WorldWideScience

Sample records for planetary science studies

  1. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  2. Galactic planetary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  3. ESA Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Dowson, J.; Ortiz, I.; Parrilla, E.; Salgado, J.; Zender, J.

    2007-10-01

    The (ESA Planetary Science Archive {http://www.rssd.esa.int/psa} (PSA) hosts all the data from ESA's planetary missions into a single archive. It currently contains data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Rosetta, and Huygens spacecraft, some ground-based observations, and will host data from the Smart-1, Venus Express, and BepiColombo spacecraft in the future. Based on the NASA Planetary Data Systems (PDS) data dictionary, all datasets provided by the instrument teams are scientifically peer-reviewed and technically validated by software before being ingested into the Archive. Based on a modular and flexible architecture, the PSA offers a classical user-interface based on input fields, with powerful query and display possibilities. Data can be downloaded directly or through a more detailed shopping basket. Furthermore, a map-based interface is available to access Mars Express data without requiring any knowledge of the mission. Interoperability between the ESA PSA and the NASA PDS archives is also in progress, re-using concepts and experience gained from existing IVOA protocols. Prototypes are being developed to provide functionalities like GoogleMars, allowing access to both ESA PSA and NASA PDS data.

  4. Galactic planetary science

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets -mainly radial velocity and transit - or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next...

  5. Laboratory Studies for Planetary Sciences. A Planetary Decadal Survey White Paper Prepared by the American Astronomical Society (AAS) Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA)

    CERN Document Server

    Gudipati, The AAS WGLA: Murthy; Brickhouse, Nancy; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Haxton, Wick; Herbst, Eric; Mumma, Michael; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    The WGLA of the AAS (http://www.aas.org/labastro/) promotes collaboration and exchange of knowledge between astronomy and planetary sciences and the laboratory sciences (physics, chemistry, and biology). Laboratory data needs of ongoing and next generation planetary science missions are carefully evaluated and recommended in this white paper submitted by the WGLA to Planetary Decadal Survey.

  6. Exoplanets and Formation of Planetary Systems: Studies With Esa Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    Several space missions from the ESA Science Horizons 2000 Programme address key questions on the formation/evolution of planetary systems and on the study of ex- oplanets: - How do solar systems form ? (with HST, ISO, NGST, FIRST/Herschel, Rosetta, Gaia) - Geological evolution of terrestrial planets (with Living planet, Mars- express, SMART-1, Venus-express, Bepi-Colombo) - History and Role of impacts (with SMART-1, Bepi-Colombo, outer planets missions) - How to detect other solar systems and habitable zones (with space photometry, COROT, Eddington, Gaia, Dar- win) - Water and ices on other planets and comets (with instruments on Mars Express, Rosetta and other planetary missions) - Signature of biosphere and photosynthesis evolution (living Planet missions, Darwin) We shall review how the results from these ESA missions (and other relevant missions from other agencies) can be exploited in synergy to advance our knowledge on the formation of solar systems and on exoplanets.

  7. Planetary Entry Probes and Mass Spectroscopy: Tools and Science Results from In Situ Studies of Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.

    2007-01-01

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future missions will hopefully also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. 1 he success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and better data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. I'he pioneering and tireless work of Al Seiff and his collaborators at the NASA Ames Research Center had provided convincing evidence of the value of entry probe science and how to practically implement flight missions. Even in the most recent missions involving entry probes i.e. Galileo and Cassini/Huygens A1 contributed uniquely to the science results on atmospheric structure, turbulence and temperature on Jupiter and Titan.

  8. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  9. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, M.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Arviset, C.; Osuna, P.; PSA development Team

    2012-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Besides data from the GIOTTO spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations, the PSA contains data from the Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, SMART-1 and Huygens missions. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy interaction with the end-user to input and control the relevant search parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRCS and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, mostly located in Europe. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels

  10. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  11. Assessing planetary protection and contamination control technologies for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Patricia; Belz, Andrea

    Planetary protection and organic contamination control, like many technologically rich areas, continually progress. As a result of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey Report, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, the future focus is now on proposed Mars sample return missions. In addition to Mars exploration we now have the exciting possibility of a potential mission to the outer planets, most likely Europa. This paper reassesses planetary protection and organic contamination control technologies, which were evaluated in 2005, and provides updates based on new science results, technology development, and programmatic priorities. The study integrates information gathered from interviews of a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) scientists, systems engineers, planetary protection engineers, and consultants, as well as relevant documents, and focuses on the technologies and practices relevant to the current project mission set as presented in the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. This paper provides the status of planetary protection and contamination control technologies as they apply to potential future missions, and provides findings and recommendations to improve our capabilities as we further explore our solar system. It has become clear that linking planetary protection and contamination control requirements and processes together early in mission development and spacecraft design is key to keeping mission costs in check and returning high-quality samples that are free from biological and organic contaminants.

  12. Argus: An Io observer mission concept study from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, L. E.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Becerra, P.; Basu, K.; Davis, B.; Fox, V. K.; Herman, J. F. C.; Hughes, A. C. G.; Keane, J. T.; Marcucci, E.; Mendez-Ramos, E.; Nelessen, A.; Neveu, M.; Parrish, N. L.; Scheinberg, A. L.; Wrobel, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Jupiter's satellite Io represents the ideal target for studying extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two of the most important processes in the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. The 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey identified an Io Observer as a high-priority New Frontiers class mission to be considered for the decade 2013-2022. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose a mission concept for an Io Observer mission, named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io), developed by the students of the August 2014 session of the Planetary Science Summer School hosted by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, together with JPL's Team X. The goals of our mission are: (i) Study the effects of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (ii) Investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for early Earth; (iii) Analyze the interaction of Io with the Jovian system through material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (iv) Study the internal structure of Io, as well as its chemical and tectonic history in order to gain insight into its formation and that of the other Galilean satellites.

  13. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  14. The Planetary Science Workforce: Goals Through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, J. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Turtle, E. P.; Vertesi, J. A.; Rivkin, A. S.; Hörst, S. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Marchis, F.; Milazzo, M.; Diniega, S.; Lakdawalla, E.; Zellner, N.

    2017-02-01

    The planetary science workforce is not nearly as diverse as the society from which its membership is drawn and from which the majority of our funding comes. We discuss the current state and recommendations for improvement.

  15. Planetary science: Eris under scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbis, Amanda

    2011-10-01

    A stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Eris provides a new estimate of its size. It also reveals a surprisingly bright planetary surface, which could indicate the relatively recent condensation of a putative atmosphere. See Letter p.493

  16. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  17. Technology for NASA's Planetary Science Vision 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Amato, D.; Freeman, A.; Falker, J.; Turtle, Elizabeth; Green, J.; Mackwell, S.; Daou, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASAs Planetary Science Division (PSD) initiated and sponsored a very successful community Workshop held from Feb. 27 to Mar. 1, 2017 at NASA Headquarters. The purpose of the Workshop was to develop a vision of planetary science research and exploration for the next three decades until 2050. This abstract summarizes some of the salient technology needs discussed during the three-day workshop and at a technology panel on the final day. It is not meant to be a final report on technology to achieve the science vision for 2050.

  18. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Horz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  19. Jim Pollack's Contributions to Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Jim Pollack was an extraordinary scientist. Since receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1965, he published hundreds of papers in scientific journals, encyclopedias, popular magazines, and books. The sheer volume of this kind of productivity is impressive enough, but when considering the diversity and detail of his work, these accomplishments seem almost superhuman. Jim studied and wrote about every planet in the solar system. For, this he was perhaps the most distinguished planetary scientist of his generation. He successfully identified the composition of Saturn's rings and Venus's clouds. With his collaborators, he created the first detailed models for the formation of the outer planets, and the general circulation of the Martian atmosphere. His interest in Mars dust storms provided a foundation for the "nuclear winter" theory that ultimately helped shape foreign policy in the cold war era. Jim's creative talents brought him many awards including the Kuiper Award of the Division of Planetary Sciences, the Leo Szilard Award of the American Physical Society, H. Julian Allen award of the Ames Research Center, and several NASA medals for exceptional scientific achievement.

  20. Argus: A concept study for an Io observer mission from the 2014 NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Patricio; Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Hays, Lindsay E.; Keane, James T.; Neveu, Marc; Basu, Ko; Davis, Byron; Mendez-Ramos, Eugina; Nelessen, Adam; Fox, Valerie; Herman, Jonathan F.; Parrish, Nathan L.; Hughes, Andrea C.; Marcucci, Emma; Scheinberg, Aaron; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2014-11-01

    Jupiter’s moon Io is the ideal target to study extreme tidal heating and volcanism, two major processes shaping the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. In response to the 2009 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, we propose an Io Observer mission concept named Argus (after the mythical watchman of Io). This concept was developed by the students of the August 2014 session of NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School, together with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Team X.The science objectives of our mission are: (1) study the physical process of tidal heating and its implications for habitability in the Solar System and beyond; (2) investigate active lava flows on Io as an analog for volcanism on early Earth; (3) analyze the interaction between Io and the Jovian system via material exchange and magnetospheric activity; (4) study Io’s chemistry and geologic history to gain insight into the formation and evolution of the Galilean satellites. Our mission consists of a Jupiter-orbiting spacecraft performing ten close flybys of Io. The orbital inclination of ~31 degrees minimizes the total radiation dose received, at the cost of having to perform fast flybys (13 km/s).The instrument payload includes: (1) IGLOO, a multi-band camera for regional (500 m/pixel) and high-resolution (50 m/pixel) imaging; (2) IoLA, a laser altimeter to measure the triaxial shape and diurnal tidal deformation, and topographic profiles of individual surface features; (3) IGNITERS, a thermal emission radiometer/spectrometer to map nighttime temperatures, thermal inertia, and characterize Io’s atmosphere; (4) IoNIS, a near-infrared spectrometer to map global (10 km/pixel) and local (2 km/pixel) surface composition; (5) IoFLEX, a magnetometer and (6) IoPEX, a plasma particle analyzer to characterize the magnetic environment and understand the nature of Io’s induced and possible intrinsic magnetic fields; (7) IRAGE, a gravity science experiment to probe Io’s interior

  1. 77 FR 53919 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity Update --Mars Program Planning Group Update --Discovery Program Update --Planetary Science Division Senior... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee;...

  2. 78 FR 15378 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity Update... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the...

  3. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  4. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  5. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  6. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  7. International Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal Planetary Database Development Project 'the International Planetary Data Alliance'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Crichton, D.; Capria, M. T.; Beebe, R.; Zender, J.

    2009-09-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formed under COSPAR in 2008, is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive standards that make it easier to share data across international boundaries. In June - July 2009, we held the 4th Steering Committee meeting. Thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions in the world, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA & N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. The projects demonstrated the feasibility of sharing data and emphasized the importance of developing common data standards to ensure world-wide access to international planetary archives. The Venus Express Interoperability project leveraged standards and technology efforts from both the Planetary Data System (PDS) and IPDA in order to deliver a new capability for data sharing between NASA/PDS and ESA/PSA. This project demonstrated a model and framework for linking compliant planetary archive systems for future international missions. The next step for IPDA, during the 2009-2010 period, will be to work with NASA/PDS to review and participate in an upgrade of its standards to improve both the consistency of the standards to build compliant international archives as well as improve long-term usability of the science data products. This paper presents the achievements and plans, which will be summarized in the paper which will appear in 'Space Research Today' in December 2009.

  8. Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal planetary database development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Capria, M. T.; Crichton, D.; Zender, J.; Beebe, R.

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formally formed under COSPAR (Formal start: from the COSPAR 2008 at Montreal), is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive stan-dards that make it easier to share the data across international boundaries. In 2008-2009, thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. 'IPDA 2009-2010' is important, especially because the NASA/PDS system reformation is now reviewed as it develops for application at the international level. IPDA is the gate for the establishment of the future infrastructure. We are running 8 projects: (1) IPDA Assessment of PDS4 Data Standards [led by S. Hughes (NASA/JPL)], (2) IPDA Archive Guide [led by M.T. Capria (IASF/INAF) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], (3) IPDA Standards Identification [led by E. Rye (NASA/PDS) and G. Krishna (ISRO)], (4) Ancillary Data Standards [led by C. Acton (NASA/JPL)], (5) IPDA Registries Definition [led by D. Crichton (NASA/JPL)], (6) PDAP Specification [led by J. Salgado (ESA/PSA) and Y. Yamamoto (JAXA)], (7) In-teroperability Assessment [R. Beebe (NMSU) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], and (8) PDAP Geographic Information System (GIS) extension [N. Hirata (Univ. Aizu) and T. Hare (USGS: thare@usgs.gov)]. This paper presents our achievements and plans summarized in the IPDA 5th Steering Com-mittee meeting at DLR in July 2010. We are now just the gate for the establishment of the Infrastructure.

  9. Ups and downs in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    The field of planetary science as it developed during the lifetimes of Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker has sustained a period of exciting growth. Surveying the skies for planet-crossing asteroids and comets and studying the results of their impact upon the planets, especially the Earth, was for Gene and Carolyn an intense and satisfying quest for knowledge. It all started when Gene envisioned man going to the Moon, especially himself. After that, one thing led to another: the study of nuclear craters and a comparison with Meteor Crater, Arizona; the Apollo project and a succession of unmanned space missions to the inner and outer planets; an awareness of cratering throughout our solar system; the search for near-Earth asteroids and comets; a study of ancient craters in Australia; and the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter. The new paradigm of impact cratering as a cause for mass extinction and the opening of space for the development of new life forms have been causes to champion.

  10. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    The Planetary Sciences in the last decades has accumulated an amount of knowledge that is comparable to other Earth Sciences. The study of planets is not any more a computation of orbital data, but the investigation and description of surface features of dozens of planetary bodies, including our own Earth. This way, it is only an extention of the present Earth sciences like geography, geology, geophisics, meteorolgy etc. In Hungary, Planetary Science studies has been made for decades, but especially today, numerous popular scientific works are published, and the subject of planetology (and also exobiology linked to it) is taught in more and more secondary schools and universities. This ma kes a demand for a Hungarian language terminology and nomenclature in the relatively new discipline of Planetology. It is needed because the present terminology of geosciences is not adequeate for the description of the surface conditions and structures in other planetary bodies. In the mean time it has to be in accord with the Earth-based system. Since this is areal discipline in its subject, it is of high importance that the areas studied be identifiable easily, unambiguously and descriptively. This make s the translation/transcription of IAU's nomenclature our second goal. This is not a simple transliteration of the proper names used in planetary body nomenclatures, but the task is also the setting of the basic rules used in the making of Hungarian nomenclature system. It would be useful, if the system would be useable for any body of the solar system. It has to fit into the system of both the IAU's nomenlcature and the Hungarian geographic name system [1]. This makes a double task: to make a system that is appropriate both linguistically and scientifically. At the same time, in popular science and elementary education, the planetary features' common names and some basic terms should be in the mother languages of the readers, and not in latin or English (outside the anglophone

  11. Planetary science: Pluto's telltale heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Amy C.

    2016-12-01

    Studies of a large frost-filled basin on Pluto show that this feature altered the dwarf planet's spin axis, driving tectonic activity on its surface, and hint at the presence of a subsurface ocean. See Letters p.86, p.90, p.94 & p.97

  12. Bringing Planetary Science to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    1999-09-01

    Since I am not fluent in Italian, I won't presume to give a "public" science lecture in Padua (that will happen in the year 2000 before an English-speaking audience). But I will discuss the gap between the arcane practice of planetary research and the yearnings of a poorly educated public to participate in planetary exploration. Education and public outreach (E&PO) is a vital enterprise for our profession to be engaged in. But that does not mean that every researcher needs to become proficient at public communication. Our interdisciplinary field advances because of our diverse talents and we should do what we are good at. It is good that entities like the DPS and NASA are encouraging scientists to engage in E&PO, yet I fear that this endeavor is already, in its infancy, becoming bureaucratized. An E&PO cottage industry is developing, complete with its own jargon and checklists. The essential thing is for us all to realize that science is a human activity, supported by the public as part of our civilization's culture. As we do our science, we should do it with consciousness of our public role and use whatever creative talents we have to synthesize our specialized results for the broader scientific community, to articulate them to science communicators (educators, journalists, writers), and to share them directly with the public.

  13. 75 FR 2892 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of...

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: A Fast, Non-Destructive Method for Classifying Ordinary Chondrite Falls Using Density and Magnetic Susceptibility. An Update on Results from the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Measurement Protocols for In Situ Analysis of Organic Compounds at Mars and Comets. Piping Structures on Earth and Possibly Mars: Astrobiological Implications. Uranium and Lead in the Early Planetary Core Formation: New Insights Given by High Pressure and Temperature Experiments. The Mast Cameras and Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory. MGS MOC: First Views of Mars at Sub-Meter Resolution from Orbit. Analysis of Candor Chasma Interior Layered Deposits from OMEGA/MEX Spectra. Analysis of Valley Networks on Valles Marineris Plateau Using HRSC/MEX Data. Solar Abundance of Elements from Neutron-Capture Cross Sections. Preliminary Evaluation of the Secondary Ion/Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, MegaSIMS. Equilibrium Landforms in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: Implications for Landscape Evolution and Climate Change on Mars. Continued Study of Ba Isotopic Compositions of Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Supernovae. Paleoenviromental Evolution of the Holden-Uzboi Area. Stability of Magnesium Sulfate Minerals in Martian Environments. Tungsten Isotopic Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies. Migration of Dust Particles and Volatiles Delivery to the Inner Planets. On the Sitting of Trapped Noble Gases in Insoluble Organic Matter of Primitive Meteorites. Trapping of Xenon Upon Evaporation-Condensation of Organic Matter Under UV Irradiation: Isotopic Fractionation and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Analysis. Stability of Water on Mars. A Didactic Activity. Analysis of Coronae in the Parga Chasma Region, Venus. Photometric and Compositional Surface Properties of the Gusev Crater Region, Mars, as Derived from Multi-Angle, Multi-Spectral Investigation of

  15. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

    2011-12-01

    , during which their mentors aid them in finalizing their mission design and instrument suite, and in making the necessary trade-offs to stay within the cost cap. Tours of JPL facilities highlight the end-to-end life cycle of a mission. At week's end, students present their Concept Study to a "proposal review board" of JPL scientists and engineers and NASA Headquarters executives, who feed back the strengths and weaknesses of their proposal and mission design. A survey of Planetary Science Summer School alumni administered in summer of 2011 provides information on the program's impact on students' career choices and leadership roles as they pursue their employment in planetary science and related fields. Preliminary results will be discussed during the session. Almost a third of the approximately 450 Planetary Science Summer School alumni from the last 10 years of the program are currently employed by NASA or JPL. The Planetary Science Summer School is implemented by the JPL Education Office in partnership with JPL's Team X Project Design Center.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Planetary Protection Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Naviaux, Keith; Samuels, Jessica

    With over 500 sols of surface operations, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover has trekked over 5km. A key finding along this journey thus far, is that water molecules are bound to fine-grained soil particles, accounting for about 2 percent of the particles' weight at Gale Crater where Curiosity landed. There is no concern to planetary protection as the finding resulted directly from SAM baking (100-835°C) out the soil for analysis. Over that temperature range, OH and/or H2O was released, which was bound in amorphous phases. MSL has completed an approved Post-Launch Report. The Project continues to be in compliance with planetary protection requirements as Curiosity continues its exploration and scientific discoveries there is no evidence suggesting the presence of a special region. There is no spacecraft induced special region and no currently flowing liquid. All systems of interest to planetary protection are functioning nominally. The project has submitted an extended mission request to the NASA PPO. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  17. Science Case for Planetary Exploration with Planetary CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John

    2016-07-01

    Nano-spacecraft and especially CubeSats are emerging as viable low cost platforms for planetary exploration. Increasing miniaturization of instruments and processing performance enable smart and small packages capable of performing full investigations. While these platforms are limited in terms of payload and lifetime, their form factor and agility enable novel mission architectures and a refreshed relationship to risk. Leveraging a ride with a mothership to access far away destinations can significantly augment the mission science return at relatively low cost. Depending on resources, the mothership may carry several platforms and act as telecom relay for a distributed network or other forms of fractionated architectures. In Summer 2014 an international group of scientists, engineers, and technologists started a study to define investigations to be carried out by nano-spacecrafts. These applications flow down from key science priorities of interest across space agencies: understanding the origin and organization of the Solar system; characterization of planetary processes; assessment of the astrobiological significance of planetary bodies across the Solar system; and retirement of strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) for Human exploration. This presentation will highlight applications that make the most of the novel architectures introduced by nano-spacecraft. Examples include the low cost reconnaissance of NEOs for science, planetary defense, resource assessment, and SKGs; in situ chemistry measurements (e.g., airless bodies and planetary atmospheres), geophysical network (e.g., magnetic field measurements), coordinated physical and chemical characterization of multiple icy satellites in a giant planet system; and scouting, i.e., risk assessment and site reconnaissance to prepare for close proximity observations of a mothership (e.g., prior to sampling). Acknowledgements: This study is sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Part of this work is

  18. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  19. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition ...

  20. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Munyikwa, Ken; Bredeson, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology and astronomy courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on process in the Solar System on bodies other than Earth. This process-oriented course uses W. F. Hartmann's "Moons and Planets" as its textbook. It primarily approaches the subject from an astronomy and physics perspective. Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, is based on the same textbook, but explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the solar system is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the solar system as well as the age of earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the solar system, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols about 15-30 students annually. The courses are delivered online via Moodle and student evaluation is conducted through assignments and invigilated examinations.

  1. Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Whitby, J. A.; Managadze, G. G.

    2009-06-01

    Knowing the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary objects allows the study of their origin and evolution within the context of our solar system. Exploration plans in planetary research of several space agencies consider landing spacecraft for future missions. Although there have been successful landers in the past, more landers are foreseen for Mars and its moons, Venus, the jovian moons, and asteroids. Furthermore, a mass spectrometer on a landed spacecraft can assist in the sample selection in a sample-return mission and provide mineralogical context, or identify possible toxic soils on Mars for manned Mars exploration. Given the resources available on landed spacecraft mass spectrometers, as well as any other instrument, have to be highly miniaturised.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Education Programs Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the session on Education Programs Demonstration include:Hands-On Activities for Exploring the Solar System in K-14; Formal Education and Informal Settings;Making Earth and Space Science and Exploration Accessible; New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators Engaging Students of All Ages with Research-related Activities: Using the Levers of Museum Reach and Media Attention to Current Events; Astronomy Village: Use of Planetary Images in Educational Multimedia; ACUMEN: Astronomy Classes Unleashed: Meaningful Experiences for Neophytes; Unusual Guidebook to Terrestrial Field Work Studies: Microenvironmental Studies by Landers on Planetary Surfaces (New Atlas in the Series of the Solar System Notebooks on E tv s University, Hungary); and The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More.

  3. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  4. Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    , Galilean Satellites: Geology and Mapping, Titan, Volcanism and Tectonism on Saturnian Satellites, Early Solar System, Achondrite Hodgepodge, Ordinary Chondrites, Carbonaceous Chondrites, Impact Cratering from Observations and Interpretations, Impact Cratering from Experiments and Modeling, SMART-1, Planetary Differentiation, Mars Geology, Mars Volcanism, Mars Tectonics, Mars: Polar, Glacial, and Near-Surface Ice, Mars Valley Networks, Mars Gullies, Mars Outflow Channels, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Spirit and Opportunity, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: New Ways of Studying the Red Planet, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Geology, Layers, and Landforms, Oh, My!, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Viewing Mars Through Multicolored Glasses; Mars Science Laboratory, Phoenix, and ExoMars: Science, Instruments, and Landing Sites; Planetary Analogs: Chemical and Mineral, Planetary Analogs: Physical, Planetary Analogs: Operations, Future Mission Concepts, Planetary Data, Imaging, and Cartography, Outer Solar System, Presolar/Solar Grains, Stardust Mission; Interplanetary Dust, Genesis, Asteroids and Comets: Models, Dynamics, and Experiments, Venus, Mercury, Laboratory Instruments, Methods, and Techniques to Support Planetary Exploration; Instruments, Techniques, and Enabling Techologies for Planetary Exploration; Lunar Missions and Instruments, Living and Working on the Moon, Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon, Lunar Remote Sensing, Lunar Samples and Experiments, Lunar Atmosphere, Moon: Soils, Poles, and Volatiles, Lunar Topography and Geophysics, Lunar Meteorites, Chondrites: Secondary Processes, Chondrites, Martian Meteorites, Mars Cratering, Mars Surface Processes and Evolution, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Regolith, Spectroscopy, and Imaging, Mars Sediments and Geochemistry: Analogs and Mineralogy, Mars: Magnetics and Atmosphere, Mars Aeolian Geomorphology, Mars Data Processing and Analyses, Astrobiology, Engaging Student Educators and the Public in Planetary Science,

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 22 is presented. The topics include: 1) Pressure Histories from Thin and Thick Shock-induced Melt Veins in Meteorites; 2) Nano-structured Minerals as Signature of Microbial Activity; 3) The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase; 4) Discovery of Abundant Presolar Silicates in Subgroups of Antarctic Micrometeorites; 5) Characteristics of a Seismometer for the LUNAR-A Penetrator; 6) Heating Experiments of the HaH 262 Eucrite and Implication for the Metamorphic History of Highly Metamorphosed Eucrites; 7) Measurements of Ejecta Velocity Distribution by a High-Speed Video Camera; 8) Petrological Comparison of Mongolian Jalanash Ureilite and Twelve Antarctic Ureilites; 9) Metallographic Cooling Rate of IVA Irons Revisited; 10) Inhomogeneous Temperature Distribution in Chondrules in Shock-Wave Heating Model; 11) Subsurface Weathering of Rocks and Soils at Gusev Crater; 12) Extinct Radioactivities in the Early Solar System and the Mean Age of the Galaxy; 13) Correlation of Rock Spectra with Quantitative Morphologic Indices: Evidence for a Single Rock Type at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site; 14) Silicon Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Grains from Supernovae; 15) Current Status and Readiness on In-Situ Exploration of Asteroid Surface by MINERVA Rover in Hayabusa Mission; 16) Long Formation Period of Single CAI: Combination of O and Mg Isotope Distribution; 17) Supra-Canonical Initial 26Al/27Al Indicate a 105 Year Residence Time for CAIs in the Solar Proto-Planetary Disk; 18) Evolution of Mercury's Obliquity; 19) First Results from the Huygens Surface Science Package; 20) Polyhedral Serpentine Grains in CM Chondrites; 21) Mountainous Units in the Martian Gusev Highland Region: Volcanic, Tectonic, or Impact Related? 22) Petrography of Lunar Meteorite MET 01210, A New Basaltic Regolith Breccia; 23) Earth-Moon Impacts at 300 Ma and 500 Ma Ago; 24

  6. Planetary science: Cometary dust under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made history by successfully orbiting a comet. Data from the craft now reveal the structure of the comet's dust particles, shedding light on the processes that form planetary systems. See Letter p.73

  7. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition of PNe is rather different from those of AGB and PPNe, suggesting that the molecules synthesized in PN progenitors have been heavily processed by strong ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Intriguingly, fullerenes and complex organic compounds having aromatic and aliphatic structures can be rapidly formed and largely survive during the PPN/PN evolution. The similar molecular compositions in PNe and diffuse clouds as well as the detection of C$_{60}^+$ in the ISM reinforce the view that the mass-loss from PNe can ...

  8. 76 FR 62456 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... may call the USA toll free conference call number 888-469-0977, pass code PSS, to participate in...

  9. 76 FR 7235 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... call the USA toll free conference call number 800-369-3170, pass code PSS, to participate in...

  10. 77 FR 4837 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... by WebEx. Any interested person may call the USA toll free conference call number (888)...

  11. 78 FR 77719 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA....m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters, Room 3H42, 300 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20546....

  12. 76 FR 58303 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... meeting by telephone. The WebEx link is https://nasa.webex.com/ , meeting number 992 537 420, and...

  13. 78 FR 64024 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... PSS, to participate in this meeting by telephone. The WebEx link is https://nasa.webex.com/ ,...

  14. 76 FR 69292 - NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces that the meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council originally scheduled for November 2-3, 2011, at NASA Headquarters,...

  15. 76 FR 31641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting... Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA... meeting by telephone. The WebEx link is https://nasa.webex.com/ , meeting number 990 482 047, and...

  16. Dynamical Problems in Extrasolar Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Haghighipour, Nader

    2016-10-01

    The past few years have witnessed a large increase in the number of extrasolar planets. Thanks to successful surveys from the ground and from space, there are now over 1000 confirmed exoplanets and more then 3000 planetary candidates. More than 130 of these systems host multiple planets. Many of these systems demonstrate physical and orbital characteristics fundamentally different from those of our solar system. The challenges associated with the diversity of planetary systems have raised many interesting questions on planet formation and orbital dynamics.

  17. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  18. Virtual Planetary Analysis Environment for Remote Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Leslie; Beyer, Ross; Edwards. Laurence; Lees, David

    2009-01-01

    All of the data for NASA's current planetary missions and most data for field experiments are collected via orbiting spacecraft, aircraft, and robotic explorers. Mission scientists are unable to employ traditional field methods when operating remotely. We have developed a virtual exploration tool for remote sites with data analysis capabilities that extend human perception quantitatively and qualitatively. Scientists and mission engineers can use it to explore a realistic representation of a remote site. It also provides software tools to "touch" and "measure" remote sites with an immediacy that boosts scientific productivity and is essential for mission operations.

  19. Data Preservation and Curation for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Joyner, R.; Hardman, S.; Rye, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has just released PDS4 Version 1.0, its next generation data standards for the planetary science archive. These data standards are the result of a multi-year effort to develop an information model based on accepted standards for data preservation, data curation, metadata management, and model development. The resulting information model is subsequently used to drive information system development from the generation of data standards documentation to the configuration of federated registries and search engines. This paper will provide an overview of the development of the PDS4 Information Model and focus on the application of the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) Reference Model - ISO 14721:2003, the Metadata Registry (MDR) Standard - ISO/IEC 11179, and the E-Business XML Standard to help ensure the long-term preservation and curation of planetary science data. Copyright 2013 California Institute of Technology Government sponsorship acknowledged

  20. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topics include: 1) The abundances of Iron-60 in Pyroxene Chondrules from Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites; 2) LL-Ordinary Chondrite Impact on the Moon: Results from the 3.9 Ga Impact Melt at the Landing Site of Appolo 17; 3) Evaluation of Chemical Methods for Projectile Identification in Terrestrial and Lunar Impactites; 4) Impact Cratering Experiments in Microgravity Environment; 5) New Achondrites with High-Calcium Pyroxene and Its implication for Igneous Differentiation of Asteroids; 6) Climate History of the Polar Regions of Mars Deduced form Geologic Mapping Results; 7) The crater Production Function for Mars: A-2 Cumulative Power-Law Slope for Pristine Craters Greater than 5 km in Diameter Based on Crater Distribution for Northern Plains Materials; 8) High Resolution Al-26 Chronology: Resolved Time Interval Between Rim and Interior of a Highly Fractionated Compact Type a CAI from Efremovka; 9) Assessing Aqueous Alteration on Mars Using Global Distributions of K and Th; 10) FeNi Metal Grains in LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites and Appolo 12 Basalts; 11) Unique Properties of Lunar Soil for In Situ Resource Utilization on the Moon; 12) U-Pb Systematics of Phosphates in Nakhlites; 13) Measurements of Sound Speed in Granular Materials Simulated Regolith; 14) The Effects of Oxygen, Sulphur and Silicon on the Dihedral Angles Between Fe-rich Liquid Metal and Olivine, Ringwoodite and Silicate Perovskite: Implications for Planetary Core Formation; 15) Seismic Shaking Removal of Craters 0.2-0.5 km in Diameter on Asteroid 433 Eros; 16) Focused Ion Beam Microscoopy of ALH84001 Carbonate Disks; 17) Simulating Micro-Gravity in the Laboratory; 18) Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Instrument Development; 19) Combined Remote LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy Measurements; 20) Unusual Radar Backscatter Properties Along the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin; 21) The Mars Express/NASAS Project at JPL; 22) The Geology of the Viking 2 Lander Site Revisited; 23) An Impact Genesis for Loki

  2. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) www.psrd.hawaii.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L.; Taylor, J.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Year of the Solar System is celebrating not only Solar System mission milestones but also the collective data reduction and analysis that happens here on Earth. The Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate takes a direct approach to enhance student learning and engage the public in the latest research on meteorites, asteroids, planets, moons, and other materials in our Solar System with the website known as PSRD. The Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website at www.psrd.hawaii.edu explores the science questions that researchers are actively pursuing about our Solar System and explains how the answers are discovered and what they mean. The site helps to convey the scientific basis for sample study to the broader scientific community and the excitement of new results in cosmochemistry to the general public. We share with our broad audience the fascinating discoveries made by cosmochemists, increasing public awareness of the value of sample-focused research in particular and of fundamental scientific research and space exploration in general. The scope of the website covers the full range of cosmochemical research and highlights the investigations of extraterrestrial materials that are used to better understand the origin of the Solar System and the processes by which planets, moons, and small bodies evolve. We relate the research to broader planetary science themes and mission results. Articles are categorized into: asteroids, comets, Earth, instruments of cosmochemistry, Jupiter system, Mars, Mars life issues, Mercury, meteorites, Moon, origins, and space weathering. PSRD articles are based on peer-reviewed, journal publications. Some PSRD articles are based on more than one published paper in order to present multiple views and outcomes of research on a topic of interest. To date, 150 PSRD articles have been based on 184 journal articles (and counting) written by some of the most active cosmochemists and planetary scientists

  3. Interoperability In The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; Grotheer, E.; Besse, S.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; De Marchi, G.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, there is a greater need to provide interoperability with software and applications that are commonly being used globally. For this purpose, the development of the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA), by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is focused on building a modern science archive that takes into account internationally recognised standards in order to provide access to the archive through tools from third parties, for example by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), the VESPA project from the Virtual Observatory of Paris as well as other international institutions. The protocols and standards currently being supported by the new Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The architecture of the PSA consists of a Geoserver (an open-source map server), the goal of which is to support use cases such as the distribution of search results, sharing and processing data through a OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and a Web Map Service (WMS). This server also allows the retrieval of requested information in several standard output formats like Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Geography Markup Language (GML), shapefile, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and Comma Separated Values (CSV), among others. The provision of these various output formats enables end-users to be able to transfer retrieved data into popular applications such as Google Mars and NASA World Wind.

  4. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth's geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics.

  5. 78 FR 21421 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee... and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The...

  6. 76 FR 21411 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee... and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science Committee of the NAC. The...

  7. Current Status of a NASA High-Altitude Balloon-Based Observatory for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Dischner, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon-borne observatory. Therefore, NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola-based observatory that would achieve the greatest possible science return in a low-risk and cost-effective manner. This paper addresses results from the 2014 Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) mission, namely successes in the design and performance of the Fine Pointing System. The paper also addresses technical challenges facing the new Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) reusable platform, including thermal control for the Optical Telescope Assembly, power generation and management, and weight-saving considerations that the team will be assessing in 2015 and beyond.

  8. MALDI for Europa Planetary Science and Exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, T. J.; Agresti, D. G.; Clemett, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    TOF MS for Europa landed science can identify small molecules of the cryosphere and complex biomolecules upwelling from a subsurface water ocean. A matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization (MALDI) testbed for cryo-ice mixtures is being developed.

  9. Impact cratering – fundamental process in geoscience and planetary science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Pati; W U Reimold

    2007-04-01

    Impact cratering is a geological process characterized by ultra-fast strain rates, which generates extreme shock pressure and shock temperature conditions on and just below planetary surfaces. Despite initial skepticism, this catastrophic process has now been widely accepted by geoscientists with respect to its importance in terrestrial – indeed, in planetary – evolution. About 170 impact structures have been discovered on Earth so far, and some more structures are considered to be of possible impact origin. One major extinction event, at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, has been firmly linked with catastrophic impact, but whether other important extinction events in Earth history, including the so-called “Mother of All Mass Extinctions” at the Permian–Triassic boundary, were triggered by huge impact catastrophes is still hotly debated and a subject of ongoing research. There is a beneficial side to impact events as well, as some impact structures worldwide have been shown to contain significant (in some cases, world class) ore deposits, including the gold– uranium province of the Witwatersrand basin in South Africa, the enormous Ni and PGE deposits of the Sudbury structure in Canada, as well as important hydrocarbon resources, especially in North America. Impact cratering is not a process of the past, and it is mandatory to improve knowledge of the past-impact record on Earth to better constrain the probability of such events in the future. In addition, further improvement of our understanding of the physico–chemical and geological processes fundamental to the impact cratering process is required for reliable numerical modeling of the process, and also for the correlation of impact magnitude and environmental effects. Over the last few decades, impact cratering has steadily grown into an integrated discipline comprising most disciplines of the geosciences as well as planetary science, which has created positive spin-offs including the study of

  10. SPICE Supports Planetary Science Observation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Semenov, Boris V.; Wright, Edward D.

    2015-11-01

    "SPICE" is an information system, comprising both data and software, providing scientists with the observation geometry needed to plan observations from instruments aboard robotic spacecraft, and to subsequently help in analyzing the data returned from those observations. The SPICE system has been used on the majority of worldwide planetary exploration missions since the time of NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter. Along with its "free" price tag, portability and the absence of licensing and export restrictions, its stable, enduring qualities help make it a popular choice. But stability does not imply rigidity-improvements and new capabilities are regularly added. This poster highlights recent additions that could be of interest to planetary scientists.Geometry Finder allows one to find all the times or time intervals when a particular geometric condition exists (e.g. occultation) or when a particular geometric parameter is within a given range or has reached a maximum or minimum.Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) provides means to compute observation geometry using accurately modeled target bodies: a tessellated plate model for irregular bodies and a digital elevation model for large, regular bodies.WebGeocalc (WGC) provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to a SPICE "geometry engine" installed at a mission operations facility, such as the one operated by NAIF. A WGC user need have only a computer with a web browser to access this geometry engine. Using traditional GUI widgets-drop-down menus, check boxes, radio buttons and fill-in boxes-the user inputs the data to be used, the kind of calculation wanted, and the details of that calculation. The WGC server makes the specified calculations and returns results to the user's browser.Cosmographia is a mission visualization program. This tool provides 3D visualization of solar system (target) bodies, spacecraft trajectory and orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and footprints, and more.The research described in this

  11. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  12. Teaching planetary sciences to elementary school teachers: Programs that work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    1993-01-01

    Planetary sciences can be used to introduce students to the natural world which is a part of their lives. Even children in an urban environment are aware of such phenomena as day and night, shadows, and the seasons. It is a science that transcends cultures, has been prominent in the news in recent years, and can generate excitement in young minds as no other science can. Planetary sciences also provides a useful tool for understanding other sciences and mathematics, and for developing problem solving skills which are important in our technological world. However, only 15 percent of elementary school teachers feel very well qualified to teach earth/space science, while better than 80 percent feel well qualified to teach reading; many teachers avoid teaching science; very little time is actually spent teaching science in the elementary school: 19 minutes per day in K-3 and 38 minutes per day in 4-6. While very little science is taught in elementary and middle school, earth/space science is taught at the elementary level in less than half of the states. It was pointed out that science is not generally given high priority by either teachers or school districts, and is certainly not considered on a par with language arts and mathematics. Therefore, in order to teach science to our youth, we must empower our teachers, making them familiar and comfortable with existing materials. In our earlier workshops, several of our teachers taught in classrooms where the majority of the students were Hispanic (over 90 percent). However, few space sciences materials existed in Spanish. Therefore, most of our materials could not be used effectively in the classroom. To address this issue, NASA materials were translated into Spanish and a series of workshops for bilingual classroom teachers from Tucson and surrounding cities was conducted. Our space sciences workshops and our bilingual classroom workshops and how they address the needs of elementary school teachers in Arizona are

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: PoDS: A Powder Delivery System for Mars In-Situ Organic, Mineralogic and Isotopic Analysis Instruments Planetary Differentiation of Accreting Planetesimals with 26Al and 60Fe as the Heat Sources Ground-based Observation of Lunar Surface by Lunar VIS/NIR Spectral Imager Mt. Oikeyama Structure: First Impact Structure in Japan? Central Mounds in Martian Impact Craters: Assessment as Possible Perennial Permafrost Mounds (Pingos) A Further Analysis of Potential Photosynthetic Life on Mars New Insight into Valleys-Ocean Boundary on Mars Using 128 Pixels per Degree MOLA Data: Implication for Martian Ocean and Global Climate Change; Recursive Topography Based Surface Age Computations for Mars: New Insight into Surficial Processes That Influenced Craters Distribution as a Step Toward the Formal Proof of Martian Ocean Recession, Timing and Probability; Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Method for Stand-Off Quantitative Analysis of Samples on Mars; Milk Spring Channels Provide Further Evidence of Oceanic, >1.7-km-Deep Late Devonian Alamo Crater, Southern Nevada; Exploration of Martian Polar Residual Caps from HEND/ODYSSEY Data; Outflow Channels Influencing Martian Climate: Global Circulation Model Simulations with Emplaced Water; Presence of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons on Pluto; Difference in Degree of Space Weathering on the Newborn Asteroid Karin; Circular Collapsed Features Related to the Chaotic Terrain Formation on Mars; A Search for Live (sup 244)Pu in Deep-Sea Sediments: Preliminary Results of Method Development; Some Peculiarities of Quartz, Biotite and Garnet Transformation in Conditions of Step-like Shock Compression of Crystal Slate; Error Analysis of Remotely-Acquired Mossbauer Spectra; Cloud Activity on Titan During the Cassini Mission; Solar Radiation Pressure and Transient Flows on Asteroid Surfaces; Landing Site Characteristics for Europa 1: Topography; and The Crop Circles of Europa.

  14. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions.
 The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  15. Results from the Science Instrument Definition Team for the Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Aslam, Shahid; DiSanti, Michael A.; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Honniball, Casey I.; Paganini, Lucas; Parker, Alex; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Young, Eliot F.

    2016-10-01

    The Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) is an observing asset under development by NASA's Planetary Science Division that will be hosted on stratospheric balloon missions intended for use by the broad planetary science community. GHAPS is being designed in a modular fashion to interface to a suite of instruments as called for by science needs. It will operate at an altitude of 30+ km and will include an optical telescope assembly with a 1-meter aperture and a pointing stability of approximately 1 arcsecond with a flight duration of ~100 days. The spectral grasp of the system is envisaged to include wavelengths spanning the near-ultraviolet to near/mid-infrared (~0.3-5 µm) and possibly to longer wavelengths.The GHAPS Science Instrument Definition Team (SIDT) was convened in May 2016 to define the scope of science investigations, derive the science requirements and instrument concepts for GHAPS, prioritize the instruments according to science priorities that address Planetary Science Decadal Survey questions, and generate a report that is broadly disseminated to the planetary science community. The SIDT examined a wide range of solar system targets and science questions, focusing on unique measurements that could be made from a balloon-borne platform to address high-priority planetary science questions for a fraction of the cost of space missions. The resulting instrument concepts reflect unique capabilities offered by a balloon-borne platform (e.g., observations at spectral regions inaccessible from the ground due to telluric absorption, diffraction-limited imaging, and long duration uninterrupted observations of a target). We discuss example science cases that can be addressed with GHAPS and describe a notional instrument suite that can be used by guest observers to pursue decadal-level science questions.

  16. Sharing Planetary Science on a Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C. R.; Colgan, M.

    2001-12-01

    Fifteen southeastern Space Grant Consortia (AL, AK, DL, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, Mississippi, NC, PR, SC, TN, VI, VA) have joined together to form the Office of Space Science (OSS) Southeastern Regional Clearing House, or SERCH. The objectives of SERCH are to produce a network of science educators and OSS scientists, to assess the region's educational needs and strengths, and to tailor OSS education material and data to the need of the southeastern educators and students. SERCH serves as a facilitator and broker of services by a two-way interface between the southeastern region's diverse educational community and national scientists and engineers involved in OSS's flight missions and research programs. Our goal is to make SERCH a "one-stop educational service center" for the science, mathematics and technology educators needing OSS material and OSS scientists needing help in developing educational material. We promote the development of partnerships among educators and scientists to accomplish the educational and outreach missions of the OSS. These partnerships create and sustain educational programs that are effective, locally useful, yet national in scope. Our strategies include respecting the diversity of our audiences, listening to their needs and working closely with both the product developers and end-users to ensure that the materials and resources are effective, scientifically correct and fun to use.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data; Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions; Analysis of the Lunar Surface with Global Mineral and Mg-Number Maps ALH77005: The Magmatic History from Rehomogenized Melt Inclusions; New 70-cm Radar Mapping of the Moon; Cryptomare Deposits Revealed by 70-cm Radar; Construction of a PZT Sensor Network for Low and Hypervelocity Impact Detection; Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps; Physical Properties of Volcanic Deposits on Venus from Radar Polarimetry; Science Alert Demonstration with a Rover Traverse Science Data Analysis System; Earth and Mars, Similar Features and Parallel Lives? Didactic Activities; Expected Constraints on Rhea s Interior from Cassini; Microbially Induced Precipitates: Examples from CO3, Si-, Mn- and Fe-rich Deposits; Li, B - Behavior in Lunar Basalts During Shock and Thermal Metamorphism: Implications for H2O in Martian Magmas; Evaluation of CO Self-Shielding as a Possible Mechanism for Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Early Solar System Materials; Effect of Ground Ice on Apparent Thermal Inertia on Mars; Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparative Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars; Newly Discovered Meteor Crater Metallic Impact Spherules: Report and Implications; and Evidence of Very Young Glacial Processes in Central Candor Chasma, Mars.

  18. An Ion-Propelled Cubesat for Planetary Defense and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Wirz, Richard; Lai, Hairong; Li, Jian-Yang; Connors, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Small satellites can reduce the cost of launch by riding along with other payloads on a large rocket or being launched on a small rocket, but are perceived as having limited capabilities. This perception can be at least partially overcome by innovative design, including ample in-flight propulsion. This allows achieving multiple targets and adaptive exploration. Ion propulsion has been pioneered on Deep Space 1 and honed on the long-duration, multiple-planetary body mission Dawn. Most importantly, the operation of such a mission is now well- understood, including navigation, communication, and science operations for remote sensing. We examined different mission concepts that can be used for both planetary defense and planetary science near 1 AU. Such a spacecraft would travel in the region between Venus and Mars, allowing a complete inventory of material above, including objects down to about 10m diameter to be inventoried. The ion engines could be used to approach these bodies slowly and carefully and allow the spacecraft to map debris and follow its collisional evolution throughout its orbit around the Sun, if so desired. The heritage of Dawn operations experience enables the mission to be operated inexpensively, and the engineering heritage will allow it to be operated for many trips around the Sun.

  19. Lessons Learned in Science Operations for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Graff, T. G.; Reagan, M.; Coan, D.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Glotch, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    The six Apollo lunar surface missions represent the only occasions where we have conducted scientific operations on another planetary surface. While these six missions were successful in bringing back valuable geologic samples, technology advances in the subsequent forty years have enabled much higher resolution scientific activity in situ. Regardless of where astronauts next visit (whether it be back to the Moon or to Mars or a Near Earth Object), the science operations procedures completed during this mission will need to be refined and updated to reflect these advances. We have undertaken a series of operational tests in relevant field environments to understand how best to develop the new generation of science operations procedures for planetary surface exploration.

  20. Planetary exploration and science recent results and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2014-01-01

    This contributed monograph is the first work to present the latest results and findings on the new topic and hot field of planetary exploration and sciences, e.g., lunar surface iron content and mare orientale basalts, Earth's gravity field, Martian radar exploration, crater recognition, ionosphere and astrobiology, Comet ionosphere, exoplanetary atmospheres and planet formation in binaries. By providing detailed theory and examples, this book helps readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field. In addition, it offers a special section on next-generation planetary exploration, which opens a new landscape for future exploration plans and missions. Prof. Shuanggen Jin works at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Dr. Nader Haghighipour works at the University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA. Prof. Wing-Huen Ip works at the National Central University, Taiwan.

  1. Strontium iodide gamma ray spectrometers for planetary science (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Rowe, Emmanuel; Butler, Jarrhett; Groza, Michael; Burger, Arnold; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Lambert, James L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Beck, Patrick R.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Feldman, Sabrina M.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-09-01

    Gamma rays produced passively by cosmic ray interactions and by the decay of radioelements convey information about the elemental makeup of planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Orbital missions mapped the composition of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Vesta, and now Ceres. Active neutron interrogation will enable and/or enhance in situ measurements (rovers, landers, and sondes). Elemental measurements support planetary science objectives as well as resource utilization and planetary defense initiatives. Strontium iodide, an ultra-bright scintillator with low nonproportionality, offers significantly better energy resolution than most previously flown scintillators, enabling improved accuracy for identification and quantification of key elements. Lanthanum bromide achieves similar resolution; however, radiolanthanum emissions obscure planetary gamma rays from radioelements K, Th, and U. The response of silicon-based optical sensors optimally overlaps the emission spectrum of strontium iodide, enabling the development of compact, low-power sensors required for space applications, including burgeoning microsatellite programs. While crystals of the size needed for planetary measurements (>100 cm3) are on the way, pulse-shape corrections to account for variations in absorption/re-emission of light are needed to achieve maximum resolution. Additional challenges for implementation of large-volume detectors include optimization of light collection using silicon-based sensors and assessment of radiation damage effects and energetic-particle induced backgrounds. Using laboratory experiments, archived planetary data, and modeling, we evaluate the performance of strontium iodide for future missions to small bodies (asteroids and comets) and surfaces of the Moon and Venus. We report progress on instrument design and preliminary assessment of radiation damage effects in comparison to technology with flight heritage.

  2. The NASA Planetary Data System's Cartography and Imaging Sciences Node and the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, L. R.; Laura, J.; Hare, T.; Hagerty, J.

    2017-06-01

    Here we address the role of the PSDI initiative in the context of work to archive and deliver planetary data by NASA’s Planetary Data System, and in particular by the PDS Cartography and Imaging Sciences Discipline Node (aka “Imaging” or IMG).

  3. Understanding Detection Limits in Fluid Inclusion Analysis Using an Incremental Crush Fast Scan Method for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, N. J. F.; Parnell, J.; Longerich, H. P.

    2012-03-01

    We propose formulae for the determination of the detection and reporting limits applied to fluid inclusion volatile analysis, adapted from LA-ICP-MS formulae, and applicable to samples of limited size that are available in planetary science studies.

  4. DPS Planetary Science Graduate Programs Database for Students and Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Roman, Anthony; Meinke, Bonnie K.

    2016-10-01

    Several years ago the DPS Education committee decided that it should have an online resource that could help undergraduate students find graduate programs that could lead to a PhD with a focus in planetary science. It began in 2013 as a static page of information and evolved from there to a database-driven web site. Visitors can browse the entire list of programs or create a subset listing based on several filters. The site should be of use not only to undergraduates looking for programs, but also for advisers looking to help their students decide on their future plans. The reason for such a list is that "planetary science" is a heading that covers an extremely diverse set of disciplines. The usual case is that planetary scientists are housed in a discipline-placed department so that finding them is typically not easy—undergraduates cannot look for a Planetary Science department, but must (somehow) know to search for them in all their possible places. This can overwhelm even determined undergraduate student, and even many advisers!We present here the updated site and a walk-through of the basic features as well as some usage statistics from the collected web site analytics. We ask for community feedback on additional features to make the system more usable for them. We also call upon those mentoring and advising undergraduates to use this resource, and for program admission chairs to continue to review their entry and provide us with the most up-to-date information.The URL for our site is http://dps.aas.org/education/graduate-schools.

  5. Planetary GIS at the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, T. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    For the past 51 years, the USGS Astrogeology Science Center has been a resource for planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. In more recent years, we have supported GIS for planetary data integration, geologic mapping and analysis.

  6. Using Primary Literature for Teaching Undergraduate Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.

    2013-05-01

    Articles from the primary scientific literature can be a valuable teaching tool in undergraduate classrooms. At Colgate University, I emphasize selected research articles in an upper-level undergraduate course in planetary sciences. In addition to their value for conveying specific scientific content, I find that they also impart larger lessons which are especially apt in planetary sciences and allied fields. First, because of the interdisciplinary nature of planetary sciences, students discover that contributions to outstanding problems may arrive from unexpected directions, so they need to be aware of the multi-faceted nature of scientific problems. For instance, after millennia of astrometric attempts, the scale of the Solar System was determined with extraordinary precision with emerging radar technology in the 1960's. Second, students learn the importance of careful work, with due attention to detail. After all, the timescales of planetary formation are encoded in systematic isotopic variations of a few parts in 10,000; in students' own experiences with laboratory data they might well overlook such a small effect. Third, students identify the often-tortuous connections between measured and inferred quantities, which corrects a common student misconception that all quantities of interest (e.g., the age of a meteorite) can be measured directly. Fourth, research articles provide opportunities for students to practice the interpretation of graphical data, since figures often represent a large volume of data in succinct form. Fifth, and perhaps of greatest importance, by considering the uncertainties inherent in reported data, students come to recognize the limits of scientific understanding, the extent to which scientific conclusions are justified (or not), and the lengths to which working scientists go to mitigate their uncertainties. These larger lessons are best mediated by students' own encounters with the articles they read, but require instructors to make

  7. Distribution Services of Astronomy and Planetary Sciences Outreach Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pedro

    2007-08-01

    The coordinated efforts of the planetary science archive data through distribution services will have a major effect on the way planetary scientists work. The huge volume of incoming data and the emergence of technologies and tools to mine the archives will result in important changes for outreach and education. There is unquestionably the great potential for using scientific data and facilities in the fields of education and outreach, but there is equally no doubt that this task is difficult and will need a coordinated worldwide effort. In this paper I will present the first efforts to integrate outreach products under virtual observatories and distribution services and the use of new approaches, like web 2.0 and semantic web to achieve the main objectives.

  8. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  9. GIS Technologies For The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docasal, R.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) is becoming increasingly used for planetary science. GIS are computerised systems for the storage, retrieval, manipulation, analysis, and display of geographically referenced data. Some data stored in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA), for instance, a set of Mars Express/Venus Express data, have spatial metadata associated to them. To facilitate users in handling and visualising spatial data in GIS applications, the new PSA should support interoperability with interfaces implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). These standards are followed in order to develop open interfaces and encodings that allow data to be exchanged with GIS Client Applications, well-known examples of which are Google Earth and NASA World Wind as well as open source tools such as Openlayers. The technology already exists within PostgreSQL databases to store searchable geometrical data in the form of the PostGIS extension. An existing open source maps server is GeoServer, an instance of which has been deployed for the new PSA, uses the OGC standards to allow, among others, the sharing, processing and editing of data and spatial data through the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard as well as serving georeferenced map images through the Web Map Service (WMS). The final goal of the new PSA, being developed by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is to create an archive which enables science exploitation of ESA's planetary missions datasets. This can be facilitated through the GIS framework, offering interfaces (both web GUI and scriptable APIs) that can be used more easily and scientifically by the community, and that will also enable the community to build added value services on top of the PSA.

  10. Twenty-Second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Some of the topics covered include: planetary evolution, planetary satellites, planetary composition, planetary surfaces, planetary geology, volcanology, meteorite impacts and composition, and cosmic dust. Particular emphasis is placed on Mars and the Moon.

  11. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Albee, A.L.; Stehli, F.G.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in earth and planetary science are examined in reviews by leading experts. The subjects discussed include geochemistry and the dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system, Alpine and Himalayan blueschists, pressure solution during diagenesis, achondrites and igneous processes on asteroids, Sr isotopes in seawater, sediment magnetization and the evolution of magnetite biomineralization, active deformation of the continents, the nature of deep-focus earthquakes, and the use of Raman spectroscopy in mineralogy and geochemistry. Consideration is given to the mechanics of faulting, the crustal structure of western Europe, gases in diamonds, metamorphic fluids in the deep crust, faunal dynamics of pleistocene mammals, magma chambers, and the nature of the Mohorovicic discontinuity.

  12. Experiments in Planetary and Related Sciences and the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald (Editor); Williams, Richard J. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Numerous workshops were held to provide a forum for discussing the full range of possible experiments, their science rationale, and the requirements on the Space Station, should such experiments eventually be flown. During the workshops, subgroups met to discuss areas of common interest. Summaries of each group and abstracts of contributed papers as they developed from a workshop on September 15 to 16, 1986, are included. Topics addressed include: planetary impact experimentation; physics of windblown particles; particle formation and interaction; experimental cosmochemistry in the space station; and an overview of the program to place advanced automation and robotics on the space station.

  13. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  14. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  15. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  16. Planetary Science Education - Workshop Concepts for Classrooms and Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiol, S.; Rosenberg, H.; Rohwer, G.; Balthasar, H.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-12-01

    In Germany, education in astronomy and planetary sciences is limited to very few schools or universities and is actively pursued by only selected research groups. Our group is situated at the Freie Universität Berlin and we are actively involved in space missions such as Mars Express, Cassini in the Saturnian system, and DAWN at Vesta and Ceres. In order to enhance communication and establish a broader basis for building up knowledge on our solar-system neighborhood, we started to offer educational outreach in the form of workshops for groups of up to 20 students from primary/middle schools to high schools. Small group sizes guarantee practical, interactive, and dialog-based working environments as well as a high level of motivation. Several topical workshops have been designed which are targeted at different age groups and which consider different educational background settings. One workshop called "Impact craters on planets and moons" provides a group-oriented setting in which 3-4 students analyze spacecraft images showing diverse shapes of impact craters on planetary surfaces. It is targeted not only at promoting knowledge about processes on planetary surfaces but it also stimulates visual interpretation skills, 3D viewing and reading of map data. A second workshop "We plan a manned mission to Mars" aims at fostering practical team work by designing simple space mission scenarios which are solved within a team by collaboration and responsibility. A practical outdoor activity called "Everything rotates around the Sun" targets at developing a perception of absolute - but in particular relative - sizes, scales and dimensions of objects in our solar system. Yet another workshop "Craters, volcanoes and co. - become a geologist on Mars" was offered at the annual national "Girls' Day" aiming at motivating primary to middle school girls to deal with topics in classical natural sciences. Small groups investigated and interpreted geomorphologic features in image data of

  17. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  18. Do Interactive Globes and Games Help Students Learn Planetary Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen; De Paor, Declan; Georgen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of animations and interactive visualizations in undergraduate science education might lead one to assume that these teaching aids enhance student learning. We tested this assumption for the case of the Google Earth virtual globe with a comparison of control and treatment student groups in a general education class of over 370 students at a large public university. Earth and Planetary Science course content was developed in two formats: using Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to create interactive tours in Google Earth (the treatment group) and Portable Document Format (PDF) for on-screen reading (the control group). The PDF documents contained identical text and images to the placemark balloons or "tour stops" in the Google Earth version. Some significant differences were noted between the two groups based on the immediate post-questionnaire with the KML students out-performing the PDF students, but not on the delayed measure. In a separate but related project, we undertake preliminary investigations into methods of teaching basic concepts in planetary mantle convection using numerical simulations. The goal of this project is to develop an interface with a two-dimensional finite element model that will allow students to vary parameters such as the temperatures assigned to the boundaries of the model domain, to help them actively explore important variables that control convection.

  19. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  20. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth’s geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics. PMID:26601153

  1. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Undergraduate Education and Research Programs, Facilities, and Information Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) GRIDVIEW: Recent Improvements in Research and Education Software for Exploring Mars Topography; 2) Software and Hardware Upgrades for the University of North Dakota Asteroid and Comet Internet Telescope (ACIT); 3) Web-based Program for Calculating Effects of an Earth Impact; 4) On-Line Education, Web- and Virtual-Classes in an Urban University: A Preliminary Overview; 5) Modelling Planetary Material's Structures: From Quasicrystalline Microstructure to Crystallographic Materials by Use of Mathematica; 6) How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary and Material Science Studies: Textural and Cooling Sequences in Sections of Lava Column from a Thin and a Thick Lava-Flow, from the Moon and Mars with Terrestrial Analogue and Chondrule Textural Comparisons; 7) Classroom Teaching of Space Technology and Simulations by the Husar Rover Model; 8) New Experiments (In Meteorology, Aerosols, Soil Moisture and Ice) on the New Hunveyor Educational Planetary Landers of Universities and Colleges in Hungary; 9) Teaching Planetary GIS by Constructing Its Model for the Test Terrain of the Hunveyor and Husar; 10) Undergraduate Students: An Untapped Resource for Planetary Researchers; 11) Analog Sites in Field Work of Petrology: Rock Assembly Delivered to a Plain by Floods on Earth and Mars; 12) RELAB (Reflectance Experiment Laboratory): A NASA Multiuser Spectroscopy Facility; 13) Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service.

  3. 78 FR 39341 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15677] NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-070] NASA Advisory... Committee Act, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This [[Page...

  4. Teaching Planetary Sciences at the Universidad del País Vasco in Spain: The Aula Espazio Gela and its Master in Space Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.

    2011-12-01

    Planetary science is a highly multidisciplinary field traditionally associated to Astronomy, Physics or Earth Sciences Departments. Spanish universities do not generally offer planetary sciences courses but some departments give courses associated to studies on Astronomy or Geology. We show a different perspective obtained at the Engeneering School at the Universidad del País Vasco in Bilbao, Spain, which offers a Master in Space Science and Technology to graduates in Engineering or Physics. Here we detail the experience acquired in two years of this master which offers several planetary science courses: Solar System Physics, Astronomy, Planetary Atmospheres & Space Weather together with more technical courses. The university also owns an urban observatory in the Engineering School which is used for practical exercises and student projects. The planetary science courses have also resulted in motivating part of the students to do their master thesis in scientific subjects in planetary sciences. Since the students have very different backgrounds their master theses have been quite different: From writing open software tools to detect bolides in video observations of Jupiter atmosphere to the photometric calibration and scientific use or their own Jupiter and Saturn images or the study of atmospheric motions of the Venus' South Polar Vortex using data from the Venus Express spacecraft. As a result of this interaction with the students some of them have been engaged to initiate Ph.D.s in planetary sciences enlarging a relative small field in Spain. Acknowledgements: The Master in Space Science and Technology is offered by the Aula Espazio Gela at the Universidad del País Vasco Engineer School in Bilbao, Spain and is funded by Diputación Foral de Bizkaia.

  5. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  6. Proceedings of the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Sessions with oral presentations include: A SPECIAL SESSION: MESSENGER at Mercury, Mars: Pingos, Polygons, and Other Puzzles, Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Mars: Ice On the Ground and In the Ground, SPECIAL SESSION: Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Mission to the Moon, Outer Planet Satellites: Not Titan, Not Enceladus, SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Science: Past, Present, and Future, Mars: North Pole, South Pole - Structure and Evolution, Refractory Inclusions, Impact Events: Modeling, Experiments, and Observations, Mars Sedimentary Processes from Victoria Crater to the Columbia Hills, Formation and Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites, New Achondrite GRA 06128/GRA 06129 - Origins Unknown, The Science Behind Lunar Missions, Mars Volcanics and Tectonics, From Dust to Planets (Planetary Formation and Planetesimals):When, Where, and Kaboom! Astrobiology: Biosignatures, Impacts, Habitability, Excavating a Comet, Mars Interior Dynamics to Exterior Impacts, Achondrites, Lunar Remote Sensing, Mars Aeolian Processes and Gully Formation Mechanisms, Solar Nebula Shake and Bake: Mixing and Isotopes, Lunar Geophysics, Meteorites from Mars: Shergottite and Nakhlite Invasion, Mars Fluvial Geomorphology, Chondrules and Chondrule Formation, Lunar Samples: Chronology, Geochemistry, and Petrology, Enceladus, Venus: Resurfacing and Topography (with Pancakes!), Overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Mars Sulfates, Phyllosilicates, and Their Aqueous Sources, Ordinary and Enstatite Chondrites, Impact Calibration and Effects, Comparative Planetology, Analogs: Environments and Materials, Mars: The Orbital View of Sediments and Aqueous Mineralogy, Planetary Differentiation, Titan, Presolar Grains: Still More Isotopes Out of This World, Poster sessions include: Education and Public Outreach Programs, Early Solar System and Planet Formation, Solar Wind and Genesis, Asteroids, Comets, and Small Bodies, Carbonaceous

  7. Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial in the field of planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.

    2012-12-01

    Information technology applied to geospatial analyses has spread quickly in the last ten years. The availability of OpenData and data from collaborative mapping projects increased the interest on tools, procedures and methods to handle spatially-related information. Free Open Source Software projects devoted to geospatial data handling are gaining a good success as the use of interoperable formats and protocols allow the user to choose what pipeline of tools and libraries is needed to solve a particular task, adapting the software scene to his specific problem. In particular, the Free Open Source model of development mimics the scientific method very well, and researchers should be naturally encouraged to take part to the development process of these software projects, as this represent a very agile way to interact among several institutions. When it comes to planetary sciences, geospatial Free Open Source Software is gaining a key role in projects that commonly involve different subjects in an international scenario. Very popular software suites for processing scientific mission data (for example, ISIS) and for navigation/planning (SPICE) are being distributed along with the source code and the interaction between user and developer is often very strict, creating a continuum between these two figures. A very widely spread library for handling geospatial data (GDAL) has started to support planetary data from the Planetary Data System, and recent contributions enabled the support to other popular data formats used in planetary science, as the Vicar one. The use of Geographic Information System in planetary science is now diffused, and Free Open Source GIS, open GIS formats and network protocols allow to extend existing tools and methods developed to solve Earth based problems, also to the case of the study of solar system bodies. A day in the working life of a researcher using Free Open Source Software for geospatial will be presented, as well as benefits and

  8. What can Space Resources do for Astronomy and Planetary Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The rapid cost growth of flagship space missions has created a crisis for astronomy and planetary science. We have hit the funding wall. For the past 3 decades scientists have not had to think much about how space technology would change within their planning horizon. However, this time around enormous improvements in space infrastructure capabilities and, especially, costs are likely on the 20-year gestation periods for large space telescopes. Commercial space will lower launch and spacecraft costs substantially, enable cost-effective on-orbit servicing, cheap lunar landers and interplanetary cubesats by the early 2020s. A doubling of flagship launch rates is not implausible. On a longer timescale it will enable large structures to be assembled and constructed in space. These developments will change how we plan and design missions.

  9. What can Space Resources do for Astronomy and Planetary Science?

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The rapid cost growth of flagship space missions has created a crisis for astronomy and planetary science. We have hit the funding wall. For the past 3 decades scientists have not had to think much about how space technology would change within their planning horizon. However, this time around enormous improvements in space infrastructure capabilities and, especially, costs are likely on the 20-year gestation periods for large space telescopes. Commercial space will lower launch and spacecraft costs substantially, enable cost-effective on-orbit servicing, cheap lunar landers and interplanetary cubesats by the early 2020s. A doubling of flagship launch rates is not implausible. On a longer timescale it will enable large structures to be assembled and constructed in space. These developments will change how we plan and design missions.

  10. Swiftvis: Data Analysis And Visualization For Planetary Science Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark C.; Levison, H. F.; Kavanagh, G.

    2007-07-01

    SwiftVis is a tool originally developed as part of a rewrite of Swift to be used for analysis and plotting of simulations performed with Swift and Swifter. The extensibility built into the design has allowed us to make SwiftVis a general purpose analysis and plotting package customized to be usable by the planetary science community at large. SwiftVis is written in Java and has been tested on Windows, Linux, and Mac platforms. Its graphical interface allows users to do complex analysis and plotting without having to write custom code. The software package and a tutorial can be found at http://www.cs.trinity.edu/ mlewis/SwiftVis/.

  11. Mars Returned Sample Handling: Planetary Protection and Science Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, D.; Campbell, J.; Lindstrom, D.; McBride, K.; Papanastassiou, D.

    The action of returning geological samples from Mars, should it be attempted by robotic missions, will require some careful planning on what would be done with the samples once they are on Earth, and the conditions under which they would need to be kept in order to realize their value. It is generally assumed that returned martian samples would be the subject of two primary kinds of analysis and investigation: planetary protection testing, and scientific analysis to support martian exploration objectives. Testing for the purpose of planetary protection would need to be carried out in a facility that has containment characteristics comparable to those of BSL-4 laboratories. This hypothetical facility has been informally referred to as the "Sample Receiving Facility" (SRF). However, it is not yet known if this capability would be optimized as a completely new facility, as a facility built in partnership with some other existing infrastructure, or if the required functionalities could even be distributed across multiple buildings, perhaps in quite different places. Although the essential purpose of planetary protection testing would be to assess whether or not the samples pose a biological hazard, many of the measurements called for in the draft test protocol, especially those related to preliminary examination/sample classification and life detection, are the same measurements called for to support scientific exploration objectives. Despite the uncertainties in the facility configuration required to carry out PP testing, it is clear that during such tests, the scientific integrity of the samples would need to be maintained. The primary challenge to scientific integrity revolves around contamination control. The science community has a need for the samples to be kept "clean", especially with regards to biological contaminants. However, specific definitions of "clean" have been difficult to establish. Further definition by the Mars science community of their scientific

  12. Halo orbit to science orbit captures at planetary moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokelmann, Kevin A.; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-05-01

    Ballisticly connecting halo orbits to science orbits in the circular-restricted three-body problem is investigated. Two classes of terminal science orbits are considered: low-altitude, tight orbits that are deep in the gravity well of the secondary body, and high-altitude, loose orbits that are strongly perturbed by the gravity of the primary body. General analytic expressions are developed to provide a minimum bound on impulse cost in both the circular restricted and the Hill's approximations. The equations are applied to a broad range of planetary moons, providing a mission design reference. Systematic grid search methods are developed to numerically find feasible transfers from halo orbits at Europa, confirming the analytical lower bound formulas. The two-impulse capture options in the case of Europa reveal a diverse set of potential solutions. Tight captures result in maneuver costs of 425-550 m/s while loose captures are found with costs as low as 30 m/s. The terminal orbits are verified to avoid escape or impact for at least 45 days.

  13. Storyboards and Science: Introducing the Planetary Data Storyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Del Villar, A.; Alkhawaja, A.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Galica, C.; Odess, J.; Erickson, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Every discovery has a story and storytelling is an ancient form of education. The stories of scientific discovery are often very formal and technical and not always very accessible. As in the past, today most scientific storytelling is done as in-person presentations in the form of slide shows or movies that unfold according to the design of its author. Things have changed. Using today's technologies telling stories can be a rich multi-media experience with a blending of text, animations, movies and infographics. Also, with presentations on the web the presentation can provide links to more details and the audience (reader) can jump to the linked information. Even so, the most common form of today's storytelling is as a narrative that starts with a page, a link to a single movie or a slide-show. We introduce a new promising form of scientific storytelling, the storyboard. With a storyboard a story is presented as a set of panels that contain representative images of an event and may have associated notes or instructions. The panels are arranged in a timeline that allow the audience to experience the discovery in the same way it occurred. A panel can also link to a more detailed source such as a publication, the data that was collected or items derived from the research (like movies or animations). Scientific storyboards can make science discovery more accessible to people by presenting events in an easy to follow layout. Scientific storyboards can also help to teach the scientific method, by following the experiences of a researcher as they investigate a phenomenon or try to understand a new set of observations. We illustrate the unique features of scientific storyboards with the Planetary Data Storyboard using data archived by the Planetary Data System.

  14. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  15. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K.; Read, A. M.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S.; Thomas, N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  16. Planetary Science Goals for the Spitzer Warm Era

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, Carey; Trilling, David; Emery, Josh; Fernandez, Yanga; Hammel, Heidi; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2007-01-01

    The overarching goal of planetary astronomy is to deduce how the present collection of objects found in our Solar System were formed from the original material present in the proto-solar nebula. As over two hundred exo-planetary systems are now known, and multitudes more are expected, the Solar System represents the closest and best system which we can study, and the only one in which we can clearly resolve individual bodies other than planets. In this White Paper we demonstrate how to use Spitzer Space Telescope InfraRed Array Camera Channels 1 and 2 (3.6 and 4.5 um) imaging photometry with large dedicated surveys to advance our knowledge of Solar System formation and evolution. There are a number of vital, key projects to be pursued using dedicated large programs that have not been pursued during the five years of Spitzer cold operations. We present a number of the largest and most important projects here; more will certainly be proposed once the warm era has begun, including important observations of newly...

  17. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni

  18. Worldwide Telescope as an earth and planetary science educational platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.; Rush, K.; van Ingen, C.; Wong, C.; Fay, J.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide Telescope (WWT) -available at no cost from Microsoft Research as both Windows desktop and web browser applications - enables personal computers to function as virtual telescopes for viewing the earth, the solar system and the cosmos across many wavelengths. Bringing together imagery from ground and space-based telescopes as well as photography from Mars rovers and Apollo astronauts, WWT is designed to work as both a research tool and a platform for educational exploration. Central to the latter purpose is the Tour authoring facility which enables a student or educator to create narrative stories with dynamic perspective, voice-over narrative, background sound and superimposed content. We describe here the application of recent developments in WWT, particularly the 2009 updates, towards planetary science education with particular emphasis on WWT earth models. Two core themes informing this development are the notions of enabling social networking through WWT Communities and including the earth as part of the bigger picture, in effect swinging the telescope around from the deep sky to look back at our observatory. moon, earth (WWT solar system view)

  19. Planetary science and exploration in the deep subsurface: results from the MINAR Program, Boulby Mine, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payler, Samuel J.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Coates, Andrew J.; Cousins, Claire R.; Cross, Rachel E.; Cullen, David C.; Downs, Michael T.; Direito, Susana O. L.; Edwards, Thomas; Gray, Amber L.; Genis, Jac; Gunn, Matthew; Hansford, Graeme M.; Harkness, Patrick; Holt, John; Josset, Jean-Luc; Li, Xuan; Lees, David S.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; McHugh, Melissa; McLuckie, David; Meehan, Emma; Paling, Sean M.; Souchon, Audrey; Yeoman, Louise; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research - MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.

  20. Next Generation Gamma/Neutron Detectors for Planetary Science. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy are well established techniques for determining the chemical composition of planetary surfaces, and small cosmic bodies such as...

  1. Next Generation Gamma/Neutron Detectors for Planetary Science. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy are well established techniques for determining the chemical composition of planetary surfaces, and small cosmic bodies such as...

  2. Low-Power Wideband Digital Spectrometer for Planetary Science Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a wideband digital spectrometer to support space-born measurements of planetary atmospheric composition. The spectrometer...

  3. Cathodoluminescence and its application in the planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gucsik, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of cathodoluminescence properties of the planetary materials. It provides a unique introduction to cathodoluminescence which is widely used in the geosciences, because it is a non-destructive and "easy to use" method.

  4. Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx): an infrastructure to bridge space missions data and computational models in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Génot, V. N.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Topf, F.; Schmidt, W.; Alexeev, I. I.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Gangloff, M.; Belenkaya, E. S.

    2012-04-01

    The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) has started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the Creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Data analysis and visualization within IMPEx will be based on the advanced computational models of the planetary environments. Specifically, the 'modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and operation of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will propose 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ "CLWeb" software which enables computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and

  5. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  6. Planetary Sciences practical experiences at the Master level with small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Hueso, R.; Ordonez Etxeberria, I.; Rojas, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Master in Space Science and Technology of the Basque Country University UPV/EHU in Bilbao (Spain) has been taught during 7 years (A. Sanchez-Lavega et al., Eur. J. of Eng. Education. 2014). Along the different courses, a series of practical observations and studies of planetary sciences have been conducted with Master students, using telescopes with diameters in the range 28-50 cm pertaining to the Aula EspaZio Gela Observatory (http://www.ehu.eus/aula-espazio/presentacion.html). Simple instrumentation (cameras and a spectrograph) have been employed to study planetary atmospheres (dynamics and cloud structure) and orbital mechanics using the Galilean satellites. Here we present a sample of these studies, which have lead to publications in refereed journals and have been presented at different meetings with the coauthoring of the students. Plans for the future include involving the master students in high-resolution observations of Solar System planets using a remote controlled 36 cm telescope at the Calar Alto observatory in Southern Spain (separated 1000 km from the teaching facilities in Bilbao).

  7. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  8. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Samples --Planetary Science Update --Mars Science Laboratory Lessons Learned Status It is imperative that... (number, country of issue, expiration date), employer/affiliation information (name of institution, title/position, address, country of employer, telephone, email address), and an electronically scanned copy...

  9. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  10. A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Casani, John; Elliott, John; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; MacPherson, Duncan; Nesmith, William; Houts, Michael; Bechtel, Ryan; Werner, James; Kapernick, Rick; hide

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

  11. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg

    2017-05-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection.There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process.We review the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and recent developments toward one of the mission concepts, a space-based radio wavelength array. There was an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field.We acknowledge ideas and advice from the participants in the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study organized by the W. M. Keck

  12. Magnetic investigations for studying planetary interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Santis

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the magnetic methods used for investigating planetary interiors are based on the reasonable hypothesis that the mechanism for the origin of the field is an Earth-like hydromagnetic dynamo: in this case the planet has an electrically conducting fluid shell within it as in the case of the Earth's core. The present paper describes several techniques of planetary magnetic investigation which give important clues on the internal constitution of planets. Some considerations on the possible mechanisms for maintaining a dynamo and simple concepts with the help of a few non-dimensional numbers are also introduced and discussed. Then some fundamental relationships are given in order to relate the planetary magnetism to other physical parameters, such as angular rotation, core dimensions etc. It finally summarizes some results available for the planets of the Solar System.

  13. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  14. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Dalton, H.; Bleacher, L.; Scalice, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is charged by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) with engaging, extending, and supporting the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in planetary science education activities in order to help them more effectively and efficiently share NASA science with all learners. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for planetary scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO. The Forum provides opportunities for community members to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested planetary scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend annual E/PO community meetings and meetings of opportunity at science and education conferences. The Forum also provides professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in planetary science to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), are coordinated by the Forum; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - currently is being researched by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations will be made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also in production is a "one-stop-shop" of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities. Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forum coordinates a network of planetary science

  15. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD): Effective Education and Outreach Website at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/PSRdiscoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website reports the latest research about planets, meteorites, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. In-depth articles explain research results and give insights to contemporary questions in planetary science.

  16. The Planetary System: Executable Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Papers

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Christoph; David, Catalin; Ginev, Deyan; Kohlhase, Andrea; Matican, Bogdan; Mirea, Stefan; Zholudev, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    Executable scientific papers contain not just layouted text for reading. They contain, or link to, machine-comprehensible representations of the scientific findings or experiments they describe. Client-side players can thus enable readers to "check, manipulate and explore the result space". We have realized executable papers in the STEM domain with the Planetary system. Semantic annotations associate the papers with a content commons holding the background ontology, the annotations are exposed as Linked Data, and a frontend player application hooks modular interactive services into the semantic annotations.

  17. Observing Planetary Rings with JWST: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P; Hedman, Matthew M; Nicholson, Philip D; Showalter, Mark R; Tamayo, Daniel; Verbiscer, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    The rings that adorn the four giant planets are of prime importance as accessible natural laboratories for disk processes, as clues to the origin and evolution of planetary systems, and as shapers as well as detectors of their planetary environments. The retinue of small moons accompanying all known ring systems are intimately connected as both sources and products, as well as shepherds and perturbers, of the rings. Leading sources of data on ring systems include spacecraft such as Cassini and Voyager, but also space telescopes such as Hubble and Spitzer as well as ground-based telescopes. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is being prepared for launch in 2018 to begin a planned five-year mission. JWST will have the capability to observe solar system objects as close as Mars. Although most of the hardware is already designed and under construction if not completed, work continues on the development of operations guidelines and software and the completion of calibration tasks. The purpose of this white pape...

  18. Professional Development Workshops for K-8 Teachers at the Planetary Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Caniso, T. L.; Croft, S. K.; Crown, D. A.; Pierazzo, E.

    2009-12-01

    Using NASA data sets, results of currently funded NASA research investigations, and a team of Earth and space scientists and educators, the Planetary Science Institute (PSI), in partnership with the Tucson Regional Science Center (RSC), is offering a series of professional development workshops targeting elementary and middle school teachers within the Tucson, Arizona region. Capitalizing on the curiosity, enthusiasm, and inspiration created by NASA missions, images, and data, we are encouraging interest in planetary science and space exploration to enhance Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) learning and teaching. Workshop participants are given the opportunity to improve their content knowledge and conceptual understanding of fundamental concepts in astronomy, geology, and planetary science, which in turn leads to their greater scientific confidence and more positive attitudes towards science. Teacher interaction with scientists during and after our workshops helps them to better model science practices and to identify potential career paths for their students. The current program includes offering three workshops: The Moon-Earth System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, and Impact Cratering with a plan to develop additional workshops (e.g., Volcanoes of the Solar System) and to increase distribution to locations other than southern Arizona.

  19. The role of Fizeau interferometry in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Albert R.

    2016-08-01

    Historically, two types of interferometer have been used to the study of solar system objects: coaxial and Fizeau. While coaxial interferometers are well-suited to a wide range of galactic and extra-galactic science cases, solar system science cases are, in most cases, better carried out with Fizeau imagers. Targets of interest in our solar system are often bright and compact, and the science cases for these objects often call for a complete, or nearly complete, image at high angular resolution. For both methods, multiple images must be taken at varying baselines to reconstruct an image. However, with the Fizeau technique that number is far fewer than it is for the aperture synthesis method employed by co-axial interferometers. In our solar system, bodies rotate and their surfaces are sometimes changing over yearly, or even weekly, time scales. Thus, the need to be able to exploit the high angular resolution of an interferometer with only a handful of observations taken on a single night, as is the case for Fizeau interferometers, gives a key advantage to this technique. The aperture of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), two 8.4 circular mirrors separated center-to-center by 14.4 meters, is optimal for supporting Fizeau interferometry. The first of two Fizeau imagers planned for LBT, the LBT Interferometer (LBTI),1 saw first fringes in 2010 and has proven to be a valuable tool for solar system studies. Recent studies of Jupiters volcanic moon Io have yielded results that rely on the angular resolution provided by the full 23-meter baseline of LBT Future studies of the aurora at Jupiters poles and the shape and binarity of asteroids are planned. While many solar system studies can be carried out on-axis (i.e., using the target of interest as the beacon for both adaptive optics correction and fringe tracking), studies such as Io-in-eclipse, full disk of Jupiter and Mars, and binarity of Kuiper belt objects, require off-axis observations (i.e., using one or more

  20. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; Schneider, N.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Afsharahmadi, F.

    2012-10-01

    We present two new features of an ongoing effort to bring recent newsworthy advances in planetary science to undergraduate lecture halls. The effort, called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', summarizes selected recently announced discoveries that are 'too new for textbooks' in the form of 3-slide PowerPoint presentations. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts at a level appropriate for students of 'Astronomy 101', and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/ for download by undergraduate instructors or any interested party. Several new slide sets have just been released, and we summarize the topics covered. The slide sets are also being translated into languages other than English (including Spanish and Farsi), and we will provide an overview of the translation strategy and process. Finally, we will present web statistics on how many people are using the slide sets, as well as individual feedback from educators.

  1. Mechanistic Studies of Planetary Haze Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Raea Kay

    2015-10-01

    Planetary atmospheres can be thought of as global-scale reactors capable of synthesizing large, complex molecules from small gases such as methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2). The atmosphere of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn covered by a thick organic haze, contains trace amounts (2%) of CH4 in an atmosphere of N2 at a surface pressure of 1.5 bar. This is similar to the Earth's Archaean atmosphere, which possibly contained trace amounts of CH4 and CO2 (˜1,000 ppmv each) in an N2 -dominant atmosphere before the rise of biogenic oxygen. Laboratory simulations of the atmospheric chemistry on Titan and the early Earth have shown that these atmospheres are capable of generating biologically-relevant molecules that condense to form particles which can then settle to the surface of the planetary body, possibly providing the molecules required for the emergence of life. The work presented here examines the mechanisms by which FUV photochemistry initiates incorporation of N atoms into Titan aerosol analogs, and C atoms into early Earth aerosol analogs. Results from the Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser onboard the Huygens lander reveal the presence of nitrogen in Titan's aerosols. This nitrogen incorporation is thought to occur primarily by extreme-UV photons or energetic electrons. However, recent results from our laboratory indicate a surprising amount of nitrogen incorporation- up to 16% by mass- in Titan aerosol analogs produced by photochemistry initiated by FUV irradiation of CH4/N 2 mixtures. The termolecular reaction CH+N2 +M → HCN2 has been proposed to account for this observation. Here, we test this hypothesis by using a high- resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the mass loading and chemical composition of aerosol produced at a range of pressures from roughly 0.1 to 1 atm. We report a 10-fold increase in aerosol mass loading across the range of pressures studied, indicating that the mechanism

  2. Planetary system, star formation, and black hole science with non-redundant masking on space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishna, Anand; Ireland, Michael; Lloyd, James; Perrin, Marshall; Soummer, Remi; McKernan, Barry; Ford, Saavik

    2009-01-01

    Non-redundant masking (NRM) is a high contrast, high resolution technique relevant to future space missions concerned with extrasolar planetary system and star formation, as well as general high angular resolution galactic and extragalactic astronomy. NRM enables the highest angular resolution science possible given the telescope's diameter and operating wavelength. It also provides precise information on a telescope's optical state. We must assess NRM contrast limits realistically to understand the science yield of NRM in space, and, simultaneously, develop NRM science for planet and star formation and extragalactic science in the UV-NIR, to help steer high resolution space-based astronomy in the coming decade.

  3. Career and Workforce Impacts of the NASA Planetary Science Summer School: TEAM X model 1999-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie L.; Budney, Charles; Mitchell, Karl; Wessen, Alice; JPL Education Office, JPL Team X

    2016-10-01

    Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. PSSS utilizes JPL's emerging concurrent mission design "Team X" as mentors. With this model, participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. Applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, doctoral or graduate students, and faculty teaching such students. An overview of the program will be presented, along with results of a diversity study conducted in fall 2015 to assess the gender and ethnic diversity of participants since 1999. PSSS seeks to have a positive influence on participants' career choice and career progress, and to help feed the employment pipeline for NASA, aerospace, and related academia. Results will also be presented of an online search that located alumni in fall 2015 related to their current occupations (primarily through LinkedIn and university and corporate websites), as well as a 2015 survey of alumni.

  4. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  5. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX - http://cpsx.uwo.ca) at The University of Western Ontario has initiated a comprehensive outreach and education program focusing on planetary science and exploration. The goal is to use planetary science to raise general interest in science. Currently, the activities being preformed by the centre can be divided into three broad categories: (1) educational/curriculum based activities, (2) outreach/community based activities, and (3) training. The first is where the push for an increase in interest for science is really critical and is the focus here. In partnership with the Thames Valley District School Board and by using inquiry-based teaching methods, students study various topics under the guidance of a CPSX graduate students and faculty. The educational activities that have taken place are all based on the Ontario curriculum and have been developed with the support of the local school board and teachers. An annual teacher workshop provides a hands-on opportunity for the teachers to interact with CPSX members. The first activity to be developed was on meteorite impact craters. The CPSX web page also contains the lesson plans and activity work sheets for this Cratering Activity, as well as additional activities. As the Cratering Activity is available online, teachers can perform the experiment independently or request the support from a CPSX outreach member. The activity is designed with the following structure: (1) The teacher gives a background presentation (provided by CPSX) which describes crater processes throughout our solar system (specifically comparing Earth to other planets), the consequences of impacts on Earth, the origins of impactors (small bodies) in our solar system, and the mechanical process of an impact. (2) The teacher demonstrates an impact event. Students are to make observations in their lab handout, and sketch what they see. (3) Students (either individually or as a group, based on

  6. The four hundred years of planetary science since Galileo and Kepler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A

    2010-07-29

    For 350 years after Galileo's discoveries, ground-based telescopes and theoretical modelling furnished everything we knew about the Sun's planetary retinue. Over the past five decades, however, spacecraft visits to many targets transformed these early notions, revealing the diversity of Solar System bodies and displaying active planetary processes at work. Violent events have punctuated the histories of many planets and satellites, changing them substantially since their birth. Contemporary knowledge has finally allowed testable models of the Solar System's origin to be developed and potential abodes for extraterrestrial life to be explored. Future planetary research should involve focused studies of selected targets, including exoplanets.

  7. Using the Planetary Science Institute’s Meteorite Mini-Kits to Address the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Cañizo, Thea L.; Buxner, Sanlyn

    2014-11-01

    Hands-on learning allows students to understand science concepts by directly observing and experiencing the topics they are studying. The Planetary Science Institute (PSI) has created instructional rock kits that have been introduced to elementary and middle school teachers in Tucson, in our professional development workshops. PSI provides teachers with supporting material and training so that they can use the kits as tools for students’ hands-on learning. Use of these kits provides an important experience with natural materials that is essential to instruction in Earth and Space Science. With a stronger knowledge of science content and of how science is actually conducted, the workshops and kits have instilled greater confidence in teachers’ ability to teach science content. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations includes: “What makes up our solar system?” NGSS emphasizes the Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding of the nature of scientific models.Addressing a need expressed by teachers for borrowing kits less expensive than our $2000 option, we created a Meteorite Mini-Kit. Each Mini-Kit contains eight rocks: an iron-bearing chondrite, a sliced chondrite (showing iron and chondrules), a tektite, a common Tucson rock, a river-polished rock, pumice, a small iron, and a rounded obsidian rock (false tektite). Also included in the Mini-Kits are magnets and a magnifier. The kits cost $40 to $50, depending on the sizes of the chondrites. A teacher can check out a classroom set of these which contains either 10 or 20 Mini-Kits. Each

  8. Planetary Sciences, Geodynamics, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Evolution: Developments and Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research frontiers in geophysics are being expanded, with development of new fields resulting from technological advances such as the Earth observation satellite network, global positioning system, high pressure-temperature physics, tomographic methods, and big data computing. Planetary missions and enhanced exoplanets detection capabilities, with discovery of a wide range of exoplanets and multiple systems, have renewed attention to models of planetary system formation and planet’s characteristics, Earth’s interior, and geodynamics, highlighting the need to better understand the Earth system, processes, and spatio-temporal scales. Here we review the emerging interconnections resulting from advances in planetary sciences, geodynamics, high pressure-temperature physics, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions.

  9. An Ontology-Based Archive Information Model for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Mattmann, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) information model is a mature but complex model that has been used to capture over 30 years of planetary science data for the PDS archive. As the de-facto information model for the planetary science data archive, it is being adopted by the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) as their archive data standard. However, after seventeen years of evolutionary change the model needs refinement. First a formal specification is needed to explicitly capture the model in a commonly accepted data engineering notation. Second, the core and essential elements of the model need to be identified to help simplify the overall archive process. A team of PDS technical staff members have captured the PDS information model in an ontology modeling tool. Using the resulting knowledge-base, work continues to identify the core elements, identify problems and issues, and then test proposed modifications to the model. The final deliverables of this work will include specifications for the next generation PDS information model and the initial set of IPDA archive data standards. Having the information model captured in an ontology modeling tool also makes the model suitable for use by Semantic Web applications.

  10. Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

  11. An Ontology-Based Archive Information Model for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Mattmann, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) information model is a mature but complex model that has been used to capture over 30 years of planetary science data for the PDS archive. As the de-facto information model for the planetary science data archive, it is being adopted by the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) as their archive data standard. However, after seventeen years of evolutionary change the model needs refinement. First a formal specification is needed to explicitly capture the model in a commonly accepted data engineering notation. Second, the core and essential elements of the model need to be identified to help simplify the overall archive process. A team of PDS technical staff members have captured the PDS information model in an ontology modeling tool. Using the resulting knowledge-base, work continues to identify the core elements, identify problems and issues, and then test proposed modifications to the model. The final deliverables of this work will include specifications for the next generation PDS information model and the initial set of IPDA archive data standards. Having the information model captured in an ontology modeling tool also makes the model suitable for use by Semantic Web applications.

  12. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  13. Social Media and Student Engagement in a Microgravity Planetary Science Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S. S.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.; Whitaker, A.; Tiller, C.; Benjamin, S.; Dove, A.; Colwell, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Collisional Accretion Experiment (CATE) is a planetary science experiment funded by NASA's Undergraduate Instrumentation Program (USIP). CATE is a microgravity experiment to study low-velocity collisions between cm-sized particles and 0.1-1.0 mm-sized particles in vacuum to better understand the conditions for accretion in the protoplanetary disk as well as collisions in planetary ring systems. CATE flew on three parabolic airplane flights in July, 2014, using NASA's "Weightless Wonder VI" aircraft. A significant part of the project was documenting the experience of designing, building, testing, and flying spaceflight hardware from the perspective of the undergraduates working on the experiment. The outreach effort was aimed at providing high schools students interested in STEM careers with a first-person view of hands-on student research at the university level. We also targeted undergraduates at the University of Central Florida to make them aware of space research on campus. The CATE team pursued multiple outlets, from social media to presentations at local schools, to connect with the public and with younger students. We created a website which hosted a blog, links to media publications that ran our story, videos, and galleries of images from work in the lab throughout the year. In addition the project had Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. These social media outlets had much more traffic than the website except during the flight week when photos posted on the blog generated significant traffic. The most effective means of communicating the project to the target audience, however, was through face-to-face presentations in classrooms. We saw a large increase in followers on Twitter and Instagram as the flight campaign got closer and while we were there. The main source of followers came after we presented to local high school students. These presentations were made by the undergraduate student team and the faculty mentors (Colwell and Dove).

  14. High Temperature, Controlled-Atmosphere Aerodynamic Levitation Experiments with Applications in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aerodynamic levitation laser apparatus is an instrument in which spherical samples are freely floated on top of a stream of gas while being heated with a CO2laser to temperatures up to about 3500 °C. Laser heated samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.5 mm diameter, can be levitated in a variety of chemically active or inert atmospheres in a gas-mixing chamber (e.g., Hennet et al. 2006; Pack et al. 2010). This allows for containerless, controlled-atmosphere, high temperature experiments with potential for applications in earth and planetary science. A relatively new technique, aerodynamic levitation has been used mostly for studies of the physical properties of liquids at high temperatures (Kohara et al. 2011), crystallization behavior of silicates and oxides (Arai et al. 2004), and to prepare glasses from compositions known to crystallize upon quenching (Tangeman et al. 2001). More recently, however, aerodynamic levitation with laser heating has been used as an experimental technique to simulate planetary processes. Pack et al. (2010) used levitation and melting experiments to simulate chondrule formation by using Ar-H2 as the flow gas, thus imposing a reducing atmosphere, resulting in reduction of FeO, Fe2O3, and NiO to metal alloys. Macris et al. (2015) used laser heating with aerodynamic levitation to reproduce the textures and diffusion profiles of major and minor elements observed in impact ejecta from the Australasian strewn field, by melting a powdered natural tektite mixed with 60-100 μm quartz grains on a flow of pure Ar gas. These experiments resulted in quantitative modeling of Si and Al diffusion, which allowed for interpretations regarding the thermal histories of natural tektites and their interactions with the surrounding impact vapor plume. Future experiments will employ gas mixing (CO, CO2, H2, O, Ar) in a controlled atmosphere levitation chamber to explore the range of fO2applicable to melt-forming impacts on other rocky planetary bodies

  15. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, T.; Chatzichristou, E.; Heward, A.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 13th, Houston, TX, March 15-19, 1982, Proceedings. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, W. V.; Ahrens, T. J.

    The present conference on planetary and lunar science considers theoretical models for the composition of the Venus crust, the lunar crust, the prediction of phase relationships in planetary mantles, the volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters, grazing impacts on Mars, the determination of lunar structure by means of electrical conductivity and seismic experiments, results of studies on the Apollo 16 site rocks, as well as Apollo 14, 15 and 17 lunar glasses and regoliths, and carbon components and isotopic compositions of chondritic meteorites. Also discussed are iron meteorites, interplanetary dust and tektites, and such theoretical and experimental issues as refractory condensates and chondrules from solar furnace experiments, molecular synthesis through the irradiation of silicates, and the adsorption of excess fission Xe.

  17. The Art Of Planetary Science: An Exhibition - Bringing Together The Art And Science Communities To Engage The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Jamie; Keane, Jamies; Peacock, Sarah; Schaefer, Ethan; Tanquary, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) presents the 2nd Annual The Art of Planetary Science: An Exhibition (TAPS) on 17-19 October 2014. This art exhibition and competition features artwork inspired by planetary science, alongside works created from scientific data. It is designed to connect the local art and science communities of Tucson, and engage the public together in celebration of the beauty and elegance of the universe. The exhibition is organized by a team of volunteer graduate students, with the help of LPL’s Space Imaging Center, and support from the LPL administration. Last year’s inaugural event featured over 150 works of art from 70 artists and scientists. A variety of mediums were represented, including paintings, photography, digital prints, sculpture, glasswork, textiles, film, and written word. Over 300 guests attended the opening. Art submission and event attendance are free, and open to anyone.The primary goal of the event is to present a different side of science to the public. Too often, the public sees science as dull or beyond their grasp. This event provides scientists the opportunity to demonstrate the beauty that they find in their science, by creating art out of their scientific data. These works utilized, for example, equations, simulations, visual representations of spacecraft data, and images of extra-terrestrial material samples. Viewing these works alongside more traditional artwork inspired by those same scientific ideas provided the audience a more complex, multifaceted view of the content that would not be possible viewing either alone. The event also provides a way to reach out specifically to the adult community. Most science outreach is targeted towards engaging children in STEM fields. While this is vital for the long term, adults have more immediate control over the perception of science and public policy that provides funding and research opportunities to scientists. We hope this event raises

  18. Need for Planetary Science Data in Formal Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Richwine, P. L.; Parker, S. J. Shipp, S. Lowes, L.

    2008-06-01

    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: 1) prepare students to address real world complex problems; 2) develop students' ability to use scientific methods; 3) prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; 4) teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; 5) increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and 6) train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. This large-scale, national teacher survey reveals that far too few teachers are comfortable using authentic data in the classroom. Barriers include, but not limited to: 1) difficulty in finding appropriate data and analysis tools; 2) the perceived length of time it takes students to complete an authentic scientific inquiry; and, most importantly, 3) a perceived lack of expert infrastructure and mentors who can help individual students. These results point to the need for a solution that simplifies the number of pathways for students to access data, reduces the number of analysis tools that teachers and students need to master, provides samples of student work that other students can emulate, and provides a nationwide system of online mentors who are willing and able to help students succeed. at scientific inquiry.

  19. Small is Beautiful — Technology Trends in the Satellite Industry and Their Implications for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.

    2017-02-01

    It’s an exciting time in the space business - new technologies being developed under the ‘NewSpace’ umbrella have some profound implications for planetary science missions over the next three decades.

  20. Maximizing Science Return on Astrobiology and Planetary Missions Using Integrated Liquid-Handling Chemical Analysis Systems - A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. A.; Mora, M. F.; Creamer, J. S.; Kehl, F.

    2016-10-01

    Our team has been developing all components required for liquid-based analysis on planetary missions. Here we summarize our progress in this area, and highlight enhancements to science return on NASA missions that these technologies could provide.

  1. The Planetary Data System — Renewing Our Science Nodes in Order to Better Serve Our Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T. H.; McLaughlin, S.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Crichton, D. J.; New, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve NASA's ability to provide an agile response to the needs of the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) is being transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA's Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. We expect the new PDS will improve both archive searchability and product discoverability, continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the International community of space faring nations (through the International Planetary Data Alliance). PDS will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on these changes. Please visit our User Support Area at the meeting (Booth #446) if you have questions accessing our data sets or providing data to the PDS or about the new PDS structure.

  2. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  3. DPS Planetary Science Graduate Programs Listing: A Resource for Students and Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Roman, Anthony; Meinke, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We began a web page on the DPS Education site in 2013 listing all the graduate programs we could find that can lead to a PhD with a planetary science focus. Since then the static page has evolved into a database-driven, filtered-search site. It is intended to be a useful resource for both undergraduate students and undergraduate advisers, allowing them to find and compare programs across a basic set of search criteria. From the filtered list users can click on links to get a "quick look" at the database information and follow links to the program main site.The reason for such a list is because planetary science is a heading that covers an extremely diverse set of disciplines. The usual case is that planetary scientists are housed in a discipline-placed department so that finding them is typically not easy—undergraduates cannot look for a Planetary Science department, but must (somehow) know to search for them in all their possible places. This can overwhelm even determined undergraduate student, and even many advisers!We present here the updated site and a walk-through of the basic features. In addition we ask for community feedback on additional features to make the system more usable for them. Finally, we call upon those mentoring and advising undergraduates to use this resource, and program admission chairs to continue to review their entry and provide us with the most up-to-date information.The URL for our site is http://dps.aas.org/education/graduate-schools.

  4. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1A: Brief descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W. S. (Editor); Vostreys, R. W. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Planetary and heliocentric spacecraft, including planetary flybys and probes, are described. Imaging, particles and fields, ultraviolet, infrared, radio science and celestial mechanics, atmospheres, surface chemistry, biology, and polarization are discussed.

  5. Reflection seismology systems for planetary geology: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, P.A.W.; Gill, E.K.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Foing, B.H.; Toxopeus, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study is conducted to determine whether reflection seismology systems can be used for planetary geology research. The focus is on systems with up to 20,000 seismic detectors, such as used today in Earth geological research and energy companies. The study follows a top-down systems engi

  6. Overview of Outreach Activities of the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiol, S.; Balthasar, H.; Dumke, A.; Gross, C.; Michael, G.; Neu, D.; Platz, T.; Rosenberg, H.; Schreiner, B.; Walter, S. H. G.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-04-01

    Planetary Sciences teach us how special our homeplanet is in the solar system. Incorporating a broad variety of natural science topics they count to the most fundamental branches of scientific research with a strong interdisciplinary character. However, since planetary sciences are not a school subject, children as well as adults are often lacking an overall awareness and understanding of that field. The mission of planetary education has to be fulfilled by research institutions. With several platforms and activities our group is engaged to address this topic. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) is involved in space missions such as Mars Express with the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), Cassini to Saturn, and Dawn to the asteroids Vesta and Ceres. Moreover, we participate in developing a planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Information of our planetary research activities can be found on our institutes website [1]. Our outreach activities include press releases, an image download hub, permanent and special exhibition support, 3D-HD-animation production, science fairs, workshops, hands-on courses, public talks at observatories and schools, as well as media appearances in radio, press and TV.

  7. Enhancing Science from Future Space Missions and Planetary Radar with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dayton L

    2014-01-01

    Both Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the full SKA have the potential to dramatically increase the science return from future astrophysics, heliophysics, and especially planetary missions, primarily due to the greater sensitivity (AEFF / TSYS) compared with existing or planned spacecraft tracking facilities. While this is not traditional radio astronomy, it is an opportunity for productive synergy between the large investment in the SKA and the even larger investments in space missions to maximize the total scientific value returned to society. Specific applications include short-term increases in downlink data rate during critical mission phases or spacecraft emergencies, enabling new mission concepts based on small probes with low power and small antennas, high precision angular tracking via VLBI phase referencing using in-beam calibrators, and greater range and signal/noise ratio for bi-static planetary radar observations. Future use of higher frequencies (e.g., 32 GHz and optical) for spac...

  8. Precise radio Doppler and interferometric tracking of spacecraft in service of planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duev, Dmitry; PRIDE team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) project is designed as a multi-purpose, multidisciplinary enhancement of the space missions science return by means of Doppler and phase-referenced Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking of spacecraft. These measurements can be used in a multitude of scientific applications, both fundamental and applied, where an accurate estimate of the spacecraft state vector is essential. In particular, the gravitational field of planetary moons can be sampled with close spacecraft flybys, allowing to probe the moons' interior.In this presentation, we will describe the principles of PRIDE data collection, processing, and analysis. We will present the results of demonstrational observations of a Phobos flyby conducted by ESA's Mars Express spacecraft.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 18th, Houston, TX, Mar. 16-20, 1987, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, including petrogenesis and chemistry of lunar samples, geology and petrogenesis of the Apollo 15 landing site, lunar geology and applications, cratering records and cratering effects, differentiated meteorites, chondritic meteorites and asteroids, extraterrestrial grains, Venus, Mars, and icy satellites. The importance of lunar granite and KREEP in very high potassium basalt petrogenesis, indentifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments, glasses in ancient and young Apollo 16 regolith breccias, the formation of the Imbrium basin, the chemistry and petrology of the Apennine Front, lunar mare ridges, studies of Rima Mozart, electromagnetic energy applications in lunar resource mining and construction, detecting a periodic signal in the terrestrial cratering record, and a search for water on the moon, are among the topics discussed. Other topics include the bidirectional reflectance properties of Fe-Ni meteorites, the nature and origin of C-rich ordinary chondrites and chondritic clasts, the dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine, characteristics of Greenland Fe/Ni cosmic grains, electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle, trapping Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in Si2O3 smokes, gossans on Mars, and a model of the porous structure of icy satellites.

  10. Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Collins, G. S.

    2005-03-01

    Meteor Crater in Arizona was the first terrestrial structure to be widely recognized as a meteorite impact scar and has probably been more intensively studied than any other impact crater on Earth. We have discovered something surprising about its mode of formation - namely that the surface-impact velocity of the iron meteorite that created Meteor Crater was only about 12 km s-1. This is close to the 9.4 km s-1 minimum originally proposed but far short of the 15-20 km s-1 that has been widely assumed - a realization that clears up a long-standing puzzle about why the crater does not contain large volumes of rock melted by the impact.

  11. Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H J; Collins, G S

    2005-03-10

    Meteor Crater in Arizona was the first terrestrial structure to be widely recognized as a meteorite impact scar and has probably been more intensively studied than any other impact crater on Earth. We have discovered something surprising about its mode of formation--namely that the surface-impact velocity of the iron meteorite that created Meteor Crater was only about 12 km s(-1). This is close to the 9.4 km s(-1) minimum originally proposed but far short of the 15-20 km s(-1) that has been widely assumed--a realization that clears up a long-standing puzzle about why the crater does not contain large volumes of rock melted by the impact.

  12. Remote Sensing Data Analytics for Planetary Science with PlanetServer/EarthServer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Figuera, Ramiro Marco; Flahaut, Jessica; Martinot, Melissa; Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter; Pham Huu, Bang; Besse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Planetary Science datasets, beyond the change in the last two decades from physical volumes to internet-accessible archives, still face the problem of large-scale processing and analytics (e.g. Rossi et al., 2014, Gaddis and Hare, 2015). PlanetServer, the Planetary Science Data Service of the EC-funded EarthServer-2 project (#654367) tackles the planetary Big Data analytics problem with an array database approach (Baumann et al., 2014). It is developed to serve a large amount of calibrated, map-projected planetary data online, mainly through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) (e.g. Rossi et al., 2014; Oosthoek et al., 2013; Cantini et al., 2014). The focus of the H2020 evolution of PlanetServer is still on complex multidimensional data, particularly hyperspectral imaging and topographic cubes and imagery. In addition to hyperspectral and topographic from Mars (Rossi et al., 2014), the use of WCPS is applied to diverse datasets on the Moon, as well as Mercury. Other Solar System Bodies are going to be progressively available. Derived parameters such as summary products and indices can be produced through WCPS queries, as well as derived imagery colour combination products, dynamically generated and accessed also through OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS). Scientific questions translated into queries can be posed to a large number of individual coverages (data products), locally, regionally or globally. The new PlanetServer system uses the the Open Source Nasa WorldWind (e.g. Hogan, 2011) virtual globe as visualisation engine, and the array database Rasdaman Community Edition as core server component. Analytical tools and client components of relevance for multiple communities and disciplines are shared across service such as the Earth Observation and Marine Data Services of EarthServer. The Planetary Science Data Service of EarthServer is accessible on http://planetserver.eu. All its code base is going to be available on GitHub, on

  13. Culturally Relevant Educational Games in the Ocean, Earth and Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    Educational games can be a fun, challenging way of engaging students. Teachers can use games to teach content (students learn as they play), or to assess previously acquired knowledge. I will present a board game that is culturally relevant to Hawaii (available by eamiling barb@hawaii.edu). Originally developed for 6-8th graders studying Mars, it can be readily exported to a variety of grade levels and content areas in the ocean, earth and planetary sciences. This project began with a NASA Education and Public Outreach grant to develop standards-based, hands-on Mars science curricula that are culturally relevant to Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. We both developed new curricula and tailored existing curricula to make the content and teaching methodologies culturally relevant. Our main curriculum product is an eight-lesson unit entitled Life in Hawaii, Life on Mars, developed in partnership with teachers and currently being field-tested in Hawaii schools. The final lesson in the unit is an educational board game entitled Hawaii to Mars: A Voyage of Discovery. Like many board games, players advance along a set path by rolling a die. Landing on certain squares requires students to answer questions on Hawaiian culture and Mars science; landing on others requires students to do a variety of activities (drawing, acting, unscrambling words) on relevant topics. Correct answers allow players to roll again. Although incorrect answers require they skip a turn, correct answers are provided and a limited number of questions ensures a second opportunity to answer the question correctly. We are currently developing a microbial oceanography version of the game in partnership with scientists at the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE), as part of C-MORE's efforts to increase diversity in the ocean sciences. We also plan to develop a generic version of the game board, so simply changing the content and difficulty of the question cards will allow

  14. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  15. Geosciences: An Open Access Journal on Earth and Planetary Sciences and Their Interdisciplinary Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martinez-Frias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Geosciences. Geosciences is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal, which publishes original papers, rapid communications, technical notes and review articles, and discussions about all interdisciplinary aspects of the earth and planetary sciences. Geosciences may also include papers presented at scientific conferences (proceedings or articles on a well defined topic assembled by individual editors or organizations/institutions (special publications.

  16. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  17. SP-100 planetary mission/system preliminary design study. Final report, technical information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M. [ed.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains a discussion on many aspects of a nuclear electric propulsion planetary science mission and spacecraft using the proposed SP-100 nuclear power subsystem. A review of the science rationale for such missions is included. A summary of eleven nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions is presented. A conceptual science payload, mission design, and spacecraft design is included for the Saturn Ring Rendezvous mission. Spacecraft and mission costs have been estimated for two potential sequences of nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions. The integration issues and requirements on the proposed SP-100 power subsystems are identified.

  18. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  19. The Rocks From Space outreach initiative and The Space Safari: the development of virtual learning environments for planetary science outreach in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, V. K.; Greenwood, R. C.; Bridges, J.; Watson, J.; Brooks, V.

    The Rocks From Space outreach initiative and The Space Safari: the development of virtual learning environments for planetary science outreach in the UK. V.K. Pearson (1), R.C. Greenwood (1), J. Bridges (1), J. Watson (2) and V. Brooks (2) (1) Plantetary and Space Sciences Research Institute (PSSRI), The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA. (2) Stockton-on-Tees City Learning Centre, Marsh House Avenue, Billingham, TS23 3QJ. (v.k.pearson@open.ac.uk Fax: +44 (0) 858022 Phone: +44 (0) 1908652814 The Rocks From Space (RFS) project is a PPARC and Open University supported planetary science outreach initiative. It capitalises on the successes of Open University involvement in recent space missions such as Genesis and Stardust which have brought planetary science to the forefront of public attention.Our traditional methods of planetary science outreach have focussed on activities such as informal school visits and public presentations. However, these traditional methods are often limited to a local area to fit within time and budget constraints and therefore RFS looks to new technologies to reach geographically dispersed audiences. In collaboration with Stockton-on-Tees City Learning Centre, we have conducted a pilot study into the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) for planetary science outreach. The pilot study was undertaken under the guise of a "Space Safari" in which pupils dispersed across the Teesside region of the UK could collaboratively explore the Solar System. Over 300 students took part in the pilot from 11 primary schools (ages 6-10). Resources for their exploration were provided by Open University scientists in Milton Keynes and hosted on the VLE. Students were encouraged to post their findings, ideas and questions via wikis and a VLE forum. This combination of contributions from students, teachers and scientists encouraged a collaborative learning environment. These asynchronous activities were complemented by synchronous virtual classroom

  20. Sciences for Exoplanets and Planetary Systems : web sites and E-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, F.; Balança, C.; Bénilan, Y.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Marcq, E.; Navarro, T.; Renner, S.; Schneider, J.; Schott, C.

    2015-10-01

    The websites « Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires » (SESP) and « Exoplanètes » have been created in the context of the LabEx ESEP (Laboratoire d'excellence Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires) [1]. They present planetary and exoplanetary sciences with courses, interactive tools, and a didactic catalogue connected to the Encyclopedia http://exoplanet.eu [2]. These resources are directed towards undergraduate level. They will be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. In the future, we will translate some contents into English and create e-learning degree courses.

  1. Teaching Planetary Sciences with the Master in Space Science and Technology at Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU: Theory and Practice works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.

    2012-10-01

    The Master in Space Science and Technology is a postgraduate course at the Universidad del País Vasco in Spain (http://www.ehu.es/aula-espazio/master.html). It has two elective itineraries on space studies: scientific and technological. The scientific branch is intended for students aiming to access the PhD doctorate program in different areas of space science, among them the research of the solar system bodies. The theoretical foundations for the solar system studies are basically treated in four related matters: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics of the Solar System, Planetary Atmospheres, and Image Processing and Data Analysis. The practical part is developed on the one hand by analyzing planetary images obtained by different spacecrafts from public archives (e. g. PDS), and on the other hand from observations obtained by the students employing the 50 cm aperture telescope and other smaller telescopes from the Aula EspaZio Gela Observatory at the Engineering Faculty. We present the scheme of the practice works realized at the telescope to get images of the planets in different wavelengths pursuing to study the following aspects of Planetary Atmospheres: (1) Data acquisition; (2) Measurements of cloud motions to derive winds; (3) Measurement of the upper cloud reflectivity at the different wavelengths and position in the disk to retrieve the upper cloud properties and vertical structure. The theoretical foundations accompanying these practices are then introduced: atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, and the radiative transfer problem. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Departamento de Promoción Económica of Diputación Foral Bizkaia through a grant to Aula EspaZio Gela at E.T.S. Ingeniería (Bilbao, Spain).

  2. Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS): A Low-Resource Combined Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehill, L. C.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Mesick, K. E.; Nowicki, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS) is an innovative, low-resource gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer for planetary science missions, enabled by new scintillator and photodetector technologies. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by cosmic ray interactions with planetary bodies and their subsequent interactions with the near-surface materials produce distinctive energy spectra. Measuring these spectra reveals details of the planetary near-surface composition that are not accessible through any other phenomenology. Under the resource constraints of space missions, these measurements are difficult as they require good gamma-ray energy resolution, measurement of neutron energy over almost twelve orders of magnitude, and disentangling the effects of background cosmic radiation, all while surviving the space environment for many years. EPICS will provide a transformational advance in the investigation of these signatures, enabling new scientific discovery. EPICS will be the first planetary science instrument to fully integrate the neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers. This integration is enabled by the recently-discovered elpasolite family of scintillators that offer gamma-ray spectroscopy energy resolutions as good as 3% FWHM at 662 keV, thermal neutron sensitivity and some fast neutron spectroscopy, and the ability to distinguish gamma-ray and neutron signals via pulse shape differences. This new detection technology will significantly reduce size, weight, and power (SWaP) while providing similar neutron performance and improved gamma energy resolution compared to previous scintillator instruments, and the ability to monitor the cosmic-ray source term. EPICS will detect scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers rather than traditional photomultiplier tubes, offering dramatic additional SWaP reduction. EPICS is being developed under Los Alamos National Laboratory internal research and development funding to a maturity level

  3. The "impressionist" force of creation stories in planetary sciences education and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Any truly meaningful presentation of a planetary science topic to both pupils/students and the general public should contain three modules. First, there should be all the necessary phenomenology, detailed description of "players" (i.e., planetary bodies and the sources of external influences). Second, there should be similarly complete description of "rules" (i.e., natural forces and factors). Third, one should not forget to provide a "life story", the evolutionary background (i.e., scenarios for origin, development and probable end of relevant planetary bodies). There is nothing new in this basic classification of the material presented to the class or to the general audience. It is a summary of collective wisdom of experienced teachers as well as that of non-teacher scientists engaged in public understanding of science activities. Nevertheless, there is an important caveat in this sequence. The audience could get lost a touch with the topic. This would lead to diminished attention in both the first module (overwhelming by facts and associated numbers) and in the second one (overwhelming by the complexity of interactions). It is suggested that this could be averted by partial inversion of the above working sequence in "emergency situations". For example, if the audience is distracted by some strong influence, like crucial football/ice-hockey match or a fashion display. That means, one should not present the topical material strictly in a usual 1-2-3 style (phenomenologycausality-evolution) but in modified 3-1-2-3 style (evolution-phenomenology-causality-evolution). Of course, a very natural question arises here: Is it possible, at all, to talk or write about evolution without presenting known facts and causes and effects involved beforehand? The answer, based on a large number of trial-and-error efforts, now seems to be: Yes, it is. One should take a lesson from great painters of the second half of the 19th century who have started and then pursued systematically

  4. High spatial resolution mid-infrared studies of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew

    I present the results of six papers related the formation and evolution of planets and planetary systems, all of which are based on high-resolution, ground-based, mid-infrared observations. The first three chapters are studies of T Tauri binaries. T Tauri stars are young, low mass stars, whose disks form the building blocks of extrasolar planets. The first chapter is a study of the 0.68"/0.12" triple system, T Tauri. Our spatially resolved N-band photometry reveals silicate absorption towards one component, T Tau Sa, indicating the presence of an edge-on disk, which is in contrast to the other components. The second chapter is an adaptive optics fed N-band spectroscopy study of the 0.88" binary, UY Aur. We find that the dust grains around UY Aur A are ISM-like, while the mineralogy of the dust around UY Aur B is more uncertain, due to self-extinction. The third chapter presents a survey of spatially resolved silicate spectroscopy for nine T Tauri binaries. We find with 90%-95% confidence that the silicate features of the binaries are more similar than those of randomly paired single stars. This implies that a shared binary property, such as age or composition, is an important parameter in dust grain evolution. The fourth chapter is a study of the planetary system, 2MASS 1207. We explore the source of 2MASS 1207 b's under-luminosity, which has typically been explained as the result of an edge-on disk of large, grey-extincting dust grains. We find that the edge-on disk theory is incompatible with several lines of evidence, and suggest that 2MASS 1207 b's appearance can be explained by a thick cloudy atmosphere, which might be typical among young, planetary systems. The fifth chapter is a study of the white dwarf, Sirius B, which in the context of this thesis is being studied as a post-planetary system. Our N-band imaging demonstrates that Sirius B does not have an infrared excess, in contrast to previous results. The sixth chapter is a study of mid

  5. An Infrared Study of Fullerene Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Garcia-Lario, P; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Manchado, A; Stanghellini, L; Shaw, R A; Cataldo, F

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of 16 PNe where fullerenes have been detected in their Spitzer spectra. This large sample of objects offers an unique opportunity to test conditions of fullerene formation and survival under different metallicity environments as we are analyzing five sources in our own Galaxy, four in the LMC, and seven in the SMC. Among the 16 PNe under study, we present the first detection of C60 (possibly also C70) fullerenes in the PN M 1-60 as well as of the unusual 6.6, 9.8, and 20 um features (possible planar C24) in the PN K 3-54. Although selection effects in the original samples of PNe observed with Spitzer may play a potentially significant role in the statistics, we find that the detection rate of fullerenes in C-rich PNe increases with decreasing metallicity (5% in the Galaxy, 20% in the LMC, and 44% in the SMC). CLOUDY photoionization modeling matches the observed IR fluxes with central stars that display a rather narrow range in effective temperature (30,000-45,000 K), suggesting a common evo...

  6. General Education Engagement in Earth and Planetary Science through an Earth-Mars Analog Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.

  7. Continued development of the radio science technique as a tool for planetary and solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A possible alternative to a spacecraft monostatic radar system for surface studies of Titan is introduced. The results of a short study of the characteristics of a bistatic radar investigation of Titan's surface, presented in terms of the Voyager 1 flyby and a proposed Galileo orbiter of Saturn are outlined. The critical factors which need to be addressed in order to optimize the radio occultation technique for the study of clouds and cloud regions in planetary atmospheres are outlined. Potential improvements in the techniques for measuring small-scale structures in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are addressed. The development of a technique for vastly improving the radial resolution from the radio occultation measurements of the rings of Saturn is discussed.

  8. The Year of the Solar System: An E/PO Community's Approach to Sharing Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; Dalton, H.; Scalice, D.; Planetary Science E/Po Community

    2010-12-01

    YSS offers the opportunity to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students and the public about planetary science activities. The planetary science education and public outreach (E/PO) community is engaging and educating their audiences through ongoing mission and program activities. Based on discussion with partners, the community is presenting its products in the context of monthly thematic topics that are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved; and how did life begin and evolve on Earth, has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system, and what are characteristics that lead to the origins of life? Each month explores different compelling aspects of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life. Resources, activities, and events are interwoven in thematic context, and presented with ideas through which formal and informal educators can engage their audiences. The month-to-month themes place the big questions in a logical sequence of deepening learning experiences - and highlight mission milestones and viewing events. YSS encourages active participation and communication with its audiences. It includes nation-wide activities, such as a Walk Through the Solar System, held between October 2010 to March 2011, in which museums, libraries, science centers, schools, planetariums, amateur astronomers, and others are kicking off YSS by creating their own scale models of the solar system and sharing their events through online posting of pictures, video, and stories. YSS offers the E/PO community the opportunity to collaborate with each other and partners. The thematic approach leverages existing products, providing a home and allowing a “shelf life” that can outlast individual projects and missions. The broad themes highlight missions and programs multiple times. YSS also leverages existing online resources and social media. Hosted on

  9. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroid J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope. Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile, and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  10. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manfroid J.; Hutsemékers D.; Chantry V.; Magain P.; Jehin E.; Gillon M.; Queloz D.; Udry S.

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope). Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here...

  11. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Magain, P; Chantry, V; Hutsemekers, D; Manfroid, J; Queloz, D; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope). Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile), and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  12. A Study on Planetary Atmospheric Circulations using THOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The large variety of planetary parameters observed leads us to think that exoplanets may show a large range of possible climates. It is therefore of the uttermost importance to investigate the influence of astronomical and planetary bulk parameters in driving the atmospheric circulations. In the solar system the results from planetary spacecraft missions have demonstrated how different the planetary climate and atmospheric circulations can be. The study of exoplanets will require probing a far wider range of physical and orbital parameters than the ones of our neighbor planets. For this reason, such a study will involve exploring an even larger diversity of circulation and climate regimes. Our new atmospheric model, THOR, is intended to be extremely flexible and to explore the large diversity of planetary atmospheres.THOR is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform, and is a project of the Exoplanet and Exoclimes Group (see www.exoclime.org). THOR solves the complex atmospheric fluid equations in a rotating sphere (fully compressible - nonhydrostatic system) using an icosahedral grid. The main advantages of using our new platform against other recent exoplanet models is that 1) The atmospheric fluid equations are completely represented and no approximations are used that could compromise the physics of the problem; 2) The model uses for the first time in exoplanet studies, a specific icosahedral grid that solves the pole problem; 3) The interface is user friendly and can be easily adapted to a multitude of atmospheric conditions; 4) By using GPU computation, our code greatly improves the typical code running time.We will present and discuss the first detailed results of our simulations, more specifically of two benchmark tests that are a representative sample of the large range of exoplanetary parameters: Earth-like conditions (the Held-Suarez test) and a tidally locked hot-Jupiter. THOR has successfully passed these tests and is able to determine the main

  13. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Developing Inquiry Based Lesson Plans to Teach Planetary Science In Elementary And Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.; Dominey, W.; Ramsey, J.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the development of a detailed set of new 5E lesson plans to

  14. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Capabilities for Planetary and Exoplanetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Dana E.; Reach, W. T.; Dunham, E. W.; Wolf, J.; Rho, J.; SOFIA Science Team

    2012-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) enables high angular and spectral resolution observations with its seven first-generation instruments: 3 cameras, 3 spectrometers, and a high-speed photometer. These capabilities make SOFIA a powerful facility for advancing understanding of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres, star and planet formation processes, and chemistry of the protosolar nebula and protoplanetary disks. SOFIA's Early Science program, using the FORCAST mid-IR camera (PI Terry Herter, Cornell), the GREAT far-IR spectrometer (PI Rolf Guesten, MPIfR), and the HIPO occultation photometer (PI Ted Dunham, Lowell Observatory), is now complete. Some Early Science results were published in special issues of Ap.J.Letters (v.749) and Astronomy & Astrophysics (v.542). Regarding solar system targets, SOFIA obtained mid-IR images of Jupiter and of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 (the latter observations were part of Earth-based support for the EPOXI mission). On 23 June 2011, SOFIA intercepted the center of Pluto's shadow that crossed the Pacific at nearly 30 km/sec. The occultation light curve was observed from SOFIA simultaneously by the HIPO photometer and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC; PI Juergen Wolf, DSI). HIPO is specifically intended for planetary science, including stellar occultations by solar system bodies and extrasolar planet transits. HIPO can be co-mounted with the near-IR camera FLITECAM (PI Ian McLean, UCLA) to provide simultaneous photometric coverage in two bands (0.3-1 and 1-5 microns); this was first demonstrated in October 2011. At longer wavelengths SOFIA will make unique contributions to the characterization of astrochemical processes and molecular contents of planets, exoplanets, and protoplanetary disks with a mid-IR spectrometer, a far-IR imaging spectrometer, and a far-IR camera with grism that are soon to be commissioned.

  15. IMPEx - an infrastructure for joint analysis of space missions and computational modelling data in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Michel

    2012-07-01

    The FP7-SPACE project Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration (IMPEx) was started in June 2011. The aim of the project is the creation of an integrated interactive IT framework where data from space missions will be interconnected to numerical models, providing a possibility to 1) simulate planetary phenomena and interpret spacecraft data; 2) test and improve models versus experimental data; 3) fill gaps in measurements by appropriate modelling runs; 4) solve technological tasks of mission operation and preparation. Specifically, the `modeling sector' of IMPEx is formed of four well established numerical codes and their related computational infrastructures: 1) 3D hybrid modeling platform HYB for the study of planetary plasma environments, hosted at FMI; 2) an alternative 3D hybrid modeling platform, hosted at LATMOS; 3) MHD modelling platform GUMICS for 3D terrestrial magnetosphere, hosted at FMI; and 4) the global 3D Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model for simulation of magnetospheres of different Solar System objects, hosted at SINP. Modelling results will be linked to the corresponding experimental data from space and planetary missions via several online tools: 1/ AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) which provides cross-linked visualization and analysis of experimental and numerical modelling data, 2/ 3DView which will enable 3D visualization of spacecraft trajectories in simulated and observed environments, and 3/ CLWeb software for computation of various micro-scale physical products (spectra, distribution functions, etc.). In practice, IMPEx is going to provide an external user with an access to an extended set of space and planetary missions' data and powerful, world leading computing models, equipped with advanced visualization tools. Via its infrastructure, IMPEx will enable to merge spacecraft data bases and scientific modelling tools, providing their joint interconnected analysis for the better understanding of related space and planetary physics

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 14th, Houston, TX, March 14-18, 1983, Proceedings. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, W. V. (Editor); Schubert, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics in the areas of planetary composition and differentiation, planetary surfaces and interiors, lunar rocks, lunar regoliths, and meteorites and tektites are discussed and some experimental studies are presented. Individual subjects addressed include: Stillwater anorthosites, origin of palimpsests and anomalous pit craters on Ganymede and Callisto, the chemistry of the Apollo 11 Highland component, and many others.

  17. Book review: Advances in 40Ar/39Ar dating: From archaeology to planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The recently published book Advances in 40Ar/39Ar Dating: From Archaeology to Planetary Sciences is a collection of 24 chapters authored by international scientists on topics ranging from decay constants to 40Ar/39Ar dating of extraterrestrial objects. As stated by the editors in their introduction, these chapters were assembled with the goal of providing technique-specific examples highlighting recent advances in the field of 40Ar/39Ar dating. As this is the first book truly dedicated to 40Ar/39Ar dating since the second edition printing of the argon geochronologist’s handbook Geochronology and Thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar Method (McDougall and Harrison 1999), a new collection of chapters highlighting recent advances in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology offers much to the interested reader.

  18. Computer Visualizations for K-8 Science Teachers: One Component of Professional Development Workshops at the Planetary Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, S.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Buxner, S.; Canizo, T.; Crown, D. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Institute (PSI), in partnership with the Tucson Regional Science Center, offers a series of professional development workshops targeting K-8 science teachers in southern Arizona. Using NASA data sets, research results, and a team of PSI scientists and educators, our workshops provide teachers with in-depth content knowledge of fundamental concepts in astronomy, geology, and planetary science. Current workshops are: The Earth-Moon System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, Impact Cratering, The Asteroid-Meteorite Connection, Volcanoes of the Solar System, Deserts of the Solar System, and Astrobiology and the Search for Extrasolar Planets. Several workshops incorporate customized computer visualizations developed at PSI. These visualizations are designed to help teachers overcome the common misconceptions students have in fundamental areas of space science. For example, the simple geometric relationship between the sun, the moon, and Earth is a concept that is rife with misconceptions. How can the arrangement of these objects account for the constantly changing phases of the moon as well as the occasional eclipses of the sun and moon? Students at all levels often struggle to understand the explanation for phases and eclipses even after repeated instruction over many years. Traditional classroom techniques have proven to be insufficient at rooting out entrenched misconceptions. One problem stems from the difficulty of developing an accurate mental picture of the Earth-Moon system in space when a student's perspective has always been firmly planted on the ground. To address this problem our visualizations take the viewers on a journey beyond Earth, giving them a so-called "god's eye" view of how the Earth-Moon system would look from a distance. To make this journey as realistic as possible we use ray-tracing software, incorporate NASA mission images, and accurately portray rotational and orbital motion. During a workshop our visualizations are

  19. X-ray Studies of Planetary Systems: An Astro2010 Decadal Survey White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, Eric; Elsner, Ronald; Glassgold, Alfred; Gudel, Manuel; Montmerle, Thierry; Ohashi, Takaya; Smith, Randall; Wargelin, Bradford; Wolk, Scott

    2009-01-01

    While it may seem counterintuitive that X-ray astronomy should give any insights into low-temperature planetary systems, planets orbit stars whose magnetized surfaces divert a small fraction of the stellar energy into high energy products: coronal UV and X-rays, flare X-rays and energetic particles, and a high-velocity stellar wind. In our Solar System, X-ray emission gives unique insights into the solar activity, planetary atmospheres, cometary comae, charge exchange physics, and space weather across the Solar System. The stellar activity of young stars is greatly elevated and can substantially affect protoplanetary disks and planet formation processes. We highlight six studies achievable with the planned International X-ray Observatory which address in unique ways issues in planetary sciences: probing X-ray irradiation of protoplanetary disks with the iron fluorescent line and its effects on disk turbulence; study the complex charge-exchange X-ray emission from Jupiter and the Martian exosphere; elucidate c...

  20. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system

  1. A new generation gamma-ray camera for planetary science applications : High pressure xenon time projection chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, S; Hasebe, N; Hosojima, T; Igarashi, T; Kobayashi, MN; Mimura, M; Miyachi, T; Miyajima, M; Pushkin, KN; Sakaba, H; Tezuka, C; Doke, T; Shibamura, E; Ehrenfreund, P; Foing, B; Cellino, A

    2006-01-01

    A new gamma-ray imaging camera based on High-pressure Xe Time-Projection-Chamber (HPXe-TPC) allows us to simultaneously determine arrival direction and its energy of individual incident gamma rays. HPXe-TPC is a promising y-ray detector for planetary science which provides means of global mapping of

  2. Experimental studies of oblique impact. [of meteorites on planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Meteoritic materials most probably impact planetary bodies along oblique trajectories inclined less than 45 deg above their surfaces. Laboratory studies of hypervelocity impacts against rock and particulate media are presented that indicate important effects of obliquity on crater size, shape, and ejecta distribution. The effects are particularly important to crater size-frequency analyses and geologic interpretations of crater formations. Impacts at shallow incidence, which are not uncommon, lead to ricochet of the impacting object accompanied with some entrained excavated materials at velocities only slightly reduced from the pre-impact value.

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  4. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  5. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    term (e.g., solar cycle) evolution of space climate. Capable instrumentation on planetary missions can and should be planned to contribute to knowledge of interplanetary space environments. Evolving data system technologies such as virtual observatories should be explored for more interdisciplinary application to the science of planetary surface, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and interplanetary interactions.

  6. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  7. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  8. Displaying Planetary and Geophysical Datasets on NOAAs Science On a Sphere (TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Himes, D.

    2005-12-01

    NOAAs Science On a Sphere(TM)(SOS)was developed to educate current and future generations about the changing Earth and its processes. This system presents NOAAs global science through a 3D representation of our planet as if the viewer were looking at the Earth from outer space. In our presentation, we will describe the preparation of various global datasets for display on Science On a Sphere(TM), a 1.7-m diameter spherical projection system developed and patented at the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) in Boulder, Colorado. Four projectors cast rotating images onto a spherical projection screen to create the effect of Earth, planet, or satellite floating in space. A static dataset can be prepared for display using popular image formats such as JPEG, usually sized at 1024x2048 or 2048x4096 pixels. A set of static images in a directory will comprise a movie. Imagery and data for SOS are obtained from a variety of government organizations, sometimes post-processed by various individuals, including the authors. Some datasets are already available in the required cylindrical projection. Readily available planetary maps can often be improved in coverage and/or appearance by reprojecting and combining additional images and mosaics obtained by various spacecraft, such as Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini. A map of Mercury was produced by blending some Mariner 10 photo-mosaics with a USGS shaded-relief map. An improved high-resolution map of Venus was produced by combining several Magellan mosaics, supplied by The Planetary Society, along with other spacecraft data. We now have a full set of Jupiter's Galilean satellite imagery that we can display on Science On a Sphere(TM). Photo-mosaics of several Saturnian satellites were updated by reprojecting and overlaying recently taken Cassini flyby images. Maps of imagery from five Uranian satellites were added, as well as one for Neptune. More image processing was needed to add a high-resolution Voyager mosaic to a pre-existing map

  9. Citizen Science in Planetary Sciences: Intersection of Scientific Research and Amateur Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.

    2014-11-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON in 2013. Following the success of the professional-amateur astronomer collaboration in scientific research via social media, it is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers:(1) the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals, that canbe galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns;(2) assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign;(3) provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise;(4) immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members;(5) provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to helpstrategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit.In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been initiated: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/SidingSpring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), target for ESA/Rosetta mission. The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns of current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The

  10. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  11. Scout and Guides, Key Users of Astronomy & Planetary Sciences Outreach that Support Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, A.; Thompson, L.

    Few people outside of the Scouting and Guide movement would appreciate that these world wide organisations have an active youth membership of over 40 million children and young adults. These two organisations rely on external specialist expert knowledge for the effective delivery of their education and award schemes. The high membership and established program delivery pathways make these organisations excellent vehicles for outreach programs. In particular Scouts and Guides are able to introduce astronomy and planetary sciences into their informal education programs at a timing that best suits the child and not one constrained by the schedule of formal education. It is the global voluntary nature of membership of these organisations that make them extremely effective learning vehicles. The members both youth and leader are highly motivated. These two organisations have a structured education program for youth members based on both individual pursuits or targets and group projects. The organisations has as part of their infra structure benchmarks for the measure of excellence in achievement and education at all levels. Scouts and Guides are a way of encompassing knowledge and lighting candles for life long learning. Scouts and guides address all year groups of formal education from primary through to tertiary levels, from cubs and brownies through various levels to Rovers and Rangers. Space is seen as relevant to Scouting and Guides, the Guide movement UK has recently adopted a "Go for it" challenge award for youth members to investigate space science. Similar awards exist in the Scouting movement in Europe, USA and Australia. The ready adoption of Space science fits well with scouting principles as Space is perceived as the "New Frontier of Discovery". In October 2007, Scouts and Guides from Europe will gather at Tidbinbilla deep space Tracking Station, Australia for the first Scout and Guide International Space Camp. The model used for this camp was based on a

  12. Managing Science Operations during Planetary Surface Operations at Long Light Delay-Time Targets: The 2011 Desert RATS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. Conducted since 1997, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where multi-day tests are achievable. Desert RATS 2011 Science Operations Test simulated the management of crewed science operations at targets that were beyond the light delay time experienced during Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) and lunar surface missions, such as a mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) or the martian surface. Operations at targets at these distances are likely to be the norm as humans move out of the Earth-Moon system. Operating at these distances places significant challenges on mission operations, as the imposed light-delay time makes normal, two-way conversations extremely inefficient. Consequently, the operations approach for space missions that has been exercised during the first half-century of human space operations is no longer viable, and new approaches must be devised.

  13. Small Worlds Week: An online celebration of planetary science using social media to reach millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis

    2015-11-01

    In celebration of the many recent discoveries from New Horizons, Dawn, Rosetta, and Cassini, NASA launched Small Worlds Week, an online, social media driven outreach program leveraging the infrastructure of Sun-Earth Days that included a robust web design, exemplary education materials, hands-on fun activities, multimedia resources, science and career highlights, and a culminating social media event. Each day from July 6-9, a new class of solar system small worlds was featured on the website: Monday-comets, Tuesday-asteroids, Wednesday-icy moons, and Thursday-dwarf planets. Then on Friday, July 10, nine scientists from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, and Lunar and Planetary Institute gathered online for four hours to answer questions from the public via Facebook and Twitter. Throughout the afternoon the scientists worked closely with a social media expert and several summer interns to reply to inquirers and to archive their chats. By all accounts, Small Worlds Week was a huge success with 37 million potential views of the social media Q&A posts. The group plans to improve and replicate the program during the school year with a more classroom focus, and then to build and extend the program to be held every year. For more information, visit http:// sunearthday.nasa.gov or catch us on Twitter, #nasasww.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 21st, Houston, TX, Mar. 12-16, 1990, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on lunar and planetary science discusses the geology and geophysics of Venus; the lunar highlands and regolith; magmatic processes of the moon and meteorites; remote sensing of the moon and Mars; chondrites, cosmic dust, and comets; ammonia-water mixtures; and the evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars. Attention is given to volcanism on Venus, pristine moon rocks, the search for Crisium Basin ejecta, Apollo 14 glasses, lunar anorthosites, the sources of mineral fragments in impact melts 15445 and 15455, and argon adsorption in the lunar atmosphere. Also discussed are high-pressure experiments on magnesian eucrite compositions, the early results of thermal diffusion in metal-sulfide liquids, preliminary results of imaging spectroscopy of the Humorum Basin region of the moon, high-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots, and a radar-echo model for Mars. Other topics addressed include nitrogen isotopic signatures in the Acapulco Meteorite, tridymite and maghemite formation in an Fe-SiO smoke, and the enigma of mottled terrain on Mars.

  15. Proceedings of Lunar and Planetary Science, Volume 22; Conference, Houston, TX, Mar. 18-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Sharpton, Virgil L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented. Individual topics addressed include: analysis of Phobos Mission Gamma ray spectra from Mars, comparison of volcanic and modified landforms from Tharsis Montes on Mars, polygenetic origin of Hrad Vallis region of Mars, new evidence of lacustrine basins on Mars, flood surge through the Lunae Planum Outflow Complex on Mars, interpretation of canyon materials and flood sources on Kasei Valles on Mars, geochemistry of Manson Impact structure rocks, micrometer-sized glass spheres in Apollo 16 soil 61181, isotopic abundances in Pesyanoe of solar-type xenon, mineralogy of 12 large 'chondritic' interplanetary dust particles. Also discussed are: trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles, evolution of isotopic signatures in lunar regolith nitrogen, pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon, origin of picritic green glass magmas by polybaric fractional fusion, origin of yellow glasses associated with Apollo 15 KREEP basalt fragments, trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks, mineralization on the moon, relation between diogenite cumulates and eucrite magmas.

  16. Life in the Universe - Astronomy and Planetary Science Research Experience for Undergraduates at the SETI Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiar, J.; Phillips, C. B.; Rudolph, A.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Tarter, J.; Harp, G.; Caldwell, D. A.; DeVore, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    The SETI Institute hosts an Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Beginning in 2013, we partnered with the Physics and Astronomy Dept. at Cal Poly Pomona, a Hispanic-serving university, to recruit underserved students. Over 11 years, we have served 155 students. We focus on Astrobiology since the Institute's mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. Our REU students work with mentors at the Institute - a non-profit organization located in California's Silicon Valley-and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center. Projects span research on survival of microbes under extreme conditions, planetary geology, astronomy, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), extrasolar planets and more. The REU program begins with an introductory lectures by Institute scientists covering the diverse astrobiology subfields. A week-long field trip to the SETI Institute's Allen Telescope Array (Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California) and field experiences at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park immerses students in radio astronomy and SETI, and extremophile environments that are research sites for astrobiologists. Field trips expose students to diverse environments and allow them to investigate planetary analogs as our scientists do. Students also participate in local trips to the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend the weekly scientific colloquium hosted by the SETI Institute at Microsoft, other seminars and lectures at SETI Institute and NASA Ames. The students meet and present at a weekly journal club where they hone their presentation skills, as well as share their research progress. At the end of the summer, the REU interns present their research projects at a session of the Institute's colloquium. As a final project, students prepare a 2-page formal abstract and 15-minute

  17. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  18. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  19. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  20. Enhancing undergraduate education in aerospace engineering and planetary sciences at MIT through the development of a CubeSat mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Seager, Sara

    2011-09-01

    CubeSats are a class of nanosatellites that conform to a standardized 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, 1 kg form factor. This miniaturization, along with a standardized deployment device for launch vehicles, allows CubeSats to be launched at low cost by sharing the trip to orbit with other spacecraft. Part of the original motivation for the CubeSat platform was also to allow university students to participate more easily in space technology development and to gain hands-on experience with flight hardware. The Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics along with the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Studies (EAPS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) recently completed a three semester-long course that uses the development of a CubeSat-based science mission as its core teaching method. Serving as the capstone academic experience for undergraduates, the goal of this class is to design and build a CubeSat spacecraft that serves a relevant science function, such as the detection of exoplanets transiting nearby stars. This project-based approach gives students essential first hand insights into the challenges of balancing science requirements and engineering design. Students are organized into subsystem-specific teams that refine and negotiate requirements, explore the design trade space, perform modeling and simulation, manage interfaces, test subsystems, and finally integrate prototypes and flight hardware. In this work we outline the heritage of capstone design/build classes at MIT, describe the class format in greater detail, and give results on the ability to meet learning objectives using this pedagogical approach.

  1. The Crisis in Astrophysics and Planetary Science: How Commercial Space and Program Design Principles will let us Escape

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysics and planetary science are in crisis. The large missions we need for the next generation of observations cost too much to let us do more than one at a time. This spreads the science out onto a generational timescale, inhibiting progress in both fields. There are two escape paths. In the long run, but still well within our planning horizon, commercial space will bring mission costs down substantially allowing parallel missions at multiple wavelengths or to multiple destinations. In the short run, adopting prudent principles for designing a research program will let us maintain vitality in the field by retaining breadth at a modest cost in depth.

  2. The Crisis in Astrophysics and Planetary Science: How Commercial Space and Program Design Principles will let us Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Astrophysics and planetary science are in crisis. The large missions we need for the next generation of observations cost too much to let us do more than one at a time. This spreads the science out onto a generational timescale, inhibiting progress in both fields. There are two escape paths. In the long run, but still well within our planning horizon, commercial space will bring mission costs down substantially allowing parallel missions at multiple wavelengths or to multiple destinations. In the short run, adopting prudent principles for designing a research program will let us maintain vitality in the field by retaining breadth at a modest cost in depth.

  3. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  4. Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy and its Unique Application to Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970's the infrared heterodyne technique has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of molecular constituents, temperatures, and dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Its extremely high spectral resolution (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda/>10(exp 6)) and highly accurate frequency measurement (to 1 part in 10(exp 8)) enabled the detection of nonthermal/natural lasing phenomena on Mars and Venus; direct measurements of winds on Venus, Mars, and Titan; study of mid-infrared aurorae on Jupiter; direct measurement of species abundances on Mars (ozone, isotopic CO2), hydrocarbons on Jupiter, Saturn., Neptune, and Titan, and stratospheric composition in the Earth's stratosphere (O3, CIO, N2O, CO2 ....). Fully resolved emission and absorption line shapes measured by this method enabled the unambiguous retrieval of molecular abundances and local temperatures and thermal structure in regions not probed by other techniques. The mesosphere of Mars and thermosphere of Venus are uniquely probed by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy. Results of these studies tested and constrained photochemical and dynamical theoretical models describing the phenomena measured. The infrared heterodyne technique will be described. Highlights in its evolution to today's instrumentation and resultant discoveries will be presented, including work at Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Koln. Resultant work will include studies supporting NASA and ESA space missions and collaborations between instrumental and theoretical groups.

  5. Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy and its Unique Application to Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970's the infrared heterodyne technique has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of molecular constituents, temperatures, and dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Its extremely high spectral resolution (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda/>10(exp 6)) and highly accurate frequency measurement (to 1 part in 10(exp 8)) enabled the detection of nonthermal/natural lasing phenomena on Mars and Venus; direct measurements of winds on Venus, Mars, and Titan; study of mid-infrared aurorae on Jupiter; direct measurement of species abundances on Mars (ozone, isotopic CO2), hydrocarbons on Jupiter, Saturn., Neptune, and Titan, and stratospheric composition in the Earth's stratosphere (O3, CIO, N2O, CO2 ....). Fully resolved emission and absorption line shapes measured by this method enabled the unambiguous retrieval of molecular abundances and local temperatures and thermal structure in regions not probed by other techniques. The mesosphere of Mars and thermosphere of Venus are uniquely probed by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy. Results of these studies tested and constrained photochemical and dynamical theoretical models describing the phenomena measured. The infrared heterodyne technique will be described. Highlights in its evolution to today's instrumentation and resultant discoveries will be presented, including work at Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Koln. Resultant work will include studies supporting NASA and ESA space missions and collaborations between instrumental and theoretical groups.

  6. Science Impacts of the SPHEREx All-Sky Optical to Near-Infrared Spectral Survey: Report of a Community Workshop Examining Extragalactic, Galactic, Stellar and Planetary Science

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Ashby, Matt; Banerjee, Pancha; Battaglia, Nick; Bauer, James; Benjamin, Robert A; Bleem, Lindsey E; Bock, Jamie; Boogert, Adwin; Bull, Philip; Capak, Peter; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chiar, Jean; Cohen, Seth H; Cooray, Asantha; Crill, Brendan; Cushing, Michael; de Putter, Roland; Driver, Simon P; Eifler, Tim; Feng, Chang; Ferraro, Simone; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Gaudi, B Scott; Greene, Tom; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Höflich, Peter A; Hsiao, Eric; Huffenberger, Kevin; Jansen, Rolf A; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Joshi, Bhavin; Kim, Duho; Kim, Minjin; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Kriek, Mariska; Leistedt, Boris; Li, Aigen; Lisse, Carey M; Mauskopf, Phil; Mechtley, Matt; Melnick, Gary; Mohr, Joseph; Murphy, Jeremiah; Neben, Abraham; Neufeld, David; Nguyen, Hien; Pierpaoli, Elena; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Rhodes, Jason; Sandstrom, Karin; Schaan, Emmanuel; Schlaufman, Kevin C; Silverman, John; Su, Kate; Stassun, Keivan; Stevens, Daniel; Strauss, Michael A; Tielens, Xander; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Tolls, Volker; Unwin, Stephen; Viero, Marco; Windhorst, Rogier A; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx is a proposed SMEX mission selected for Phase A. SPHEREx will carry out the first all-sky spectral survey and provide for every 6.2" pixel a spectra between 0.75 and 4.18 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$41.4] and 4.18 and 5.00 $\\mu$m [with R$\\sim$135]. The SPHEREx team has proposed three specific science investigations to be carried out with this unique data set: cosmic inflation, interstellar and circumstellar ices, and the extra-galactic background light. It is readily apparent, however, that many other questions in astrophysics and planetary sciences could be addressed with the SPHEREx data. The SPHEREx team convened a community workshop in February 2016, with the intent of enlisting the aid of a larger group of scientists in defining these questions. This paper summarizes the rich and varied menu of investigations that was laid out. It includes studies of the composition of main belt and Trojan/Greek asteroids; mapping the zodiacal light with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution; identifying and stud...

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  8. NASA's Planetary Science E/PO Forum: Reflections on Five Years of Effort to Support an E/PO Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Shebby, S.; Buxner, S.; Boonstra, D.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Cobb, W. H.; Dalton, H.; Grier, J.; Klug Boonstra, S. L.; LaConte, K.; Ristvey, J.; Shupla, C. B.; Weeks, S.; Wessen, A. S.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) has funded four education and public outreach (E/PO) forums, aligned with each of its science divisions, including Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Together, these forums help organize individual division E/PO programs into a coordinated, effective, efficient, nationwide effort that shares the scientific discoveries of NASA across a broad array of audiences. In the past four-and-a-half years, the Planetary Science Division's Forum - in collaboration with the other three Forums - has worked to support its community of education professionals and scientists involved in E/PO to communicate, collaborate, and strengthen their efforts. The Forum's work encompasses identification of best practices based on educational research, increasing understanding of needs through audience-based working groups, the development of strategic collaborations and partnerships to increase programmatic reach, and the creation of strategic resources to support community members in their E/PO work (e.g., an online workspace for the community to communicate, collaborate, and share practices; recommendations to scientists for increasing impact in educational settings; a one-stop shop for NASA SMD classroom and informal education products, http://nasawavelength.org). Drawing on evaluation data, the presentation will explore what resources and support mechanisms are valued by the community, ways the community uses the available resources, and the outcomes of the effort to date.

  9. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  10. Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  11. Free-Flyers for Exploration and Resource Mapping for ISRU and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Sibille, L.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    This presentation discusses prospecting for resources on a planetary surface using a free-flyer platform to assist in achieving a sustainable human presence in space beyond low Earth orbit and in exploring the evolution of the solar system.

  12. A Common Model to Handle PDS3 and PDS4 Data in the New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Docasal, R.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; De Marchi, G.; Grotheer, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The first of the European Space Agency's (ESA) planetary missions to make use of the latest release of the Planetary Data Standards (PDS4) are currently in advanced stages of development (ExoMars, BepiColombo). This occurs at a time when the Planetary Science Archive (PSA) has been undergoing a complete reengineering in order to increase the accessibility of ESA's planetary data holdings utilising the latest technologies and to significantly improve the user experience for both the specialist scientific community and general public alike. The PSA must also keep on handling PDS3 data arriving to the archive from active missions (Rosetta, Mars Express, Venus Express) as well as continuing to provide access to missions that have reached the legacy phase (Huygens, SMART1, Giotto). Therefore, as part of the reengineering of the PSA, an effort has been made to map the key metadata from PDS3 and PDS4 into a common data model with the intention of providing transparency to the services that make up the new PSA, and consequently to the end user. We present how this common mapping allows the PSA to support the data deliveries from the pipelines of existing missions without the need to reprocess the PDS3 data and in addition how it should simplify the data deliveries from PDS4 missions. We review how the implementation of this data model, involving a PostgreSQL database with the PostGIS extension, enables the new PSA to be able to provide multiple methods of interoperability used by the international community, such as PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol), EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol), and GIS-enabled technologies without the user having to know in detail the underlying structure of the data format.

  13. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro; Gurlui, Silviu Octavian, E-mail: dimitriu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Marius Mihai [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and Department of Physics, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, 59A Mangeron Blvd., 700 (Romania); Timofte, Adrian [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Atmosphere Optics, Spectroscopy and Lasers Laboratory, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi, Romania and National Meteorological Administration, Regional Forecast Center Bacau, 1 Cuza Voda Str., 60 (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  14. Miniaturized time-resolved Raman spectrometer for planetary science based on a fast single photon avalanche diode detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, Erik; Maruyama, Yuki; Cochrane, Corey J; Rossman, George R

    2016-02-01

    We present recent developments in time-resolved Raman spectroscopy instrumentation and measurement techniques for in situ planetary surface exploration, leading to improved performance and identification of minerals and organics. The time-resolved Raman spectrometer uses a 532 nm pulsed microchip laser source synchronized with a single photon avalanche diode array to achieve sub-nanosecond time resolution. This instrument can detect Raman spectral signatures from a wide variety of minerals and organics relevant to planetary science while eliminating pervasive background interference caused by fluorescence. We present an overview of the instrument design and operation and demonstrate high signal-to-noise ratio Raman spectra for several relevant samples of sulfates, clays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, we present an instrument design suitable for operation on a rover or lander and discuss future directions that promise great advancement in capability.

  15. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  16. An ISO and IUE study of planetary nebula NGC 2440

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, JB; Pottasch, [No Value; Feibelman, WA; Wesselius, PR

    2002-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebula NGC2440 are presented. The observations were made by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). These data, in conjunction with published optical observations have been used to derive electron temper

  17. PDS4: Meeting Big Data Challenges Via a Model-Driven Planetary Science Data Architecture and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S. H.; Joyner, R.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    Big science data management entails cataloging, processing, distribution, multiple ways of analyzing and interpreting the data, long-term preservation, and international cooperation of massive amount of scientific data. PDS4, the next generation of the Planetary Data System (PDS), uses an information model-driven architectural approach coupled with modern information technologies and standards to meet theses challenges of big science data management. PDS4 is an operational example of the use of an explicit data system architecture and an ontology-base information model to drive the development, operations, and evolution of a scalable data system along the entire science data lifecycle from ground systems to the archives. This overview of PDS4 will include a description of its model-driven approach and its overall systems architecture. It will illustrate how the system is being used to help meet the expectations of modern scientists for interoperable data systems and correlatable data in the Big Data era.

  18. Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine/stage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  19. IMPEx - a web-based distributed research environment for planetary plasma science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topf, Florian; Khodachenko, Maxim; Kallio, Esa; Génot, Vincent; Al-Ubaidi, Tarek; Modolo, Ronan; Hess, Sébastien; Schmidt, Walter; Scherf, Manuel; Alexeev, Igor; Gangloff, Michel; Budnik, Elena; Bouchemit, Myriam; Renard, Benjamin; Bourrel, Natacha; Penou, Emmanuel; André, Nicolas; Belenkaya, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further joint analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is based on the SPASE data model (DM), which originates from the Heliospheric physics community. This DM was developed for the description of observational data, and that is why it was chosen as a basis within the scope of IMPEx. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the SPASE DM as an elaborated IMPEx DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. A practical example will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities and potentials of the achievements of IMPEx by using these tools. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project's core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD description can be seen at LatHyS. Besides that IRAP is currently working on a

  20. The Design and Use of Planetary Science Video Games to Teach Content while Enhancing Spatial Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.

  1. Ground tests with active neutron instrumentation for the planetary science missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvak, M.L., E-mail: litvak@mx.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Mitrofanov, I.G.; Sanin, A.B. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Jun, I. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kozyrev, A.S. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Krylov, A.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Timoshenko, G.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Starr, R. [Catholic University of America, Washington DC (United States); Zontikov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-11

    We present results of experimental work performed with a spare flight model of the DAN/MSL instrument in a newly built ground test facility at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. This instrument was selected for the tests as a flight prototype of an active neutron spectrometer applicable for future landed missions to various solid solar system bodies. In our experiment we have fabricated simplified samples of planetary material and tested the capability of neutron activation methods to detect thin layers of water/water ice lying on top of planetary dry regolith or buried within a dry regolith at different depths.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation: included the following topics:Magnesium Isotopes in the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Pallasite Parent Body: High-Precision Analysis of Olivine by Laser-Ablation Multi-Collector ICPMS; Meteoritic Constraints on Collision Rates in the Primordial Asteroid Belt and Its Origin; New Constraints on the Origin of the Highly Siderophile Elements in the Earth's Upper Mantle; Further Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Isotopic Data on Planetary Materials and Consequences for Planetary Differentiation; A Deep Lunar Magma Ocean Based on Neodymium, Strontium and Hafnium Isotope Mass Balance Partial Resetting on Hf-W System by Giant Impacts; On the Problem of Metal-Silicate Equilibration During Planet Formation: Significance for Hf-W Chronometry ; Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Pt, Re, and Os: The Effect of Carbon; Siderophile Element Abundances in Fe-S-Ni-O Melts Segregated from Partially Molten Ordinary Chondrite Under Dynamic Conditions; Activity Coefficients of Silicon in Iron-Nickel Alloys: Experimental Determination and Relevance for Planetary Differentiation; Reinvestigation of the Ni and Co Metal-Silicate Partitioning; Metal/Silicate Paritioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition; and Closure of the Fe-S-Si Liquid Miscibility Gap at High Pressure and Its Implications for Planetary Core Formation.

  3. Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-Durán, S N; Hernández-Martínez, L; García-Rojas, J; Ruiz, M T

    2014-01-01

    By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate age population), H II regions, and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine if both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H I found in this galaxy. Spectroscopic data for four planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for other three PNe and one H II region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional, M\\'exico. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s$^{-1}$. Data for three additional H II regions and a couple of A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The...

  4. Experimental studies of crystal-melt differentiation in planetary basalt compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    An important process that controls the evolution of magmas on and within planetary bodies is crystal-melt differentiation. Experimental studies of silicate melt solidification were performed on several planetary and terrestrial melt compositions, and experiments on one of these compositions in the microgravity environment of the space station would provide an opportunity to understand the factors that control crystal growth and crystal-melt exchange processes at crystal-melt interfaces during solidification. Experimental requirements are presented.

  5. Mission to the Trojan Asteroids: lessons learned during a JPL Planetary Science Summer School mission design exercise

    CERN Document Server

    Diniega, Serina; Balcerski, Jeffrey; Carande, Bryce; Diaz-Silva, Ricardo A; Fraeman, Abigail A; Guzewich, Scott D; Hudson, Jennifer; Nahm, Amanda L; Potter-McIntyre, Sally; Route, Matthew; Urban, Kevin D; Vasisht, Soumya; Benneke, Bjoern; Gil, Stephanie; Livi, Roberto; Williams, Brian; Budney, Charles J; Lowes, Leslie L; 10.1016/j.pss.2012.11.011

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified a detailed investigation of the Trojan asteroids occupying Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points as a priority for future NASA missions. Observing these asteroids and measuring their physical characteristics and composition would aid in identification of their source and provide answers about their likely impact history and evolution, thus yielding information about the makeup and dynamics of the early Solar System. We present a conceptual design for a mission to the Jovian Trojan asteroids: the Trojan ASteroid Tour, Exploration, and Rendezvous (TASTER) mission, that is consistent with the NASA New Frontiers candidate mission recommended by the Decadal Survey and the final result of the 2011 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. Our proposed mission includes visits to two Trojans in the L4 population: a 500 km altitude fly-by of 1999 XS143, followed by a rendezvous with and detailed observations of 911 Agamemnon at orbital altitudes of 1000 - 100 km over ...

  6. Thermal Design and Analysis of the Optical Telescope Assembly for the Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian; Brooks, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) project is an effort to design, build, and fly a balloon-borne platform for planetary science missions. GHAPS observations will be in the 300 nm to 5 micron wavelength region covering UV, visible, and near-mid IR. The primary element of the project is the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). It is a one meter aperture narrow-field-of-view telescope that contains the primary and secondary mirrors, the support system/metering structure, a secondary mirror focusing system, baffles, and insulation. This paper presents the thermal design and analysis that has been done to support the design of the OTA. A major part of the thermal analysis was bounding the flight environment for the six potential Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility launch sites. These analyses were used to give input into the Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis of the telescope. Also the analysis was used to select heater sizes for the few OTA associated electronic components. Currently the telescope is scheduled to have its first flight in 2019.

  7. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  8. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  9. Developing Science Operations Concepts for the Future of Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; McAdam, A.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Garry, W. B.; Whelley,; Scheidt, S.; Carter, L.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Glotch, T.; Lewis, R.

    2017-01-01

    Through fly-by, orbiter, rover, and even crewed missions, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been extremely successful in exploring planetary bodies throughout our Solar System. The focus on increasingly complex Mars orbiter and rover missions has helped us understand how Mars has evolved over time and whether life has ever existed on the red planet. However, large strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) still exist in our understanding of the evolution of the Solar System (e.g. the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, Small Bodies Analysis Group, and Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group). Sending humans to these bodies is a critical part of addressing these SKGs in order to transition to a new era of planetary exploration by 2050.

  10. What works in planetary science outreach and what doesn't: an attempt to create a functional framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2014-04-01

    A thorough synthesis of experience from several decades (including 14 years on a full-time basis) of writing in the media and lecturing about the exploration of the Solar System and search for planets of other stars for the general public in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic is presented. The emphasis is given on detailed evaluation of specific feedbacks from readership and audience of various backgrounds and age groups communicated to the author. A list of 10 + 1 main pro arguments is compiled, consisting of reasonings (in addition to scientific or general knowledge/cultural value) like embodiment of our exploratory spirit, colonization, "emergency backup" world or worlds for mankind, comparative planetology as a tool for the explanation and full understanding of Earth's properties, transfer of environmentally unfriendly but irreplaceable (in mid term, at least) technologies to lifeless environments of other planetary bodies, etc. Similarly, a list of 5 main con arguments (like it is wasting of money badly needed to solve a number of urgent social problems, or it is in conflict with valued traditional beliefs) related to planetary exploration or manned and robotic space exploration in general is compiled. A short review of best practices how to counter them is presented alongside. It is demonstrated that one can construct a coherent, balanced framing of planetary science. It assertively supports the relevant efforts in both the general public and special groups involved (for example, enterpreneurs, politicians, members of the media, various activists) while treats the differing opinions and worldviews of critics with respect they deserve. The open conflict, if only in discussion, does not represent any way out. It is counterproductive in both the short-term and the long-term context. In fact, even sharply dissenting opinions often contain some points which can be used, with the help of empathy, psychology and - to be candid - a little, still tolerable dose of

  11. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1A: Descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations, second edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Winifred Sawtell (Editor); Vostreys, Robert W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also included.

  12. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 3 - Physical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Geophysical investigations are discussed, taking into account laboratory measurements, planetary measurements, and structural implications and models. Impact processes are also examined. Experimental studies are considered along with aspects of crater morphology and frequency, and models theory. Volcanic-tectonic processes are investigated and topics related to the study of planetary atmospheres are examined. Attention is given to shallow moonquakes, the focal mechanism of deep moonquakes, lunar polar wandering, the search for an intrinsic magnetic field of Venus, the early global melting of the terrestrial planets, the first few hundred years of evolution of a moon of fission origin, the control of crater morphology by gravity and target type, crater peaks in Mercurian craters, lunar cold traps and their influence on argon-40, and solar wind sputtering effects in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

  14. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  15. An ISO and IUE Study of Planetary Nebula NGC 2440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, J. Bernard; Pottasch, S. R.; Feibelman, W. A.; Wesselius, P. R.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared and ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebula NGC 2440 is presented. The observations were made respectively by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) These data, in conjunction with published optical observations have been used to derive electron temperature and density. A trend of electron temperature with ionization potential is found. In particular the electron temperature increases from 11000 to 18000 K with increasing IBM. The electron density has a constant value of 4500/cu cm in agreement with previous determination. The chemical abundance has been derived for the following elements; helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur and argon. The ionization correction factor turns out to be very small (almost unnecessary) for all species except sulfur.

  16. PlanetServer/EarthServer: Big Data analytics in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Oosthoek, Jelmer; Baumann, Peter; Beccati, Alan; Cantini, Federico; Misev, Dimitar; Orosei, Roberto; Flahaut, Jessica; Campalani, Piero; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Planetary data are freely available on PDS/PSA archives and alike (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). Their exploitation by the community is somewhat limited by the variable availability of calibrated/higher level datasets. An additional complexity of these multi-experiment, multi-mission datasets is related to the heterogeneity of data themselves, rather than their volume. Orbital - so far - data are best suited for an inclusion in array databases (Baumann et al., 1994). Most lander- or rover-based remote sensing experiment (and possibly, in-situ as well) are suitable for similar approaches, although the complexity of coordinate reference systems (CRS) is higher in the latter case. PlanetServer, the Planetary Service of the EC FP7 e-infrastructure project EarthServer (http://earthserver.eu) is a state-of-art online data exploration and analysis system based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Mars orbital data. It provides access to topographic, panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral calibrated data. While its core focus has been on hyperspectral data analysis through the OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (Oosthoek et al., 2013; Rossi et al., 2013), the Service progressively expanded to host also sounding radar data (Cantini et al., this volume). Additionally, both single swath and mosaicked imagery and topographic data are being added to the Service, deriving from the HRSC experiment (e.g. Jaumann et al., 2007; Gwinner et al., 2009) The current Mars-centric focus can be extended to other planetary bodies and most components are general purpose ones, making possible its application to the Moon, Mercury or alike. The Planetary Service of EarthServer is accessible on http://www.planetserver.eu References: Baumann, P. (1994) VLDB J. 4 (3), 401-444, Special Issue on Spatial Database Systems. Cantini, F. et al. (2014) Geophys. Res. Abs., Vol. 16, #EGU2014-3784, this volume Heather, D., et al.(2013) EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626 Gwinner, K

  17. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  18. Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Earth and Planetary Sciences for Micro, Nano and Pico Space Devices and Robots in Landing Site Selection and Surface Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizi, P. G.; Bérczi, Sz.; Horváth, I.; Horváth, A. F.; Vizi, J. Cs.

    2014-11-01

    Fleet of Nano and Pico Sized Space Devices and Robots (NPSDR) are deployable to realize and accomplish in situ modern analytical methods in wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Shorter time and bigger field of surfaces and volumes of space.

  19. Discovery of multi-ring basins - Gestalt perception in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    Early selenographers resolved individual structural components of multi-ring basin systems but missed the underlying large-scale multi-ring basin patterns. The recognition of multi-ring basins as a general class of planetary features can be divided into five steps. Gilbert (1893) took a first step in recognizing radial 'sculpture' around the Imbrium basin system. Several writers through the 1940's rediscovered the radial sculpture and extended this concept by describing concentric rings around several circular maria. Some reminiscences are given about the fourth step - discovery of the Orientale basin and other basin systems by rectified lunar photography at the University of Arizona in 1961-62. Multi-ring basins remained a lunar phenomenon until the fifth step - discovery of similar systems of features on other planets, such as Mars (1972), Mercury (1974), and possibly Callisto and Ganymede (1979). This sequence is an example of gestalt recognition whose implications for scientific research are discussed.

  20. Discovery of multi-ring basins - Gestalt perception in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    Early selenographers resolved individual structural components of multi-ring basin systems but missed the underlying large-scale multi-ring basin patterns. The recognition of multi-ring basins as a general class of planetary features can be divided into five steps. Gilbert (1893) took a first step in recognizing radial 'sculpture' around the Imbrium basin system. Several writers through the 1940's rediscovered the radial sculpture and extended this concept by describing concentric rings around several circular maria. Some reminiscences are given about the fourth step - discovery of the Orientale basin and other basin systems by rectified lunar photography at the University of Arizona in 1961-62. Multi-ring basins remained a lunar phenomenon until the fifth step - discovery of similar systems of features on other planets, such as Mars (1972), Mercury (1974), and possibly Callisto and Ganymede (1979). This sequence is an example of gestalt recognition whose implications for scientific research are discussed.

  1. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  2. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  3. Construction of Hierarchical Models for Fluid Dynamics in Earth and Planetary Sciences : DCMODEL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Sugiyama, K.; Odaka, M.; Ishiwatari, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Ishioka, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Toward the understanding of fluid motions of planetary atmospheres and planetary interiors by performing multiple numerical experiments with multiple models, we are now proceeding ``dcmodel project'', where a series of hierarchical numerical models with various complexity is developed and maintained. In ``dcmodel project'', a series of the numerical models are developed taking care of the following points: 1) a common ``style'' of program codes assuring readability of the software, 2) open source codes of the models to the public, 3) scalability of the models assuring execution on various scales of computational resources, 4) stressing the importance of documentation and presenting a method for writing reference manuals. The lineup of the models and utility programs of the project is as follows: Gtool5, ISPACK/SPML, SPMODEL, Deepconv, Dcpam, and Rdoc-f95. In the followings, features of each component are briefly described. Gtool5 (Ishiwatari et al., 2012) is a Fortran90 library, which provides data input/output interfaces and various utilities commonly used in the models of dcmodel project. A self-descriptive data format netCDF is adopted as a IO format of Gtool5. The interfaces of gtool5 library can reduce the number of operation steps for the data IO in the program code of the models compared with the interfaces of the raw netCDF library. Further, by use of gtool5 library, procedures for data IO and addition of metadata for post-processing can be easily implemented in the program codes in a consolidated form independent of the size and complexity of the models. ``ISPACK'' is the spectral transformation library and ``SPML (SPMODEL library)'' (Takehiro et al., 2006) is its wrapper library. Most prominent feature of SPML is a series of array-handling functions with systematic function naming rules, and this enables us to write codes with a form which is easily deduced from the mathematical expressions of the governing equations. ``SPMODEL'' (Takehiro et al., 2006

  4. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Wind, Dust Sand, and Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Mars: Wind, Dust Sand, and Debris" included: Mars Exploration Rovers: Laboratory Simulations of Aeolian Interactions; Thermal and Spectral Analysis of an Intracrater Dune Field in Amazonis Planitia; How High is that Dune? A Comparison of Methods Used to Constrain the Morphometry of Aeolian Bedforms on Mars; Dust Devils on Mars: Scaling of Dust Flux Based on Laboratory Simulations; A Close Encounter with a Terrestrial Dust Devil; Interpretation of Wind Direction from Eolian Features: Herschel Crater, Mars Erosion Rates at the Viking 2 Landing Site; Mars Dust: Characterization of Particle Size and Electrostatic Charge Distributions; Simple Non-fluvial Models of Planetary Surface Modification, with Application to Mars; Comparison of Geomorphically Determined Winds with a General Circulation Model: Herschel Crater, Mars; Analysis of Martian Debris Aprons in Eastern Hellas Using THEMIS; Origin of Martian Northern Hemisphere Mid-Latitude Lobate Debris Aprons; Debris Aprons in the Tempe/Mareotis Region of Mars;and Constraining Flow Dynamics of Mass Movements on Earth and Mars.

  6. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  7. InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse partners leverage global networks to put authentic planetary science into the hands and minds of students of all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    InSight Mission Education and Communication: Powerhouse Partners Leverage Global Networks To Put Authentic Planetary Science into the Hands and Minds of Students. NASA's InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight will launch in March 2016 aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, and land on Mars in September 2016, beginning science return in October 2016.By using sophisticated geophysical instruments, InSight will delve deep beneath the surface of Mars, detecting the fingerprints of the processes of terrestrial planet formation, as well as measuring the planet's "vital signs": Its "pulse" (seismology), "temperature" (heat flow probe), and "reflexes" (precision tracking). InSight's E/PO Partners all of which already work with NSF, Department of Education and NASA will put authentic Mars data and analysis tools in the hands of educators, students and the public. IRIS - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology provides lessons, seismograph software, animations, videos, and will use InSight data to focus on how students can compare seismic data from Mars and Earth. SCEC - Southern California Earthquake Center's "Vital Signs of the Planet" professional development program for science teachers is creating, and test teaching standards-aligned STEM materials to help additional teachers work with comparative planetary concepts. They are also installinglow cost strong motion research accelerometers in all participating schools. ASP - Astronomical Society of the Pacific will deliver Planet Core Outreach toolkits with an InSight focus to 380 amateur astronomy clubs engaged in Informal Education. Space Math - delivered twenty standards based mathematics lessons using InSight and Mars physical and science data which enable students to acquire

  8. Science studies up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared with 1982, high school students in the United States are taking more basic and advanced science courses and the level of science achievement has increased, according to "The Condition of Education, 1995," the annual report of the Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics. The 518-page document reports on educational trends since the publication of, "A Nation at Risk," the 1982 report on the status of education in America. The 1995 report states that over the last 12 years, high school graduates have begun taking more courses over all, particularly academic courses. More students are taking algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus as well as advanced science courses, including chemistry and physics. The proportion of students completing the recommended core courses has increased, as has the percentage of students taking Advanced Placement courses.

  9. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  10. In-Situ U-Pb Dating of Apatite by Hiroshima-SHRIMP: Contributions to Earth and Planetary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) is the first ion microprobe dedicated to geological isotopic analyses, especially in-situ analyses related to the geochronology of zircon. Such a sophisticated ion probe, which can attain a high sensitivity at a high mass resolution, based on a double focusing high mass-resolution spectrometer, designed by Matsuda (1974), was constructed at the Australian National University. In 1996, such an instrument was installed at Hiroshima University and was the first SHRIMP to be installed in Japan. Since its installation, our focus has been on the in-situ U-Pb dating of the mineral apatite, as well as zircon, which is a more common U-bearing mineral. This provides the possibility for extending the use of in-situ U-Pb dating from determining the age of formation of volcanic, granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic minerals to the direct determination of the diagenetic age of fossils and/or the crystallization age of various meteorites, which can provide new insights into the thermal history on the Earth and/or the Solar System. In this paper, we review the methodology associated with in-situ apatite dating and our contribution to Earth and Planetary Science over the past 16 years.

  11. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  12. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  13. New geoscience techniques for Earth and planetary studies developed in Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorov, Andrey; Karachevtseva, Irina; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The University was established in 1779 and for all these years it has been the centre of higher geodetic education in Russia, the largest specialized educational institution of this profile in Europe. The great historical past, long pedagogical and scientific traditions developed throughout almost the two and a half centuries' history of the University, importance of geodetic sciences and land survey branch for many fields of knowledge and national economy, a wide range of specialties in which MIIGAiK trains specialists have given the University the leading position as a specialized higher educational institution [1]. Now, the University is a large educational-and-scientific and production complex including six faculties of full-time training, a faculty of distance learning, a Training Centre for teachers of high schools and retraining of experts, postgraduate and doctoral courses, educational specialized laboratories in various directions of geodesy, cartography and remote sensing. In the University structure, there are also research-and-production centers Geodynamics, Geomonitoring, a Center for satellite technologies in geodesy, a Cartographic centre, Geodesy and Air Photography Journal Publishing House, two educational test fields, computing centers, an educational-and-geodetic museum and a library. New MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) [2], which was established in 2010 under the leadership of invited scientist Prof. Dr. Jürgen Oberst (DLR, TUB, Germany), studies of characteristics of Solar System bodies with geodetic and cartographic methods. The several celestial bodies are chosen as subjects for new planetary project: Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (Galilean satellites of Jupiter), and Enceladus (a satellite of Saturn), as well as the Moon, Mars, its satellite Phobos, and Mercury. The significance of the project objectives is defined both by necessity of gaining fundamental knowledge about properties of the Solar System bodies, and practical needs

  14. Planetary science. Low-altitude magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER reveal Mercury's ancient crustal field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L; Phillips, Roger J; Purucker, Michael E; Anderson, Brian J; Byrne, Paul K; Denevi, Brett W; Feinberg, Joshua M; Hauck, Steven A; Head, James W; Korth, Haje; James, Peter B; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Philpott, Lydia C; Siegler, Matthew A; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Solomon, Sean C

    2015-05-22

    Magnetized rocks can record the history of the magnetic field of a planet, a key constraint for understanding its evolution. From orbital vector magnetic field measurements of Mercury taken by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft at altitudes below 150 kilometers, we have detected remanent magnetization in Mercury's crust. We infer a lower bound on the average age of magnetization of 3.7 to 3.9 billion years. Our findings indicate that a global magnetic field driven by dynamo processes in the fluid outer core operated early in Mercury's history. Ancient field strengths that range from those similar to Mercury's present dipole field to Earth-like values are consistent with the magnetic field observations and with the low iron content of Mercury's crust inferred from MESSENGER elemental composition data. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Studying the Kinematics of Faint Stellar Populations with the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Merrifield, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies are faint enough when one observes just their light distributions, but in studying their full dynamical structure the stars are spread over the six dimensions of phase space rather than just the three spatial dimensions, making their densities very low indeed. This low signal is unfortunate, as stellar dynamics hold important clues to these systems' life histories, and the issue is compounded by the fact that the most interesting information comes from the faintest outer parts of galaxies, where dynamical timescales (and hence memories of past history) are longest. To extract this information, we have constructed a special-purpose instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, which observes planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of the stellar population, and allows one to study the stellar dynamics of galaxies down to extremely low surface brightnesses. Here, we present results from this instrument that illustrate how it can uncover the nature of low surface-brightness features such as thick disks ...

  16. Laboratory studies of aeolian sediment transport processes on planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keld R.; Valance, Alexandre; Merrison, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We review selected experimental saltation studies performed in laboratory wind tunnels and collision experiments performed in (splash-) laboratory facilities that allow detailed observations between impinging particles on a stationary bed. We also discuss progress in understanding aeolian transport in nonterrestrial environments. Saltation studies in terrestrial wind tunnels can be divided into two groups. The first group comprises studies using a short test bed, typically 1-4 m long, and focuses on the transitional behavior near the upwind roughness discontinuity where saltation starts. The other group focuses on studies using long test beds - typically 6 m or more - where the saturated saltation takes place under equilibrium conditions between wind flow and the underlying rough bed. Splash studies using upscaled model experiments allow collision simulations with large spherical particles to be recorded with a high speed video camera. The findings indicate that the number of ejected particles per impact scales linearly with the impact velocity of the saltating particles. Studies of saturated saltation in several facilities using predominantly Particle Tracking Velocimetry or Laser Doppler Velocimetry indicate that the velocity of the (few) particles having high trajectories increases with increasing friction velocity. However, the speed of the majority of particles that do not reach much higher than Bagnold's focal point is virtually independent of Shields parameter - at least for low or intermediate u*-values. In this case mass flux depends on friction velocity squared and not cubed as originally suggested by Bagnold. Over short beds particle velocity shows stronger dependence on friction velocity and profiles of particle velocity deviate from those obtained over long beds. Measurements using horizontally segmented traps give average saltation jump-lengths near 60-70 mm and appear to be only weakly dependent on friction velocity, which is in agreement with some

  17. Optical and Hygroscopic Studies of Aerosols In Simulated Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.

    2011-08-01

    Basic characteristics of the early Earth climate, the only known environment in the Universe in which life has been known to emerge and thrive, remain a mystery. In particular, little is understood about the Earth's atmosphere 2.8 billion years ago. From climate models and laboratory studies, it is postulated that an organic haze, much like that found on Saturn's largest moon Titan, covered the early Earth. This haze, generated from photolysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), may have had profound climatic consequences. Climate models of the early Earth that include this haze have had to rely upon optical properties of a Titan laboratory analog. Titan haze, though thought to be similar, is formed from a different combination of precursor gases and by different energy sources than early Earth haze. This thesis examines the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosol on early Earth climate by studying the optical and hygroscopic properties of a laboratory analog. A Titan analog is studied for comparison and to better understand spacecraft-retrieved haze chemical and optical properties from Titan. The properties of the laboratory analogs, generated in a flowing reactor cell with a continuum ultraviolet (UV) light source, were primarily measured using cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectroscopy and UV-visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectroscopy. We find that the optical properties of our early Earth analog are significantly different than those of the Titan analog from Khare et al. (1984). In both the UV and visible, when modeled as fractals, particles with the optical properties of the early Earth analog have approximately 30% larger extinction efficiencies than particles with Khare et al. (1984) values. This result implies our early Earth haze analog would provide a more efficient UV shield and have a stronger antigreenhouse effect than the Khare et al. (1984) Titan analog. Our Titan analog has significantly smaller imaginary refractive index values

  18. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF A SOLAR SIMULATOR FOR PLANETARY-PHOTOCHEMICAL STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Jolly, Antoine; Gazeau, Marie-Claire, E-mail: ettouhamiessbbar@gmail.com [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, LISA, UMR 7583, CNRS, Université Paris Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institute Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général De Gaulle, F-94010 Créteil Cedex (France)

    2015-06-22

    Low-temperature microwave-powered plasma based on hydrogen and hydrogen with noble gas mixtures are widely used as a continuous vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in laboratory experiments carried out to mimic the photochemistry in astrophysical environments. In this work, we present a study dedicated to optimizing such sources in terms of mono-chromaticity at Lyα (H(Lyα) line at 121.6 nm ∼ 10.2 eV) and high spectral irradiance. We report the influence on the emission spectrum of a wide range of experimental conditions including gas composition (pure H{sub 2}, pure He, and H{sub 2}/He mixture), gas pressure, flow rates, and microwave power. The absolute spectral irradiance delivered by this VUV light source has been measured. With a microwave input power of 100 W, the best conditions for producing a quasi-monochromatic source are a 1% H{sub 2}/He gas mixture at a total pressure of 5 mbar and a flow rate of 2 sccm. By changing the microwave input power from 30 to 120 W, H(Lyα) increases by more than one order of magnitude. A comparison between the current measurements and the solar VUV spectral irradiance is reported over 115–170 nm.

  20. Optimization of a Solar Simulator for Planetary-photochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Jolly, Antoine; Gazeau, Marie-Claire

    2015-06-01

    Low-temperature microwave-powered plasma based on hydrogen and hydrogen with noble gas mixtures are widely used as a continuous vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source in laboratory experiments carried out to mimic the photochemistry in astrophysical environments. In this work, we present a study dedicated to optimizing such sources in terms of mono-chromaticity at Lyα (H(Lyα) line at 121.6 nm ˜ 10.2 eV) and high spectral irradiance. We report the influence on the emission spectrum of a wide range of experimental conditions including gas composition (pure H2, pure He, and H2/He mixture), gas pressure, flow rates, and microwave power. The absolute spectral irradiance delivered by this VUV light source has been measured. With a microwave input power of 100 W, the best conditions for producing a quasi-monochromatic source are a 1% H2/He gas mixture at a total pressure of 5 mbar and a flow rate of 2 sccm. By changing the microwave input power from 30 to 120 W, H(Lyα) increases by more than one order of magnitude. A comparison between the current measurements and the solar VUV spectral irradiance is reported over 115-170 nm.

  1. Venus Express Contributions to the Study of Planetary Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Hart, R. A.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-04-01

    Jupiter, and Saturn are expected to generate the electrical potential differences in their clouds sufficient to cause a breakdown in the atmosphere,creating a conducting path for the electric potential to discharge. This high-energy phenomenon creates a hot, high-pressure channel that enables chemical reactions not possible under usual local thermodynamic conditions. Thus it is of some interest to determine if lightning occurs in an atmosphere. While Venus is not usually considered one of the wet planets, lightning has been an object of interest since the Venera landers. It was observed with electromagnetic coils on Venera 11, 12, 13, 14 landers [2]. It was observed with a visible spectrometer on the Venera 9 orbits [1]. It was mapped during solar occultations by the electric antenna on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter [4]. These measurements revealed extensive lightning activity with an electromagnetic energy flux similar to that on Earth. However, the observations were limited in number in the atmosphere and to the nightside from orbit. In order to improve the understanding of Venus lightning, the Venus Express magnetometer was given a 128-Hz sampling rate that could cover much of the ELF frequencies at which lightning could be observed in the weak magnetic fields of the Venus ionosphere [5]. This investigation was immediately successful [3], but mastering the cleaning of the broadband data took several years to accomplish. Furthermore, the high polar latitudes of VEX periapsis were not the ideal locations to conduct the more global survey that was desired. Fortunately, after precessing poleward over the first few years the latitude of periapsis has returned to lower latitudes(Figures 1 and 2) and active electrical storms are now being studied. The charged constituent of the Venus atmosphere need not be water. In fact, we believe it is H2SO4 which polarizes much as water does and which freezes and melts at similar temperatures. If it is H2SO4, we would expect the

  2. Innovative HPC architectures for the study of planetary plasma environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Jorge; Wolf, Anna; Lembège, Bertrand; Zitz, Anke; Alvarez, Damian; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    DEEP-ER is an European Commission founded project that develops a new type of High Performance Computer architecture. The revolutionary system is currently used by KU Leuven to study the effects of the solar wind on the global environments of the Earth and Mercury. The new architecture combines the versatility of Intel Xeon computing nodes with the power of the upcoming Intel Xeon Phi accelerators. Contrary to classical heterogeneous HPC architectures, where it is customary to find CPU and accelerators in the same computing nodes, in the DEEP-ER system CPU nodes are grouped together (Cluster) and independently from the accelerator nodes (Booster). The system is equipped with a state of the art interconnection network, a highly scalable and fast I/O and a fail recovery resiliency system. The final objective of the project is to introduce a scalable system that can be used to create the next generation of exascale supercomputers. The code iPic3D from KU Leuven is being adapted to this new architecture. This particle-in-cell code can now perform the computation of the electromagnetic fields in the Cluster while the particles are moved in the Booster side. Using fast and scalable Xeon Phi accelerators in the Booster we can introduce many more particles per cell in the simulation than what is possible in the current generation of HPC systems, allowing to calculate fully kinetic plasmas with very low interpolation noise. The system will be used to perform fully kinetic, low noise, 3D simulations of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of the Earth and Mercury. Preliminary simulations have been performed in other HPC centers in order to compare the results in different systems. In this presentation we show the complexity of the plasma flow around the planets, including the development of hydrodynamic instabilities at the flanks, the presence of the collision-less shock, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause, reconnection zones, the formation of the

  3. Study on double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion in the laminar flow mixing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has studied the impact of double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion on laminar flow mixing system using flow field visualization experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulation. Digital image processing was conducted to analyze the mixing efficiency of mixing paddle in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes. It was found that the double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion would not produce the isolated mixing regions in the laminar flow mixing system, and its mixing efficiency in counter-rotating modes was higher than that in co-rotating modes, especially at low rotating speed. According to the tracer trajectory experiment, it was found that the path line of the tracer in the flow field in co-rotating modes was distributed in the opposite direction to the path line in counter-rotating modes. Planetary motion of mixing paddle had stretching, shearing, and folding effects on the trajectory of the tracer. By means of computational fluid dynamics simulation, it was found that axial flows and tangential flows produced in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes have similar flow velocity but opposite flow directions. It is deduced from the distribution rule of axial flow, radial flow, and tangential flow in the flow field that axial flow is the main reason for causing different mixing efficiencies between co-rotating and counter-rotating modes.

  4. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  5. International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies : 46th Session : The Role of Science in the Third Millennium

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 46th Session of the International Seminars on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies held in "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily. This Seminar has again gathered, in 2013, over 100 scientists from 43 countries in an interdisciplinary effort that has been going on for the last 32 years, to examine and analyze planetary problems which had been followed up, all year long, by the World Federation of Scientists' Permanent Monitoring Panels.

  6. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  7. Science Operations During Planetary Surface Exploration: Desert-RATS Tests 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Research and Technology Studies (RATS) team evaluates technology, human-robotic systems and extravehicular equipment for use in future human space exploration missions. Tests are conducted in simulated space environments, or analog tests, using prototype instruments, vehicles, and systems. NASA engineers, scientists and technicians from across the country gather annually with representatives from industry and academia to perform the tests. Test scenarios include future missions to near-Earth asteroids (NEA), the moon and Mars.. Mission simulations help determine system requirements for exploring distant locations while developing the technical skills required of the next generation of explorers.

  8. Proposed NASA Budget Includes Asteroid Capture but Cuts Planetary Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed 17.7 billion budget for NASA for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides 105 million for several asteroid-related initiatives, including preliminary studies for a potential mission that would capture an asteroid and drag it into orbit around the Moon. The agency's total proposed budget is down slightly compared to FY 2012 (see Table ; comparisons are to FY 2012 because government agencies had been operating on a continuing resolution for 2013 and final spending levels for 2013 were not available at the time the president released his proposed 2014 budget).

  9. Planning Bepicolombo MPO Science Operations to study Mercury Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Sara; Carasa, Angela; Ortiz, Iñaki; Rodriguez, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Benkhoff, Johannes; Zender, Joe

    2017-04-01

    BepiColombo is an Interdisciplinary Cornerstone ESA-JAXA Mission to Mercury, with two orbiters, the ESA Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the JAXA Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO) dedicated to study of the planet and its magnetosphere. The MPO, is a three-axis-stabilized, nadir-pointing spacecraft which will be placed in a polar orbit, providing excellent spatial resolution over the entire planet surface. The MPO's scientific payload comprises 11 instrument packages, including laser altimeter, cameras and the radio science experiment that will be dedicated to the study of Mercury's interior: structure, composition, formation and evolution. The planning of the science operations to be carried out by the Mercury's interior scientific instruments will be done by the SGS located at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), in conjunction with the scientific instrument teams. The process will always consider the complete nominal mission duration, such that the contribution of the scheduled science operations to the science objectives, the total data volume generated, and the seasonal interdependency, can be tracked. The heart of the science operations planning process is the Observations Catalogue (OC), a web-accessed database to collect and analyse all science operations requests. From the OC, the SGS will first determine all science opportunity windows compatible with the spacecraft operational constraints. Secondly, only those compatible with the resources (power and data volume) and pointing constraints will be chosen, including slew feasibility.

  10. An imaging and spectroscopic study of the planetary nebulae in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A): Planetary nebulae catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, J R; Walton, N A

    2015-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the nearest large elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), were obtained to find more PNe and measure their radial velocities. NTT imaging was obtained in 15 fields in NGC 5128 over an area of about 1 square degree with EMMI using [O III] and off-band filters. Newly detected sources, combined with literature PNe, were used as input for VLT FLAMES multi-fibre spectroscopy in MEDUSA mode. Spectra of the 4600-5100A region were analysed and velocities measured based on emission lines of [O III]4959,5007A and often H-beta. The chief results are catalogues of 1118 PN candidates and 1267 spectroscopically confirmed PNe in NGC 5128. The catalogue of PN candidates contains 1060 PNe discovered with EMMI imaging and 58 from literature surveys. The spectroscopic PN catalogue has FLAMES radial velocity and emission line measurements for 1135 PNe, of which 486 are new. Another 132 PN radial velocities are available from the literature. For 629 PNe observ...

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Effects of Impacts: Shock and Awe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Koeberl, C.

    2004-01-01

    This document discusses the following topics: Zircon as a Shock Indicator in Impactites of Drill Core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub Impact Structure, Mexico; Experimental Investigation of Shock Effects in a Metapelitic Granulite; Experimental Reproduction of Shock Veins in Single-Crystal Minerals; Post-Shock Crystal-Plastic Processes in Quartz from Crystalline Target Rocks of the Charlevoix Impact Structure; Shock Reequilibration of Fluid Inclusions; How Does Tektite Glass Lose Its Water?; Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments; A Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of the Nonmarine Permian/Triassic Boundary in the Southern Karoo Basin, South Africa; Extraterrestrial Chromium in the Permian-Triassic Boundary at Graphite Peak, Antarctica; Magnetic Fe,Si,Al-rich Impact Spherules from the P-T Boundary Layer at Graphite Peak, Antarctica; A Newly Recognized Late Archean Impact Spherule Layer in the Reivilo Formation, Griqualand West Basin, South Africa; Initial Cr-Isotopic and Iridium Measurements of Concentrates from Late Eocene Cpx-Spherule Deposits; An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data.

  12. From Planetary Intelligence to Planetary Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    "Planetary intelligence" - when understood as an input into the processes of "managing" Earth - hints at an instrumental understanding of scientific information. At minimum it is a call for useful data of political (and even military) value; at best it speaks to an ability to collect, integrate and apply such information. In this sense, 21st century society has more "intelligence" than any generation of humans before, begging the question whether just more or better "planetary intelligence" will do anything at all to move us off the path of planetary destruction (i.e., beyond planetary boundaries) that it has been on for decades if not centuries. Social scientists have argued that there are at least four shortcomings in this way of thinking that - if addressed - could open up 1) what is being researched; 2) what is considered socially robust knowledge; 3) how science interacts with policy-makers and other "planet managers"; and 4) what is being done in practice with the "intelligence" given to those positioned at the levers of change. To the extent "planetary management" continues to be approached from a scientistic paradigm alone, there is little hope that Earth's future will remain in a safe operating space in this or coming centuries.

  13. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  14. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE MECHANISMAND PROCESS OF ROCK BREAKAGE WITHTHE PLANETARY CUTTER HEAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大钊

    1992-01-01

    Based on the kinematic features of the Planetary Cutter Head (PCH),this paper deals with specificity of rock breakago with PCH, and the basic laws of this process are presented, The study shows that the axial force acting on the drilling face by a single cutter and the uniaxial compressive strength of the drilled rock have the marked influence on the penetrating depth of the cutter ,and the breakage of the drilling face with the PCH has two forms,the cyclical and the noncyclical. The major reason why the PCH has higher drilling efficiency than other cutter heads is that the PCH can make more free faces on the drilling face.

  15. Teaching Science with the Social Studies of Science for Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Muriel

    Integrating the social studies of science into science education would make explicit the cultures of science, which have been revealed by historians, philosophers, sociologists, and feminist science scholars. These cultures include the institutions of science, the interaction of science and the society in which it is practiced, and the internal culture of science. This pedagogy may be a route to increasing equity in science, by giving women and members of other under-represented groups an appreciation of the factors causing their alienation from the enterprise and the tools to change science for social justice. In this article, I present the theoretical basis of this position, along with the implementation strategies and preliminary assessment for a sophomore level biology course based on this perspective.

  16. European Contribution to Human Aspect Investigations for Future Planetary Habitat Definition Studies: Field Tests at MDRS on Crew Time Utilisation and Habitat Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Foing, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Human factors are a dominant aspect in space missions, which may strongly influence work results and efficiency. To assess their impact on future long term space missions and to attempt a general quantification, the environmental and technical conditions to which astronauts may be confronted need to be reproduced as closely as possible. Among the stressors that occur during space missions, limited resources, limited social interactions, long term living and working in confined and isolated areas are among the most important for future planetary exploration. The European Space Agency (ESA) has a strong interest in obtaining data and insights in human aspects to prepare for future studies on the definition of future Lunar and Martian planetary habitats. In this frame, ESA's Directorate of Human Space Flight was associated to the EuroGeoMars campaign conducted by the Crews 76 and 77 in February 2009 in The Mars Society's `Mars Desert Research Station' (MDRS) in the Desert of Utah. The EuroGeoMars Campaign lasted 5 weeks and encompassed two groups of experiments, on human crew related aspects and field experiments in geology, biology and astronomy/astrophysics. The human crew related aspects covered (1) crew time organization in a planetary habitat, (2) an evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of this habitat, (3) an evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. Several forms and questionnaires were filled in by all crew members: time and location evaluation sheets and two series of questionnaires. In addition, the crew participated in another on-going food study where the type of food was imposed and crew impressions were collected via questionnaires. The paper recalls the objectives of the human crew related experiments of the EuroGeoMars project and presents the first results of these field investigations. Some recommendations and lessons learnt will be presented and used as first inputs for future planetary habitat

  17. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Meteorites to and from the Moon and Mars: My Planet or Yours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Meteorites from Mars - Constraints from Numerical Modeling; 2) Iron Oxidation Products in Martian Ordinary Chondrite Finds as Possible Indicators of Liquid Water Exposure at Mars Exploration Rover Landings Sites; 3) Meteorites on Mars; 4) Sulfide Stability of Planetary Basalts; 5) Exposure and Terrestrial Histories of New Lunar and Martian Meteorites.

  19. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  20. An spectroscopic and photometric study of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5

    CERN Document Server

    García-Díaz, Ma T; López, J A; Zharikov, S; Tovmassian, G; Borisov, N; Valyavin, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the first morpho-kinematical analysis of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5 and explore the nature of their central stars. Our analysis is based on high resolution and medium resolution spectroscopic observations, deep narrow-band imaging, and integral photometry. This material allows us to identify the morphological components and study their kinematics. The direct images and spectra indicate an absence of the characteristic [N II] and [S II] emission lines in both nebulae. The nebular spectrum of Kn 61 suggests an hydrogen deficient planetary nebula and the stellar spectrum of the central star reveals a hydrogen deficient PG 1159-type star. The [O III] position velocity diagram reveals that Kn 61 is a closed, empty, spherical shell with a thin border and a filamentary surface expanding at 67.6 km s$^{-1}$, and the shell is currently not expanding isotropically. We derived a kinematic age of $\\sim$ 1.6$\\times$10$^4$ yrs for an assumed distance of 4 kpc. A photometric period of $\\sim$ 5.7($\\pm$0....

  1. Experimental study of visible and IR light reflection by planetary-like granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douté, S.; Grundy, W.; Devedeux, F.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2003-04-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces by spacecrafts now often involves imaging spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared ranges. The development of methods to analyse the generated image cubes requires theoretical as well as experimental studies to model the bidirectional reflectance (BRDF) of dense granular materials. The physics of the reflection depends on many parameters like the intrinsic optical properties, the shapes, sizes and the packing density of the mineral or icy grains forming the top few centimeters of many solid planetary surfaces. The structural characteristics of the transition zone between the materials and the atmosphere or the vacuum may also play a key role. In particular surface roughness at the scale of tens of grain lengths and facets preferentially oriented in the horizontal plane may greatly determine the BRDF. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic experimental campaign designed to quantify the dependence of the BRDF on the crucial parameters mentioned above. For that purpose we measured, with a spectrophoto-goniometer, the BRDF of various test granular materials (paraffin, glass fragments, epsomite or sodium fluoride, etc.) at several wavelengths. These materials present an increasing optical index from 1.32 to 3.4 and sometimes show isolated absorption bands. They come in various grain sizes and shapes and were prepared using different methods to make samples with different surface textures.

  2. The Planetary Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics Studies with the COSmIC Facility: Interstellar and Planetary Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar S.; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2015-08-01

    We present and discuss the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nano particles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a plasma in free supersonic jet expansion coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [2].Recent laboratory astrophysics results that were obtained using COSmIC will be presented, in particular the progress that has been achieved in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and in monitoring, in the laboratory, the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflows [3] and planetary atmospheres [4]. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of the current studies for astronomy.References:[1] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, S251, p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[2] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300, 26 (2011)[3] Cesar Contreras and Farid Salama, The

  4. Mineralogical and Raman spectroscopy studies of natural olivines exposed to different planetary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, I.; Böttger, U.; Pavlov, S. G.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2014-12-01

    New lander missions to bodies of our solar system are coming up and thus new techniques are desirable for the in-situ investigation of planetary surface and near surface materials. During the last decade Raman spectroscopy has been developed to become an excellent laboratory tool for fast petrological and mineralogical investigation of terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks. Consequently, Raman spectroscopy has successfully been proposed for operation on planetary surfaces. In the joint ESA and Roscosmos mission ExoMars a Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) will for the first time be applied in space to identify minerals and organic compounds in Martian surface rocks and soils. The present study aims to investigate the possible response of various environmental conditions to Raman spectra in preparation for the ExoMars mission, as well as other space missions in future. For our study we selected five natural olivines with different forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4) compositions. Olivine as an important rock forming mineral of the Earth upper mantle and an abundant mineral in Martian meteorites is one of the key planetary mineral. The spectra were taken in various environmental conditions that include vacuum down to 10-6 mbar, 8 mbar CO2 atmosphere, and temperatures ranging between room temperature and~8 K resembling those on Mars as well as on the Moon and on asteroids. We have found that forsterite shows only small temperature-related shifts in Raman spectra at very low temperatures indicating relatively weak changes in the lattice modes. Fayalite demonstrates, in addition to temperature dependent changes in the lattice modes found for forsterite, modification of Raman spectra at low Stokes frequencies. This is an effect in the SiO4 internal modes that most probably is caused by the high amount of iron in the mineral structure, which triggers antiferromagnetic transition at low temperatures. No influence of a CO2 atmosphere on Raman spectra for the

  5. Study of a thermal drill head for the exploration of subsurface planetary ice layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.; Ng, T. C.; Kömle, N.; Kargl, G.; Kaufmann, E.

    2008-07-01

    The recently discovered water vapor plumes on Saturn's moon Enceladus, the polar caps of planet Mars and the possible ice volcanism on the Jovian satellites call for suitable techniques to explore deep ice layers of the solar system bodies. This paper presents a novel approach to deliver scientific probes into deeper layers of planetary ice. Several existing locomotion concepts and techniques for such probes are presented. After studying the mathematical framework of the melting locomotion process, melting tests with different head forms were done to evaluate the influence of the head's geometry on the melting process. This work led to a novel concept of a thermal drill head, using heat and mechanical drill in combination to penetrate the ice. We compare the performance of such a hybrid concept versus the melting penetration alone by a mathematical model and tests in ice with a prototype of the melting drill head.

  6. A study of symplectic integrators for planetary system problems: error analysis and comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David M.; Dehnen, Walter

    2017-07-01

    The symplectic Wisdom-Holman map revolutionized long-term integrations of planetary systems. There is freedom in such methods of how to split the Hamiltonian and which coordinate system to employ, and several options have been proposed in the literature. These choices lead to different integration errors, which we study analytically and numerically. The Wisdom-Holman method in Jacobi coordinates and the method of Hernandez, H16, compare favourably and avoid problems of some of the other maps, such as incorrect centre-of-mass position or truncation errors even in the one-planet case. We use H16 to compute the evolution of Pluto's orbital elements over 500 million years in a new calculation.

  7. Design and Trafficability Study of Flexible Wheel for Planetary Exploration Rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan

    2007-01-01

    To reduce sending costs, a flexible wheel configuration is proposed. The wheel is made of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in consideration of the planetary environment factors (i.e. strong radiation, big temperature differences, high vacuum), and mass constraint of launch vehicle. The advantages of the proposed wheel involves the potential for: ① small sending volume and mass, ② large deployed area and volume to reduce wheel loading, ③ a damping effect to smooth motion on rough terrain. To study the trafficability and tractive performance of the wheel concept, the drawbar pull and driven torque were calculated based on simplified model of terramechanics formulations. The results show that the wheel possesses sufficient drawbar pull to negotiate all types of soil stratums listed in this contribution.

  8. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  9. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  10. Analysis of science team activities during the 1999 Marsokhod Rover Field Experiment: Implications for automated planetary surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geb; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rathe, April

    2001-04-01

    This work analyzes the behavior and effectiveness of a science team using the Marsokhod mobile robot to explore the Silver Lake region in the Mojave Desert near Baker, California. The work addresses the manner in which the geologists organized themselves, how they allocated their time in different activities, how they formed and communicated scientific hypotheses, and the frequency with which they requested different types of data from the mission archive during the first 3 days of the mission. Eleven scientists from the NASA Ames Research Center and three of the five scientists who participated from their home institutions were videotaped as they worked throughout the 3-day experiment. The videotape record indicates that 46% of available person-hours were consumed in semistructured or formal meetings and that only 1% of their time was spent studying immersive, three-dimensional virtual reality models of the robot's surroundings. The remainder of their time was spent in unstructured work sessions in groups of two or three. Hypothesis formation and evolution patterns show a meager flow of information from the distributed science team to the on-site team and a bias against reporting speculative hypotheses. Analysis of the visual imagery received from the robot indicates that acquisition of the large panoramic information leads to high levels of redundancy in the data acquired. The scientists' archive requests indicate that small, specifically requested image targets were the most frequently accessed information. The work suggests alternative organizational structures that would expedite the flow of information within the geologic team. It also advocates emphasizing specific science targets over high-resolution, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging when programming a mobile robot's onboard cameras.

  11. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  12. Finding Science in the School Body: Reflections on Transgressing the Boundaries of Science Education and the Social Studies of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the framings that the fields of the social studies of science and science education use for each other. It is shown that the social studies of science frames science education as passive and timeless. Science education frames science studies as a set of representations to better capture how science works. The paper then…

  13. GIS Facility and Services at the Ronald Greeley Center for Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Williams, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    At the RGCPS, we established a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer laboratory, where we instruct researchers how to use GIS and image processing software. Seminars demonstrate viewing, integrating, and digitally mapping planetary data.

  14. From Science Reserves to Sustainable Multiple Uses beyond Earth orbit: Evaluating Issues on the Path towards Balanced Environmental Management on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    Over the past five decades, our understanding of space beyond Earth orbit has been shaped by a succession of mainly robotic missions whose technologies have enabled scientists to answer diverse science questions about celestial bodies across the solar system. For all that time, exploration has been guided by planetary protection policies and principles promulgated by COSPAR and based on provisions in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. Over time, implementation of the various COSPAR planetary protection policies have sought to avoid harmful forward and backward contamination in order to ensure the integrity of science findings, guide activities on different celestial bodies, and appropriately protect Earth whenever extraterrestrial materials have been returned. The recent increased interest in extending both human missions and commercial activities beyond Earth orbit have prompted discussions in various quarters about the need for updating policies and guidelines to ensure responsible, balanced space exploration and use by all parties, regardless whether activities are undertaken by governmental or non-governmental entities. Already, numerous researchers and workgroups have suggested a range of different ways to manage activities on celestial environments (e.g, wilderness parks, exclusion zones, special regions, claims, national research bases, environmental impact assessments, etc.). While the suggestions are useful in thinking about how to manage future space activities, they are not based on any systematically applied or commonly accepted criteria (scientific or otherwise). In addition, they are borrowed from terrestrial approaches for environmental protection, which may or may not have direct applications to space environments. As noted in a recent COSPAR-PEX workshop (GWU 2012), there are no clear definitions of issues such as harmful contamination, the environment to be protected, or what are considered reasonable activity or impacts for particular

  15. Politicizing science: conceptions of politics in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines five ideal-typical conceptions of politics in science and technology studies. Rather than evaluating these conceptions with reference to a single standard, the essay shows how different conceptions of politics serve distinct purposes: normative critique, two approaches to empirical description, and two views of democracy. I discuss each conception of politics with respect to how well it fulfills its apparent primary purpose, as well as its implications for the purpose of studying a key issue in contemporary democratic societies: the politicization of science. In this respect, the essay goes beyond classifying different conceptions of politics and also recommends the fifth conception as especially conducive to understanding and shaping the processes whereby science becomes a site or object of political activity. The essay also employs several analytical distinctions to help clarify the differences among conceptions of politics: between science as 'political' (adjective) and science as a site of 'politics' (noun), between spatial-conceptions and activity-conceptions of politics, between latent conflicts and actual conflicts, and between politics and power. The essay also makes the methodological argument that the politics of science and technology is best studied with concepts and methods that facilitate dialogue between actors and analysts. The main goal, however, is not to defend a particular view of politics, but to promote conversation on the conceptions of politics that animate research in social studies of science and technology.

  16. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  17. The study about planetary gearbox virtual prototyping with nonlinear gear contact characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Zhou, Guangming

    2010-06-01

    The virtual prototypes of gear transmission system built in most multi-body dynamic software have difficulties in describing the gear mesh characteristics. The gear mesh contact is modelled as rigid contact and this is not accurate for the gear mesh contact, which is elastic or flexible. The gear contact formula used in the multi-body dynamic software does not reveal the gear contact nonlinear stiffness characteristic. The model built with gear meshing contact is difficult to solve because of its time-consuming algorithm. In the paper a new method is put forward to build the virtual prototype of planetary gearbox system according to the nonlinear mesh stiffness and mesh phase obtained through FEM models. This new FEM method of gear mesh stiffness calculation is much more accurate than the common formulas. The gear mesh nonlinear stiffness of sun gear- pinion and pinion-ring gear of all the planetary gear sets in gearbox are obtained through MATALB code, which is used to read and plot the analyzing result data. The gear mesh phase differences between different pinions with suns or rings of different planetary gear set can be also obtained. With all these data modelled in simulink (or other software) and integrated with the multi-body dynamic planetary gearbox model and the gear meshing contact problem in multi-body gear models is solved easily and accurately. The interfaces for gear mesh stiffness and mesh phases are designed for multi-body dynamic model and simulink. The nonlinear planetary gear set prototyping models are integrated to become the whole planetary gear box model and the whole vehicle system model built in multi-body dynamic software can be integrated to simulate different duty conditions. At last high speed input is put into the nonlinear planetary transmission model and the different duty cases are simulated. The dynamic characteristics of different parts are obtained. The dynamic characteristic comparison between nonlinear and linear models is made

  18. Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.; Bonneville, R.; Viso, M.

    According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar recommendations. Planetary protection takes also into account the protection of exobiological science, because the results of life detection experimentations could have impacts on planetary protection regulations. The validation of their results depends strongly of how the samples have been collected, stored and analyzed, and particularly of their biological and organic cleanliness. Any risk of contamination by organic materials, chemical coumpounds and by terrestrial microorganisms must be avoided. A large number of missions is presently scheduled, particularly on Mars, in order to search for life or traces of past life. In the frame of such missions, CNES is building a planetary protection organization in order handle and to take in charge all tasks linked to science and engineering concerned by planetary protection. Taking into account CNES past experience in planetary protection related to the Mars 96 mission, its planned participation in exobiological missions with NASA as well as its works and involvement in Cospar activities, this paper will present the main requirements in order to avoid celestial bodies biological contamination, focussing on Mars and including Earth, and to protect exobiological science.

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 11th, Houston, TX, March 17-21, 1980, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Igneous processes and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Topics discussed include basaltic studies, planetary differentiation (e.g., lunar highland rocks), and remote sensing studies of chemical composition, mineralogic composition, and physical surface properties. Particular attention is given to the petrology and chemistry of basaltic fragments from the Apollo 11 soil; a model of early lunar differentiation; rocks of the early lunar crust; refractory and moderately volatile element abundances in the earth, moon, and meteorites; the effects of overlapping optical absorption bands of pyroxene and glass on the reflectance spectra of lunar soils; and the characterization of Martian surface materials from earth-based radar.

  20. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, S; Boumis, P; Monteiro, H; Gonçalves, D R; Redman, M P; Williams, S

    2016-01-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of $\\sim$19,400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 $M_{\\odot}$ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] $\\lambda 5200$ and [O I] $\\lambda 6300$ emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme Type-I PNe. The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/H$\\alpha$ vs. [S II]/H$\\alpha$ diagnostic diagram, where sho...

  1. Pico de Orizaba as an analogue to study planetary ecosynthesis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, R.

    2010-03-01

    Studies of Mars by spacecrafts, landers and rovers have indicated that it was once a wetter, more habitable world than the cold desert planet of today. If water was once stable as a liquid on the surface and flowed in such vast quantities, then the atmosphere must have been denser and the climate warmer in the past. The same processes that led to the origin of life on Earth may have occurred simultaneously on Mars, and living organisms may have colonized the planet. It is unclear how or when Mars lost its thicker atmosphere and as a result lost its habitable environment. The Viking landers of the mid-1970s carried experiments designed to detect the presence of extant life and showed the martian soil to be lifeless on the surface. Future space missions will continue to explore if there was or still is life on Mars, perhaps in the subsurface. However, if there is no life on Mars, there is an opportunity to explore the potential for survival and biological evolution for terrestrial life beyond their place of origin, and do planetary ecosynthesis on Mars, a process of making the planet habitable for terrestrial organisms. The evidence that Mars was once habitable is important for planetary ecosynthesis as it provides a proof in principle that Mars can support a habitable state on timescales that, while short over the age of the solar system, are long in human terms. Artificial greenhouse gases, such as perfluorocarbons, appear to be the best method for warming Mars and increase its atmospheric density so that liquid water becomes stable. The process of introducing terrestrial ecosystems to Mars can be compared with a descent down a high mountain. Each drop in elevation results in a warmer, wetter climate and more diverse biological community. This is shown in Pico de Orizaba which is located at 19.03°N, 97.27°W and rises 5,636 meters above sea level. It is the highest mountain in Mexico, the third highest in the tropics after Mount Kilimanjaro (5,892) in Tanzania and

  2. Science Studies from Archived Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and

  3. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  4. Study of mineral dust entrainment in the planetary boundary layer by lidar depolarisation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements on 27 June 2011 were performed over the Southern Iberian Peninsula at Granada EARLINET station, using active and passive remote sensing and airborne and surface in-situ data in order to study the entrainment processes between aerosols in the free troposphere and those in the planetary boundary layer (PBL. To this aim the temporal evolution of the lidar depolarisation, backscatter-related Angström exponent and potential temperature profiles were used in combination with the PBL contribution to the aerosol optical depth (AOD. Our results show that the mineral dust entrainment in the PBL was caused by the convective processes which ‘trapped’ the lofted mineral dust layer, distributing the mineral dust particles within the PBL. The temporal evolution of ground-based in-situ data evidenced the impact of this process at surface level. Finally, the amount of mineral dust in the atmospheric column available to be dispersed into the PBL was estimated by means of POLIPHON (Polarizing Lidar Photometer Networking. The dust mass concentration derived from POLIPHON was compared with the coarse-mode mass concentration retrieved with airborne in-situ measurements. Comparison shows differences below 50 µg/m3 (30% relative difference indicating a relative good agreement between both techniques.

  5. Report on the 2015 COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkin, Victoria; Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    In consultation with the COSPAR Scientific Commissions B (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) and F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection organised a colloquium at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, in September 2015, to cover two pertinent topics: * Icy moon sample return planetary protection requirements * Mars Special Regions planetary protection requirements These two topics were addressed in two separate sessions. Participation from European, North American and Japanese scientists reflected broad expertise from the respective COSPAR Commissions, recent NASA MEPAG Science Analysis Group and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine/European Science Foundation Mars Special Regions Review Committee. The recommendations described in this report are based on discussions that took place during the course of the colloquium and reflect a consensus of the colloquium participants that participated in the two separate sessions. These recommendations are brought to the 2016 COSPAR Scientific Assembly for further input and discussion as part of the recognised process for updating COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy.

  6. Multidimensional Space-Time Methodology for Development of Planetary and Space Sciences, S-T Data Management and S-T Computational Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, Zdravko

    This R&D represent innovative multidimensional 6D-N(6n)D Space-Time (S-T) Methodology, 6D-6nD Coordinate Systems, 6D Equations, new 6D strategy and technology for development of Planetary Space Sciences, S-T Data Management and S-T Computational To-mography. . . The Methodology is actual for brain new RS Microwaves' Satellites and Compu-tational Tomography Systems development, aimed to defense sustainable Earth, Moon, & Sun System evolution. Especially, extremely important are innovations for monitoring and protec-tion of strategic threelateral system H-OH-H2O Hydrogen, Hydroxyl and Water), correspond-ing to RS VHRS (Very High Resolution Systems) of 1.420-1.657-22.089GHz microwaves. . . One of the Greatest Paradox and Challenge of World Science is the "transformation" of J. L. Lagrange 4D Space-Time (S-T) System to H. Minkovski 4D S-T System (O-X,Y,Z,icT) for Einstein's "Theory of Relativity". As a global result: -In contemporary Advanced Space Sciences there is not real adequate 4D-6D Space-Time Coordinate System and 6D Advanced Cosmos Strategy & Methodology for Multidimensional and Multitemporal Space-Time Data Management and Tomography. . . That's one of the top actual S-T Problems. Simple and optimal nD S-T Methodology discovery is extremely important for all Universities' Space Sci-ences' Education Programs, for advances in space research and especially -for all young Space Scientists R&D!... The top ten 21-Century Challenges ahead of Planetary and Space Sciences, Space Data Management and Computational Space Tomography, important for successfully de-velopment of Young Scientist Generations, are following: 1. R&D of W. R. Hamilton General Idea for transformation all Space Sciences to Time Sciences, beginning with 6D Eukonal for 6D anisotropic mediums & velocities. Development of IERS Earth & Space Systems (VLBI; LLR; GPS; SLR; DORIS Etc.) for Planetary-Space Data Management & Computational Planetary & Space Tomography. 2. R&D of S. W. Hawking Paradigm for 2D

  7. NASA’S PLANETARY GEOLOGIC MAPPING PROGRAM: OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA’s planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT...

  8. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  9. Impact Assessment on Teachers of Student-led, Inquiry-based Planetary Science Instruction in Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Slagle, E. M.; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on Mars. A total of 195 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. A total of 1300 students from the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 cohort wereinvited to submit self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program in the following areas: "Getting

  10. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  11. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  12. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary

  13. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  14. A Spitzer/IRS spectral study of a sample of galactic carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Hrivnak, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopic observations have shown that proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are sites of active synthesis of organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This paper presents a study of Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of carbon-rich PPNs, all except one of which show the unidentified 21 micron emission feature. The strengths of the aromatic infrared band (AIB), 21 micron, and 30 micron features are obtained by decomposition of the spectra. The observed variations in the strengths and peak wavelengths of the features support the model that the newly synthesized organic compounds gradually change from aliphatic to aromatic characteristics as stars evolve from PPNs to planetary nebulae.

  15. Planetary Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks, and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft. Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 1e-7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close-range and in real-time in planetary rings. We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The main rings of Saturn comprise our system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty...

  16. Effect of regolith on planetary X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: laboratory and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranen, Jyri; Carpenter, James; Parviainen, Hannu; Muinonen, Karri

    Fluorescent X-rays from the surfaces of airless planetary bodies in the inner solar system have been measured by instruments on several spacecraft. X-ray emission follows photoionisation by incident solar X-rays and charged particles and reveals the elemental composition of the surface. Analyses of X-ray spectra obtained by orbiting spacecraft, use the relative intensities of elemental emission lines (e.g., Ca/Si, Fe/Si) to determine the geochemistry of the target body. Historically, the analysis of X-ray spectra has assumed that surfaces can be considered as homogeneous plane-parallel media. It has been shown, however, that relative line intensities are affected by the physical properties of the target surface (e.g. particle size distribution and packing density of the regolith) and the viewing and illumination geometry of observations. We describe experimental investigations into the effects of regolith properties on the line ratios measured by a nadir pointing (emergence angle 0° ) orbiting instrument, with with solar illumination angles in the range 25-75° from zenith. The planetary regolith analogue used in these experiments was a terrestrial, olivine rich basalt, which has been used by previous authors as an analogue to the lunar maria. The basalt samples were ground to powder and sieved to discriminate particles in the ranges, pellets. The separation of particles with different sizes allows some determination of the effects due to changes in particle size. All measurements were made at pressures of less than 0.5 mbar to prevent absorption of fluorescent X-rays in air. The relative fluorescent line ratios of several major rock forming elements (K, Ca, Ti, Si) were measured. We find that for measurements made in a "nadir" pointing geometry, the measured spectrum becomes increasingly hard as illumination angle increases (i.e. X-ray lines at higher energies are enhanced relative to those at lower energies). Some hardening of spectra is predicted by the

  17. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  18. An experimental study on the planetary boundary layer transport of air pollutants over East Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautstrunk, M.; Neumann-Hauf, G.; Schlager, H.; Klemm, O.; Beyrich, F.; Corsmeier, U.; Kalthoff, N.; Kotzian, M.

    The transport of atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer over East Germany was studied during the SADE-94 experiment using airborne and ground-based observations of meteorological and chemical parameters. Strong jump-like changes of the SO 2 and NO x mixing ratios measured at Melpitz, a rural site about 50 km northeast and 90 km west of two major lignite-coal mining and industrial areas, demonstrate the influence of high emissions and mesoscale transport on the air quality at a rural location. Data of two days with prevailing winds from east and southwest, respectively, were used to determine the origin of plumes from their characteristic species or their specific trace gas concentration ratios. An attempt has been made to establish emitter-receptor relationships between the emittants and the measured plumes of SO 2 and NO x. It is shown that not only in complex terrain, where trace gas dispersion is guided in many cases by the terrain structure but also over flat country sites the trace gases of single-point sources are traceable over distances of more than 100 km in the PBL. Furthermore 75 km downstream the source area surface concentrations of air pollutants caused by downdrafts are measured, which exceed 25% of the value registered direct in the lee of the source. Data of a third day describe the mixing ratio of air pollutants in the convective boundary layer at Melpitz. NO x and SO 2 are used to depict bottom-up and top-down mixing processes mainly in the entrainment zone. Under low-wind conditions, neutral or stable PBL and a capping inversion single air pollution plumes are detectable over long ranges in time (>6 h) and space (>100 km) over flat terrain. The characteristic features of the plumes keep unchanged during transport. So high stacks only displace the problem of near-surface air pollution from the source region to areas far downstream.

  19. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Nested Planetary Nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H2 emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Brγ recombination lines. The H2 emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ~30 km s-1. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Brγ emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at <=30 km s-1. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Brγ emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ~ ± 40 km s-1.

  20. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Planetary Nebula, Hb 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-04-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using NIFS on Gemini-N. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics instrument Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and lobes of this PN. We chose the H and K gratings, which include many prominent emission lines, such as [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (1.7004 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). Considering a distance to Hb 12 of 2 kpc, the spatial resolution is ˜ 100 AU. The velocity resolution is 30 km s-1. The [Fe II] line indicates the northern lobe is blue shifted, while the southern lobe is redshifted. There is very little to no emission in the core in the [Fe II] and H2 lines, while the core is more prominent in the other lines. Neither is there H2 emission from the lobes, but instead arcs of emission passing near the inner regions. The He I (2.0585 μm) line clearly shows the inner torus, which has not been reported before. We measured a torus dimension of 350 AU wide by 800 AU tall, which is ˜ 30 times narrower than the lobes. The western wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the eastern wall. This could indicate the presence of an off-axis star in the center, such as that observed in the PN MyCyn 18. Finally, we compare the NIFS observations of the inner torus and lobes with HST archive observations.

  1. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  2. Obtaining and Using Planetary Spatial Data into the Future: The Role of the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; Thomson, B. J.; Archinal, B.; Hagerty, J.; Gaddis, L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Sutton, S.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary spatial data, which include any remote sensing data or derived products with sufficient positional information such that they can be projected onto a planetary body, continue to rapidly increase in volume and complexity. These data are the hard-earned fruits of decades of planetary exploration, and are the end result of mission planning and execution. Maintaining these data using accessible formats and standards for all scientists has been necessary for the success of past, present, and future planetary missions. The Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT) is a group of planetary community members tasked by NASA Headquarters to work with the planetary science community to identify and prioritize their planetary spatial data needs to help determine the best pathways for new data acquisition, usable product derivation, and tools/capability development that supports NASA's planetary science missions.

  3. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  4. Experimental study of Gas Phase Formation and Evolution in Low fO2 Planetary Basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. J.; Wetzel, D. T.; Saal, A. E.; Hauri, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    The existence of a gas phase in planetary basaltic magmas is demonstrated by the ubiquitous presence of vesicles in returned lunar samples and meteorites as well as basalts from Earth and Mars. Additionally, formation of the fine-grained glass bead deposits during eruption of lunar picritic glasses required a large gas-bubble volume (> 90%) at the time of eruption/fragmentation. Up to 100-200 ppm levels of H, S, Cl and F still remain as diffusion-loss profiles in individual lunar glass beads SIMS (1), and higher volatile concentrations occur in olivine melt inclusions (2). The composition and origin of such volcanic gases were investigated by experiments on a volatile (C-O-H-S-Cl-F)-bearing picritic glass composition as a function of fO2 near iron-wustite (IW). The C-O-H species dissolved in gas-saturated basaltic melt above IW-0.5 are carbonate, OH and H2O with 100 to 10,000 ppm H2O in the sample; below IW-0.5, the C-species present (Raman and FTIR) are Fe(CO)5 (iron pentacarbonyl) and lesser CH4 [3]. The change in melt speciation in part reflects a change in calculated speciation in the coexisting gas [4]. The carbon solubility in these experimental melts increases linearly with increasing pressure; the more oxidized glasses contain 32-620 ppm C for pressures of 98 to 980 MPa, the reduced glasses contain 8-240 ppm C for pressures between 36 and 900 MPa. Thus, the C solubility of the more reduced Fe-carbonyl and CH4 is about one-half that of carbonate at the same pressure, and indicates the carrying capacity for C in reduced (i.e., lunar) magmas is much lower than it is in present day terrestrial magmas. Varioles up to 200 um in diameter formed in some experiments with higher dissolved water contents (1%); they have radiating crystalline textures (olivine, glass and poorly crystallized graphite) initiated at a central nucleation site. A sharp peak in the variole Ramen spectra indicates methane as well as CO is released during variole formation and a reaction such

  5. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  6. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research, a worldwide consensus about the content of NOS teaching is said to be reached. This consensus content is listed as a general statement of science, which students are supposed to understand during their education. Unfortunately, decades of research has demonstrated that teachers and students alike do not possess an appropriate understanding of NOS, at least as far as it is defined at the general level. One reason for such failure might be that formal statements about the NOS and scientific knowledge can really be understood after having been contextualized in the actual cases. Typically NOS is studied as contextualized in the reconstructed historical case stories. When the objective is to educate scientifically and technologically literate citizens, as well as scientists of the near future, studying NOS in the contexts of contemporary science is encouraged. Such contextualizations call for revision of the characterization of NOS and the goals of teaching about NOS. As a consequence, this article gives two examples for studying NOS in the contexts of scientific practices with practicing scientists: an interview study with nanomodellers considering NOS in the context of their actual practices and a course on nature of scientific modelling for science teachers employing the same interview method as a studying method. Such scrutinization opens rarely discussed areas and viewpoints to NOS as well as aspects that practising scientists consider as important.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOCHIP DEDICATED TO PLANETARY EXPLORATION. FIRST STEP: RESISTANCE STUDIES TO SPACE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; S. Incerti; Moretto, Ph.; Seznec, H.; Desorgher, L.; Santin, G.; Nieminen, P; Dartnell, L.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Coussot, G.

    2007-01-01

    For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the biochip use. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of this device to a panel of harsh constraints. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Biochip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a biochip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the me...

  8. Different Traditions in the Study of Disciplinarity in Science--Science and Technology Studies, Library and Information Science and Scientometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Staša

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Disciplinarity and other forms of differentiation in science have long been studied in the fields of science and technology studies, information science and scientometrics. However, it is not obvious whether these fields are building on each other's findings. Methods: An analysis is made of 609 articles on disciplinarity…

  9. M1-46: A Case Study on Multiple-Shell Planetary Nebula Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Manchado, A.; Stanghellini, L.; Herrero, A.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss in detail the evolutionary path of the multiple-shell planetary nebula M1-46, in the light of our new observations. The velocities of the halo and main nebula correspond to a dynamical time lap between the shells of about 6.8 x 104 yr. By means of a non-LTE analysis of the central star's spectrum, we derived a stellar temperature of Teff = 45,000 K, which, coupled to the visual magnitude and an appropriate bolometric correction, gives a stellar luminosity of 5370 Lsun. The mass of the central star has been evaluated to be 0.6 Msun, and its interpulse time on the asymptotic giant branch is 7.6 x 104 yr. The agreement between the observed intershell time lap and the evolutionary interpulse time lap points to the fact that the formation of this planetary nebula could be ascribed to the gasping mass loss associated with the thermal pulses at the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch. The high-resolution spatially resolved observations reveal the presence of different kinematical components in the main nebula which cannot be understood in a homogeneous expanding shell scenario. As regards the chemical abundances, M1-46 has the typical abundances of a type II planetary nebula. No definite abundance gradient between the shells is found.

  10. Are Planetary Systems Filled to Capacity? A Study Based on Kepler Results

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Julia

    2013-01-01

    We used a sample of Kepler candidate planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii to determine the typical dynamical spacing of neighboring planets. To derive the intrinsic (i.e., free of observational bias) dynamical spacing of neighboring planets, we generated populations of planetary systems following various dynamical spacing distributions, subjected them to synthetic observations by the Kepler spacecraft, and compared the properties of observed planets in our simulations with actual Kepler detections. We found that, on average, neighboring planets are spaced 21.7 mutual Hill radii apart with a standard deviation of 9.5. This dynamical spacing distribution is consistent with that of adjacent planets in the Solar System. To test the packed planetary systems hypothesis, the idea that all planetary systems are dynamically packed or filled to capacity, we determined the fraction of systems that are dynamically packed by performing long-term (10^8 years) numerical si...

  11. SMART-1 technology preparation for future planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.

    SMART-1 is the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology, with the prime objective of demonstrating the use of Solar Electric Primary Propulsion in a planetary mission. Further to this, SMART-1 will test novel spacecraft technologies and will host six instruments carrying out nine technology and science experiments, all aimed at preparing future ESA Cornerstones, including the ESA Mercury Cornerstone (now named BepiColombo) and other future planetary missions under study, as well as solar and fundamental physics missions.

  12. Catalogues of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  13. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, 22860 (Mexico); Edwards, M. L. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Winge, C., E-mail: dmclark@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: medwards@lbto.org, E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  14. ExoPTF Science Uniquely Enabled by Far-IR Interferometry: Probing the Formation of Planetary Systems, and Finding and Characterizing Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Leisawitz, David; Bender, Chad; Benford, Dominic; Calzetti, Daniella; Carpenter, John; Danchi, William C; Fich, Michel; Fixsen, Dale; Gezari, Daniel Y; Griffin, Matt; Harwit, Martin; Kogut, Alan J; Langer, William D; Lawrence, Charles; Lester, Dan; Mundy, Lee G; Najita, Joan; Neufeld, David; Pilbratt, Goran; Rinehart, Stephen; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Shenoy, Sachindev; Shibai, Hiroshi; Silverberg, Robert; Staguhn, Johannes; Swain, Mark R; Unwin, Stephen C; Wright, Edward L; Yorke, Harold W

    2007-01-01

    By providing sensitive sub-arcsecond images and integral field spectroscopy in the 25 - 400 micron wavelength range, a far-IR interferometer will revolutionize our understanding of planetary system formation, reveal otherwise-undetectable planets through the disk perturbations they induce, and spectroscopically probe the atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets in orbits typical of most of the planets in our solar system. The technical challenges associated with interferometry in the far-IR are greatly relaxed relative to those encountered at shorter wavelengths or when starlight nulling is required. A structurally connected far-IR interferometer with a maximum baseline length of 36 m can resolve the interesting spatial structures in nascent and developed exoplanetary systems and measure exozodiacal emission at a sensitivity level critical to TPF-I mission planning. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope was recommended in the Community Plan for Far-IR/Submillimeter Space Astronomy, studied as a Probe-cl...

  15. Dismantling boundaries in science and technology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Peter; Jasanoff, Sheila

    2010-12-01

    The boundaries between the history of science and science and technology studies (STS) can be misleadingly drawn, to the detriment of both fields. This essay stresses their commonalities and potential for valuable synergy. The evolution of the two fields has been characterized by lively interchange and boundary crossing, with leading scholars functioning easily on both sides of the past/present divide. Disciplines, it is argued, are best regarded as training grounds for asking particular kinds of questions, using particular clusters of methods. Viewed in this way, history of science and STS are notable for their shared approaches to disciplining. The essay concludes with a concrete example--regulatory science--showing how a topic such as this can be productively studied with methods that contradict any alleged disciplinary divide between historical and contemporary studies of science.

  16. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  17. Study Guide for TCT in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gene

    This study guide was developed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in science. Content objectives of the test are listed and encompass: (1) scientific processes, research, and classification; (2) earth sciences; (3) characteristics and properties of matter, energy, and chemical change; (4) biology of life…

  18. Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

  19. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  20. High Performance Monopropellants for Future Planetary Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate, a novel high performance monopropellant for application in future planetary ascent vehicles. Our...

  1. Mini-Journals: Incorporating Inquiry, Quantitative Skills and Writing into Homework Assignments for Geochemistry and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, A. G.; Speck, A.; Witzig, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of an NSF-funded project, "CUES: Connecting Undergraduates to the Enterprise of Science," new inquiry-based homework materials were developed for two upper-level classes at the University of Missouri: Geochemistry (required for Geology majors, fulfills the computing requirement by having 50% of the grade come from five spreadsheet-based homework assignments), and Solar System Science (open to seniors and graduate students, co-taught and cross-listed between Geology and Physics & Astronomy). Inquiry involves activities where the learner engages in scientifically oriented questions, gives priority to evidence in responding to questions, formulates explanations from evidence, connects explanations to scientific knowledge, and communicates and justifies explanations. We engage students in inquiry-based learning by presenting homework exercises as "mini-journal" articles that follow the format of a scientific journal article, including a title, authors, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion and citations to peer-reviewed literature. The mini-journal provides a scaffold and serves as a springboard for students to develop and carry out their own follow-up investigation. They then present their findings in the form of their own mini-journal. Mini-journals replace traditional homework problem sets with a format that more directly reflects and encourages scientific practice. Students are engaged in inquiry-based homework which encompass doing, thinking, and communicating, while the mini-journal allows the instructor to contain lines of inquiry within the limits posed by available resources. In the examples we present, research is conducted via spreadsheet modeling, where the students develop their own spreadsheets. Example assignments from Geochemistry include "Trace Element Partitioning During Mantle Melting and MORB Crystallization" and "Isotopic Investigations of Crustal Evolution in the Midcontinent US". The key differences between the old and new

  2. Development of a biochip dedicated to planetary exploration. First step: resistance studies to space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Incerti, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Seznec, H.; Desorgher, L.; Santin, G.; Nieminen, P.; Dartnell, L.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Coussot, G.

    2007-07-01

    For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the biochip use. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of this device to a panel of harsh constraints. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Biochip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a biochip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the methodology adopted and the beginning experiments to select the best constituents, to determine resistance levels and to define well-adapted protection for the biochip.

  3. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    hydrosphere (no erosion). Adding new elements (differentiated body: horizon, atmosphere: blue/purple etc sky as visually important elements; complex lithology (mountains of tectonic ori- gin); atmosphere (which can alter temperature) and hydrosphere (erosion, rivers, de- position) a more complex landscape will appear. As a first step, by making a "landscape model", we can input general parameters of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, the distance from the Sun, orbital parameters, last resurfacing date, age of the planet and the model will output the pos- 1 sible landscape elements in the planet. This can be refined by inputing the actual pa- rameters (place on planet, climate region etc.) from which the actual landscape can be the result. The landscape altering processes are: exogenic (impact), mass movement, endogenic (volcanism, thermal conditions), weathering, aeolic, fluvial, glacial, biogenic, antro- pogenic processes. Comparing planets and moons, all of these processes work on Earth, only half of them works on Mars and Venus, and even fewer on Mercury and Moon [3], where most of the surface is an "post-impact" landscape. A Planetary view. Science-fiction writers often describe planets with one characteris- tic: "desert planet", "ocean planet", "forest planet". Generally, planetary flyby missions verify these images (Europa - ice plain planet or Io - volcano world), but a orbiter mis- sion makes clear than in any planet, several significantly different landcape units are present, but from planet to planet, the average climatic and lithologic conditions do change and characterize the given planet. LANDSCAPE RESOURCES, LANDSCAPE "HOT SPOTS" Landscape hot spots has "high values" in the factors listed below. Physical landscape values. Small object not detectable from orbiters: individual rocks or the local physical characteristics of the upper layer of the regolith, the sediment or bedrock characteristics along with relief forms will be the important factors of

  4. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  5. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  6. Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: A HST/WFC3 Morphological Catalog, and a Study of their Role in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva

    2016-01-01

    We present the images of a \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (\\textit{HST}/WFC3) snapshot program of angularly compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), acquired with the aim of studying their size, evolutionary status, and morphology. PNe that are smaller than $\\sim4\\arcsec$ are underrepresented in most morphological studies, and today they are less well studied than their immediate evolutionary predecessors, the pre-planetary nebulae. The images have been acquired in the light of [\\ion{O}{3}]$\\lambda5007$, which is commonly used to classify the PN morphology, in the UV continuum with the aim of detecting the central star unambiguously, and in the $I-$band to detect a cool stellar companion, if present. The sample of 51 confirmed PNe exhibits nearly the full range of primary morphological classes, with the distribution more heavily weighted toward bipolar PNe, but with total of aspherical PNe almost identical to that of the general Galactic sample. A large range of microstructures is evident in our sample as w...

  7. The Value of Participating Scientists on NASA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Baines, Kevin; Bland, Michael T.; Blewett, David T.; Brandt, Pontus; Diniega, Serina; Feaga, Lori M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Y McSween, Harry; Neal, Clive; Paty, Carol S.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    NASA has a long history of supporting Participating Scientists on its planetary missions. On behalf of the NASA Planetary Assessment/Analysis Groups (OPAG, MEPAG, VEXAG, SBAG, LEAG and CAPTEM), we are conducting a study about the value of Participating Scientist programs on NASA planetary missions, and how the usefulness of such programs might be maximized.Inputs were gathered via a community survey, which asked for opinions about the value generated by the Participating Scientist programs (we included Guest Investigators and Interdisciplinary Scientists as part of this designation), and for the experiences of those who've held such positions. Perceptions about Participating Scientist programs were sought from the entire community, regardless of whether someone had served as a Participating Scientist or not. This survey was distributed via the Planetary Exploration Newsletter, the Planetary News Digest, the DPS weekly mailing, and the mailing lists for each of the Assessment/Analysis Groups. At the time of abstract submission, over 185 community members have responded, giving input on more than 20 missions flown over three decades. Early results indicate that the majority of respondents feel that Participating Scientist programs represent significant added value for NASA planetary missions, increasing the science return and enhancing mission team diversity in a number of ways. A second survey was prepared for input from mission leaders such as Principal Investigators and Project Scientists.Full results of this survey will be presented, along with recommendations for how NASA may wish to enhance Participating Scientist opportunities into its future missions. The output of the study will be a white paper, which will be delivered to NASA and made available to the science community and other interested groups.

  8. Fully relativistic study of forbidden transitions of OII : Electron density diagnosis for planetary nebulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohao; Qing, Bo; Li, Jiaming

    2007-10-01

    Using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method, including the quantum electrodynamics corrections, especially with the Breit interactions, we calculate the electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) transition rates for the two transitions D5/2,3/2o2→S3/2o4 of OII . We show systematically that the correlation effects owing to core electron excitations and the Breit interactions are vitally important for the transition rates. We present a benchmark for the intensity ratio between the two transitions in the limit of high electron density in planetary nebulas, i.e., r(∞)=0.345-0.014+0.028 , which is in good agreement with modern astronomical observations.

  9. Low-latency Science Exploration of Planetary Bodies: a Demonstration Using ISS in Support of Mars Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Valinia, Azita; Bleacher, Jacob; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah

    2014-01-01

    We summarize a proposed experiment to use the International Space Station to formally examine the application and validation of low-latency telepresence for surface exploration from space as an alternative, precursor, or potentially as an adjunct to astronaut "boots on the ground." The approach is to develop and propose controlled experiments, which build upon previous field studies and which will assess the effects of different latencies (0 to 500 msec), task complexity, and alternate forms of feedback to the operator. These experiments serve as an example of a pathfinder for NASA's roadmap of missions to Mars with low-latency telerobotic exploration as a precursor to astronaut's landing on the surface to conduct geological tasks.

  10. Study of the Warm Dense Matter with XANES spectroscopy - Applications to planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoeud, Adrien

    With the recent discovery of many exoplanets, modelling the interior of these celestial bodies is becoming a fascinating scientific challenge. In this context, it is crucial to accurately know the equations of state and the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of their constituent materials in the Warm Dense Matter regime (WDM). Moreover, planetary models rely almost exclusively on physical properties obtained using first principles simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) predictions. It is thus of paramount importance to validate the basic underlying mechanisms occurring for key planetary constituents (metallization, dissociation, structural modifications, phase transitions, etc....) as pressure and temperature both increase. In this work, we were interested in two materials that can be mainly found in the Earth-like planets: silica, or SiO2, as a model compound of the silicates that constitute the major part of their mantles, and iron, which is found in abundance in their cores. These two materials were compressed and brought to the WDM regime by using strong shock created by laser pulses during various experiments performed on the LULI2000 (Palaiseau, France) and the JLF (Livermore, US) laser facilities and on the LCLS XFEL (Stanford, US). In order to penetrate this dense matter and to have access to its both ionic and electronic structures, we have probed silica and iron with time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). In parallel with these experiments, we performed quantum molecular dynamics simulations based on DFT at conditions representative of the region investigated experimentally so as to extract the interesting physical processes and comprehend the limits of the implemented models. In particular, these works allowed us to highlight the metallization processes of silica in temperature and the structural changes of its liquid in density, as well as to more constrain the melting curve of iron at very high pressures.

  11. Study on Planetary Wave Propagation in the Lower Thermosphere using wind Measurements from Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo Lomotey, Solomon; Meriwether, John; Buriti, Ricardo; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Barros Silva, Diego

    2016-07-01

    This research is focused on the study of planetary wave propagation in the lower thermosphere. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is a passive optical sensing instrument used to estimate thermospheric winds and temperature. The data used in this paper were captured by the FPIs which are located at São João do Carirri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) and Cajazeiras (6.9ºS, 38.5ºW). The main objective of this research is looking for periodicities in the wind measurements with periods longer than few days in both component of the wind. This was done by using airglow emission of Atomic Oxygen OI630nm in the red line during the nighttime, i.e., from 20:00 to 03:00 local time (LT). Lomb-Scargle analysis was used to process the thermospheric winds and temperature. Phases (time of maximum) and amplitudes of these oscillations were estimated by using Least Square fitting method (LSF), almost all of periodicities propagation of planetary waves was above 2 days for the Zonal and Meriodional winds. A strong oscillation of quasi eight days were observed from September to December 2003

  12. Insights Into the Dynamics of Planetary Interiors Through the Study of Global Distribution of Volcanoes: Method Calibration on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon-Tapia, E.; Mendoza-Borunda, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing of volcanic vents at a planetary scale can provide clues about the dynamics of planetary interiors through the identification of patterns on their global distribution. Until present, however, studies of this type usually have focused on volcanic features of a specific type, have been made with databases filtered before the main analysis, or have concentrated on relatively small regions. In this work, the description of the distribution of volcanic features observed over the entire surface of the Earth is obtained using the Fisher kernel and an extensive database of submarine and subaereal volcanoes. The analysis uses a series of criteria of geological and statistical nature, and different types of clustering thus obtained are mutually compared. As a result, we designed an automated algorithm capable to identify volcanic groupings that are associated to tectonic features following a hierarchy of statistical significance levels, and requiring a minimum of prior geological information. It is suggested that this algorithm has the potential to complete a similar analysis capable to yield unbiased insights concerning the probable occurrence of tectonic features in other planets.

  13. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to…

  14. Planetary Data System (PDS) Strategic Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily; McNutt, Ralph; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the SMD at NASA Headquarters has directed the PDS to set up a Roadmap team to formulate a PDS Roadmap for the period 2017-2026. The purpose of this activity is to provide a forecast of both the rapidly changing Information Technology (IT) environment and the changing expectations of the planetary science communities with respect to Planetary Data archives including, specifically, increasing assessability to all planetary data. The Roadmap team will also identify potential actions that could increase interoperability with other archive and curation elements within NASA and with the archives of other National Space Agencies. The Roadmap team will assess the current state of the PDS and report their findings to the PSD Director by April 15, 2017. This presentation will give an update of this roadmap activity and serve as an opportunity to engage the planetary community at large to provide input to the Roadmap.

  15. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  16. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  17. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  18. Lunar Team Report from a Planetary Design Workshop at ESTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.; MacArthur, J.; Foing, B. H.

    2014-04-01

    On February 13, 2014, GeoVUsie, a student association for Earth science majors at Vrijie University (VU), Amsterdam, hosted a Planetary Sciences: Moon, Mars and More symposium. The symposium included a learning exercise the following day for a planetary design workshop at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) for 30 motivated students, the majority being from GeoVUsie with little previous experience of planetary science. Students were split into five teams and assigned pre-selected new science mission projects. A few scientific papers were given to use as reference just days before the workshop. Three hours were allocated to create a mission concept before presenting results to the other students and science advisors. The educational backgrounds varied from second year undergraduate students to masters' students from mostly local universities.The lunar team was told to design a mission to the lunar south pole, as this is a key destination agreed upon by the international lunar scientific community. This region has the potential to address many significant objectives for planetary science, as the South Pole-Aitken basin has preserved early solar system history and would help to understand impact events throughout the solar system as well as the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, particularly if samples could be returned. This report shows the lunar team's mission concept and reasons for studying the origin of volatiles on the Moon as the primary science objective [1]. Amundsen crater was selected as the optimal landing site near the lunar south pole [2]. Other mission concepts such as RESOLVE [3], L-VRAP [4], ESA's lunar lander studies and Luna-27 were reviewed. A rover and drill were selected as being the most suitable architecture for the requirements of this mission. Recommendations for future student planetary design exercises were to continue events like this, ideally with more time, and also to invite a more diverse range of

  19. Access to the Online Planetary Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-12-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private library capabilities (a useful tool for building bibliographies), plus access to scanned pages of published articles. The ADS also provides powerful search capabilities, allowing users to find e.g. the most instructive or most important articles on a given subject . For the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters. We currently have about 78 journals convering the planetary and space sciences (Advances in Space Research, Icarus, Solar Physics, Astrophusics and Space Science, JGRE, Meteoritics, to name a few). Currently, this set of journals represents about 180,000 articles and 1.1 million references. Penetration into the Solar Physics, Planetary Sciences and Geophysics community has increased significantly. During the period 2004-2008, user access to JGR and Icarus increased by a factor of 4.4, while e.g. access to the Astrophysical Journal "only" increased by a factor of 1.8.

  20. A Spitzer Study of the Mass Loss Histories of Three Bipolar Pre-Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tuan; Sahai, Raghvendra; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of far-infrared imaging of extended regions around three bipolar pre-planetary nebulae, AFGL 2688, OH 231.8+4.2, and IRAS 16342$-$3814, at 70 and 160 $\\mu$m with the MIPS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. After a careful subtraction of the point spread function of the central star from these images, we place constraints on the existence of extended shells and thus on the mass outflow rates as a function of radial distance from these stars. We find no apparent extended emission in AFGL 2688 and OH 231.8+4.2 beyond 100 arcseconds from the central source. In the case of AFGL 2688, this result is inconsistent with a previous report of two extended dust shells made on the basis of ISO observations. We derive an upper limit of $2.1\\times10^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and $1.0\\times10^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ for the dust mass loss rate of AFGL 2688 and OH 231.8, respectively, at 200 arcseconds from each source. In contrast to these two sources, IRAS 16342$-$3814 does show extended emi...

  1. Comparative study of a [WC 6] nucleus with other emission-lines nuclei of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A; Cuisinier, F

    1995-01-01

    The central star (CSPN) of the planetary nebula M 1-25 (PN G 4.9+4.9) is classified as a [WC 6] star, the only CSPN of this subclass known at this time. A comparison with the other emission-lines CSPN (the [WC]-class and the 'weak emission-lines stars' or {\\em wels}-class) shows that (1) the characteristics of this [WC 6] star fit well inside the main properties of the other [WC] CSPN ; (2) the [WC] CSPN seem to evolve from the [WC 8-11] (latter) to [WC 2-4] (earlier) subclasses, say from dense nebulae with cool stars to more extended nebulae with hot nuclei, as for other CSPN ; (3) on the two-colour IRAS diagram,the [WC] and the {\\em wels} CSPN form two different groups : the progenitors of the [WC]-type CSPN seem to be Carbon stars evolving along post-AGB tracks, whereas the {\\em wels} CSPN seem to be related to OH/IR stars, some of them having possibly experienced a late helium-flash.

  2. Photo-ionization of planetary winds: case study HD209458b

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiter, E M; D'Angelo, C S Villarreal; Velazquez, P F; Raga, A C; Costa, A

    2016-01-01

    Close-in hot Jupiters are exposed to a tremendous photon flux that ionizes the neutral escaping material from the planet leaving an observable imprint that makes them an interesting laboratory for testing theoretical models. In this work we present 3D hydrodynamic simulations with radiation transfer calculations of a close-in exoplanet in a blow-off state. We calculate the Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption and compare it with observations of HD 209458b an previous simplified model results.Our results show that the hydrodynamic interaction together with a proper calculation of the photoionization proccess are able to reproduce the main features of the observed Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption, in particular at the blue-shifted wings of the line. We found that the ionizing stellar flux produce an almost linear effect on the amount of absorption in the wake. Varying the planetary mass loss rate and the radiation flux, we were able to reproduce the $10\\%$ absorption observed at $-100~\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$.

  3. From Science to e-Science to Semantic e-Science: A Heliosphysics Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, Thomas; Fox, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed unparalleled efforts to make scientific data web accessible. The Semantic Web has proven invaluable in this effort; however, much of the literature is devoted to system design, ontology creation, and trials and tribulations of current technologies. In order to fully develop the nascent field of Semantic e-Science we must also evaluate systems in real-world settings. We describe a case study within the field of Heliophysics and provide a comparison of the evolutionary stages of data discovery, from manual to semantically enable. We describe the socio-technical implications of moving toward automated and intelligent data discovery. In doing so, we highlight how this process enhances what is currently being done manually in various scientific disciplines. Our case study illustrates that Semantic e-Science is more than just semantic search. The integration of search with web services, relational databases, and other cyberinfrastructure is a central tenet of our case study and one that we believe has applicability as a generalized research area within Semantic e-Science. This case study illustrates a specific example of the benefits, and limitations, of semantically replicating data discovery. We show examples of significant reductions in time and effort enable by Semantic e-Science; yet, we argue that a "complete" solution requires integrating semantic search with other research areas such as data provenance and web services.

  4. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  5. Nature of Science Contextualized: Studying Nature of Science with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Suvi; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nature of science (NOS) is widely considered an important educational objective and views of NOS are closely linked to science teaching and learning. Thus there is a lively discussion about what understanding NOS means and how it is reached. As a result of analyses in educational, philosophical, sociological and historical research,…

  6. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  7. HITRAN2016 : new and improved data and tools towards studies of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iouli; Rothman, Laurence S.; Wilzewski, Jonas S.; Kochanov, Roman V.; Hill, Christian; Tan, Yan; Wcislo, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The HITRAN2016 molecular spectroscopic database is scheduled to be released this year. It will replace the current edition, HITRAN2012 [1], which has been in use, along with some intermediate updates, since 2012.We have added, revised, and improved many transitions and bands of molecular species and their isotopologues. Also, the amount of parameters has also been significantly increased, now incorporating, for instance, broadening by He, H2 and CO2 which are dominant in different planetary atmospheres [2]; non-Voigt line profiles [3]; and other phenomena. This poster will provide a summary of the updates, emphasizing details of some of the most important or drastic improvements or additions.To allow flexible incorporation of the new parameters and improve the efficiency of the database usage, the whole database has been reorganized into a relational database structure and presented to the user by means of a very powerful, easy-to-use internet program called HITRANonline [4] accessible at . This interface allows the user many queries in standard and user-defined formats. In addition, a powerful application called HAPI (HITRAN Application Programing Interface) [5] was developed. HAPI is a set of Python libraries that allows much more functionality for the user. Demonstration of the power of the new tools will also be offered.This work is supported by the NASA PATM (NNX13AI59G), PDART (NNX16AG51G) and AURA (NNX14AI55G) programs.References[1] L.S. Rothman et al, JQSRT 130, 4 (2013)[2] J. S. Wilzewski et al., JQSRT 168, 193 (2016)[3] P. Wcislo et al., JQSRT 177, 75 (2016)[4] C. Hill et al, JQSRT 177, 4 (2016)[5] R.V. Kochanov et al, JQSRT 177, 15 (2016)

  8. Planetary Data Archiving Activities of ISRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; D, Rao J.; Thakkar, Navita; Prashar, Ajay; Manthira Moorthi, S.

    composition & mineralogy of mars, Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) to study the composition and density of the Martian neutral atmosphere and Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP) to investigate the loss process of water in Martian atmosphere, towards fulfilling the mission objectives. Active archive created in PDS for some of the instrument data during the earth phase of the mission is being analysed by the PIs. The Mars science data from the onboard instruments is expected during September 2014. The next planetary mission planned to moon is Chandrayaan-2 which consists of an orbiter having five instruments (http://www.isro.org) viz, (i) Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) for mineral mapping, (ii) TMC-2 for topographic mapping, (iii) MiniSAR to detect water ice in the permanently shadowed regions on the Lunar poles, up to a depth of a few meters, (iv) Large Area Soft X-ray spectrometer (CLASS) & Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface and (v)Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE2) to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere towards moon exploration; a rover for some specific experiments and a Lander for technology experiment and demonstration. The data is planned to be archived in PDS standards.

  9. The elementary level science methods course: Breeding ground of an apprehension toward science? a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.

    Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education majors science methods class. Interviews with the students and the instructors as well as survey instruments to assess students' preparation in science were used. Two different approaches to the study of science, one content oriented, the other process oriented, may contribute to the students' confusion, insecurity, and avoidance of science. The students' perception that science is learning content, an objective of introductory level science courses, and the science methods class's objectives of teaching science as a process sets up an antagonistic dilemma between the two. Such antagonistic dilemma may be manifest in the lack of instructional time accorded to science by elementary educators. The type of science experiences an individual encounters influences their perceptions. To offset student perceptions developed in science courses which stress principally content, the students need science experiences which truly represent science as inquiry. New strategies for the training of elementary education majors in science need to be examined.

  10. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is a close association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA is focused on developing an international standard that allows discovery, query, access, and usage of such data across international planetary data archive systems. While trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA concentrates on promoting governing data standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. This approach better supports the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System's (PDS) PDS4 standard. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. It has grown to a dozen member agencies represented by a number of different groups through the IPDA Steering Committee. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of

  11. A Study of the Science Production in Dentistry Using Web of Science Database (2000-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Science production in medical fields such as dentistry is of great significance. Science production can be appropriately directed through recognition of the most effective investigations, the most active institutions and countries in science production domain and also determining the status of specialists. Purpose: The aim of this survey was to study the rate of dental science production indexed in the Web of Science (WOS) database by Iranian and other countries' special...

  12. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  13. A Balloon-Borne Telescope System for Planetary Atmosphere and Plasma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kanazawa, T.; Shoji, Y.; Sawakami, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    A telescope floating in the polar stratosphere can continuously monitor planets for more than 24 hours. Thin, clear and stable air of the stratosphere makes it possible to observe planets in a condition free from cloud with fine seeing and high atmospheric transmittance. Moreover, a balloon-borne telescope system is less expensive compared with a huge terrestrial telescope or a direct planetary probe mission. Targets of a balloon-borne telescope system will extend over various atmospheric and plasma phenomena on almost all the planets, i.e., a sodium tail of Mercury, lightning, airglow and aurora in the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, escaping atmospheres of the Earth-type planets, satellite-induced luminous events in the Jovian atmosphere, etc. The first target is global dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere by detecting cloud motion in UV and NIR imagery. A decoupling mechanism and a pair of control moment gyros (CMGs) are mounted at the top of the gondola. The decoupling mechanism isolates the gondola from a balloon and also transfers an excess angular momentum of the CMGs to the balloon. The attitude of the gondola is stabilized at a constant sun azimuthal angle so that a solar cell panel faces to the sun. A 300 mm F30 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope is installed at the bottom of the gondola. DC/DC converters, a PC, a high voltage power supply for a piezo-electrically moving mirror and digital video recorders are contained in a sealed cell. The azimuthal angle is detected by a sun-sensor. A PC processes sensor output to control DC motors used in the decoupling mechanism and CMGs with an accuracy in azimuthal attitude of about 0.5 deg. The two-axis gimbal mount of the telescope is controlled by the same PC, guiding an object within a field-of-view of a guide telescope. Residual tracking error is detected by a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and corrected by the two-axis moving mirror installed in the optical system. The optical path is divided into

  14. Development, Deployment, and Assessment of Dynamic Geological and Geophysical Models Using the Google Earth APP and API: Implications for Undergraduate Education in the Earth and Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported on innovative techniques for presenting data on virtual globes such as Google Earth using emergent Collada models that reveal subsurface geology and geophysics. We here present several new and enhanced models and linked lesson plans to aid deployment in undergraduate geoscience courses, along with preliminary results from our assessment of their effectiveness. The new Collada models are created with Google SketchUp, Bonzai3D, and MeshLab software, and are grouped to cover (i) small scale field mapping areas; (ii) regional scale studies of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Appalachian Orogen, and the Pacific Ring of Fire; and (iii) global scale studies of terrestrial planets, moons, and asteroids. Enhancements include emergent block models with three-dimensional surface topography; models that conserve structural orientation data; interactive virtual specimens; models that animate plate movements on the virtual globe; exploded 3-D views of planetary mantles and cores; and server-generated dynamic KML. We tested volunteer students and professors using Silverback monitoring software, think-aloud verbalizations, and questionnaires designed to assess their understanding of the underlying geo-scientific phenomena. With the aid of a cohort of instructors across the U.S., we are continuing to assess areas in which users encounter difficulties with both the software and geoscientific concepts. Preliminary results suggest that it is easy to overestimate the computer expertise of novice users even when they are content knowledge experts (i.e., instructors), and that a detailed introduction to virtual globe manipulation is essential before moving on to geoscience applications. Tasks that seem trivial to developers may present barriers to non-technical users and technicalities that challenge instructors may block adoption in the classroom. We have developed new models using the Google Earth API which permits enhanced interaction and dynamic feedback and

  15. Planetary Exploration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivan, S. M.; Binzel, R. P.

    1997-07-01

    We have developed educational materials to seed a series of undergraduate level exercises on "Planetary Exploration in the Classroom." The goals of the series are to teach modern methods of planetary exploration and discovery to students having both science and non-science backgrounds. Using personal computers in a "hands-on" approach with images recorded by planetary spacecraft, students working through the exercises learn that modern scientific images are digital objects that can be examined and manipulated in quantitative detail. The initial exercises we've developed utilize NIH Image in conjunction with images from the Voyager spacecraft CDs. Current exercises are titled "Using 'NIH IMAGE' to View Voyager Images", "Resolving Surface Features on Io", "Discovery of Volcanoes on Io", and "Topography of Canyons on Ariel." We expect these exercises will be released during Fall 1997 and will be available via 'anonymous ftp'; detailed information about obtaining the exercises will be on the Web at "http://web.mit.edu/12s23/www/pec.html." This curriculum development was sponsored by NSF Grant DUE-9455329.

  16. Do compulsory secondary science courses change students’ attitude towards studying science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lærke Elisabeth; Petersen, Morten Rask

    Subject course. The distribution included all levels (K10-K12) and all study lines. Student answers were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS statistics 22 as analytical tool. Comparisons for this study were made across study lines (natural science vs. human science & social science...... science courses and non-science students argue that they would rather not have NSS since they already chose another direction of their study. Students’ responses to our questions seem to go in different directions. Our results show that the students find the compulsory science course relevant...... recruitment to STEM education has been a compulsory course in the Gymnasium called Natural Science Subject (NSS). This is an interdisciplinary, introductory course with the intention that students shall “ … realize the importance of knowing and understanding natural science thinking” (Authors translation...

  17. Do compulsory secondary science courses change students’ attitude towards studying science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lærke Elisabeth; Petersen, Morten Rask

    2015-01-01

    Subject course. The distribution included all levels (K10-K12) and all study lines. Student answers were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test using SPSS statistics 22 as analytical tool. Comparisons for this study were made across study lines (natural science vs. human science & social science...... science courses and non-science students argue that they would rather not have NSS since they already chose another direction of their study. Students’ responses to our questions seem to go in different directions. Our results show that the students find the compulsory science course relevant...... recruitment to STEM education has been a compulsory course in the Gymnasium called Natural Science Subject (NSS). This is an interdisciplinary, introductory course with the intention that students shall “ … realize the importance of knowing and understanding natural science thinking” (Authors translation...

  18. Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres - From Earth to Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has been an especially exciting time to study atmospheres, with a renaissance in fundamental studies of Earths general circulation and hydrological cycle, stimulated by questions about past climates and the urgency of projecting the future impacts of humankinds activities. Long-term spacecraft and Earth-based observation of solar system planets have now reinvigorated the study of comparative planetary climatology. The explosion in discoveries of planets outside our solar system has made atmospheric science integral to understanding the diversity of our solar system and the potential habitability of planets outside it. Thus, the AGU Chapman Conference Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres From Earth to Exoplanets, held in Annapolis, MD from June 24-27, 2013 gathered Earth, solar system, and exoplanet scientists to share experiences, insights, and challenges from their individual disciplines, and discuss areas in which thinking broadly might enhance our fundamental understanding of how atmospheres work.

  19. Interstellar Transfer of Planetary Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Max K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Panspermia theories require the transport of micro-organisms in a viable form from one astronomical location to another. The evidence of material ejection from planetary surfaces, of dynamical orbit evolution and of potential survival on landing is setting a firm basis for interplanetary panspermia. Pathways for interstellar panspermia are less clear. We compare the direct route, whereby life-bearing planetary ejecta exit the solar system and risk radiation hazards en route to nearby stellar systems, and an indirect route whereby ejecta hitch a ride within the shielded environment of comets of the Edgeworth- Kuiper Belt that are subsequently expelled from the solar system. We identify solutions to the delivery problem. Delivery to fully-fledged planetary systems of either the direct ejecta or the ejecta borne by comets depends on dynamical capture and is of very low efficiency. However, delivery into a proto-planetary disc of an early solar-type nebula and into pre-stellar molecular clouds is effective, because the solid grains efficiently sputter the incoming material in hypervelocity collisions. The total mass of terrestrial fertile material delivered to nearby pre-stellar systems as the solar system moves through the galaxy is from kilogrammes up to a tonne. Subject to further study of bio-viability under irradiation and fragmenting collisions, a few kg of original grains and sputtered fragments could be sufficient to seed the planetary system with a wide range of solar system micro-organisms.

  20. A hydrodynamical study of multiple-shell planetary nebulae. III. Expansion properties and internal kinematics: Theory versus observation

    CERN Document Server

    Schoenberner, D; Lehmann, H; Hildebrandt, G; Steffen, M; Zwanzig, A; Sandin, C; Corradi, R L M

    2014-01-01

    We present the result of a study on the expansion properties and internal kinematics of round/elliptical planetary nebulae of the Milky Way disk, the halo, and of the globular cluster M15. The purpose of this study is to considerably enlarge the small sample of nebulae with precisely determined expansion properties. To this aim, we selected a representative sample of objects with different evolutionary stages and metallicities and conducted high-resolution echelle spectroscopy. In most cases, we succeeded in detecting the weak signals from the outer nebular shell which are attached to the main line emission from the bright nebular rim. Next to the measurement of the motion of the rim gas by decomposition of the main line components into Gaussians, we were able to measure separately, for most objects for the first time, the gas velocity immediately behind the leading shock of the shell, i.e. the post-shock velocity. We more than doubled the number of objects for which the velocities of both rim and shell are k...

  1. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak

    2017-01-01

    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  2. A comparative study of six decades of general science textbooks: Evaluating the evolution of science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anna

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the science content expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which areas and in what way does the science content change? (3) Are new scientific findings reflected in 8th and 9th grade U.S. general science textbooks? Twenty-six themes were identified which reflect five areas in science: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology, and Process of Science. Trends in science content in U.S. 8th and 9th grade general science textbooks, as revealed by this data sample, indicated no statistically significant change in depth of coverage in Physics and Process of Science over the past 60 years, no significant change in depth of coverage in Earth Science and Biology in the last 40 years, and no significant change in coverage in Chemistry over the last 30 years. Additionally, a total of sixteen new discoveries were found in the textbook sample. For classroom teachers this information may alert them to the necessity of going beyond the textbook in preparing students for life in a global society. In educational practice, this research supports and reinforces the need for inquiry learning and socioscientific curricula. It may also influence educators to challenge assumptions regarding the value and selection of the traditional classic science content.

  3. PDS4: Developing the Next Generation Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Beebe, R.; Hughes, S.; Stein, T.; Grayzeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is in the midst of a major upgrade to its system. This upgrade is a critical modernization of the PDS as it prepares to support the future needs of both the mission and scientific community. It entails improvements to the software system and the data standards, capitalizing on newer, data system approaches. The upgrade is important not only for the purpose of capturing results from NASA planetary science missions, but also for improving standards and interoperability among international planetary science data archives. As the demands of the missions and science community increase, PDS is positioning itself to evolve and meet those demands.

  4. NASA SMD/STMD Joint Study on Science Measurements and Technology Capability Potential of SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, C. D.; Seablom, M. S.; Petro, A. J.; Bonniksen, C. K.; Ruf, C. S.; Klumpar, D. M.; Van Sant, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Space Technology Directorate (STMD) initiated a joint study to explore strategic approaches to the development of platform technologies and new measurement approaches in Earth, Planetary, Heliophysics, and Astrophysics science enabled by small satellites (including CubeSat class systems). The agency has made investments though various solicitations within SMD and STMD, but as system capabilities continue to grow and as exploration concepts become more ambitious there was a need to formally asses the role Smallsats could play from technology maturation through Decadal Survey science in a coordinated fashion within the parameters of reliability, cost, design time and measurement requirement assessment among other topics. This talk will review the activities of the study team as well as its findings in the context of the benefits a small satellite program could contribute to multiple aspects of NASA's scientific and technology development objectives.

  5. Occultations of Astrophysical Radio Sources as Probes of Planetary Environments: A Case Study of Jupiter and Possible Applications to Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2017-02-01

    Properties of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres are difficult to measure from Earth. Radio occultations are a common method for measuring these properties, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. Here, we explore whether occultations of radio emissions from a distant astrophysical radio source can be used to measure magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density around planets. In a theoretical case study of Jupiter, we find that significant changes in polarization angle due to Faraday rotation occur for radio signals that pass within 10 Jupiter radii of the planet and that significant changes in frequency and power occur from radio signals that pass through the neutral atmosphere. There are sufficient candidate radio sources, such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers, that occultations are likely to occur at least once per year. For pulsars, time delays in the arrival of their emitted pulses can be used to measure plasma density. Exoplanets, whose physical properties are very challenging to observe, may also occult distant astrophysical radio sources, such as their parent stars.

  6. Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

  7. Planetary systems in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Cai, Maxwell Xu; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of confirmed and candidate exoplanets have been identified in recent years. Consequently, theoretical research on the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems has seen a boost, and the processes of planet-planet scattering, secular evolution, and interaction between planets and gas/debris disks have been well-studied. Almost all of this work has focused on the formation and evolution of isolated planetary systems, and neglect the effect of external influences, such as the gravitational interaction with neighbouring stars. Most stars, however, form in clustered environments that either quickly disperse, or evolve into open clusters. Under these conditions, young planetary systems experience frequent close encounters with other stars, at least during the first 1-10 Myr, which affects planets orbiting at any period range, as well as their debris structures.

  8. The Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A presentation of the Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies (DASTS). Organization, experiences, challenges and future developments.......A presentation of the Danish Association for Science and Technology Studies (DASTS). Organization, experiences, challenges and future developments....

  9. Characterization of the Wolf 1061 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.; von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Waters, Miranda A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Mann, Andrew W.

    2017-02-01

    A critical component of exoplanetary studies is an exhaustive characterization of the host star, from which the planetary properties are frequently derived. Of particular value are the radius, temperature, and luminosity, which are key stellar parameters for studies of transit and habitability science. Here we present the results of new observations of Wolf 1061, known to host three super-Earths. Our observations from the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy interferometric array provide a direct stellar radius measurement of 0.3207 ± 0.0088 R⊙, from which we calculate the effective temperature and luminosity using spectral energy distribution models. We obtained 7 yr of precise, automated photometry that reveals the correct stellar rotation period of 89.3 ± 1.8 days, finds no evidence of photometric transits, and confirms that the radial velocity signals are not due to stellar activity. Finally, our stellar properties are used to calculate the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ) for the Wolf 1061 system, for which the optimistic boundaries are 0.09–0.23 au. Our simulations of the planetary orbital dynamics show that the eccentricity of the HZ planet oscillates to values as high as ∼0.15 as it exchanges angular momentum with the other planets in the system.

  10. Doing Science Their Way: An Ethnographic Study of Sixth Grade Girls' Engagement with School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuriceo, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of sixth grade girls in a moderately-sized East Coast city as they construct meaning through active engagement in a science classroom and analyzes the ways in which girls change roles and incorporate social interaction during science activities to create their own unique engagement in science.…

  11. Reel Science: An Ethnographic Study of Girls' Science Identity Development in and through Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation study contributes to the research on filmmaking and identity development by exploring the ways that film production provided unique opportunities for a team of four girls to engage in science, to develop identities in science, and to see and understand science differently. Using social practice, identity, and feminist theory and…

  12. Doing Science Their Way: An Ethnographic Study of Sixth Grade Girls' Engagement with School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuriceo, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of sixth grade girls in a moderately-sized East Coast city as they construct meaning through active engagement in a science classroom and analyzes the ways in which girls change roles and incorporate social interaction during science activities to create their own unique engagement in science.…

  13. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockström, J.; Cornell, S.E.; Fetzer, I.; Bennett, E.; Biggs, R.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth System. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundaries framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on t

  14. The two-box model of climate: limitations and applications to planetary habitability and maximum entropy production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D

    2010-05-12

    The 'two-box model' of planetary climate is discussed. This model has been used to demonstrate consistency of the equator-pole temperature gradient on Earth, Mars and Titan with what would be predicted from a principle of maximum entropy production (MEP). While useful for exposition and for generating first-order estimates of planetary heat transports, it has too low a resolution to investigate climate systems with strong feedbacks. A two-box MEP model agrees well with the observed day : night temperature contrast observed on the extrasolar planet HD 189733b.

  15. Study of Diurnal Cycle Variability of Planetary Boundary Layer Characteristics over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Weigang

    2012-07-01

    This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.

  16. Bourdieu and Science Studies: Toward a Reflexive Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Two of Bourdieu's fundamental contributions to science studies--the reflexive analysis of the social and human sciences and the concept of an intellectual field--are used to frame a reflexive study of the history and social studies of science and technology as an intellectual field in the United States. The universe of large, Ph.D.-granting…

  17. Reel Science: An Ethnographic Study of Girls' Science Identity Development In and Through Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Rachel L.

    This dissertation study contributes to the research on filmmaking and identity development by exploring the ways that film production provided unique opportunities for a team of four girls to engage in science, to develop identities in science, and to see and understand science differently. Using social practice, identity, and feminist theory and New Literacies Studies as a theoretical lens and grounded theory and multimodality as analytic frameworks, I present findings that suggest that girls in this study authored identities and communicated and represented science in and through film in ways that drew on their social, cultural, and embodied resources and the material resources of the after-school science club. Findings from this study highlight the affordances of filmmaking as a venue for engaging in the disciplinary practices of science and for accessing and authoring identities in science.

  18. Studying Science and Engineering Learning in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.

    2016-01-01

    A key goal of science and engineering education is to provide opportunities for people to access, interpret, and make use of science and engineering to address practical human needs. Most education research, however, focuses on how best to prepare students in schools to participate in forms of science and engineering practices that resemble those…

  19. Surface science studies of metal hexaborides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Over 30 years of surface science research on metal hexaborides are reviewed. Of this class of compounds, lanthanum hexaboride has been the subject of the majority of the studies because of its outstanding properties as a thermionic emitter. The use of LaB6 cathodes as an electron source stems from the unusually low work function of ~2.5 eV for the (100) surface combined with a low evaporation rate at high temperatures. Of particular interest has been the determination of the surface geometric and electronic structure responsible for the low work function and how the work function is affected by various adsorbates. The low-index faces of single crystals of LaB6 and other hexaborides have been studied with a variety of ultrahigh vacuum surface science methods to gain a better understanding of the structure and properties of the clean surfaces as well as their interactions with gases such as O2, H2O and CO.

  20. Surface science studies of metal hexaborides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trenary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 30 years of surface science research on metal hexaborides are reviewed. Of this class of compounds, lanthanum hexaboride has been the subject of the majority of the studies because of its outstanding properties as a thermionic emitter. The use of LaB6 cathodes as an electron source stems from the unusually low work function of ~2.5 eV for the (100 surface combined with a low evaporation rate at high temperatures. Of particular interest has been the determination of the surface geometric and electronic structure responsible for the low work function and how the work function is affected by various adsorbates. The low-index faces of single crystals of LaB6 and other hexaborides have been studied with a variety of ultrahigh vacuum surface science methods to gain a better understanding of the structure and properties of the clean surfaces as well as their interactions with gases such as O2, H2O and CO.

  1. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  2. Design of Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard L.; Ossenfort, John; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Stone, Thom

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Exploration System Project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for support of science and simulation activities on at least six occasions. This work has been conducted over the past five years resulting in evolving architectural complexity, improved component characteristics and better analysis and test methods. A rich set of data and techniques have resulted from the development and field testing of the communication network during field expeditions such as the Haughton Mars Project and NASA Mobile Agents Project.

  3. Study of effect of planetary ball milling on ZnO nanopowder synthesized by co-precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, K.P., E-mail: kiranshinde_phy@yahoo.co.in [Superconductivity Research Centre, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, R.C. [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sinha, B.B. [Nano Functional Materials Research Group, Department of Powder Materials, Korea Institute of Material Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S.; Oh, S.S. [Superconductivity Research Centre, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.C. [Nano Functional Materials Research Group, Department of Powder Materials, Korea Institute of Material Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Synthesis of ZnO nanopowder by co-precipitation method. • Particle size reduction using planetary ball milling. • PL spectra shows shifting towards higher wavelength with decrease in intensity. • The bandgap energy (E{sub g}) of ZnO powders varied from 3.13 to 2.85 eV. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnO powders have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and investigated planetary ball milling effects on structural and optical properties. These powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electronic microscope, Infrared spectrophotometer, UV–vis spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence. It was found that prepared ZnO powders have hexagonal close packed structure which was annealed at 500 °C for 30 min. The bandgap energy of ZnO powders varied from 3.13 to 2.85 eV. The room temperature PL spectra exhibits low intensity UV emission peak at 383 nm and green emission band around 520 nm shows shifting towards higher wavelength with decrease in intensity of peak with time of planetary ball milling. Hence, it was observed that planetary ball milling can be used to tailor the optoelectronic properties of ZnO nanostructures.

  4. Introduction to the special issue: Planetary geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Howard, Alan D.

    2015-07-01

    Planetary geomorphology is the study of extraterrestrial landscapes. In recognition of the promise for productive interaction between terrestrial and planetary geomorphologists, the 45th annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (BGS) focused on Planetary Geomorphology. The aim of the symposium was to bring planetary and terrestrial geomorphologists together for symbiotic and synthetic interactions that would enrich both subdisciplines. In acknowledgment of the crucial role of terrestrial field work in planetary geomorphology and of the BGS tradition, the symposium began with a field trip to the Appalachian Mountains, followed by a dinner talk of recent results from the Mars Surface Laboratory. On Saturday and Sunday, the symposium was organized around major themes in planetary geomorphology, starting with the geomorphic processes that are most common in our Solar System-impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism-to set the stage for other geomorphic processes, including aeolian, fluvial, lacustrine, and glacial/polar. On Saturday evening, the banquet talk provided an historical overview of planetary geomorphology, including its roots in the terrestrial geosciences. The symposium concluded with a full-afternoon tutorial on planetary geomorphologic datasets. This special issue of Geomorphology consists of papers by invited authors from the 2014 BGS, and this introduction provides some context for these papers.

  5. Planetcam: A Visible And Near Infrared Lucky-imaging Camera To Study Planetary Atmospheres And Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Rojas, J.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; de Bilbao, L.; Murga, G.; Ariño, J.; Mendikoa, I.

    2012-10-01

    PlanetCam is a two-channel fast-acquisition and low-noise camera designed for a multispectral study of the atmospheres of the planets (Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) and the satellite Titan at high temporal and spatial resolutions simultaneously invisible (0.4-1 μm) and NIR (1-2.5 μm) channels. This is accomplished by means of a dichroic beam splitter that separates both beams directing them into two different detectors. Each detector has filter wheels corresponding to the characteristic absorption bands of each planetary atmosphere. Images are acquired and processed using the “lucky imaging” technique in which several thousand images of the same object are obtained in a short time interval, coregistered and ordered in terms of image quality to reconstruct a high-resolution ideally diffraction limited image of the object. Those images will be also calibrated in terms of intensity and absolute reflectivity. The camera will be tested at the 50.2 cm telescope of the Aula EspaZio Gela (Bilbao) and then commissioned at the 1.05 m at Pic-duMidi Observatory (Franca) and at the 1.23 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. Among the initially planned research targets are: (1) The vertical structure of the clouds and hazes in the planets and their scales of variability; (2) The meteorology, dynamics and global winds and their scales of variability in the planets. PlanetCam is also expected to perform studies of other Solar System and astrophysical objects. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  6. Heat transfer in earth science studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Chu, T.Y. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Earth scientists have long recognized that quantitative models of heat and mass transfer are fundamental to understanding many geophysical phenomena. Transport models have been used to simulate a wide range of earth processes from the crystallization of rock melts to those global mechanisms responsible for driving lithospheric plates and the geodynamo. Since the elegant conductive cooling models of igneous instrusions by Lovering and Jaeger in the 1930's and 1940's, calculations have evolved in their sophistication with the realization of the importance of convective transport and the advent of new methods and supercomputers. Many of the modeling techniques currently used by geoscientists have been adapted from techniques that were originally developed to solve engineering problems. Processes, such as those involving magma transport in volcanic systems, may often be understood by establishing their dynamical similarity with a well-studied engineering application. This book contains a series of papers regarding heat transfer and earth science studies.

  7. Overview of the 2008 COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John

    In January 2008 the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection held a Policy Workshop in Montŕal, Canada to consider a number of recommendations that had been suggested at prior e Panel business meetings for updating and clarifying the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy that had been adopted at the World Space Congress in 2002. One particular element of the Policy that was due for clarification was the definition of "Special Regions" on Mars, which was discussed by the Panel at a Special Regions Colloquium in Rome in September 2008, and which was recommended for updating by both the US National Research Council's Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars and by a Special Regions Science Analysis Group organized by NASA under its Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group in 2006. In other business, the Workshop also discussed and adopted wording to reflect the planetary protection considerations associated with future human missions to Mars (subsequent to several NASA and ESA workshops defining those), and addressed the planetary protection categorizations of both Venus and the Earth's Moon. The Workshop also defined a plan to move forward on the categorization of Outer Planet Satellites (to be done in conjunction with SC's B and F), and revised certain portions of the wording of the 1983 version of the COSPAR policy statement, emphasized full participation by all national members in planetary protection decisions and the need to study the ethical considerations of space exploration, and provided for a traceable version of the policy to be assembled and maintained by the Panel. This talk will review the Montŕal Workshop, and use its themes to introduce the remaining speakers in the session. e

  8. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  9. Ethical considerations for planetary protection in space exploration: a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J D; Race, M S; Horneck, G

    2012-11-01

    With the recognition of an increasing potential for discovery of extraterrestrial life, a diverse set of researchers have noted a need to examine the foundational ethical principles that should frame our collective space activities as we explore outer space. A COSPAR Workshop on Ethical Considerations for Planetary Protection in Space Exploration was convened at Princeton University on June 8-10, 2010, to examine whether planetary protection measures and practices should be extended to protect planetary environments within an ethical framework that goes beyond "science protection" per se. The workshop had been in development prior to a 2006 NRC report on preventing the forward contamination of Mars, although it responded directly to one of the recommendations of that report and to several peer-reviewed papers as well. The workshop focused on the implications and responsibilities engendered when exploring outer space while avoiding harmful impacts on planetary bodies. Over 3 days, workshop participants developed a set of recommendations addressing the need for a revised policy framework to address "harmful contamination" beyond biological contamination, noting that it is important to maintain the current COSPAR planetary protection policy for scientific exploration and activities. The attendees agreed that there is need for further study of the ethical considerations used on Earth and the examination of management options and governmental mechanisms useful for establishing an environmental stewardship framework that incorporates both scientific input and enforcement. Scientists need to undertake public dialogue to communicate widely about these future policy deliberations and to ensure public involvement in decision making. A number of incremental steps have been taken since the workshop to implement some of these recommendations.

  10. Social Studies of Science: Society Crosses Disciplinary Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1977-01-01

    Topics of discussion at the third annual meeting of the Society of Social Studies of Science are presented. Differences in viewpoints and opinions between sociologists, science philosophers who comprise the organization are discussed. (CP)

  11. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. ... in Mathematics and Sciences (AJESMS) is an international publication for works of ... the world with the goings-on in research endeavours and original thoughts in these ...

  12. Institute of Geophyics and Planetary Physics. Annual report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, F.J. [ed.

    1995-09-29

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, and Irvine and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the six branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, high-pressure sciences, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and is structured around three research centers. The Center for Geosciences, headed by George Zandt and Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Center for High-Pressure Sciences, headed by William Nellis, sponsors research on the properties of planetary materials and on the synthesis and preparation of new materials using high-pressure processing.

  13. Science comics as tools for science education and communication: a brief, exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatalovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comics are a popular art form especially among children and as such provide a potential medium for science education and communication. In an attempt to present science comics in a museum exhibit I found many science themed comics and graphic books. Here I attempt to provide an overview of already available comics that communicate science, the genre of ‘science comics’. I also provide a quick literature review for evidence that comics can indeed be efficiently used for promoting scientific literacy via education and communication. I address the issue of lack of studies about science comics and their readers and suggest some possible reasons for this as well as some questions that could be addressed in future studies on the effect these comics may have on science communication.

  14. New concepts of science and medicine in science and technology studies and their relevance to science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel F; Fu, Daiwie

    2012-02-01

    Science education often adopts a narrow view of science that assumes the lay public is ignorant, which seemingly justifies a science education limited to a promotional narrative of progress in the form of scientific knowledge void of meaningful social context. We propose that to prepare students as future concerned citizens of a technoscientific society, science education should be informed by science, technology, and society (STS) perspectives. An STS-informed science education, in our view, will include the following curricular elements: science controversy education, gender issues, historical perspective, and a move away from a Eurocentric view by looking into the distinctive patterns of other regional (in this case of Taiwan, East Asian) approaches to science, technology, and medicine. This article outlines the significance of some major STS studies as a means of illustrating the ways in which STS perspectives can, if incorporated into science education, enhance our understanding of science and technology and their relationships with society. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  16. Planetary-Whigs: Optical MEMS-Based Seismometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I, Michigan Aerospace Corporation will adapt the design of an optical MEMS seismometer for lunar and other planetary science instrumentation. The...

  17. In Situ Instrument to Detect Prebiotic Compounds in Planetary Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Dworkin, Jason; Glavin, Daniel P.; Southard, Adrian; Balvin, Manuel; Kotecki, Carl; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The development of an in situ LC-MS instrument for future planetary science missions to icy surfaces that are of high astrobiology and astrochemistry potential will advance our understanding of organics in the solar system.

  18. Novel Polymer Microfluidics Technology for In Situ Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new polymer based microfluidics technology for NASA planetary science applications. In particular, we will design, build and...

  19. Planetary wave coupling processes in the middle atmosphere (30 90 km): A study involving MetO and MFR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chshyolkova, T.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2006-02-01

    The MetO assimilated data and mesospheric winds provided by five medium frequency radars (MFR) from the Canada US Japan Opportunity (CUJO) network have been used to study coupling processes due to planetary waves (PWs) in the middle atmosphere. It is shown that there is strong vertical coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere especially during winter months. However, not all observed disturbances in mesospheric winds can be explained by the simple propagation of PWs from below. In addition to the vertical coupling there is also weaker horizontal “inter-hemispheric” coupling during equinoxes. The data used are from December 2000 to December 2002. The time interval was chosen to include austral winters and springs of 2 years: the dynamically unusual year 2002, during which a major stratospheric warming involving a split vortex and wind reversals occurred in the Southern Hemisphere, and a more typical year 2001. The character of PW activity during these 2 years is compared. In contrast to the usually weak PW activity dominated by eastward motions, both strong eastward and westward propagating waves existed during austral winter of 2002. Wavelet spectra of MetO winds show strong peaks near 14 days that match similar signals observed in mesospheric winds at Antarctic stations [Dowdy et al., 2004. The large-scale dynamics of the mesosphere lower thermosphere during the SH stratospheric warming of 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14102. doi:10.1029/2004GL020282] during the stratospheric warming. It is suggested that this oscillation was generated at low atmospheric heights and propagated upward. The longer duration of the stratospheric mesospheric winter vortex (7 months) compared to that of the summer jet in the Northern Hemisphere provide equinoctial months when eastward winds dominate globally. Results suggest that during equinoxes, with favourable conditions, the PWs with ˜10-, 16- and 25-day periods can penetrate to the opposite hemisphere.

  20. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  1. Numerical Modeling Studies of Wake Vortex Transport and Evolution Within the Planetary Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Kaplan, Michael L.; Han, Jongil

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this research is study behavior of aircraft wake vortices within atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in support of developing the system, Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS), under NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAR) program that will control aircraft spacing within the narrow approach corridors of airports. The purpose of the AVOSS system is to increase airport capacity by providing a safe reduction in separation of aircraft compared to the now-existing flight rules. In our first funding period (7 January 19994 - 6 April 1997), we have accomplished extensive model development and validation of ABL simulations. Using the validated model, in our second funding period (7 April 1997 - 6 April 2000) we have investigated the effects of ambient atmospheric turbulence on vortex decay and descent, Crow instability, and wake vortex interaction with the ground. Recognizing the crucial influence of ABL turbulence on wake vortex behavior, we have also developed a software generating vertical profiles of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) or energy dissipation rate (EDR), which are, in turn, used as input data in the AVOSS prediction algorithms.

  2. Mars 2020 Planetary Protection Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Moogega; Bernard, Douglas; Benardini, James Nick; Jones, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    The Mars 2020 (M2020) flight system consists of a cruise stage; an entry, descent and landing system (EDL); and a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered roving science vehicle that will land on the surface of Mars. The M2020 Mission is designed to investigate key question related to the habitability of Mars and will conduct assessments that set the stage for potential future human exploration of Mars. Per its Program Level Requirements, the project will also acquire and cache samples of rock, regolith, and/or procedural "blank" samples for possible return to Earth by a subsequent mission. NASA has assigned the M2020 Mission as a Category V Restricted Earth Return due to the possible future return of collected samples. As indicated in NPR8020.12D, Section 5.3.3.2, the outbound leg of a Category V mission that could potentially return samples to Earth, Mars 2020 would be expected to meet the requirements of a Category IVb mission. The entire flight system is subject to microbial reduction requirements, with additional specific emphasis on the sample acquisition and caching. A bioburden accounting tool is being used to track the microbial population on the surfaces to ensure that the biological cleanliness requirements are met. Initial bioburden estimates based on MSL heritage allows M2020 to gauge more precisely how the bioburden is allocated throughout each hardware element. Mars 2020 has completed a Planetary Protection Plan with Planetary Implementation Plans at a mature draft form. Planetary protection sampling activities have commenced with the start of flight system fabrication and assembly. The status of the Planetary Protection activities will be reported.

  3. Low-temperature Kinetic Studies of OH Radical Reactions Relevant to Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, T. M.; Antiñolo, M.; Ballesteros, B.; Jimenez, E.; Canosa, A.

    2011-05-01

    In the solar system, the temperature (T) of the atmosphere of giant planets or their satellites is only several tens of Kelvin (K). The temperature of the tropopause of Titan (satellite of Saturn) and the surface of Mars is 70 K and 210 K, respectively. In the Earth's atmosphere, T decreases from 298 K (surface) to 210 K close to the T-inversion region (tropopause). The principal oxidants in the Earth's lower atmosphere are ozone, the hydroxyl (OH) radical and hydrogen peroxide. A number of critical atmospheric chemical problems depend on the Earth's oxidising capacity, which is essentially the global burden of these oxidants. In the interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes, OH radicals have also been detected. As the chemistry of atmospheres is highly influenced by temperature, the knowledge of the T-dependence of the rate coefficients for OH-reactions (k) is the key to understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms. In general, these reactions take place on a short temporal scale. Therefore, a detection technique with high temporal resolution is required. Measurements of k at low temperatures can be achieved by maintaining a thermalised environment using either cryogenic cooling (T>200 K) or supersonic gas expansion with a Laval nozzle (several tens of K). The pulsed laser photolysis technique coupled with laser induced fluorescence detection has been widely used in our laboratory to determine the rate coefficients of OH-reactions with different volatile organic compounds, such as alcohols (1), saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes (2), linear ketones (3), as a function of temperature (260 350 K). An experimental system based on the CRESU (Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme or Reaction Kinetics in a Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique is currently under construction. This technique will allow the performance of kinetic studies of OH-reactions of astrophysical interest at temperatures lower than 200 K.

  4. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces

  5. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC): A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Marti, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the

  6. Venus as a laboratory for studying planetary surface, interior, and atmospheric evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Hensley, S.; Helbert, J.

    2013-12-01

    As Earth's twin, Venus offers a laboratory for understanding what makes our home planet unique in our solar system. The Decadal Survey points to the role of Venus in answering questions such as the supply of water and its role in atmospheric evolution, its availability to support life, and the role of geology and dynamics in controlling volatiles and climate. On Earth, the mechanism of plate tectonics drives the deformation and volcanism that allows volatiles to escape from the interior to the atmosphere and be recycled into the interior. Magellan revealed that Venus lacks plate tectonics. The number and distribution of impact craters lead to the idea Venus resurfaced very rapidly, and inspired numerous models of lithospheric foundering and episodic plate tectonics. However we have no evidence that Venus ever experienced a plate tectonic regime. How is surface deformation affected if no volatiles are recycled into the interior? Although Venus is considered a ';stagnant' lid planet (lacking plate motion) today, we have evidence for recent volcanism. The VIRTIS instrument on Venus Express mapped the southern hemisphere at 1.02 microns, revealing areas likely to be unweathered, recent volcanic flows. Additionally, numerous studies have shown that the crater population is consistent with ongoing, regional resurfacing. How does deformation and volcanism occur in the absence of plates? At what rate is the planet resurfacing and thus outgassing? Does lithospheric recycling occur with plate tectonics? In the 25 years since Magellan, the design of Synthetic Aperture Radar has advanced tremendously, allowing order of magnitude improvements in altimetry and imaging. With these advanced tools, we can explore Venus' past and current tectonic states. Tesserae are highly deformed plateaus, thought to be possible remnants of Venus' earlier tectonic state. How did they form? Are they low in silica, like Earth's continents, indicating the presence of abundant water? Does the plains

  7. Constraints on planetary formation from the discovery & study of transiting Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Earth-Sun distance. In Astronomy, we cannot do experiments; we are a part of it. Instead, we search and characterise several similar objects in order to extract information out of them statistically. To answer our question, we needed to find several objects and detect the clues from their past history bringing us back to the processes that led to their formation. There are several manners with which one can find planets. For this thesis, the so-called transit method was used. It consists in detecting a periodic loss of light from a star in front of which a planet passes: a transit. This method is particularly sensitive to the presence of hot Jupiters. During this thesis, about fifty planets of such type have been discovered, about a third of the known hot Jupiters. Those planets are confirmed thanks to radial velocity measurements, the same technique that led to the discovery of the first extrasolar planet, around the star 51 Pegasi. The analysis of the stellar light affected by the presence of a planet around it, notably the light received during transit, allows us to know about the mass, the size of the planet, its orbital period, the shape of its orbit, its temperature, even the chemical composition of its atmosphere. Furthermore, these observations give us the occasion to study the star around which is found the planet, such as its mass, its size, its rotation speed, as well as give estimates on its age. One type of observations was employed in particular: the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. During transit, this effect creates an anomaly compared to the expected radial velocities. Through a modelisation of this anomaly, it is possible to measure the projection of the angle between the orbital plane of the planet and the equatorial plane of the star, on the sky. In our System, all planets are located more or less in a same plane : the ecliptic. The equatorial plane of the Sun is also almost aligned with the ecliptic. This observation led Kant and Laplace to postulate on

  8. Verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary surface radiation environment model using gamma-ray data from Lunar Prospector and 2001 Mars Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, M.S., E-mail: mss16@star.le.ac.u [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    Characterising a planetary radiation environment is important to: (1) assess the habitability of a planetary body for indigenous life; (2) assess the risks associated with manned exploration missions to a planetary body and (3) predict/interpret the results that remote sensing instrumentation may obtain from a planetary body (e.g. interpret the gamma-ray emissions from a planetary surface produced by radioactive decay or via the interaction of galactic cosmic rays to obtain meaningful estimates of the concentration of certain elements on the surface of a planet). The University of Leicester is developing instrumentation for geophysical applications that include gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma-ray densitometry and radiometric dating. This paper describes the verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary radiation environment model developed using the MCNPX code. The model is designed to model the radiation environments of Mars and the Moon, but is applicable to other planetary bodies, and will be used to predict the performance of the instrumentation being developed at Leicester. This study demonstrates that the modelled gamma-ray data is in good agreement with gamma-ray data obtained by the gamma-ray spectrometers on 2001 Mars Odyssey and Lunar Prospector, and can be used to accurately model geophysical instrumentation for planetary science applications.

  9. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  10. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  11. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022''. However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission?s preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  12. Mission Design and Optimal Asteroid Deflection for Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bruno V.; Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Planetary defense is a topic of increasing interest for many reasons, which has been mentioned in "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022". However, perhaps one of the most significant rationales for asteroid studies is the number of close approaches that have been documented recently. A space mission with a planetary defense objective aims to deflect the threatening body as far as possible from Earth. The design of a mission that optimally deflects an asteroid has different challenges: speed, precision, and system trade-off. This work addresses such issues and develops a fast transcription of the problem that can be implemented into an optimization tool, which allows for a broader trade study of different mission concepts with a medium fidelity. Such work is suitable for a mission's preliminary study. It is shown, using the fictitious asteroid impact scenario 2017 PDC, that the complete tool is able to account for the orbit sensitivity to small perturbations and quickly optimize a deflection trajectory. The speed in which the tool operates allows for a trade study between the available hardware. As a result, key deflection dates and mission strategies are identified for the 2017 PDC.

  13. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  14. Universal Access to Science Study via Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Edward A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Internet learning opportunities via the National Science Foundation-supported New Jersey Networking Infrastructure in Education project are described. Their data-centered approach to science and math skills instruction is illustrated by two examples from each of the three styles of activities: (1) collaboration; (2) using public domain databases;…

  15. Incorporating formative assessment and science content into elementary science methods---A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Derek John

    Just as elementary students enter the science classroom with prior knowledge and experiences, so do preservice elementary teachers who enter the science methods classroom. Elementary science methods instructors recognize the challenges associated with preparing teachers for the science classroom. Two of these challenges include overcoming limited science content understanding and a low science teaching efficacy. Based upon research in science misconceptions, conceptual change theory, formative assessment, and science teaching efficacy, this design experiment explored the use of formative assessment in an authentic learning environment to address some of these challenges. As a case study, the goal was to identify two specific topics in science which the preservice teachers did not understand and to model consistent use of formative assessment to guide instruction in those science topics for six weeks. The research questions for this study sought to explore the design of the class while also exploring students' understanding of the science content and their understanding of formative assessment. One specific question was whether the formative data could differentiate between deeply held student misconceptions in science and incomplete science understanding. In addition, data was collected to measure changes in science teaching efficacy as well as preservice teachers' desire to use formative assessment in their own future classrooms. Based upon student interviews and a final content quiz, the participants in this study did show improved science content understanding in the areas of plant food/energy and plate tectonics. The course design implemented a variety of formative assessment tools including formative assessment probes, student science notebooks, student concept maps, a non-graded quiz, and more. The STEBI-B survey identified improved science teaching efficacy among the participants. Student final essays indicated improved understanding of formative assessment

  16. Using Case Studies as a Tool for Teaching Science Policy within the Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Hooke, W.

    2006-12-01

    Earth system science is a field where policy, societal, & economic aspects are becoming increasingly important as our society becomes more dependent on activities and technologies that affect and are affected by the Earth system. It is important that present and future scientists are prepared to fully participate in the challenging opportunities that lie ahead, including communicating to policy makers, making public policy decisions, & communicating science to the public. One way of providing a better foundation is to integrate policy and science at universities. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society Policy Program (APP) is developing materials for university science policy curricula and the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium. In providing policy education activities and promoting policy research, the APP hopes to encourage more people to enter the field of science policy, contribute to and enhance the current policy dialogue, and create a clearinghouse for science policy case studies. Case studies are an excellent method to study policy issues in the atmospheric and space sciences for the following reasons: issues are too complex to be handled by any single factor (economic, social, or political science); purpose is to identify and analyze the impacts rather than test theoretical hypotheses; problems involve large number of participants (government at various levels, industries, and researchers); and study requires giving alternatives and consequence analysis for policy makers. Lessons learned will be presented on implementation of science policy case studies at the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium and George Mason University.

  17. Formation and evolution of planetary systems: the impact of high angular resolution optical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Absil, Olivier; 10.1007/s00159-009-0028-y

    2009-01-01

    The direct images of giant extrasolar planets recently obtained around several main sequence stars represent a major step in the study of planetary systems. These high-dynamic range images are among the most striking results obtained by the current generation of high angular resolution instruments, which will be superseded by a new generation of instruments in the coming years. It is therefore an appropriate time to review the contributions of high angular resolution visible/infrared techniques to the rapidly growing field of extrasolar planetary science. During the last 20 years, the advent of the Hubble Space Telescope, of adaptive optics on 4- to 10-m class ground-based telescopes, and of long-baseline infrared stellar interferometry has opened a new viewpoint on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. By spatially resolving the optically thick circumstellar discs of gas and dust where planets are forming, these instruments have considerably improved our models of early circumstellar environments...

  18. Planetary data definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  19. The Influence of Disciplines on the Knowledge of Science: A Study of the Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akarsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At least four factors affect pupils’ understanding of the nature of science: teachers’ specialization in different science areas (physics, chemistry, and biology, gender issues, teaching experience in elementary school environments, and the perspectives of acquiring necessary knowledge. This study is the introduction part of a research project which will be initiated soon. Four elementary science teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that participants’ views of the aspects of nature of science are not solely diverged, based on their major disciplines, but there exist significant distinctions according to gender differences.

  20. A study of the kinematics and binary-induced shaping of the planetary nebula HaTr 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tyndall, A A; Lloyd, M; O'Brien, T J; Pollacco, D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling of the planetary nebula HaTr 4, one of few known to contain a post-common-envelope central star system. Common envelope evolution is believed to play an important role in the shaping of planetary nebulae, but the exact nature of this role is yet to be understood. High spatial- and spectral- resolution spectroscopy of the [OIII]5007 nebular line obtained with VLT-UVES are presented alongside deep narrowband Ha+[NII]6584 imagery obtained using EMMI-NTT, and together the two are used to derive the three-dimensional morphology of HaTr 4. The nebula is found to display an extended ovoid morphology with an enhanced equatorial region consistent with a toroidal waist - a feature believed to be typical amongst planetary nebulae with post-common-envelope central stars. The nebular symmetry axis is found to lie perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary, concordant with the idea that the formation and evolution of HaTr 4 has been stron...

  1. Remote science support during MARS2013: testing a map-based system of data processing and utilization for future long-duration planetary missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Gołębiowska, Izabela; Orgel, Csilla; Moser, Linda; MacArthur, Jane; Boyd, Andrea; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jones, Natalie; Groemer, Gernot

    2014-05-01

    MARS2013 was an integrated Mars analog field simulation in eastern Morocco performed by the Austrian Space Forum between February 1 and 28, 2013. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the system of data processing and utilization adopted by the Remote Science Support (RSS) team during this mission. The RSS team procedures were designed to optimize operational efficiency of the Flightplan, field crew, and RSS teams during a long-term analog mission with an introduced 10 min time delay in communication between "Mars" and Earth. The RSS workflow was centered on a single-file, easy-to-use, spatially referenced database that included all the basic information about the conditions at the site of study, as well as all previous and planned activities. This database was prepared in Google Earth software. The lessons learned from MARS2013 RSS team operations are as follows: (1) using a spatially referenced database is an efficient way of data processing and data utilization in a long-term analog mission with a large amount of data to be handled, (2) mission planning based on iterations can be efficiently supported by preparing suitability maps, (3) the process of designing cartographical products should start early in the planning stages of a mission and involve representatives of all teams, (4) all team members should be trained in usage of cartographical products, (5) technical problems (e.g., usage of a geological map while wearing a space suit) should be taken into account when planning a work flow for geological exploration, (6) a system that helps the astronauts to efficiently orient themselves in the field should be designed as part of future analog studies.

  2. Do compulsory secondary science courses change students’ attitude towards studying science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lærke Elisabeth; Petersen, Morten Rask

    recruitment to STEM education has been a compulsory course in the Gymnasium called Natural Science Subject (NSS). This is an interdisciplinary, introductory course with the intention that students shall “ … realize the importance of knowing and understanding natural science thinking” (Authors translation...... of a comparison of the groups using Mann-Whitney U-test for the 7 items. It shows that the only item that the groups agree on is item 20, where both groups answers in an equally degree of positive attitude towards having NSS before other science subjects. The open coding of the comments resulted in 6 categories...... towards studying science. So the impact of the specific compulsory course seems to be minimal. A review study on attitudes towards science (Osborne, Simon & Collins, 2003) shows that gender is the most influent factor on attitudes towards science; boys being more positive than girls. This effect...

  3. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  4. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  5. Case study of science teaching in an elementary school: Characteristics of an exemplary science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Huey-Lien

    Improving the quality of science teaching is one of the greatest concerns in recent science education reform efforts. Many science educators suggest that case studies of exemplary science teachers may provide guidance for these reform efforts. For this reason, the characteristics of exemplary science teaching practices have been identified in recent years. However, the literature lacks research exploring exemplary teacher beliefs about the nature of science and science pedagogy, the relationships between their beliefs and practices, or how outstanding teachers overcome difficulties in order to facilitate their students' science learning. In this study, Sam-Yu, an identified exemplary science teacher who teaches in an elementary school in Pintung, Taiwan, was the subject. An interpretative research design (Erickson, 1986) based on principles of naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in this case study. The qualitative method involved conducting interviews with the teacher and students, observing classroom activities and analyzing the structure of the learning materials. The quantitative methods involved using the Learning Climate Inventory (LCI) (Lin, 1997) instrument to assess the learning environment of the exemplary science classroom. This study found that Sam-Yu had a blend of views on the nature of science and a varied knowledge about science pedagogy. Personal preferences, past experiences, and the national science curriculum all played important roles in the development and refinement of Sam-Yu's beliefs about science and pedagogy. Regarding his teaching practices, Sam-Yu provided the best learning experiences, as evidenced in both classroom observations and the survey results, for his students by using a variety of strategies. In addition, his classroom behaviors were highly associated with his beliefs about science and pedagogy. However, due to school-based and socio-cultural constraints

  6. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    radar sounding: furthermore the flexibility and the big dimensions of the PROC archives allow easy integration of other missions (e.g. EJSM). A specific PROC Web facility and a dedicated high capacity on line storage allow PROC missions status and scientific results spreading, scientific requests submission, news, studies, technical information, radar data images publication and data retrieving (the latter only on science team members request), according to different permissions assigned both to science team members and generic users

  7. Modeling science teaching on science practice? Painting a more accurate picture through an ethnographic lab study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Cory A.

    2001-04-01

    This article reports an ethnographic study of a molecular biology research laboratory, Sally's Lab. By studying the daily practices of the lab members, and interpreting these observations through an anthropological lens grounded in practice theory, I portray the social and cultural construction of a scientific community. Findings include an examination of how good science practice was operationalized, status in the lab was constructed, members gained or lost interest in continuing on in careers in research science, and individual members conformed to and resisted localized norms of scientific practice. These issues have direct relevance to our work as science educators, in terms of how we present science practice to our students. For example, when K-16 science students engage in activities based on authentic science practice, upon whose experiences are these simulations based? The current study shows that there is not just one acceptable way to do science, nor one set of experiences that pertain to all members within a given community of science practice. Likewise, there should not be just one way that science is presented in school, nor one set of experiences we expect all our students to take from our classes.

  8. New Groups Study Science's Effect on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the chief aims of the Council for Science and Society in London and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna. Indicates that both groups are planning to function as a multinational interdisciplinary organization. (CC)

  9. The Magnetic Field Effect on Planetary Nebulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. R. Khesali; K. Kokabi

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work on the 3-dimensional dynamical structure of planetary nebulae the effect of magnetic field was not considered. Recently Jordan et al. have directly detected magnetic fields in the central stars of some planetary nebulae. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical shape of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. In this study we focus on the role of initially weak toroidal magnetic fields embedded in a stellar wind in altering the shape of the PN. We found that magnetic pressure is probably influential on the observed shape of most PNe.

  10. Spectroscopic detection and characterisation of planetary atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Cameron A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Space based broadband infrared observations of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets at transit and secondary eclipse have proved a successful means of determining atmospheric spectral energy distributions and molecular composition. Here, a ground-based spectroscopic technique to detect and characterise planetary atmospheres is presented. Since the planet need not be transiting, this method enables a greater sample of systems to be studied. By modelling the planetary signature as a function of phase, high resolution spectroscopy has the potential to recover the signature of molecules in planetary atmospheres.

  11. Planetary astronomy in the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of current achievements and future possibilities that exist in planetary astronomy. Planetary astronomers employ a wide range of techniques, from straightforward telescopic observation to laboratory analysis of meteorites and cosmic dust. Much of this work focuses on three fundamental questions: how abundant are planets throughout the universe, how did the solar system form, and what can other planets tell us about earth? Several examples show that many recent discoveries reveal the continuing value of earth-orbit and ground-based methods for planetary studies.

  12. Science Fairs: A Qualitative Study of Their Impact on Student Science Inquiry Learning and Attitudes toward STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathleen M.; Kelter, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of science fair participation on student science inquiry learning. Furthermore, there is only a small research base relating to science fair participation and student attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and coursework. In this study, 41 seventh-grade science fair…

  13. Girls Doing Science: A Case Study of Science Literacy in All-Female Middle Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Susan Elisabeth

    In the face of low adolescent literacy rates (NCES, 2012), concerns about the nation's prospects of remaining competitive in science and technology (Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010), a persistent gender gap in science (NCES, 2012; Reilly, 2012), and the continued rollout of college- and career-ready standards, there is a need to focus on adolescent girls' science literacy. Such science literacy involves not only general knowledge about science, but also the ability to engage in the advanced reading and writing practices fundamental to doing science (Norris & Phillips, 2003). In this thesis, I present three articles with findings that respond to this need. They are the results of a multiple-case embedded (Yin, 2009) study that I conducted over the course of 7 months in four science classrooms (grades 5 through 8; 50 students) taught by a single teacher in a small all-female middle school. I collected in-depth data focused on science literacy from multiple sources, including (a) fieldnotes (Emerson, Fretz & Shaw, 2011), (b) videorecorded classroom observations (102 classes, 113 hours, recorded on 29 days), (c) a survey of all students, (d) semi-structured interviews with the subsample of 12 focal students (ranging from 18 to 37 minutes) and (e) photographs of classroom artifacts and student work. In the first article, I provide a window into standard literacy practices in science classrooms by examining the reading and writing genres to which students are exposed. In the second article, I examine how a teacher's language and instructional practices within her classrooms, and popular images of science from the world beyond their classrooms might shape adolescent girls' science identities. Finally, in the third article, I explore different aspects of science identity using the words of three case study students. Taken together, these studies fill gaps in the literature by investigating science literacy in an understudied context, all-female classrooms. In addition

  14. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions

  15. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dominik, M

    2010-01-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows to derive all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their r...

  16. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  17. A spectral study of the mid-latitude sporadic E layer characteristic oscillations comparable to those of the tidal and the planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, A.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper different spectral analyses are employed to investigate the tidal and planetary wave periodicities imprinted in the following two main characteristics of the sporadic E (Es) layer: the top frequency (ftEs) and the lowest virtual height (h‧Es). The study is based on ionograms recorded during the summertime of 2013, and precisely in June, July, August and September, by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) ionosondes installed at Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E) and Gibilmanna (37.9°N, 14.0°E), Italy. It was confirmed that the diurnal and semidiurnal atmospheric tides play a fundamental role in the formation of the mid-latitude Es layers, acting through their vertical wind-shear forcing of the long-living metallic ions in the lower thermosphere, and at the same time it was found that the planetary atmospheric waves might affect the Es layers acting through their horizontal wind-shear forcing with periods close to the normal Rossby modes, that is 2, 5, 10 and 16 days. The wavelet analysis shows also that the ftEs and h‧Es tidal oscillations undergo a strong amplitude modulation with periods of several days and with important differences between the two parameters. This amplitude modulation, characterizing markedly the first thirty days of the ftEs spectrogram, suggests that Es layers are affected indirectly by planetary waves through their nonlinear interaction with the atmospheric tides at lower altitudes. This study wants to be a continuation of the Haldoupis et al. (2004) work in order to verify their results for the foEs characteristic and on the other hand to extend the study also to the h‧Es characteristic not yet shown so far. Anyhow, the study confirms that ionosonde data, especially those registered in summertime, represent a powerful tool for studying tidal and planetary waves properties and their climatology in the mesosphere-low-thermosphere region.

  18. UV photoabsorption cross sections of CO, N2, and SO2 for studies of the ISM and planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter L.; Rufus, J.; Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Stark, Glenn; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    We report high-resolution laboratory measurements of photoabsorption cross sections of CO, N2, and SO2 in the wavelength range 80 to 320 nm. The motivation is to provide the quantitative data that are needed to analyze observations of absorption by, and to model photochemical processes in, the interstellar medium and a number of planetary atmospheres. Because of the high resolution of the spectrometers used, we can minimize distortion of the spectrum that occurs when instrument widths are greater than the widths of spectral features being measured. In many cases, we can determine oscillator strengths of individual rotational lines - a unique feature of our work.

  19. Europa Clipper Mission Concept Preliminary Planetary Protection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa; Schubert, Wayne; Newlin, Laura; Cooper, Moogega; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Ellyin, Raymond; Vaishampayan, Parag; Crum, Ray

    2016-07-01

    The science objectives of the proposed Europa Clipper mission consist of remotely characterizing any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell, investigating the chemistry of the surface and ocean, and evaluating geological processes that may permit Europa's ocean to possess the chemical energy necessary for life. The selected payload supporting the science objectives includes: Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG), Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), Europa Imaging System (EIS), Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON), Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS), MAss SPectrometer for Planetary EXploration/Europa (MASPEX), Ultraviolet Spectrograph/Europa (UVS), and SUrface DUst Mass Analyzer (SUDA). Launch is currently baselined as 2022. Pending the yet to be selected launch vehicle, the spacecraft would either arrive to the Jovian system on a direct trajectory in 2025 or an Earth-Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist interplanetary trajectory arriving in 2030. The operational concept consists of multiple low-altitude flybys of Europa to obtain globally distributed regional coverage of the Europan surface. According to COSPAR Policy, it is currently anticipated that the Europa Clipper mission would be classified as a Category III mission. That is, the mission is to a body "of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life or for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance of contamination which could jeopardize a future biological experiment." Therefore, the expected driving planetary protection requirement for the mission is that the probability of inadvertent contamination of an ocean or other liquid water body shall be less than 1x10-4 per mission. This requirement applies until final disposition of the spacecraft, however in practice, would only apply until the spacecraft is

  20. Bringing Terramechanics to bear on Planetary Rover Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.

    2007-08-01

    Thus far, planetary rovers have been successfully operated on the Earth's moon and on Mars. In particular, the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' are still in sustained daily operations at two sites on Mars more than 3 years after landing there. Currently, several new planetary rover missions are in development targeting Mars (the US Mars Science Lab vehicle for launch in 2009 and ESA's ExoMars rover for launch in 2013), with lunar rover missions under study by China and Japan for launches around 2012. Moreover, the US Constellation program is preparing pre-development of lunar rovers for initially unmanned and, subsequently, human missions to the Moon with a corresponding team dedicated to mobility system development having been set up at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Given this dynamic environment, it was found timely to establish an expert group on off-the-road mobility as relevant for robotic vehicles that would involve individuals representing the various on-going efforts on the different continents. This was realized through the International Society of Terrain-Vehicle Systems (ISTVS), a research organisation devoted to terramechanics and to the ,science' of off-the-road vehicle development which as a result is just now establishing a Technical Group on Terrestrial and Planetary Rovers. Members represent space-related as well as military research institutes and universities from the US, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The group's charter for 2007 is to define its objectives, functions, organizational structure and recommended research objectives to support planetary rover design and development. Expected areas of activity of the ISTVS-sponsored group include: the problem of terrain specification for planetary rovers; identification of limitations in modelling of rover mobility; a survey of existing rover mobility testbeds; the consolidation of mobility predictive models and their state of validation; sensing and real

  1. Family science: An ethnographic case study of the ordinary science and literacy experiences of one family

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Glenda M.

    Despite the copious research available on science learning, little is known about ways in which the public engages in free-choice science learning and even fewer studies have focused on how families engage in science to learn about the world around them. The same was true about studies of literacy development in the home until the 1980s when researchers (e.g. Bissex, 1980; Heath, 1983; Taylor, 1983) began documenting the literacy happenings and practices of young children in natural settings. Findings from intensive emergent literacy research studies have challenged traditional approaches to the teaching and learning of literacy, especially drawing attention to the active role children take in their own learning. Drawing upon those early literacy studies, this research project uses ethnographic case study methods along with a naturalistic inquiry approach, to document the daily explorations of one science-oriented family. Over a three year span, I have followed my own family, in our natural setting, through our day-to-day experiences with science and literacy as we seek to mediate and understand the world around us. In doing so, I have explored the ways we have shared knowledge and constructed learning through science books and read alouds, self-initiated inquiry learning, and communication. Throughout the three year research period, I have collected data and documented my own young children's understanding of the nature of science by observing their engagement with world around them.

  2. Science Study Aids 5: Tannin - Nature's Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeschen, John; Randall, John M.

    This publication is the fifth in a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 9 through 12. It is concerned with the removal of heavy divalent metals from water with the use of tannin-containing…

  3. Science Study Aids 2: Mushrooms - Nature's Recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill; Kurtzman, Ralph H., Jr.

    This publication is the second of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 9. It is concerned with food value of liquified cellulosic agricultural wastes: paper, straw, corn cobs, sawdust and…

  4. The Symbiotic Relationship between Liberal Studies and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unah, Jim I.

    2008-01-01

    The Artistic and Humanistic studies (liberal studies) and the science and technology disciplines (science) constitute the two dominant cultures in a modern university. Subsumed in these cultures are the professional disciplines of law, architecture, engineering, medicine, accounting, administration and a few others. Essentially, the university…

  5. Study of Turkish Preschool Teachers' Attitudes toward Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Feyza T.; Sonmez, Sema

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore preschool teachers' attitudes toward science teaching and its impact on classroom practices through the frequency of science activities provided in the classroom. In addition, the study investigates if their attitudes are related to factors such as educational level, years of teaching experience, and the school type they…

  6. Planetary Cartography and Mapping: where we are Today, and where we are Heading For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naß, A.; Di, K.; Elgner, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Hare, T.; Hargitai, H.; Karachevtseva, I.; Kersten, E.; Manaud, N.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Skinner, J., Jr.; Wählisch, M.

    2017-07-01

    Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning) and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance). It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission's lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs) are stored in archives - and eventually into maps and higher-level data products - to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  7. Assessment of Impact on Students and Teachers of Student-led, inquiry-based planetary science instruction in Grades 3-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Edgar Andrew; Carlson, Coleen; Nieser, Kenneth; Slagle, Elana

    2015-11-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 195 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~90 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 1300 students from the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 cohort were invited to submit brief self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching “Earth and the solar system and universe” increased “Quite a bit” as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased “Quite a bit” as a result of their participation in the MRC program in the following areas: “Getting students interested in and curious about science” (63%); “Teaching science as a co-inquirer with students” (56%); and “Continually find better ways to teach science” (59%). Student outcome analysis is pending correlation with

  8. Planetary cratering mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a quantitative understanding of the cratering process over a broad range of conditions. Our approach was to numerically compute the evolution of impact induced flow fields and calculate the time histories of the key measures of crater geometry (e.g., depth, diameter, lip height) for variations in planetary gravity (0 to 109 cm/s2), material strength (0 to 2400 kbar), and impactor radius (0.05 to 5000 km). These results were used to establish the values of the open parameters in the scaling laws of Holsapple and Schmidt (1987). We describe the impact process in terms of four regimes: (1) penetration, (2) inertial, (3) terminal, and (4) relaxation. During the penetration regime, the depth of impactor penetration grows linearly for dimensionless times τ=(Ut/a)5.1, the crater grows at a slower rate until it is arrested by either strength or gravitational forces. In this regime, the increase of crater depth, d, and diameter, D, normalized by projectile radius is given by d/a=1.3 (Ut/a)0.36 and D/a=2.0(Ut/a)0.36. For strength-dominated craters, growth stops at the end of the inertial regime, which occurs at τ=0.33 (Yeff/ρU2)-0.78, where Yeff is the effective planetary crustal strength. The effective strength can be reduced from the ambient strength by fracturing and shear band melting (e.g., formation of pseudo-tachylites). In gravity-dominated craters, growth stops when the gravitational forces dominate over the inertial forces, which occurs at τ=0.92 (ga/U2)-0.61. In the strength and gravity regimes, the maximum depth of penetration is dp/a=0.84 (Y/ρ U2)-0.28 and dp/a=1.2 (ga/U2)-0.22, respectively. The transition from simple bowl-shaped craters to complex-shaped craters occurs when gravity starts to dominate over strength in the cratering process. The diameter for this transition to occur is given by Dt=9.0 Y/ρg, and thus scales as g-1 for planetary surfaces when strength is not strain-rate dependent. This scaling result

  9. An investigation on development of the planetary gearheads for small precision mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Han; Chung, Jung Kee; Sung, Ha Kyeong [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Planetary gearheads are widely used in the transmissions of small precision mechanism, automation, robotics, heavy machinery and marine vehicles. Planetary gearheads have advantages that same-axle structure, high torque transmission, low noise in comparison with spur gearheads. And, planetary gearheads are typically specified in applications where space is limited. In this study included planetary type gearheads design, manufacture, efficiency test. Especially, this time performed gear mesh stiffness simulation and vibration analysis for planetary gearheads.

  10. Siderophile Elements in Tracing Planetary Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The siderophile elements have many applications in the Earth and planetary sciences. In primitive meteorites, differences in the relative abundances of these elements are likely due to both nebular and parent body processes. In addition, some siderophile elements are also characterized by isotopically distinctive nucleosynthetic signatures. Thus, the relative abundances and isotopic compositions of these elements can be used to trace the genetics of planetary building blocks. Although the siderophile elements are largely concentrated in the metallic cores of differentiated planetary bodies, their absolute and relative abundances, as well as their isotopic compositions can also reveal important information regarding conditions of core formation and subsequent late stages of accretion. For example, the chondritic 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os estimated for the bulk silicate Earth require long-term, precisely chondritic Re/Os and Pt/Os, chemical characteristics that are seemingly most easily imposed by late accretion. The lithophile-siderophile nature of the radiogenic 182Hf-182W system allows it to be used to place chronologic constraints on planetary core formation. The differing incompatibilities of the two elements in the silicate portions of planets also means that the system can also be used to study early differentiation processes and efficiency of subsequent convective mixing. Positive and negative 182W anomalies present in rocks throughout the terrestrial rock record indicate the long-term survivability of mantle domains formed within the first 30 to 100 Ma of Solar System history. When matched with other short- and long-lived isotope systems, tungsten isotopes can potentially be used to identify mantle domains created by early magma ocean processes, as well as possible core-mantle interactions.

  11. Influence of field study on learning and attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, David L.

    In an effort to improve attitudes toward science and academic achievement among college students who are non-science majors, an informal science educational experience in the form of a natural science field study course was created. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a field study experience on student science attitudes and achievement. Outcomes from the field study groups were compared to students who enrolled in a traditional lecture/lab course. Academic achievement was measured via pre and posttest measures of geologic knowledge. Attitudes toward science were measured wi