar system. They appear to be a diverse set of bodies but we present evidence from comet samples that the body-to-body diversity of the initial rocky component mix in planetesimals may have declined with distance from the Sun. Laboratory measurements of the minor element Mn in olivine collected from Comet Wild 2 suggests that the micron-sized rocky crystalline contents of this comet formed in numerous inner solar system environments. The results are consistent with a scenario where silicates such as olivine form at incandescent temperatures in multiple environments and then mix as they are transported to distant cold regions where silicates could accrete with ice and organics to form comets. Accreting far from silicate formation regions, many ice-rich planetesimals are likely to have started with similar complex mixtures of diverse rocky components formed in various high-temperature environments. This contrasts with asteroidal meteorite parent bodies whose silicates retain regional properties that give different chondrite classes their distinctive properties.

  3. Accretion of planetary matter and the lithium problem in the 16 Cygni stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Deal, Morgan; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The 16 Cyg system is composed of two solar analogs with similar masses and ages. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cyg A whereas 16 Cyg B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cyg B that in 16 Cyg A, by a factor of at least 4.7. The interest of studying the 16 Cyg system is that the two star have the same age and the same initial composition. The presently observed differences must be due to their different evolution, related to the fact that one of them hosts a planet contrary to the other one. We computed models of the two stars which precisely fit the observed seismic frequencies. We used the Toulouse Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC) that includes complete atomic diffusion (including radiative accelerations). We compared the predicted surface abundances with the spectroscopic observations and confirmed that another mixing process is needed. We then included the effect of accretion-induced fingering convection. The accretion o...

  4. Host Star Properties and Transit Exclusion for the HD 38529 Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Gregory W; Wang, Sharon X; Wright, Jason T; Boyajian, Tabetha S; von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David R; Dragomir, Diana; Farrington, Chris; Fischer, Debra A; Hinkel, Natalie R; Howard, Andrew W; Jensen, Eric; Laughlin, Gregory; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Pilyavsky, Genady

    2013-01-01

    The transit signature of exoplanets provides an avenue through which characterization of exoplanetary properties may be undertaken, such as studies of mean density, structure, and atmospheric composition. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) is a program to expand the catalog of transiting planets around bright host stars by refining the orbits of known planets discovered with the radial velocity technique. Here we present results for the HD 38529 system. We determine fundamental properties of the host star through direct interferometric measurements of the radius and through spectroscopic analysis. We provide new radial velocity measurements that are used to improve the Keplerian solution for the two known planets, and we find no evidence for a previously postulated third planet. We also present 12 years of precision robotic photometry of HD 38529 that demonstrate the inner planet does not transit and the host star exhibits cyclic variations in seasonal mean brightness with a timesc...

  5. Mass-independent isotope effects in planetary atmospheres and the early solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemens, M H

    1999-01-15

    A class of isotope effects that alters isotope ratios on a mass-independent basis provides a tool for studying a wide range of processes in atmospheres of Earth and other planets as well as early processes in the solar nebula. The mechanism for the effect remains uncertain. Mass-independent isotopic compositions have been observed in O3, CO2, N2O, and CO in Earth's atmosphere and in carbonate from a martian meteorite, which suggests a role for mass-independent processes in the atmosphere of Mars. Observed mass-independent meteoritic oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions may derive from chemical processes in the presolar nebula, and their distributions could provide insight into early solar system evolution.

  6. Moon formation and orbital evolution in extrasolar planetary systems - A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With over 450 extrasolar planets detected, the possibility of searching for moons of these planets is starting to be investigated. In order to make efficient use of limited observing resources, it would be useful if the types of moons that a given planet is likely to host was known prior to detection. Fortunately, informed by simulations of moon formation in our own solar system, as well as more general theoretical investigations of moon orbital evolution, such information is now available. I present a review of literature results concerning the likely physical and orbital properties of extra-solar moons, and how these properties are predicted to vary with the properties of their host planet.

  7. Extreme Climate Variations from Milankovitch-like Eccentricity Oscillations in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S

    2010-01-01

    Although our solar system features predominantly circular orbits, the exoplanets discovered so far indicate that this is the exception rather than the rule. This could have crucial consequences for exoplanet climates, both because eccentric terrestrial exoplanets could have extreme seasonal variation, and because giant planets on eccentric orbits could excite Milankovitch-like variations of a potentially habitable terrestrial planet,\\"A\\^os eccentricity, on timescales of thousands-to-millions of years. A particularly interesting implication concerns the fact that the Earth is thought to have gone through at least one globally frozen, "snowball" state in the last billion years that it presumably exited after several million years of buildup of greenhouse gases when the ice-cover shut off the carbonate-silicate cycle. Water-rich extrasolar terrestrial planets with the capacity to host life might be at risk of falling into similar snowball states. Here we show that if a terrestrial planet has a giant companion o...

  8. On the Evolution of Dust Mineralogy, From Protoplanetary Disks to Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Isa; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Merin, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of silicate features emitted by dust grains in protoplanetary disks and Solar System bodies can shed light on the progress of planet formation. The significant fraction of crystalline material in comets, chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles indicates a modification of the almost completely amorphous ISM dust from which they formed. The production of crystalline silicates thus must happen in protoplanetary disks, where dust evolves to build planets and planetesimals. Different scenarios have been proposed, but it is still unclear how and when this happens. This paper presents dust grain mineralogy of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young Serpens cluster. These results are compared to those in the young Taurus region and to sources that have retained their protoplanetary disks in the older Upper Scorpius and Eta Chamaeleontis stellar clusters, using the same analysis technique for all samples. This comparison allows an investigation of the grain mineralo...

  9. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rhana B.; Parker, Richard J.

    2017-02-01

    The presence and abundance of short-lived radioisotopes 26Al and 60Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters (>1000 M⊙) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of ˜1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50-200 M⊙) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse N-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience SN enrichment than in high-mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first SN even in clusters with relatively low (100 stars pc-3) initial densities. However, because of the high number of low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars, the absolute number of enriched stars is the same, if not higher than for more populous clusters. Our results show that direct enrichment of protoplanetary discs from SNe occurs as frequently in low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars (>20 M⊙) as in more populous star clusters (1000 M⊙). This relaxes the constraints on the direct enrichment scenario and therefore the birth environment of the Solar system.

  10. High precision astrometry mission for the detection and characterization of nearby habitable planetary systems with the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Brown, Anthony G A; Cara, Christophe; Durand, Gilles; Eiroa, Carlos; Feautrier, Philippe; Jakobsson, Björn; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Labadie, Lucas; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Laskar, Jacques; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Maldonado, Jesús; Mercier, Manuel; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Traub, Wesley; Absil, Olivier; Alibert, Yann; Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Beichman, Charles; Chelli, Alain; Cockell, Charles S; Duvert, Gilles; Forveille, Thierry; Garcia, Paulo J V; Hobbs, David; Krone-Martins, Alberto; Lammer, Helmut; Meunier, Nadège; Minardi, Stefano; de Almeida, André Moitinho; Rambaux, Nicolas; Raymond, Sean; Röttgering, Huub J A; Sahlmann, Johannes; Schuller, Peter A; Ségransan, Damien; Selsis, Franck; Surdej, Jean; Villaver, Eva; White, Glenn J; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) A complete census of planetary systems around a volume-limited sample of solar-type stars (FGK dwarfs) in the Solar neighborhood with uniform sensitivity down to Earth-mass planets within their Habitable Zones out to several AUs would be a major milestone in extrasolar planets astrophysics. This fundamental goal can be achieved with a mission concept such as NEAT - the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope. NEAT is designed to carry out space-borne extremely-high-precision astrometric measurements sufficient to detect dynamical effects due to orbiting planets of mass even lower than Earth's around the nearest stars. Such a survey mission would provide the actual planetary masses and the full orbital geometry for all the components of the detected planetary systems down to the Earth-mass limit. The NEAT performance limits can be achieved by carrying out differential astrometry between the targets and a set of suitable reference stars in the field. The NEAT instrument design consists of an off-axis para...

  11. The Highland Terrain Hopper: a new locomotion system for exploration of Mars and other low-gravity planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Mege, Daniel; Rickman, Hans

    Field geoscientists need to collect three-dimensional data in order characterise the lithologic succession and structure of terrains, reconstruct their evolution, and eventually reveal the history of a portion of the planet. This is achieved by walking up and down mountains and valleys, conducting and interpreting geological and geophysical traverses, and reading measures made at station located at key sites on mountain peaks or rocky promontories. These activities have been denied to conventional planetary exploration rovers because engineering constraints for landing are strong, especially in terms of allowed terrain roughness and slopes. There are few limitations in the type of scientific payload conventional exploration rovers can carry, from geology and geophysics to geochemistry and exobiology. They lack two skills, however: the ability of working on rugged or unstable terrain, like in canyons and mountains, and on solid bodies having gravity too low for the friction between the wheels and the ground to generate robot displacement. ASTRONIKA Ltd. and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences are designing Galago, the Highland Terrain Hopper, a small (Ø~50-100 cm), light (5-10 kg), and robust locomotion system, which addresses the challenge of accessing most areas on low-gravity planetary body for performing scientific observations and measurements, alone or as part of a commando. Galago is symmetric and can jump accurately to a height of 4.5 m on Mars, 9 m on the Moon, and much more on Phobos and other small bodies. For one Galago, a nominal horizontal travel distance of 5 km (1000 jumps) is currently planned with the considered energy source, a battery reloaded by solar panels. Galago may assist other types of robots, or humans, in accessing difficult terrain, or even replace them for specific measurements or campaigning. Its three independent legs make possible several types of motions: accurate jumping (to any place identified in advance

  12. Planetcam: A Visible And Near Infrared Lucky-imaging Camera To Study Planetary Atmospheres And Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Rojas, J.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; de Bilbao, L.; Murga, G.; Ariño, J.; Mendikoa, I.

    2012-10-01

    PlanetCam is a two-channel fast-acquisition and low-noise camera designed for a multispectral study of the atmospheres of the planets (Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) and the satellite Titan at high temporal and spatial resolutions simultaneously invisible (0.4-1 μm) and NIR (1-2.5 μm) channels. This is accomplished by means of a dichroic beam splitter that separates both beams directing them into two different detectors. Each detector has filter wheels corresponding to the characteristic absorption bands of each planetary atmosphere. Images are acquired and processed using the “lucky imaging” technique in which several thousand images of the same object are obtained in a short time interval, coregistered and ordered in terms of image quality to reconstruct a high-resolution ideally diffraction limited image of the object. Those images will be also calibrated in terms of intensity and absolute reflectivity. The camera will be tested at the 50.2 cm telescope of the Aula EspaZio Gela (Bilbao) and then commissioned at the 1.05 m at Pic-duMidi Observatory (Franca) and at the 1.23 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. Among the initially planned research targets are: (1) The vertical structure of the clouds and hazes in the planets and their scales of variability; (2) The meteorology, dynamics and global winds and their scales of variability in the planets. PlanetCam is also expected to perform studies of other Solar System and astrophysical objects. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  13. PROSPECTS FOR CHARACTERIZING HOST STARS OF THE PLANETARY SYSTEM DETECTIONS PREDICTED FOR THE KOREAN MICROLENSING TELESCOPE NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Calen B., E-mail: henderson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    I investigate the possibility of constraining the flux of the lens (i.e., host star) for the types of planetary systems the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network is predicted to find. I examine the potential to obtain lens flux measurements by (1) imaging the lens once it is spatially resolved from the source, (2) measuring the elongation of the point-spread function of the microlensing target (lens+source) when the lens and source are still unresolved, and (3) taking prompt follow-up photometry. In each case I simulate the observing programs for a representative example of current ground-based adaptive optics (AO) facilities (specifically NACO on the Very Large Telescope), future ground-based AO facilities (GMTIFS on the Giant Magellan Telescope, GMT), and future space telescopes (NIRCAM on the James Webb Space Telescope, JWST). Given the predicted distribution of relative lens-source proper motions, I find that the lens flux could be measured to a precision of σ{sub H{sub ℓ}}≤0.1 for ≳60% of planet detections ≥5 yr after each microlensing event for a simulated observing program using GMT, which images resolved lenses. NIRCAM on JWST would be able to carry out equivalently high-precision measurements for ∼28% of events Δt = 10 yr after each event by imaging resolved lenses. I also explore the effects various blend components would have on the mass derived from prompt follow-up photometry, including companions to the lens, companions to the source, and unassociated interloping stars. I find that undetected blend stars would cause catastrophic failures (i.e., >50% fractional uncertainty in the inferred lens mass) for ≲ (16 · f {sub bin})% of planet detections, where f {sub bin} is the binary fraction, with the majority of these failures occurring for host stars with mass ≲0.3 M {sub ☉}.

  14. Exo-C: A Space Mission for Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; Belikov, Ruslan; Marley, Mark; Bryden, Geoff; Serabyn, Eugene; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Chakrabarti, Supriya; McElwain, Michael; Meadows, Victoria; hide

    2015-01-01

    Exo-C is NASAs first community study of a modest aperture space telescope designed for high contrast observations of exoplanetary systems. The mission will be capable of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, discovering previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in a large sample of circumstellar disks. It will obtain unique science results on planets down to super-Earth sizes and serve as a technology pathfinder toward an eventual flagship-class mission to find and characterize habitable Earth-like exoplanets. We present the mission/payload design and highlight steps to reduce mission cost/risk relative to previous mission concepts. Key elements are an unobscured telescope aperture, an internal coronagraph with deformable mirrors for precise wavefront control, and an orbit and observatory design chosen for high thermal stability. Exo-C has a similar telescope aperture, orbit, lifetime, and spacecraft bus requirements to the highly successful Kepler mission (which is our cost reference). The needed technology development is on-course for a possible mission start in 2017. This paper summarizes the study final report completed in January 2015. During 2015 NASA will make a decision on its potential development.

  15. Magnetic Origins of the Stellar Mass-Obliquity Correlation in Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Spalding, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Detailed observational characterization of transiting exoplanet systems has revealed that the spin-axes of massive (M > ~1.2 solar masses) stars often exhibit substantial misalignments with respect to the orbits of the planets they host. Conversely, lower-mass stars tend to only have limited obliquities. A similar trend has recently emerged within the observational dataset of young stars' magnetic field strengths: massive T-Tauri stars tend to have dipole fields that are ~10 times weaker than their less-massive counterparts. Here we show that the associated dependence of magnetic star-disk torques upon stellar mass naturally explains the observed spin-orbit misalignment trend, provided that misalignments are obtained within the disk-hosting phase. Magnetic torques act to realign the stellar spin-axes of lower-mass stars with the disk plane on a timescale significantly shorter than the typical disk lifetime, whereas the same effect operates on a much longer timescale for massive stars. Cumulatively, our result...

  16. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, G R; Farr, W M; a, R A Garc\\'ı; Lund, M N; Mathis, S; Metcalfe, T S; Appourchaux, T; Basu, S; Benomar, O; Campante, T L; Ceillier, T; Elsworth, Y; Handberg, R; Salabert, D; Stello, D

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead use the technique of asteroseimology to determine rotational properties of both 16 Cyg A and B. We find the rotation periods to be $23.8^{+1.5}_{-1.8} \\rm \\, days$ and $23.2^{+11.5}_{-3.2} \\rm \\, days$, and the angles of inclination to be $56^{+6}_{-5} \\, ^{\\circ}$ and $36^{+17}_{-7} \\, ^{\\circ}$, for A and B respectively. Together with these results we use the published mass and age to suggest that, under the assumption of a solar-like rotation profile, 16 Cyg A could be used when calibrating gyrochronology relations. In addition, we discuss the known 16 Cyg B star-planet eccentricity and measured low obliquity which is consistent with Kozai cycling and tidal theory.

  17. Constraints on the architecture of the HD 95086 planetary system with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Rameau, Julien; De Rosa, Robert J; Blunt, Sarah C; Patience, Jenny; Doyon, Rene; Graham, James R; Lafreniere, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K; Duchesse, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M; Hung, Li-Wei; Konopacky, Quinn M; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Perrin, Marshall D; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G; Ammons, S Mark; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Morzinski, Katie M; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Rantakyearo, Fredrik T; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    We present astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager between 2013 and 2016. A small but significant position angle change is detected at constant separation; the orbital motion is confirmed with literature measurements. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. With 68% confidence, a semimajor axis of 61.7^{+20.7}_{-8.4} au and an inclination of 153.0^{+9.7}_{-13.5} deg are favored, with eccentricity less than 0.21. Under the assumption of a co-planar planet-disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 au with 68% confidence. Therefore HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. We use our sensitivity to additional planets to discuss specific scenarios presented in the literature to explain the geometry of the debris belts. We suggest that either two planets on moderately eccentric orbits or three to four planets with inhomo...

  18. Vega's hot dust from icy planetesimals scattered inward by an outward-migrating planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N

    2014-01-01

    Vega has been shown to host multiple dust populations, including both hot exo-zodiacal dust at sub-AU radii and a cold debris disk extending beyond 100 AU. We use dynamical simulations to show how Vega's hot dust can be created by long-range gravitational scattering of planetesimals from its cold outer regions. Planetesimals are scattered progressively inward by a system of 5-7 planets from 30-60 AU to very close-in. In successful simulations the outermost planets are typically Neptune-mass. The back-reaction of planetesimal scattering causes these planets to migrate outward and continually interact with fresh planetesimals, replenishing the source of scattered bodies. The most favorable cases for producing Vega's exo-zodi have negative radial mass gradients, with sub-Saturn- to Jupiter-mass inner planets at 5-10 AU and outer planets of 2.5 to 20 Earth masses. The mechanism fails if a Jupiter-sized planet exists beyond ~15 AU because the planet preferentially ejects planetesimals before they can reach the inn...

  19. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector \\Psi directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly precess, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node \\Omega, the longitude of the pericenter \\varpi and the mean anomaly M. Then, we compare our prediction for with the corrections \\Delta\\dot\\varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain |\\Psi_z| <= 0.0006-0.013 arcsec cty^-1, |\\Psi_x| <= 0.1-2.7 arcsec cty-1, |\\Psi_y| <= 0.3-2.3 arcsec cty^-1. Interpreted in terms of models of s...

  20. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Propulsion and Power Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S. K.; Cataldo, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The high specific impulse (I (sub sp)) and engine thrust generated using liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) propulsion makes them attractive for upper stage applications for difficult robotic science missions to the outer planets. Besides high (I (sub sp)) and thrust, NTR engines can also be designed for "bimodal" operation allowing substantial amounts of electrical power (10's of kWe ) to be generated for onboard spacecraft systems and high data rate communications with Earth during the course of the mission. Two possible options for using the NTR are examined here. A high performance injection stage utilizing a single 15 klbf thrust engine can inject large payloads to the outer planets using a 20 t-class launch vehicle when operated in an "expendable mode". A smaller bimodal NTR stage generating approx. 1 klbf of thrust and 20 to 40 kWe for electric propulsion can deliver approx. 100 kg using lower cost launch vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Propulsion and Power Systems for Outer Planetary Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S. K.; Cataldo, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The high specific impulse (I sp) and engine thrust generated using liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) propulsion makes them attractive for upper stage applications for difficult robotic science missions to the outer planets. Besides high (I sp) and thrust, NTR engines can also be designed for "bimodal" operation allowing substantial amounts of electrical power (10's of kWe ) to be generated for onboard spacecraft systems and high data rate communications with Earth during the course of the mission. Two possible options for using the NTR are examined here. A high performance injection stage utilizing a single 15 klbf thrust engine can inject large payloads to the outer planets using a 20 t-class launch vehicle when operated in an "expendable mode". A smaller bimodal NTR stage generating approx. 1 klbf of thrust and 20 to 40 kWe for electric propulsion can deliver approx. 100 kg using lower cost launch vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Direct imaging of an asymmetric debris disk in the HD 106906 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Kalas, Paul G; Wang, Jason J; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Duchene, Gaspard; Chen, Christine; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Dong, Ruobing; Graham, James R; Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Matthews, Brenda; Rameau, Julien; Marois, Christian; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Doyon, René; Draper, Zachary H; Lawler, Samantha; Ammons, S Mark; Arriaga, Pauline; Bulger, Joanna; Cotten, Tara; Follette, Katherine B; Goodsell, Stephen; Greenbaum, Alexandra; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Konapacky, Quinn; Lafreniere, David; Larkin, James E; Long, Douglas; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stan; Morzinski, Katie M; Nielsen, Eric L; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Perrin, Marshall D; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Vasisht, Gautam; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Wolff, Schuyler G

    2015-01-01

    We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using Gemini/GPI in the infrared and HST/ACS in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco-Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius $\\sim$50 AU, and an outer extent $>$500 AU. The HST data show the outer regions are highly asymmetric, resembling the ''needle'' morphology seen for the HD 15115 debris disk. The planet candidate is oriented $\\sim$21$\\deg$ away from the position angle of the primary's debris disk, strongly suggesting non-coplanarity with the system. We hypothesize that HD 106906b could be dynamically involved in the perturbation of the primary's disk, and investigate whether or not there is evidence for a circumplanetary dust disk or cloud that is either primordial or captured from the primary. We show that both the existing optical prope...

  3. DIRECT IMAGING OF AN ASYMMETRIC DEBRIS DISK IN THE HD 106906 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalas, Paul G.; Wang, Jason J.; Duchene, Gaspard; Dong, Ruobing; Graham, James R.; Rosa, Robert J. De [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith; Patience, Jennifer [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Chilcote, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chen, Christine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fitzgerald, Michael P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Murray-Clay, Ruth [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Matthews, Brenda; Marois, Christian; Draper, Zachary H.; Lawler, Samantha [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rameau, Julien; Doyon, René [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanetes, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using the Gemini/Gemini Planet Imager in the infrared and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco–Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius ∼50 AU, and an outer extent >500 AU. The HST data show that the outer regions are highly asymmetric, resembling the “needle” morphology seen for the HD 15115 debris disk. The planet candidate is oriented ∼21° away from the position angle of the primary’s debris disk, strongly suggesting non-coplanarity with the system. We hypothesize that HD 106906b could be dynamically involved in the perturbation of the primary’s disk, and investigate whether or not there is evidence for a circumplanetary dust disk or cloud that is either primordial or captured from the primary. We show that both the existing optical properties and near-infrared colors of HD 106906b are weakly consistent with this possibility, motivating future work to test for the observational signatures of dust surrounding the planet.

  4. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Rhana B

    2016-01-01

    The presence and abundance of short lived radioisotopes (SLRs) $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters ($>$1000 M$_{\\odot}$) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of $\\sim$1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50 - 200 M$_{\\odot}$) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse $N$-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience supernova enrichment than in high mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first supernov...

  5. Orbital alignment and starspot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Raia, G; Tregloan-Reed, J; Molliere, P; Bozza, V; Bretton, M; Bruni, I; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Dominik, M; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Jorgensen, U G; Korhonen, H; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Starkey, D; Novati, S Calchi; Jaimes, R Figuera; Henning, Th; Juncher, D; Haugbolle, T; Kains, N; Popovas, A; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Surdej, J; Wertz, O

    2016-01-01

    We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique. One transit was recorded simultaneously from two different observatories and another one from the same site but with two different instruments, including a multi-band camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as starspots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the jktebop code, and those with the anomalies with the prism+gemc codes in order to simultaneously model the photometric parameters of the transits and the position, size and contrast of each starspot. We used these new light curves and some from the literature to revise the physical properties of the WASP-52 system. Starspots with similar characteristics were detected in four transits over a period of 43 days. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same starspot, per...

  6. Dynamical Stability of Earth-Like Planetary Orbits in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    David, E M; Fatuzzo, M; Adams, F C; David, Eva-Marie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the stability of an Earth-like planet orbiting a solar mass star in the presence of an outer-lying intermediate mass companion. The overall goal is to estimate the fraction of binary systems that allow Earth-like planets to remain stable over long time scales. We numerically determine the planet's ejection time $\\tauej$ over a range of companion masses ($M_C$ = 0.001 -- 0.5 $M_\\odot$), orbital eccentricities $\\epsilon$, and semi-major axes $a$. This suite of $\\sim40,000$ numerical experiments suggests that the most important variables are the companion's mass $M_C$ and periastron distance $\\rmin$ = $a(1-\\epsilon)$ to the primary star. At fixed $M_C$, the ejection time is a steeply increasing function of $\\rmin$ over the range of parameter space considered here (although the ejection time has a distribution of values for a given $\\rmin$). Most of the integration times are limited to 10 Myr, but a small set of integrations extend to 500 Myr. For each companion mass, we find fitting formulae ...

  7. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  8. Orbital alignment and star-spot properties in the WASP-52 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Raia, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Mollière, P.; Bozza, V.; Bretton, M.; Bruni, I.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Starkey, D.; Calchi Novati, S.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Henning, Th.; Juncher, D.; Haugbølle, T.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.

    2017-02-01

    We report 13 high-precision light curves of eight transits of the exoplanet WASP-52 b, obtained by using four medium-class telescopes, through different filters, and adopting the defocussing technique. One transit was recorded simultaneously from two different observatories and another one from the same site but with two different instruments, including a multiband camera. Anomalies were clearly detected in five light curves and modelled as star-spots occulted by the planet during the transit events. We fitted the clean light curves with the JKTEBOP code, and those with the anomalies with the PRISM+GEMC codes in order to simultaneously model the photometric parameters of the transits and the position, size and contrast of each star-spot. We used these new light curves and some from the literature to revise the physical properties of the WASP-52 system. Star-spots with similar characteristics were detected in four transits over a period of 43 d. In the hypothesis that we are dealing with the same star-spot, periodically occulted by the transiting planet, we estimated the projected orbital obliquity of WASP-52 b to be λ = 3.8° ± 8.4°. We also determined the true orbital obliquity, ψ = 20° ± 50°, which is, although very uncertain, the first measurement of ψ purely from star-spot crossings. We finally assembled an optical transmission spectrum of the planet and searched for variations of its radius as a function of wavelength. Our analysis suggests a flat transmission spectrum within the experimental uncertainties.

  9. PLANETSYS, a Computer Program for the Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Planetary Power Transmission System: User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, G. B.; Kleckner, R. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Dyba, G. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1981-01-01

    The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of PLANETSYS which is capable of simulating the thermomechanical performance of a multistage planetary power transmission. In this version of PLANETSYS, the user can select either SKF or NASA models in calculating lubricant film thickness and traction forces.

  10. Supercritical CO2 Cleaning System for Planetary Protection and Contamination Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang; Aveline, David C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Current spacecraft-compatible cleaning protocols involve a vapor degreaser, liquid sonication, and alcohol wiping. These methods are not very effective in removing live and dead microbes from spacecraft piece parts of slightly complicated geometry, such as tubing and loosely fitted nuts and bolts. Contamination control practices are traditionally focused on cleaning and monitoring of particulate and oily residual. Vapor degreaser and outgassing bakeout have not been proven to be effective in removing some less volatile, hydrophilic biomolecules of significant relevance to life detection. A precision cleaning technology was developed using supercritical CO2 (SCC). SCC is used as both solvent and carrier for removing organic and particulate contaminants. Supercritical fluid, like SCC, is characterized by physical and thermal properties that are between those of the pure liquid and gas phases. The fluid density is a function of the temperature and pressure. Its solvating power can be adjusted by changing the pressure or temperature, or adding a secondary solvent such as alcohol or water. Unlike a regular organic solvent, SCC has higher diffusivities, lower viscosity, and lower surface tension. It readily penetrates porous and fibrous solids and can reach hard-to-reach surfaces of the parts with complex geometry. Importantly, the CO2 solvent does not leave any residue. The results using this new cleaning device demonstrated that both supercritical CO2 with 5% water as a co-solvent can achieve cleanliness levels of 0.01 mg/cm2 or less for contaminants of a wide range of hydrophobicities. Experiments under the same conditions using compressed Martian air mix, which consists of 95% CO2, produced similar cleaning effectiveness on the hydrophobic compounds. The main components of the SCC cleaning system are a high-pressure cleaning vessel, a boil-off vessel located downstream from the cleaning vessel, a syringe-type high-pressure pump, a heat exchanger, and a back pressure

  11. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  12. Planetary camera control improves microfiche production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, W. L.; Lewis, E. B.

    1965-01-01

    Microfiche is prepared using an automatic control system for a planetary camera. The system provides blank end-of-row exposures and signals card completion so the legend of the next card may by photographed.

  13. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    the rotation axe. But this unevenness is undesirable because it creates tectonic stresses and increases energetic status that is against the natural tendency to minimize these physical characteristics. So, a body tends to lower angular momentum of tropics and increase it in extra-tropics. With the same angular velocity it remains only mass and radius to play in this tendency. Tropical belt is destructed (for an example, the lithosphere disintegration in solid bodies), extra-tropical belts add dense material (plumes), expand - the constructive tendency [6]. Both tectonic peculiarities-polyhedrons and constructive - destructive tendencies - are common for celestial bodies of various classes. They are characteristic for our star, planets, satellites and small bodies. That is why a term "supertectonics" seems rather suitable. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, №3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Plato' polyhedra as shapes of small icy satellites // Geophys. Res. Abstracts, Vol. 10, 2008, EGU2008-A-01271, CD-ROM; [5] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) "Diamond" and "dumb-bells"-like shapes of celestial bodies induced by inertia-gravity waves // 30th Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium on comparative planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst.,, 49-50; [6] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20.

  14. STUDY ON CONTROL STRATEGY OF CLUTCH STARTING FOR CAR WITH A METAL PUSHING BELT-PLANETARY GEAR CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The automatic control of clutch starting in car with a metal pushing belt-planetary gear continuously variable transmission (CVT) is a complex problem. A suited control strategy is required to realize quick and smooth start. A simulation state space equation is established on clutch starting control of a car with CVT by bond graph theory. According to the fuzzy control method with the expert system, a fuzzy control system of car starting process to weaken the jerk motion is introduced. The simulation results indicate that the jerk motion of clutch starting is below 10 m/s3.

  15. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, George H.; De Marco, Orsola; Davies, James; Lotarevich, I.; Bond, Howard E.; Harrington, J. Patrick; Lanz, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M ⊙ for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M ⊙) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and Hα emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained [from the Data Archive] at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11558.

  16. International Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal Planetary Database Development Project 'the International Planetary Data Alliance'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Crichton, D.; Capria, M. T.; Beebe, R.; Zender, J.

    2009-09-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formed under COSPAR in 2008, is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive standards that make it easier to share data across international boundaries. In June - July 2009, we held the 4th Steering Committee meeting. Thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions in the world, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA & N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. The projects demonstrated the feasibility of sharing data and emphasized the importance of developing common data standards to ensure world-wide access to international planetary archives. The Venus Express Interoperability project leveraged standards and technology efforts from both the Planetary Data System (PDS) and IPDA in order to deliver a new capability for data sharing between NASA/PDS and ESA/PSA. This project demonstrated a model and framework for linking compliant planetary archive systems for future international missions. The next step for IPDA, during the 2009-2010 period, will be to work with NASA/PDS to review and participate in an upgrade of its standards to improve both the consistency of the standards to build compliant international archives as well as improve long-term usability of the science data products. This paper presents the achievements and plans, which will be summarized in the paper which will appear in 'Space Research Today' in December 2009.

  17. Entry Descent and Landing Systems for small planetary missions: parametric comparison of parachutes and inflatable systems for the proposed Vanguard Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouis, E.; Ellery, A.; Welch, C. S.

    2003-11-01

    Here the feasibility of a post-Beagle2 robotic Mars mission of modest size, mass and cost with a high scientific return is assessed. Based on a triad of robotics comprising a lander, a rover and three penetrating moles, the mission is astrobiology focussed, but also provides a platform for technology demonstration. The study is investigating two Entry, Descent and Landing Systems (EDLS) for the 120kg - mission based on the conventional heatshield/parachute duo and on the use of inflatable technologies as demonstrated by the IRDT/IRDT2 projects. Moreover, to make use of existing aerodynamic databases, both EDLS are considered with two geometries: the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Huygens/Beagle2 (B2) configurations. A versatile EDL model has been developed to provide a preliminary sizing for the different EDL systems such as heatshield, parachute, and inflatables for small to medium planetary missions. With a landed mass of 65 kg, a preliminary mass is derived for each system of the mission to provide a terminal velocity compatible with the use of airbags. On both conventional and inflatable options, the MPF configuration performs slightly better mass-wise since its cone half-angle is flatter at 70 degrees. Overall, the Inflatable Braking Device (IBD) option performs better than the conventional one and would provide in this particular case a decrease in mass of the EDLS of about 15-18% that can be redistributed to the payload.

  18. Introduction to the special issue: Planetary geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Howard, Alan D.

    2015-07-01

    Planetary geomorphology is the study of extraterrestrial landscapes. In recognition of the promise for productive interaction between terrestrial and planetary geomorphologists, the 45th annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (BGS) focused on Planetary Geomorphology. The aim of the symposium was to bring planetary and terrestrial geomorphologists together for symbiotic and synthetic interactions that would enrich both subdisciplines. In acknowledgment of the crucial role of terrestrial field work in planetary geomorphology and of the BGS tradition, the symposium began with a field trip to the Appalachian Mountains, followed by a dinner talk of recent results from the Mars Surface Laboratory. On Saturday and Sunday, the symposium was organized around major themes in planetary geomorphology, starting with the geomorphic processes that are most common in our Solar System-impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism-to set the stage for other geomorphic processes, including aeolian, fluvial, lacustrine, and glacial/polar. On Saturday evening, the banquet talk provided an historical overview of planetary geomorphology, including its roots in the terrestrial geosciences. The symposium concluded with a full-afternoon tutorial on planetary geomorphologic datasets. This special issue of Geomorphology consists of papers by invited authors from the 2014 BGS, and this introduction provides some context for these papers.

  19. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  20. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. III. HD 5583 and BD+15 2375 - two cool giants with warm companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Kowalik, K.; Wolszczan, A.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.; Maciejewski, G.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Evolved stars are crucial pieces for our understanding of the dependency of the planet formation mechanism on the stellar mass and for exploring the mechanism involved in star-planet interactions more deeply. Over the last ten years, we have monitored about 1000 evolved stars for radial velocity variations in the search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Torun Centre for Astronomy Planet Search program with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision measurements were followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo under the TAPAS project. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: For HD 5583 we obtained 14 epochs of precise RV measurements that were collected over 2313 days with the HET, and 22 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 976 days. For BD+15 2375 we collected 24 epochs of HET data over 3286 days and 25 epochs of HARPS-S data over 902 days. Results: We report the discovery of two planetary mass objects that are orbiting two evolved red giant stars: HD 5583 has a msini = 5.78MJ companion at 0.529 AU in a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.076), the closest companion to a giant star detected with the RV technique, and BD+15 2735 that, with a msini = 1.06MJ, holds the record for the lightest planet orbiting an evolved star found so far (in a circular e = 0.001, 0.576 AU orbit). These are the third and fourth planets found within the TAPAS project, a HARPS-N monitoring of evolved planetary systems identified with the HET. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig

  1. Understanding Global Change: A New Conceptual Framework To Guide Teaching About Planetary Systems And Both The Causes And Effects Of Changes In Those Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Goals of the Next Generation Science Standards include understanding climate change and learning about ways to moderate the causes and mitigate the consequences of planetary-scale anthropogenic activities that interact synergistically to affect ecosystems and societies. The sheer number and scale of both causes and effects of global change can be daunting for teachers, and the lack of a clear conceptual framework for presenting this material usually leads educators (and textbooks) to present these phenomenon as a disjointed "laundry list." But an alternative approach is in the works. The Understanding Global Change web resource, currently under development at the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology, will provide educators with a conceptual framework, graphic models, lessons, and assessment templates for teaching NGSS-aligned, interdisciplinary, global change curricula. The core of this resource is an original informational graphic that presents and relates Earth's global systems, human and non-human factors that produce changes in those systems, and the effects of those changes that scientists can measure.

  2. Where Do Messy Planetary Nebulae Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    If you examined images of planetary nebulae, you would find that many of them have an appearance that is too messy to be accounted for in the standard model of how planetary nebulae form. So what causes these structures?Examples of planetary nebulae that have a low probability of having beenshaped by a triple stellar system. They are mostly symmetric, with only slight departures (labeled) that can be explained by instabilities, interactions with the interstellar medium, etc. [Bear and Soker 2017]A Range of LooksAt the end of a stars lifetime, in the red-giant phase, strong stellar winds can expel the outer layers of the star. The hot, luminous core then radiates in ultraviolet, ionizing the gas of the ejected stellar layers and causing them to shine as a brightly colored planetary nebula for a few tens of thousands of years.Planetary nebulae come in a wide variety of morphologies. Some are approximately spherical, but others can be elliptical, bipolar, quadrupolar, or even more complex.Its been suggested that non-spherical planetary nebulae might be shaped by the presence of a second star in a binary system with the source of the nebula but even this scenario should still produce a structure with axial or mirror symmetry.A pair of scientists from Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Ealeal Bear and Noam Soker, argue that planetary nebulae with especially messy morphologies those without clear axial or point symmetries may have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar system instead.Examples of planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system. They have some deviations from symmetry but also show signs of interacting with the interstellar medium. [Bear and Soker 2017]Departures from SymmetryTo examine this possibility more closely, Bear and Soker look at a sample of thousands planetary nebulae and qualitatively classify each of them into one of four categories, based on the degree to which they show signs of having been shaped by a

  3. Interactive Visualization of Shadow Effects in the Planetary System of Saturn, its Rings and its Moons using an OpenGL Shader in IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Hernandez, E. M.; Pomarède, D.

    2012-09-01

    The planetary system of Saturn, its rings and its moons is a fantastic playground where physicists are confronting theories and observations. Since its insertion into orbit in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft has returned a wealth of high-resolution images and data that calls for the development of dedicated interactive, immersive, three-dimensional, multi-purpose analysis and visualization tools. Alongside with observations, numerical simulations also provide new insights into the fundamental processes at stake in the formation of this system. The SDvision graphical interface, developed in the context of IDL Object Graphics and intended primarily for the visualization of complex and massive astrophysical plasma simulations, has been extended to provide an interactive visualization of both numerical simulations and observations of Saturn, its rings, and its moons. One major missing feature of IDL Object Graphics is the ability to render shadow effects at all. We have overcome this limitation by developing a custom GLSL Shader that is invoked by IDL objects. This Shader, based on purely geometrical computations, is fast and allows for seamless exploratory visualization of the planetary system.

  4. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. III. HD 5583 and BD+15 2375 - two cool giants with warm companions

    CERN Document Server

    Niedzielski, A; Nowak, G; Adamów, M; Kowalik, K; Wolszczan, A; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B; Adamczyk, M; Maciejewski, G

    2016-01-01

    Evolved stars are crucial pieces to understand the dependency of the planet formation mechanism on the stellar mass and to explore deeper the mechanism involved in star-planet interactions. Over the past ten years, we have monitored about 1000 evolved stars for radial velocity variations in search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Torun Centre for Astronomy Planet Search program with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision measurements have been followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo under the TAPAS project. We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. For HD 5583 we obtained 14 epochs of precise RV measurements collected over 2313 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), and 22 epochs of ultra-precise...

  5. From Planetary Intelligence to Planetary Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    "Planetary intelligence" - when understood as an input into the processes of "managing" Earth - hints at an instrumental understanding of scientific information. At minimum it is a call for useful data of political (and even military) value; at best it speaks to an ability to collect, integrate and apply such information. In this sense, 21st century society has more "intelligence" than any generation of humans before, begging the question whether just more or better "planetary intelligence" will do anything at all to move us off the path of planetary destruction (i.e., beyond planetary boundaries) that it has been on for decades if not centuries. Social scientists have argued that there are at least four shortcomings in this way of thinking that - if addressed - could open up 1) what is being researched; 2) what is considered socially robust knowledge; 3) how science interacts with policy-makers and other "planet managers"; and 4) what is being done in practice with the "intelligence" given to those positioned at the levers of change. To the extent "planetary management" continues to be approached from a scientistic paradigm alone, there is little hope that Earth's future will remain in a safe operating space in this or coming centuries.

  6. Planetary internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Fortney, J; Sotin, C

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most recent advancements on the topic of terrestrial and giant planet interiors, including Solar System and extrasolar objects. Starting from an observed mass-radius diagram for known planets in the Universe, we will discuss the various types of planets appearing in this diagram and describe internal structures for each type. The review will summarize the status of theoretical and experimental works performed in the field of equation of states (EOS) for materials relevant to planetary interiors and will address the main theoretical and experimental uncertainties and challenges. It will discuss the impact of new EOS on interior structures and bulk composition determination. We will discuss important dynamical processes which strongly impact the interior and evolutionary properties of planets (e.g plate tectonics, semiconvection) and describe non standard models recently suggested for our giant planets. We will address the case of short-period, strongly irradiated exoplanets and critica...

  7. Planetary science: Cometary dust under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made history by successfully orbiting a comet. Data from the craft now reveal the structure of the comet's dust particles, shedding light on the processes that form planetary systems. See Letter p.73

  8. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  9. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  10. Evolutionary outcomes for pairs of planets undergoing orbital migration and circularization: second order resonances and observed period ratios in Kepler's planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, M

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the origin of the architectures of low mass planetary systems, we perform numerical surveys of the evolution of pairs of coplanar planets in the mass range $(1-4)\\ \\rmn{M}_{\\oplus}.$ These evolve for up to $2\\times10^7 \\rmn{yr}$ under a range of orbital migration torques and circularization rates assumed to arise through interaction with a protoplanetary disc. Near the inner disc boundary, significant variations of viscosity, interaction with density waves or with the stellar magnetic field could occur and halt migration, but allow ircularization to continue. This was modelled by modifying the migration and circularization rates. Runs terminated without an extended period of circularization in the absence of migration torques gave rise to either a collision, or a system close to a resonance. These were mostly first order with a few $\\%$ terminating in second order resonances. Both planetary eccentricities were small $< 0.1$ and all resonant angles liberated. This type of survey produced o...

  11. Characterization of the K2-19 Multiple-Transiting Planetary System via High-Dispersion Spectroscopy, AO Imaging, and Transit Timing Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Narita, Norio; Fukui, Akihiko; Hori, Yasunori; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N; Ryu, Tsuguru; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; McCormac, James; Holman, Matthew; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Takeda, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide; Yanagisawa, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    K2-19 (EPIC201505350) is a unique planetary system in which two transiting planets with radii ~ 7 $R_{Earth}$ (inner planet b) and ~ 4 $R_{Earth}$ (outer planet c) have orbits that are nearly in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance. Here, we present results of ground-based follow-up observations for the K2-19 planetary system. We have performed high-dispersion spectroscopy and high-contrast adaptive-optics imaging of the host star with the HDS and HiCIAO on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. We find that the host star is relatively old (>8 Gyr) late G-type star ($T_{eff}$ ~ 5350 K, $M_s$ ~ 0.9 $M_{Sun}$, and $R_{s}$ ~ 0.9 $R_{Sun}$). We do not find any contaminating faint objects near the host star which could be responsible for (or dilute) the transit signals. We have also conducted transit follow-up photometry for the inner planet with KeplerCam on the FLWO 1.2m telescope, TRAPPISTCAM on the TRAPPIST 0.6m telescope, and MuSCAT on the OAO 1.88m telescope. We confirm the presence of transit-timing variations, as previously re...

  12. The Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS): Discovery of an Unusual Debris System Associated with HD 12039

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, D C; Bouwman, J; Hillenbrand, L A; Carpenter, J M; Meyer, M R; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Rodmann, J; Wolf, S; Mamajek, E E; Brooke, T Y; Padgett, D L; Henning, T; Moro-Martin, A; Stobie, E B; Gordon, K D; Morrison, J E; Muzerolle, J; Su, K Y L

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of a debris system associated with the $\\sim 30$ Myr old G3/5V star HD 12039 using {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} observations from 3.6 -- 160$\\mu$m. An observed infrared excess (L$_{\\rm IR}$/L$_{\\ast} = 1\\times10^{-4}$) above the expected photosphere for $\\lambda \\gtrsim 14\\mu$m is fit by thermally emitting material with a color temperature of T$\\sim 110$ K, warmer than the majority of debris disks identified to date around Sun-like stars. The object is not detected at 70$\\mu$m with a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit 6 times the expected photospheric flux. The spectrum of the infrared excess can be explained by warm, optically thin material comprised of blackbody-like grains of size $\\gtrsim 7 \\mu$m that reside in a belt orbiting the star at 4--6 AU. An alternate model dominated by smaller grains, near the blow-out size $a\\sim 0.5\\mu$m, located at 30-40AU is also possible, but requires the dust to have been produced recently since such small grains will be expelled from the system by radiation pr...

  13. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  14. Spectroscopic detection and characterisation of planetary atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Cameron A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Space based broadband infrared observations of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets at transit and secondary eclipse have proved a successful means of determining atmospheric spectral energy distributions and molecular composition. Here, a ground-based spectroscopic technique to detect and characterise planetary atmospheres is presented. Since the planet need not be transiting, this method enables a greater sample of systems to be studied. By modelling the planetary signature as a function of phase, high resolution spectroscopy has the potential to recover the signature of molecules in planetary atmospheres.

  15. Planetary astronomy in the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of current achievements and future possibilities that exist in planetary astronomy. Planetary astronomers employ a wide range of techniques, from straightforward telescopic observation to laboratory analysis of meteorites and cosmic dust. Much of this work focuses on three fundamental questions: how abundant are planets throughout the universe, how did the solar system form, and what can other planets tell us about earth? Several examples show that many recent discoveries reveal the continuing value of earth-orbit and ground-based methods for planetary studies.

  16. ExoPTF Science Uniquely Enabled by Far-IR Interferometry: Probing the Formation of Planetary Systems, and Finding and Characterizing Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Leisawitz, David; Bender, Chad; Benford, Dominic; Calzetti, Daniella; Carpenter, John; Danchi, William C; Fich, Michel; Fixsen, Dale; Gezari, Daniel Y; Griffin, Matt; Harwit, Martin; Kogut, Alan J; Langer, William D; Lawrence, Charles; Lester, Dan; Mundy, Lee G; Najita, Joan; Neufeld, David; Pilbratt, Goran; Rinehart, Stephen; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Shenoy, Sachindev; Shibai, Hiroshi; Silverberg, Robert; Staguhn, Johannes; Swain, Mark R; Unwin, Stephen C; Wright, Edward L; Yorke, Harold W

    2007-01-01

    By providing sensitive sub-arcsecond images and integral field spectroscopy in the 25 - 400 micron wavelength range, a far-IR interferometer will revolutionize our understanding of planetary system formation, reveal otherwise-undetectable planets through the disk perturbations they induce, and spectroscopically probe the atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets in orbits typical of most of the planets in our solar system. The technical challenges associated with interferometry in the far-IR are greatly relaxed relative to those encountered at shorter wavelengths or when starlight nulling is required. A structurally connected far-IR interferometer with a maximum baseline length of 36 m can resolve the interesting spatial structures in nascent and developed exoplanetary systems and measure exozodiacal emission at a sensitivity level critical to TPF-I mission planning. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope was recommended in the Community Plan for Far-IR/Submillimeter Space Astronomy, studied as a Probe-cl...

  17. Magellan AO System $z'$, $Y_S$, and $L'$ Observations of the Very Wide 650 AU HD 106906 Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Bailey, Vanessa P; Rodigas, Timothy J; Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie M; Follette, Katherine B; Hinz, Philip M; Puglisi, Alfio; Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We analyze archival data from Bailey and co-workers from the $Magellan$ adaptive optics system and present the first 0.9 $\\mu$m detection ($z' = 20.3\\pm0.4$ mag; $\\Delta z'=13.0\\pm0.4$ mag) of the 11 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ circumbinary planet HD 106906AB b, as well as the 1 and 3.8 $\\mu$m detections of the debris disk around the binary. The disk has an east-west asymmetry in length and surface brightness, especially at 3.8 $\\mu$m where the disk appears to be one-sided. The spectral energy distribution of b, when scaled to the $K_S$-band photometry, is consistent with 1800 K atmospheric models without significant dust reddening, unlike some young, very red, low-mass companions such as CT Cha B and 1RXS 1609 B. Therefore, the suggested circumplanetary disk of Kalas and co-workers might not contain much material, or might be closer to face-on. Finally, we suggest that the widest ($a\\gtrsim100$ AU) low mass ratio ($M_\\mathrm{p}/M_\\mathrm{\\star} \\equiv q\\lesssim0.01$) companions may have formed inside protoplanetary dis...

  18. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  19. Assessing planetary protection and contamination control technologies for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Patricia; Belz, Andrea

    Planetary protection and organic contamination control, like many technologically rich areas, continually progress. As a result of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey Report, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, the future focus is now on proposed Mars sample return missions. In addition to Mars exploration we now have the exciting possibility of a potential mission to the outer planets, most likely Europa. This paper reassesses planetary protection and organic contamination control technologies, which were evaluated in 2005, and provides updates based on new science results, technology development, and programmatic priorities. The study integrates information gathered from interviews of a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) scientists, systems engineers, planetary protection engineers, and consultants, as well as relevant documents, and focuses on the technologies and practices relevant to the current project mission set as presented in the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. This paper provides the status of planetary protection and contamination control technologies as they apply to potential future missions, and provides findings and recommendations to improve our capabilities as we further explore our solar system. It has become clear that linking planetary protection and contamination control requirements and processes together early in mission development and spacecraft design is key to keeping mission costs in check and returning high-quality samples that are free from biological and organic contaminants.

  20. Process engineering with planetary ball mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Christine Friederike; Kwade, Arno

    2013-09-21

    Planetary ball mills are well known and used for particle size reduction on laboratory and pilot scales for decades while during the last few years the application of planetary ball mills has extended to mechanochemical approaches. Processes inside planetary ball mills are complex and strongly depend on the processed material and synthesis and, thus, the optimum milling conditions have to be assessed for each individual system. The present review focuses on the insight into several parameters like properties of grinding balls, the filling ratio or revolution speed. It gives examples of the aspects of grinding and illustrates some general guidelines to follow for modelling processes in planetary ball mills in terms of refinement, synthesis' yield and contamination from wear. The amount of energy transferred from the milling tools to the powder is significant and hardly measurable for processes in planetary ball mills. Thus numerical simulations based on a discrete-element-method are used to describe the energy transfer to give an adequate description of the process by correlation with experiments. The simulations illustrate the effect of the geometry of planetary ball mills on the energy entry. In addition the imaging of motion patterns inside a planetary ball mill from simulations and video recordings is shown.

  1. The role of impact cratering in planetary environmental change and implications for the search for life in the solar system (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in the late 18th century with the work of James Hutton, uniformitarianism emerged as a central tenet of the natural sciences and remained so well into the 20th century. Central to the idea of uniformitarianism is the concept of gradualism whereby processes throughout time occur at the same, or similar rates. In the 20th century, the idea that asteroids and comets have struck, and continue to strike, planetary bodies throughout geological time, has revolutionized our understanding of Solar System history and evolution. Indeed, it is now widely recognized that impact cratering is one of the most important and fundamental geological process in the Solar System. It is also now apparent that impact events have profoundly affected the origin and evolution of Earth, its environment, and the habitability of our planet. The extreme physical conditions (e.g., 10's of thousands of K and 100's of GPa), the concentrated nature of the energy release at a single point on a planetary surface, and the virtually instantaneous nature of the impact process sets apart impact events from all other geological processes. It should not be surprising then that such a rapid geological process can cause rapid environmental change. The destructive geological, environmental, and biological effects of meteorite impact events are well studied and well known. This is largely due to the discovery of the ~180 km diameter Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico, and its link to the mass extinction event that marks the end of the Cretaceous Period 65 Myr. ago. While the main driver for this mass extinction event remains debated, a long list of possible causes of environmental change have been proposed, including: heat from the impact explosion, tsunamis, earthquakes, global forest fires, dust injection in the upper atmosphere, production of vast quantities of N2O, and release of CO2 and sulfur species from the target rocks. Any one of these effects could potentially cause the annihilation of a

  2. An ecological compass for planetary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  3. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak

    2017-01-01

    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  4. Planetary data definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  5. Mars 2020 Planetary Protection Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Moogega; Bernard, Douglas; Benardini, James Nick; Jones, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    The Mars 2020 (M2020) flight system consists of a cruise stage; an entry, descent and landing system (EDL); and a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered roving science vehicle that will land on the surface of Mars. The M2020 Mission is designed to investigate key question related to the habitability of Mars and will conduct assessments that set the stage for potential future human exploration of Mars. Per its Program Level Requirements, the project will also acquire and cache samples of rock, regolith, and/or procedural "blank" samples for possible return to Earth by a subsequent mission. NASA has assigned the M2020 Mission as a Category V Restricted Earth Return due to the possible future return of collected samples. As indicated in NPR8020.12D, Section 5.3.3.2, the outbound leg of a Category V mission that could potentially return samples to Earth, Mars 2020 would be expected to meet the requirements of a Category IVb mission. The entire flight system is subject to microbial reduction requirements, with additional specific emphasis on the sample acquisition and caching. A bioburden accounting tool is being used to track the microbial population on the surfaces to ensure that the biological cleanliness requirements are met. Initial bioburden estimates based on MSL heritage allows M2020 to gauge more precisely how the bioburden is allocated throughout each hardware element. Mars 2020 has completed a Planetary Protection Plan with Planetary Implementation Plans at a mature draft form. Planetary protection sampling activities have commenced with the start of flight system fabrication and assembly. The status of the Planetary Protection activities will be reported.

  6. Planetary boundaries: Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are thresholds that, if we cross them, we run the risk of rapid, non-linear, and irreversible changes to the environment, with severe consequences for human wellbeing. The concept of planetary boundaries, ...

  7. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. IV. TYC 3667-1280-1: The most massive red giant star hosting a warm Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Kowalik, K.; Wolszczan, A.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We present the latest result of the TAPAS project that is devoted to intense monitoring of planetary candidates that are identified within the PennState-Toruń planet search. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: The paper is based on precise radial velocity measurements: 13 epochs collected over 1920 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High-Resolution Spectrograph, and 22 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 961 days. Results: We present a warm-Jupiter (Teq = 1350 K, m2 sin i = 5.4 ± 0.4 MJ) companion with an orbital period of 26.468 days in a circular (e = 0.036) orbit around a giant evolved (log g = 3.11 ± 0.09, R = 6.26 ± 0.86 R⊙) star with M⋆ = 1.87 ± 0.17 M⊙. This is the most massive and oldest star found to be hosting a close-in giant planet. Its proximity to its host (a = 0.21 au) means that the planet has a 13.9 ± 2.0% probability of transits; this calls for photometric follow-up study. Conclusions: This massive warm Jupiter with a near circular orbit around an evolved massive star can help set constraints on general migration mechanisms for warm Jupiters and, given its high equilibrium temperature, can help test energy deposition models in hot Jupiters. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto

  8. Study on the Influence of Gear System Stiffness to Vibration Characteristics of Planetary Transmission System%系统刚度对行星齿轮传动振动特性影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤鱼; 常山; 王志强; 宿吉鹏

    2011-01-01

    The translational - rotational - coupling dynamic model has been founded of herringbone tooth planetary transmission for analyzing the influence of gear mesh stiflhess and bearing stiffness to vibration characteristics of planetary transmission system. In the dynamic model, the proposed model admits three degrees - of- freedom for each component and includes the key factors affecting planetary gears vibration such as component bearing stiffness, time -varying mesh stiffness and so on. The dynamic differential equation is obtained base on system kinematics equation and solve the eigenvalue question of it. The vibration characteristics can be obtained of transmission system.%为了分析齿轮啮合刚度、支承刚度对行星传动系统振动特性的影响,建立了基于人字齿行星传动的平移一扭转耦合的动力学模型.在动力学模型中,每个运动构件假定有3个自由度,同时考虑各构件的支承刚度、轮齿时变啮合刚度等影响因素.根据各构件的运动方程建立传动系统的动力学微分方程,并对其进行特征值问题求解,获取行星传动系统振动特性.

  9. Melting relations in the Fe-S-Si system at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the thermal structure of the planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakairi, T.; Ohtani, E.; Sakai, T.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Hirao, N.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the Earth's core is mainly composed of iron and contains light elements to account for its density deficit. Alloying with light elements significantly affects the physical properties of iron and depresses its melting temperature. Therefore, the melting relation of the Fe-light elements system is the key to clarify the thermal structure of the Earth's core. Although there are many candidates for light elements in the core, sulfur and silicon are considered to be the major light elements. Some geochemical models predicted that sulfur and silicon could be present not only in the core of the Earth but also in the core of other terrestrial planets such as Mars and Mercury. To better understand the properties of the planetary cores, we investigated the melting relations of the Fe-S-Si system under high-pressure conditions. Here, we report the melting relations in the Fe-S-Si system up to 60 GPa. Melting experiments were performed in the pressure range of 20-60 GPa and the temperature range of 1300-2500 K using a double-sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with X-ray diffraction technique. In situ X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at the BL10XU beamline of the SPring-8 facility. The melting detection was based on disappearance of the X-ray diffraction peaks of the sample. On the basis of X-ray diffraction patterns, we confirmed that iron-silicon alloy which hcp and fcc structure and Fe3S are stable phases under subsolidus conditions. Both solidus and liquidus temperatures are significantly lower than the melting temperature of pure Fe and increases with pressure in this study. In order to draw the melting curve as a function of pressure, we fitted the present results using the Simon's equation. Our results could provide important constraints on the thermal structure of the planetary cores.

  10. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one...... or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific...... background weathering of P); global freshwater use (system change (

  11. Planetary satellites - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1983-11-01

    General features of all known planetary satellites in the system are provided, and attention is focused on prominent features of several of the bodies. Titan has an atmosphere 1.5 times earth's at sea level, a well a a large body of liquid which may be ethane, CH4, and disolved N2. Uranus has at least five moons, whose masses have recently been recalculated and determined to be consistent with predictions of outer solar system composition. Io's violent volcanic activity is a demonstration of the conversion of total energy (from Jupiter) to heat, i.e., interior melting and consequent volcanoes. Plumes of SO2 have been seen and feature temperatures of up to 650 K. Enceladus has a craterless, cracked surface, indicating the presence of interior ice and occasional breakthroughs from tidal heating. Hyperion has a chaotic rotation, and Iapetus has one light and one dark side, possibly from periodic collisions with debris clouds blasted off the surface of the outer moon Phoebe.

  12. Predictions of mineral assemblages in planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that mineral compatibilities in the model system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 can be applied to deduce the mineral assemblages expected in planetary interiors and their variation with depth. In general, the available estimates of bulk composition of the terrestrial planets suggest that the terrestrial planets can be divided into two groups based on their predicted mineral assemblages. The terrestrial, Venusian, and lunar bulk compositions are expected to display the following sequence of mineral assemblages with increasing pressure: plagioclase lherzolite, spinel lherzolite, and garnet lherzolite. The sequences expected in Martian and Mercurian are different: spinel-plagioclase wehrlite, spinel lherzolite, and spinel-garnet wehrlite. These assemblages have a major influence on the compositions of liquids produced by melting of these planetary interiors, on the solidus temperatures, and thus on the nature of planetary differentiation and the types of magmas extruded at planetary surfaces.

  13. Characterization of the K2-19 Multiple-transiting Planetary System via High-dispersion Spectroscopy, AO Imaging, and Transit Timing Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio; Hirano, Teruyuki; Fukui, Akihiko; Hori, Yasunori; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Ryu, Tsuguru; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Onitsuka, Masahiro; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; McCormac, James; Holman, Matthew; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Takeda, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide; Yanagisawa, Kenshi

    2015-12-01

    K2-19 (EPIC201505350) is an interesting planetary system in which two transiting planets with radii ∼7 R⊕ (inner planet b) and ∼4 R⊕ (outer planet c) have orbits that are nearly in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance. Here, we present results of ground-based follow-up observations for the K2-19 planetary system. We have performed high-dispersion spectroscopy and high-contrast adaptive-optics imaging of the host star with the HDS and HiCIAO on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We find that the host star is a relatively old (≥8 Gyr) late G-type star (Teff ∼ 5350 K, Ms ∼ 0.9 M⊙, and Rs ∼ 0.9 R⊙). We do not find any contaminating faint objects near the host star that could be responsible for (or dilute) the transit signals. We have also conducted transit follow-up photometry for the inner planet with KeplerCam on the FLWO 1.2 m telescope, TRAPPISTCAM on the TRAPPIST 0.6 m telescope, and MuSCAT on the OAO 1.88 m telescope. We confirm the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs), as previously reported by Armstrong and coworkers. We model the observed TTVs of the inner planet using the synodic chopping formulae given by Deck & Agol. We find two statistically indistinguishable solutions for which the period ratios (Pc/Pb) are located slightly above and below the exact 3:2 commensurability. Despite the degeneracy, we derive the orbital period of the inner planet Pb ∼ 7.921 days and the mass of the outer planet Mc ∼ 20 M⊕. Additional transit photometry (especially for the outer planet) as well as precise radial-velocity measurements would be helpful to break the degeneracy and to determine the mass of the inner planet.

  14. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, M.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Arviset, C.; Osuna, P.; PSA development Team

    2012-04-01

    through to validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a tool has been developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. This tool, and the overall archiving process is being streamlined in line with the re-development of the science ground segment for Rosetta. This will be very important for the efficient handling and release of data during Rosetta's encounter with the comet Churyamov-Gerasimenko. A PSA advisory body has been established in order to assess the continuing development of the PSA. The advisory panel aims to meet regularly, reviewing the progress on defined requirements and providing feedback on our activities. New areas of data exploitation include attempts to standardize the way in which planetary data sets are constructed internationally. This is driving towards 'interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Representatives from most major archiving agencies are members of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), and regular meetings are now taking place as standards are discussed.

  15. Dynamical Problems in Extrasolar Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Haghighipour, Nader

    2016-10-01

    The past few years have witnessed a large increase in the number of extrasolar planets. Thanks to successful surveys from the ground and from space, there are now over 1000 confirmed exoplanets and more then 3000 planetary candidates. More than 130 of these systems host multiple planets. Many of these systems demonstrate physical and orbital characteristics fundamentally different from those of our solar system. The challenges associated with the diversity of planetary systems have raised many interesting questions on planet formation and orbital dynamics.

  16. Planetary Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Treumann, R A

    2008-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the properties of the various planetary bow shocks is briefly reviewed. We do not follow the astronomical ordering of the planets. We rather distinguish between magnetised and unmagnetised planets which groups Mercury and Earth with the outer giant planets of the solar system, Mars and Moon in a separate group lacking magnetic fields and dense atmospheres, and Venus together with the comets as the atmospheric celestial objects exposed to the solar wind. Asteroids would, in this classification, fall into the group together with the Moon and should behave similarly though being much smaller. Extrasolar planets are not considered as we have only remote information about their behaviour. The presentation is brief in the sense that our in situ knowledge is rather sporadic yet, depending on just a countable number of bow shock crossings from which just some basic conclusions can be drawn about size, stationarity, shape and nature of the respective shock. The only bow shock of which we have ...

  17. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Rockström

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental- to planetary-scale systems. We have identified nine planetary boundaries and, drawing upon current scientific understanding, we propose quantifications for seven of them. These seven are climate change (CO2 concentration in the atmosphere

  18. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  19. Uncovering Circumbinary Planetary Architectural Properties from Selection Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gongjie; Tao, Molei

    2016-01-01

    The new discoveries of circumbinary planetary systems shed light on the understanding of planetary system formation. Learning the architectural properties of these systems is essential for constraining the different formation mechanisms. We first revisit the stability limit of circumbinary planets. Next, we focus on eclipsing stellar binaries and obtain an analytical expression for the transit probability in a realistic setting, where finite observation period and planetary orbital precession are included. Then, understanding of the architectural properties of the currently observed transiting systems is refined, based on Bayesian analysis and a series of hypothesis tests. We find 1) it is not a selection bias that the innermost planets reside near the stability limit for eight of the nine observed systems, and this is consistent with a log uniform distribution of the planetary semi-major axis; 2) it is not a selection bias that the planetary and stellar orbits are nearly coplanar ($\\lesssim 3^\\circ$), and th...

  20. A population of planetary systems from Kepler data that are characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    From an analysis of the Quarter 1-17 Kepler planet candidate catalog we compare systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets. We find a distinct population of exoplanetary systems that is characterized by short-period, Earth sized planets. This difference in system architecture likely indicates a different branch in the system's formation or dynamical evolution relative to the typical Kepler system. We estimate that at least 17% of systems containing a hot Earth planet are members of this population. When we account for detection efficiency, these systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  1. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  2. Near-infrared Spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab: A Quadruple System Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Mass Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2015-10-01

    We present Keck/NIRC2 and OSIRIS near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab, a young (1-3 Myr) hierarchical quadruple system comprising a low-mass star, two brown dwarfs, and a planetary-mass companion in Taurus. All four components show spectroscopic signs of low surface gravity, and both 2M0441+2301 Aa and Ab possess Paβ emission indicating they each harbor accretion subdisks. Astrometry spanning 2008-2014 reveals orbital motion in both the Aab (0.″23 separation) and Bab (0.″095 separation) pairs, although the implied orbital periods of >300 years mean dynamical masses will not be possible in the near future. The faintest component (2M0441+2301 Bb) has an angular H-band shape, strong molecular absorption (VO, CO, H2O, and FeH), and shallow alkali lines, confirming its young age, late spectral type (L1 ± 1), and low temperature (≈1800 K). With individual masses of {200}-50+100 MJup, 35 ± 5 MJup, 19 ± 3 MJup, and 9.8 ± 1.8 MJup, 2M0441+2301 AabBab is the lowest-mass quadruple system known. Its hierarchical orbital architecture and mass ratios imply that it formed from the collapse and fragmentation of a molecular cloud core, demonstrating that planetary-mass companions can originate from a stellar-like pathway analogous to higher-mass quadruple star systems as first speculated by Todorov et al. More generally, cloud fragmentation may be an important formation pathway for the massive exoplanets that are now regularly being imaged on wide orbits. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. The Planetary Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Szalay, Alexander; Budavári, Tamás; Fuentes, César

    2014-11-01

    We are building the first system that will allow efficient data mining in the astronomical archives for observations of Solar System Bodies. While the Virtual Observatory has enabled data-intensive research making use of large collections of observations across multiple archives, Planetary Science has largely been denied this opportunity: most astronomical data services are built based on sky positions, and moving objects are often filtered out.To identify serendipitous observations of Solar System objects, we ingest the archive metadata. The coverage of each image in an archive is a volume in a 3D space (RA,Dec,time), which we can represent efficiently through a hierarchical triangular mesh (HTM) for the spatial dimensions, plus a contiguous time interval. In this space, an asteroid occupies a curve, which we determine integrating its orbit into the past. Thus when an asteroid trajectory intercepts the volume of an archived image, we have a possible observation of that body. Our pipeline then looks in the archive's catalog for a source with the corresponding coordinates, to retrieve its photometry. All these matches are stored into a database, which can be queried by object identifier.This database consists of archived observations of known Solar System objects. This means that it grows not only from the ingestion of new images, but also from the growth in the number of known objects. As new bodies are discovered, our pipeline can find archived observations where they could have been recorded, providing colors for these newly-found objects. This growth becomes more relevant with the new generation of wide-field surveys, particularly LSST.We also present one use case of our prototype archive: after ingesting the metadata for SDSS, 2MASS and GALEX, we were able to identify serendipitous observations of Solar System bodies in these 3 archives. Cross-matching these occurrences provided us with colors from the UV to the IR, a much wider spectral range than that

  4. 考虑随机制造误差的风力机行星齿轮系统动力学特性%Dynamic Characteristics of Planetary Gear Transmission System of Wind Turbine with Random Manufacturing Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会涛; 秦大同; 吴晓铃; 周志刚; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    为研究综合传递误差的随机波动对风力发电机齿轮传动系统动力学特性的影响,考虑齿轮时变啮合刚度、综合传递误差等因素,建立风力发电机行星齿轮传动系统纯扭转动力学模型.以随机风速引起的齿轮系统转矩波动作为行星齿轮系统的外部激励,对某1.5 MW风力发电机行星齿轮传动系统的动力学特性进行仿真分析,得到系统各响应量时域内的统计特征和齿轮副间的动态啮合力统计特征.分析表明:行星架、行星轮和太阳轮在扭转方向上的振动特性与外部载荷相关,其振动位移与外部载荷波动有相似变化的趋势;综合传递误差随机分量的离散程度对行星齿轮系统的动态特性和齿轮副间的动态啮合力有较大影响.随着综合传递误差随机分量离散程度的增加,行星架、太阳轮和行星轮在扭转方向上的振动幅值明显增加;综合传递误差随机分量的随机性使齿轮副间动态啮合力产生随机波动,随机分量离散程度越大,动态啮合力波动越明显;当随机分量的离散程度达到某一值时,齿轮啮合过程发生脱离,引发啮合冲击.%A purely rotational nonlinear dynamic model of planetary gear transmission system including time-varying mesh stiffness and synthetic mesh errors is developed to research the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine with the random fluctuation of synthetic mesh errors. Numerical method is used to simulate the planetary gear system of 1.5 MW wind turbine with the consideration of the torque fluctuation of gear transmission system caused by wind speed and transmission error random variable caused by manufacture and assembly. The statistical characteristics of responses of the planetary gear system and dynamic mesh force of gear pairs are obtained. The statistic analysis show that: the vibration features of the planetary carrier, the sun gear and the planetary gear are closely related to the external

  5. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    In this brief invited review, I will attempt to summarise some of the key areas of interest in the study of central stars of planetary nebulae which (probably) won't be covered by other speakers' proceedings. The main focus will, inevitably, be on the subject of multiplicity, with special emphasis on recent results regarding triple central star systems as well as wide binaries which avoid a common-envelope phase. Furthermore, in light of the upcoming release of Kepler's Campaign 11 data, I will discuss a few of the prospects from that data including the unique possibility to detect merger products.

  6. Directed Energy Missions for Planetary Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, P.; Hughes, GB; Eskenazi, M; Kosmo, K.; Johansson, IE; Griswold, J., Ian,;Zhou, Hongjun,;Matison, Mikenzie,;Swanson, V., Ronald,;McIntosh, P., Lawrence,;Simon, I., Melvin,;Dahlquist, W., Frederick,; Pryor, M; O'Neill, H.; Meinhold, P.; Suen, J; J; Riley; Zhang, Q.; Walsh, K.; Melis, C.; Kangas, M

    2016-01-01

    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation, is an orbiting stand-of...

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT VI, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--PLANETARY GEARING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO ACQUAINT THE TRAINEE WITH THE OPERATION OF PLANETARY GEARS IN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF PLANETARY GEARING, (2) POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH A PLANETARY SYSTEM, (3) HYDRAMATIC TRANSMISSION, (4) HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND (5) GEAR FAILURE AND…

  8. Characterization of the Kepler-101 planetary system with HARPS-N. A hot super-Neptune with an Earth-sized low-mass companion

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomo, A S; Lovis, C; Malavolta, L; Rice, K; Buchhave, L A; Sasselov, D; Cameron, A C; Latham, D W; Molinari, E; Pepe, F; Udry, S; Affer, L; Charbonneau, D; Cosentino, R; Dressing, C D; Dumusque, X; Figueira, P; Fiorenzano, A F M; Gettel, S; Harutyunyan, A; Haywood, R D; Horne, K; Lopez-Morales, M; Mayor, M; Micela, G; Motalebi, F; Nascimbeni, V; Phillips, D F; Piotto, G; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Szentgyorgyi, A; Watson, C

    2014-01-01

    We report on the characterization of the Kepler-101 planetary system, thanks to a combined DE-MCMC analysis of Kepler data and forty radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. This system was previously validated by Rowe et al. (2014) and is composed of a hot super-Neptune, Kepler-101b, and an Earth-sized planet, Kepler-101c. These two planets orbit the slightly evolved and metal-rich G-type star in 3.49 and 6.03 days, respectively. With mass $M_{\\rm p}=51.1_{-4.7}^{+5.1}~M_{\\oplus}$, radius $R_{\\rm p}=5.77_{-0.79}^{+0.85}~R_{\\oplus}$, and density $\\rho_{\\rm p}=1.45_{-0.48}^{+0.83} \\rm g\\;cm^{-3}$, Kepler-101b is the first fully-characterized super-Neptune, and its density suggests that heavy elements make up a significant fraction of its interior; more than $60\\%$ of its total mass. Kepler-101c has a radius of $1.25_{-0.17}^{+0.19}~R_{\\oplus}$, which implies the absence of any H/He envelope, but its mass could not be determined due to the relative faintness of the parent star for highly precis...

  9. Larger and faster: revised properties and a shorter orbital period for the WASP-57 planetary system from a pro-am collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Tregloan-Reed, J; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Delrez, L; Dominik, M; Evans, D F; Gillon, M; Jehin, E; Jorgensen, U G; Haugbolle, T; Lendl, M; Arena, C; Barbieri, L; Barbieri, M; Corfini, G; Lopresti, C; Marchini, A; Marino, G; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Hinse, T C; Henning, Th; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Transits in the WASP-57 planetary system have been found to occur half an hour earlier than expected. We present ten transit light curves from amateur telescopes, on which this discovery was based, thirteen transit light curves from professional facilities which confirm and refine this finding, and high-resolution imaging which show no evidence for nearby companions. We use these data to determine a new and precise orbital ephemeris, and measure the physical properties of the system. Our revised orbital period is 4.5s shorter than found from the discovery data alone, which explains the early occurrence of the transits. We also find both the star and planet to be larger and less massive than previously thought. The measured mass and radius of the planet are now consistent with theoretical models of gas giants containing no heavy-element core, as expected for the sub-solar metallicity of the host star. Two transits were observed simultaneously in four passbands. We use the resulting light curves to measure the ...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE K2-19 MULTIPLE-TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM VIA HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY, AO IMAGING, AND TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Norio; Hori, Yasunori; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide [Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ryu, Tsuguru; Onitsuka, Masahiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); McCormac, James [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Holman, Matthew [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Izumiura, Hideyuki, E-mail: norio.narita@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    K2-19 (EPIC201505350) is an interesting planetary system in which two transiting planets with radii ∼7 R{sub ⊕} (inner planet b) and ∼4 R{sub ⊕} (outer planet c) have orbits that are nearly in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance. Here, we present results of ground-based follow-up observations for the K2-19 planetary system. We have performed high-dispersion spectroscopy and high-contrast adaptive-optics imaging of the host star with the HDS and HiCIAO on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We find that the host star is a relatively old (≥8 Gyr) late G-type star (T{sub eff} ∼ 5350 K, M{sub s} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}, and R{sub s} ∼ 0.9 R{sub ⊙}). We do not find any contaminating faint objects near the host star that could be responsible for (or dilute) the transit signals. We have also conducted transit follow-up photometry for the inner planet with KeplerCam on the FLWO 1.2 m telescope, TRAPPISTCAM on the TRAPPIST 0.6 m telescope, and MuSCAT on the OAO 1.88 m telescope. We confirm the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs), as previously reported by Armstrong and coworkers. We model the observed TTVs of the inner planet using the synodic chopping formulae given by Deck and Agol. We find two statistically indistinguishable solutions for which the period ratios (P{sub c}/P{sub b}) are located slightly above and below the exact 3:2 commensurability. Despite the degeneracy, we derive the orbital period of the inner planet P{sub b} ∼ 7.921 days and the mass of the outer planet M{sub c} ∼ 20 M{sub ⊕}. Additional transit photometry (especially for the outer planet) as well as precise radial-velocity measurements would be helpful to break the degeneracy and to determine the mass of the inner planet.

  11. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Volten, H.; Wilson, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths

  12. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Volten, H.; Wilson, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths separa

  13. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  14. Planetary rings - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderies, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of planetary-ring dynamics are examined in a brief analytical review. The mathematical description of streamlines and streamline interactions is outlined; the redistribution of angular momentum due to collisions between particles is explained; and problems in the modeling of broad, narrow, and arc rings are discussed.

  15. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.

    2007-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of

  16. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  17. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockström, J.; Cornell, S.E.; Fetzer, I.; Bennett, E.; Biggs, R.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth System. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundaries framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on t

  18. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  19. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  20. Access to the Online Planetary Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-12-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private library capabilities (a useful tool for building bibliographies), plus access to scanned pages of published articles. The ADS also provides powerful search capabilities, allowing users to find e.g. the most instructive or most important articles on a given subject . For the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters. We currently have about 78 journals convering the planetary and space sciences (Advances in Space Research, Icarus, Solar Physics, Astrophusics and Space Science, JGRE, Meteoritics, to name a few). Currently, this set of journals represents about 180,000 articles and 1.1 million references. Penetration into the Solar Physics, Planetary Sciences and Geophysics community has increased significantly. During the period 2004-2008, user access to JGR and Icarus increased by a factor of 4.4, while e.g. access to the Astrophysical Journal "only" increased by a factor of 1.8.