WorldWideScience

Sample records for planetary science programs

  1. The Lunar and Planetary Institute Summer Intern Program in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1977, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) Summer Intern Program brings undergraduate students from across the world to Houston for 10 weeks of their summer where they work one-on-one with a scientist at either LPI or Johnson Space Center on a cutting-edge research project in the planetary sciences. The program is geared for students finishing their sophomore and junior years, although graduating seniors may also apply. It is open to international undergraduates as well as students from the United States. Applicants must have at least 50 semester hours of credit (or equivalent sophomore status) and an interest in pursuing a career in the sciences. The application process is somewhat rigorous, requiring three letters of recommendation, official college transcripts, and a letter describing their background, interests, and career goals. The deadline for applications is in early January of that year of the internship. More information about the program and how to apply can be found on the LPI website: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lpiintern/. Each advisor reads through the applications, looking for academically excellent students and those with scientific interest and backgrounds compatible with the advisor's specific project. Interns are selected fairly from the applicant pool - there are no pre-arranged agreements or selections based on who knows whom. The projects are different every year as new advisors come into the program, and existing ones change their research interest and directions. The LPI Summer Intern Program gives students the opportunity to participate in peer-reviewed research, learn from top-notch planetary scientists, and preview various careers in science. For many interns, this program was a defining moment in their careers - when they decided whether or not to follow an academic path, which direction they would take, and how. While past interns can be found all over the world and in a wide variety of occupations, all share the common bond of

  2. DPS Planetary Science Graduate Programs Database for Students and Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Roman, Anthony; Meinke, Bonnie K.

    2017-10-01

    Planetary science is a topic that covers an extremely diverse set of disciplines; planetary scientists are typically housed in a departments spanning a wide range of disciplines. As such it is difficult for undergraduate students to find programs that will give them a degree and research experience in our field as Department of Planetary Science is a rare sighting, indeed. Not only can this overwhelm even the most determined student, it can even be difficult for many undergraduate advisers.Because of this, the DPS Education committee decided several years ago that it should have an online resource that could help undergraduate students find graduate programs that could lead to a PhD with a focus in planetary science. It began in 2013 as a static page of information and evolved from there to a database-driven web site. Visitors can browse the entire list of programs or create a subset listing based on several filters. The site should be of use not only to undergraduates looking for programs, but also for advisers looking to help their students decide on their future plans. We present here a walk-through of the basic features as well as some usage statistics from the collected web site analytics. We ask for community feedback on additional features to make the system more usable for them. We also call upon those mentoring and advising undergraduates to use this resource, and for program admission chairs to continue to review their entry and provide us with the most up-to-date information.The URL for our site is http://dps.aas.org/education/graduate-schools.

  3. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions. To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event. Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance. Additional information about LPI's E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO's partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  4. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  5. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  6. An Update on the NASA Planetary Science Division Research and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Christina; Bernstein, Max; Rall, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) solicits its Research and Analysis (R&A) programs each year in Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES). Beginning with the 2014 ROSES solicitation, PSD will be changing the structure of the program elements under which the majority of planetary science R&A is done. Major changes include the creation of five core research program elements aligned with PSD's strategic science questions, the introduction of several new R&A opportunities, new submission requirements, and a new timeline for proposal submissionROSES and NSPIRES: ROSES contains the research announcements for all of SMD. Submission of ROSES proposals is done electronically via NSPIRES: http://nspires.nasaprs.com. We will present further details on the proposal submission process to help guide younger scientists. Statistical trends, including the average award size within the PSD programs, selections rates, and lessons learned, will be presented. Information on new programs will also be presented, if available.Review Process and Volunteering: The SARA website (http://sara.nasa.gov) contains information on all ROSES solicitations. There is an email address (SARA@nasa.gov) for inquiries and an area for volunteer reviewers to sign up. The peer review process is based on Scientific/Technical Merit, Relevance, and Level of Effort, and will be detailed within this presentation.ROSES 2014 submission changes: All PSD programs will use a two-step proposal submission process. A Step-1 proposal is required and must be submitted electronically by the Step-1 due date. The Step-1 proposal should include a description of the science goals and objectives to be addressed by the proposal, a brief description of the methodology to be used to address the science goals and objectives, and the relevance of the proposed research to the call submitted to.Additional Information: Additional details will be provided on the Cassini Data Analysis Program, the

  7. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to achieve readiness of Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies of significant maturity: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nulcear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented herein for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  9. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

    2011-12-01

    , during which their mentors aid them in finalizing their mission design and instrument suite, and in making the necessary trade-offs to stay within the cost cap. Tours of JPL facilities highlight the end-to-end life cycle of a mission. At week's end, students present their Concept Study to a "proposal review board" of JPL scientists and engineers and NASA Headquarters executives, who feed back the strengths and weaknesses of their proposal and mission design. A survey of Planetary Science Summer School alumni administered in summer of 2011 provides information on the program's impact on students' career choices and leadership roles as they pursue their employment in planetary science and related fields. Preliminary results will be discussed during the session. Almost a third of the approximately 450 Planetary Science Summer School alumni from the last 10 years of the program are currently employed by NASA or JPL. The Planetary Science Summer School is implemented by the JPL Education Office in partnership with JPL's Team X Project Design Center.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  11. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  12. The Africa Initiative for Planetary and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Gibson, R.; Lamali, A.; Reimold, W. U.; Selorm Sepah, M.; Chabou, M. C.; Habarulema, J. B.; Jessell, M.; Mogessie, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Nkhonjera, E.; Mukosi, N. C.; Kaire, M.; Rochette, P.; Sickafoose, A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Hofmann, A.; Folco, L.; Rossi, A. P.; Faye, G.; Kolenberg, K.; Tekle, K.; Belhai, D.; Elyajouri, M.; Koeberl, C.; Abdeem, M.

    2017-12-01

    Research groups in Planetary and Space Sciences (PSS) are now emerging in Africa, but remain few, scattered and underfunded. It is our conviction that the exclusion of 20% of the world's population from taking part in the fascinating discoveries about our solar system impoverishes global science. The benefits of a coordinated PSS program for Africa's youth have motivated a call for international support and investment [1] into an Africa Initiative for Planetary and Space Sciences. At the time of writing, the call has been endorsed by 230 scientists and 19 institutions or international organizations (follow the map of endorsements on https://africapss.org). More than 70 African Planetary scientists have already joined the initiative and about 150 researchers in non-African countries are ready to participate in research and in capacitity building of PSS programs in Africa. We will briefly review in this presentation the status of PSS in Africa [2] and illustrate some of the major achievements of African Planetary and Space scientists, including the search for meteorites or impact craters, the observations of exoplanets, and space weather investigations. We will then discuss a road map for its expansion, with an emphasis on the role that planetary and space scientists can play to support scientific and economic development in Africa. The initiative is conceived as a network of projects with Principal Investigators based in Africa. A Steering Committee is being constituted to coordinate these efforts and contribute to fund-raising and identification of potential private and public sponsors. The scientific strategy of each group within the network will be developed in cooperation with international experts, taking into account the local expertise, available equipment and facilities, and the priority needs to achieve well-identified scientific goals. Several founding events will be organized in 2018 in several African research centers and higher-education institutions to

  13. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard

    2015-08-01

    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris (http://vespa.obspm.fr). It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  14. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu), it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS (http://ads.harvard.edu) focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  15. Planetary science education in a multidisciplinar environment: an alternative approach for ISU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, A.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the International Space University (ISU) located in Strasbourg, France, is to provide to the participants of its programs an overview of all the aspects of the space field. This also includes a basic background on Planetary Sciences. During the Master 2012 an individual project about impact processes was done. During this project some issues regarding planetary science awareness arise and it brought to the table the need to increase its presence in the ISU programs. The conclusions may be extrapolated to other academic institutions.

  16. 78 FR 56246 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... topics: --Planetary Science Division Update --Mars Exploration Program Update --Government Performance... to providing the following information no less than 10 working days prior to the meeting: full name; gender; date/place of birth; citizenship; visa information (number, type, expiration date); passport...

  17. NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B. H.; Kim, R. M.; Bui, B.; Malhotra, S.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Arevalo, E.; Vu, Q. A.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Program produces a suite of online visualization and analysis tools. Originally designed for mission planning and science, these portals offer great benefits for education and public outreach (EPO), providing access to data from a wide range of instruments aboard a variety of past and current missions. As a component of NASA's Science EPO Infrastructure, they are available as resources for NASA STEM EPO programs, and to the greater EPO community. As new missions are planned to a variety of planetary bodies, these tools are facilitating the public's understanding of the missions and engaging the public in the process of identifying and selecting where these missions will land. There are currently three web portals in the program: the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal or LMMP (http://lmmp.nasa.gov), Vesta Trek (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov), and Mars Trek (http://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov). Portals for additional planetary bodies are planned. As web-based toolsets, the portals do not require users to purchase or install any software beyond current web browsers. The portals provide analysis tools for measurement and study of planetary terrain. They allow data to be layered and adjusted to optimize visualization. Visualizations are easily stored and shared. The portals provide 3D visualization and give users the ability to mark terrain for generation of STL files that can be directed to 3D printers. Such 3D prints are valuable tools in museums, public exhibits, and classrooms - especially for the visually impaired. Along with the web portals, the program supports additional clients, web services, and APIs that facilitate dissemination of planetary data to a range of external applications and venues. NASA challenges and hackathons are also providing members of the software development community opportunities to participate in tool development and leverage data from the portals.

  18. Increasing Underrepresented Students in Geophysics and Planetary Science Through the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, S.; Olgin, J. G.; Enriquez, F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of underrepresented minorities pursuing STEM fields, specifically in the sciences, has declined in recent times. In response, the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS), an undergraduate research internship program in collaboration with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Geological Sciences Department and El Paso Community College (EPCC), was created; providing a mentoring environment so that students can actively engage in science projects with professionals in their field so as to gain the maximum benefits in an academic setting. This past year, interns participated in planetary themed projects which exposed them to the basics of planetary geology, and worked on projects dealing with introductory digital image processing and synthesized data on two planetary bodies; Pluto and Enceladus respectively. Interns harnessed and built on what they have learned through these projects, and directly applied it in an academic environment in solar system astronomy classes at EPCC. Since the majority of interns are transfer students or alums from EPCC, they give a unique perspective and dimension of interaction; giving them an opportunity to personally guide and encourage current students there on available STEM opportunities. The goal was to have interns gain experience in planetary geology investigations and networking with professionals in the field; further promoting their interests and honing their abilities for future endeavors in planetary science. The efficacy of these activities toward getting interns to pursue STEM careers, enhance their education in planetary science, and teaching key concepts in planetary geophysics are demonstrated in this presentation.

  19. Avenues for Scientist Involvement in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S. S.; Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Dalton, H.; Bleacher, L.; Scalice, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is charged by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) with engaging, extending, and supporting the community of E/PO professionals and scientists involved in planetary science education activities in order to help them more effectively and efficiently share NASA science with all learners. A number of resources and opportunities for involvement are available for planetary scientists involved in - or interested in being involved in - E/PO. The Forum provides opportunities for community members to stay informed, communicate, collaborate, leverage existing programs and partnerships, and become more skilled education practitioners. Interested planetary scientists can receive newsletters, participate in monthly calls, interact through an online community workspace, and attend annual E/PO community meetings and meetings of opportunity at science and education conferences. The Forum also provides professional development opportunities on a myriad of topics, from common pre-conceptions in planetary science to program evaluation, to delivering effective workshops. Thematic approaches, such as the Year of the Solar System (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), are coordinated by the Forum; through these efforts resources are presented topically, in a manner that can be easily ported into diverse learning environments. Information about the needs of audiences with which scientists interact - higher education, K-12 education, informal education, and public - currently is being researched by SMD's Audience-Based Working Groups. Their findings and recommendations will be made available to inform the activities and products of E/PO providers so they are able to better serve these audiences. Also in production is a "one-stop-shop" of SMD E/PO products and resources that can be used in conjunction with E/PO activities. Further supporting higher-education efforts, the Forum coordinates a network of planetary science

  20. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  1. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  2. Teaching planetary sciences to elementary school teachers: Programs that work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    1993-01-01

    Planetary sciences can be used to introduce students to the natural world which is a part of their lives. Even children in an urban environment are aware of such phenomena as day and night, shadows, and the seasons. It is a science that transcends cultures, has been prominent in the news in recent years, and can generate excitement in young minds as no other science can. Planetary sciences also provides a useful tool for understanding other sciences and mathematics, and for developing problem solving skills which are important in our technological world. However, only 15 percent of elementary school teachers feel very well qualified to teach earth/space science, while better than 80 percent feel well qualified to teach reading; many teachers avoid teaching science; very little time is actually spent teaching science in the elementary school: 19 minutes per day in K-3 and 38 minutes per day in 4-6. While very little science is taught in elementary and middle school, earth/space science is taught at the elementary level in less than half of the states. It was pointed out that science is not generally given high priority by either teachers or school districts, and is certainly not considered on a par with language arts and mathematics. Therefore, in order to teach science to our youth, we must empower our teachers, making them familiar and comfortable with existing materials. In our earlier workshops, several of our teachers taught in classrooms where the majority of the students were Hispanic (over 90 percent). However, few space sciences materials existed in Spanish. Therefore, most of our materials could not be used effectively in the classroom. To address this issue, NASA materials were translated into Spanish and a series of workshops for bilingual classroom teachers from Tucson and surrounding cities was conducted. Our space sciences workshops and our bilingual classroom workshops and how they address the needs of elementary school teachers in Arizona are

  3. Engaging Audiences in Planetary Science Through Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Mason, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.

    2017-12-01

    One way to share compelling stories is through visuals. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), in collaboration with Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and Space Science Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, has been working with planetary scientists to reach and engage audiences in their research through the use of visualizations. We will share how images and animations have been used in multiple mediums, including the planetarium, Science on a Sphere, the hyperwall, and within apps. Our objectives are to provide a tool that planetary scientists can use to tell their stories, as well as to increase audience awareness of and interest in planetary science. While scientists are involved in the selection of topics and the development of the visuals, LPI and partners seek to increase the planetary science community's awareness of these resources and their ability to incorporate them into their own public engagement efforts. This presentation will share our own resources and efforts, as well as the input received from scientists on how education and public engagement teams can best assist them in developing and using these resources, and disseminating them to both scientists and to informal science education venues.

  4. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  5. Lessons learned from planetary science archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, J.; Grayzeck, E.

    2006-01-01

    The need for scientific archiving of past, current, and future planetary scientific missions, laboratory data, and modeling efforts is indisputable. To quote from a message by G. Santayama carved over the entrance of the US Archive in Washington DC “Those who can not remember the past are doomed to repeat it.” The design, implementation, maintenance, and validation of planetary science archives are however disputed by the involved parties. The inclusion of the archives into the scientific heritage is problematic. For example, there is the imbalance between space agency requirements and institutional and national interests. The disparity of long-term archive requirements and immediate data analysis requests are significant. The discrepancy between the space missions archive budget and the effort required to design and build the data archive is large. An imbalance exists between new instrument development and existing, well-proven archive standards. The authors present their view on the problems and risk areas in the archiving concepts based on their experience acquired within NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA’s Planetary Science Archive (PSA). Individual risks and potential problem areas are discussed based on a model derived from a system analysis done upfront. The major risk for a planetary mission science archive is seen in the combination of minimal involvement by Mission Scientists and inadequate funding. The authors outline how the risks can be reduced. The paper ends with the authors view on future planetary archive implementations including the archive interoperability aspect.

  6. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  7. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  8. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  9. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B

    2017-01-01

    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  10. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  11. Tips and Tools for Teaching Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N. M.

    2011-10-01

    The poster will describe handson exercises with demonstrations, clicker questions and discussion to demonstrate how to help students understand planets on a deeper conceptual level. We'll also discuss ways to take the latest discoveries beyond "wow" and turn them into teachable moments. The goal is to give modern strategies for teaching planetary science, emphasizing physical concepts and comparative principles. All will be given digital copies of video clips, demonstration descriptions, clicker questions, web links and powerpoint slidesets on recent planetary science discoveries.

  12. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.

    2017-09-01

    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  13. An Ion-Propelled Cubesat for Planetary Defense and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Wirz, Richard; Lai, Hairong; Li, Jian-Yang; Connors, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Small satellites can reduce the cost of launch by riding along with other payloads on a large rocket or being launched on a small rocket, but are perceived as having limited capabilities. This perception can be at least partially overcome by innovative design, including ample in-flight propulsion. This allows achieving multiple targets and adaptive exploration. Ion propulsion has been pioneered on Deep Space 1 and honed on the long-duration, multiple-planetary body mission Dawn. Most importantly, the operation of such a mission is now well- understood, including navigation, communication, and science operations for remote sensing. We examined different mission concepts that can be used for both planetary defense and planetary science near 1 AU. Such a spacecraft would travel in the region between Venus and Mars, allowing a complete inventory of material above, including objects down to about 10m diameter to be inventoried. The ion engines could be used to approach these bodies slowly and carefully and allow the spacecraft to map debris and follow its collisional evolution throughout its orbit around the Sun, if so desired. The heritage of Dawn operations experience enables the mission to be operated inexpensively, and the engineering heritage will allow it to be operated for many trips around the Sun.

  14. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  15. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) www.psrd.hawaii.edu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L.; Taylor, J.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Year of the Solar System is celebrating not only Solar System mission milestones but also the collective data reduction and analysis that happens here on Earth. The Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate takes a direct approach to enhance student learning and engage the public in the latest research on meteorites, asteroids, planets, moons, and other materials in our Solar System with the website known as PSRD. The Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website at www.psrd.hawaii.edu explores the science questions that researchers are actively pursuing about our Solar System and explains how the answers are discovered and what they mean. The site helps to convey the scientific basis for sample study to the broader scientific community and the excitement of new results in cosmochemistry to the general public. We share with our broad audience the fascinating discoveries made by cosmochemists, increasing public awareness of the value of sample-focused research in particular and of fundamental scientific research and space exploration in general. The scope of the website covers the full range of cosmochemical research and highlights the investigations of extraterrestrial materials that are used to better understand the origin of the Solar System and the processes by which planets, moons, and small bodies evolve. We relate the research to broader planetary science themes and mission results. Articles are categorized into: asteroids, comets, Earth, instruments of cosmochemistry, Jupiter system, Mars, Mars life issues, Mercury, meteorites, Moon, origins, and space weathering. PSRD articles are based on peer-reviewed, journal publications. Some PSRD articles are based on more than one published paper in order to present multiple views and outcomes of research on a topic of interest. To date, 150 PSRD articles have been based on 184 journal articles (and counting) written by some of the most active cosmochemists and planetary scientists

  16. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  17. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX - http://cpsx.uwo.ca) at The University of Western Ontario has initiated a comprehensive outreach and education program focusing on planetary science and exploration. The goal is to use planetary science to raise general interest in science. Currently, the activities being preformed by the centre can be divided into three broad categories: (1) educational/curriculum based activities, (2) outreach/community based activities, and (3) training. The first is where the push for an increase in interest for science is really critical and is the focus here. In partnership with the Thames Valley District School Board and by using inquiry-based teaching methods, students study various topics under the guidance of a CPSX graduate students and faculty. The educational activities that have taken place are all based on the Ontario curriculum and have been developed with the support of the local school board and teachers. An annual teacher workshop provides a hands-on opportunity for the teachers to interact with CPSX members. The first activity to be developed was on meteorite impact craters. The CPSX web page also contains the lesson plans and activity work sheets for this Cratering Activity, as well as additional activities. As the Cratering Activity is available online, teachers can perform the experiment independently or request the support from a CPSX outreach member. The activity is designed with the following structure: (1) The teacher gives a background presentation (provided by CPSX) which describes crater processes throughout our solar system (specifically comparing Earth to other planets), the consequences of impacts on Earth, the origins of impactors (small bodies) in our solar system, and the mechanical process of an impact. (2) The teacher demonstrates an impact event. Students are to make observations in their lab handout, and sketch what they see. (3) Students (either individually or as a group, based on

  18. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, D. A.; Schneider, N. M.; Beyer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary science is a field that evolves rapidly, motivated by spacecraft mission results. Exciting new mission results are generally communicated rather quickly to the public in the form of press releases and news stories, but it can take several years for new advances to work their way into college textbooks. Yet it is important for students to have exposure to these new advances for a number of reasons. In some cases, new work renders older textbook knowledge incorrect or incomplete. In some cases, new discoveries make it possible to emphasize older textbook knowledge in a new way. In all cases, new advances provide exciting and accessible examples of the scientific process in action. To bridge the gap between textbooks and new advances in planetary sciences we have developed content on new discoveries for use by undergraduate instructors. Called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', each new discovery is summarized in a 3-slide PowerPoint presentation. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts, and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/. Sixteen slide sets have been released so far covering topics spanning all sub-disciplines of planetary science. Results from the following spacecraft missions have been highlighted: MESSENGER, the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Cassini, LCROSS, EPOXI, Chandrayan, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, and Venus Express. Additionally, new results from Earth-orbiting and ground-based observing platforms and programs such as Hubble, Keck, IRTF, the Catalina Sky Survey, HARPS, MEarth, Spitzer, and amateur astronomers have been highlighted. 4-5 new slide sets are

  19. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  20. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  1. Interoperability In The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; Grotheer, E.; Besse, S.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; De Marchi, G.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, there is a greater need to provide interoperability with software and applications that are commonly being used globally. For this purpose, the development of the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA), by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is focused on building a modern science archive that takes into account internationally recognised standards in order to provide access to the archive through tools from third parties, for example by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), the VESPA project from the Virtual Observatory of Paris as well as other international institutions. The protocols and standards currently being supported by the new Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The architecture of the PSA consists of a Geoserver (an open-source map server), the goal of which is to support use cases such as the distribution of search results, sharing and processing data through a OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and a Web Map Service (WMS). This server also allows the retrieval of requested information in several standard output formats like Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Geography Markup Language (GML), shapefile, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and Comma Separated Values (CSV), among others. The provision of these various output formats enables end-users to be able to transfer retrieved data into popular applications such as Google Mars and NASA World Wind.

  2. 76 FR 58303 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: (11-081)] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science...

  3. 76 FR 31641 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-050] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science...

  4. 78 FR 77719 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-156] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the Science...

  5. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Field science in extreme terrestrial environments is often difficult and sometimes dangerous. Field seasons are also often short in duration. Robotic field assistants, particularly small highly mobile rotary-wing platforms, have the potential to significantly augment a field season's scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary aerial vehicle also hold promise for supporting planetary science missions.

  6. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  7. 78 FR 39341 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-070] NASA Advisory Council; Science..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This [[Page 39342

  8. Progress on VESPA, a community-driven Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Capria, M. T.; Schmitt, B.; Genot, V. N.; André, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Carry, B.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.; Fernique, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Europlanet H2020 program started on 1/9/2015 for 4 years. It includes an activity to adapt Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques to Planetary Science data called VESPA. The objective is to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to provide simple data access and on-line visualization, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. The VESPA system, based on a prototype developed in a previous program [1], has been hugely improved during the first two years of Europlanet H2020: the infrastructure has been upgraded to describe data in many fields more accurately; the main user search interface (http://vespa.obspm.fr) has been redesigned to provide more flexibility; alternative ways to access Planetary Science data services from VO tools have been implemented; VO tools are being improved to handle specificities of Solar System data, e.g. measurements in reflected light, coordinate systems, etc. Current steps include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of Heliophysics, planetary plasmas, and mineral spectroscopy data to support of the analysis of observations. Existing data services have been updated, and new ones have been designed. The global objective is already overstepped, with 34 services open and 20 more being finalized. A procedure to install data services has been documented, and hands-on sessions are organized twice a year at EGU and EPSC; this is intended to favour the installation of services by individual research teams, e.g. to distribute derived data related to a published study. In complement, regular discussions are held with big data providers, starting with space agencies (IPDA). Common projects with ESA and NASA's PDS have been engaged, with the goal to connect PDS4 and EPN-TAP. In parallel, a Solar System Interest Group has just been started in IVOA; the goal is here to adapt existing astronomy standards to

  9. Planetary Science Exploration Through 2050: Strategic Gaps in Commercial and International Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.

    2017-02-01

    Planetary science will see greater participation from the commercial sector and international space agencies. It is critical to understand how these entities can partner with NASA through 2050 and help realize NASA's goals in planetary science.

  10. Hayes Receives 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, Laurie A.

    2013-10-01

    Alexander G. Hayes Jr. received the 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting, held 3-7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The award recognizes significant early-career contributions to planetary science.

  11. 76 FR 69292 - NASA Advisory Council Science Committee Planetary Science Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 11-113] NASA Advisory Council Science..., Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces that the meeting of the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council originally scheduled...

  12. A Centaur Reconnaissance Mission: a NASA JPL Planetary Science Summer Seminar mission design experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, L.; Howell, S. M.; Bhattaru, S.; Blalock, J. J.; Bouchard, M.; Brueshaber, S.; Cusson, S.; Eggl, S.; Jawin, E.; Marcus, M.; Miller, K.; Rizzo, M.; Smith, H. B.; Steakley, K.; Thomas, N. H.; Thompson, M.; Trent, K.; Ugelow, M.; Budney, C. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Planetary Science Summer Seminar (PSSS), sponsored by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), offers advanced graduate students and recent doctoral graduates the unique opportunity to develop a robotic planetary exploration mission that answers NASA's Science Mission Directorate's Announcement of Opportunity for the New Frontiers Program. Preceded by a series of 10 weekly webinars, the seminar is an intensive one-week exercise at JPL, where students work directly with JPL's project design team "TeamX" on the process behind developing mission concepts through concurrent engineering, project design sessions, instrument selection, science traceability matrix development, and risks and cost management. The 2017 NASA PSSS team included 18 participants from various U.S. institutions with a diverse background in science and engineering. We proposed a Centaur Reconnaissance Mission, named CAMILLA, designed to investigate the geologic state, surface evolution, composition, and ring systems through a flyby and impact of Chariklo. Centaurs are defined as minor planets with semi-major axis that lies between Jupiter and Neptune's orbit. Chariklo is both the largest Centaur and the only known minor planet with rings. CAMILLA was designed to address high priority cross-cutting themes defined in National Research Council's Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. At the end of the seminar, a final presentation was given by the participants to a review board of JPL scientists and engineers as well as NASA headquarters executives. The feedback received on the strengths and weaknesses of our proposal provided a rich and valuable learning experience in how to design a successful NASA planetary exploration mission and generate a successful New Frontiers proposal. The NASA PSSS is an educational experience that trains the next generation of NASA's planetary explorers by bridging the gap between scientists and engineers, allowing for participants to learn

  13. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  14. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  15. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  16. One year on VESPA, a community-driven Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Capria, M. T.; Schmitt, B.; Andre, N.; Vandaele, A. C.; Scherf, M.; Hueso, R.; Maattanen, A. E.; Thuillot, W.; Achilleos, N.; Marmo, C.; Santolik, O.; Benson, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Europlanet H2020 program started on 1/9/2015 for 4 years. It includes an activity to adapt Virtual Observatory (VO) techniques to Planetary Science data called VESPA. The objective is to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to provide simple data access and on-line visualization, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. The VESPA system, based on a prototype developed in a previous program [1], has been hugely improved during the first year of Europlanet H2020: the infrastructure has been upgraded to describe data in many fields more accurately; the main user search interface (http://vespa.obspm.fr) has been redesigned to provide more flexibility; alternative ways to access Planetary Science data services from VO tools are being implemented in addition to receiving data from the main interface; VO tools are being improved to handle specificities of Solar System data, e.g. measurements in reflected light, coordinate systems, etc. Existing data services have been updated, and new ones have been designed. The global objective (50 data services) is already overstepped, with 54 services open or being finalized. A procedure to install data services has been documented, and hands-on sessions are organized twice a year at EGU and EPSC; this is intended to favour the installation of services by individual research teams, e.g. to distribute derived data related to a published study. In complement, regular discussions are held with big data providers, starting with space agencies (IPDA). Common projects with ESA and NASA's PDS have been engaged, which should lead to a connection between PDS4 and EPN-TAP. In parallel, a Solar System Interest Group has been decided in IVOA; the goal is here to adapt existing astronomy standards to Planetary Science.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of Heliophysics

  17. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  18. Women in Planetary Science: Career Resources and e-Mentoring on Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, and Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebur, S. M.; Singer, K.; Gardner-Vandy, K.

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-one interviews with women in planetary science are now available as an e-mentoring and teaching resource on WomeninPlanetaryScience.com. Each scientist was nominated and interviewed by a fellow member of the planetary science community, and each gladly shared her advice for advancement in the field. Women in Planetary Science was founded in 2008 to connect communities of current and prospective scientists, to promote proposal and award opportunities, and to stimulate discussion in the planetary science community at large. Regular articles, or posts, by nearly a dozen collaborators highlight a range of current issues for women in this field. These articles are promoted by collaborators on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ and shared again by the collaborators' contacts, reaching a significantly wider audience. The group's latest project, on Pinterest, is a crowd-sourced photo gallery of more than 350 inspiring women in planetary science; each photo links to the scientist's CV. The interviews, the essays, and the photo gallery are available online as resources for prospective scientists, planetary scientists, parents, and educators.

  19. Teaching Planetary Sciences in Bilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    1993-05-01

    Planetary sciences can be used to introduce students to the natural world which is a part of their lives. Even children in an urban environment are aware of such phenomena as day and night, shadows, and the seasons. It is a science that transcends cultures, has been prominent in the news in recent years, and can generate excitement in young minds as no other science can. It also provides a useful tool for understanding other sciences and mathematics, and for developing problem solving skills which are important in our technological world. However, only 15 percent of elementary school teachers feel very well qualified to teach earth/space science, while better than 80% feel well qualified to teach reading; many teachers avoid teaching science; very little time is actually spent teaching science in the elementary school: 19 minutes per day in K--3 and 38 minutes per day in 4--6. While very little science is taught in elementary and middle school, earth/space science is taught at the elementary level in less than half of the states. Therefore in order to teach earth/space science to our youth, we must empower our teachers, making them familiar and comfortable with existing materials. Tucson has another, but not unique, problem. The largest public school district, the Tucson Unified School District (TUSD), provides a neighborhood school system enhanced with magnet, bilingual and special needs schools for a school population of 57,000 students that is 4.1% Native American, 6.0% Black, and 36.0% Hispanic (1991). This makes TUSD and the other school districts in and around Tucson ideal for a program that reaches students of diverse ethnic backgrounds. However, few space sciences materials exist in Spanish; most materials could not be used effectively in the classroom. To address this issue, we have translated NASA materials into Spanish and are conducting a series of workshops for bilingual classroom teachers. We will discuss in detail our bilingual classroom workshops

  20. Data Preservation and Curation for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Joyner, R.; Hardman, S.; Rye, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has just released PDS4 Version 1.0, its next generation data standards for the planetary science archive. These data standards are the result of a multi-year effort to develop an information model based on accepted standards for data preservation, data curation, metadata management, and model development. The resulting information model is subsequently used to drive information system development from the generation of data standards documentation to the configuration of federated registries and search engines. This paper will provide an overview of the development of the PDS4 Information Model and focus on the application of the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) Reference Model - ISO 14721:2003, the Metadata Registry (MDR) Standard - ISO/IEC 11179, and the E-Business XML Standard to help ensure the long-term preservation and curation of planetary science data. Copyright 2013 California Institute of Technology Government sponsorship acknowledged

  1. Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. This volume contains papers presented at the Workshop on Advanced Technologies for Planetary Instruments on 28-30 Apr. 1993. This meeting was conceived in response to new challenges facing NASA's robotic solar system exploration program. Over the past several years, SDIO has sponsored a significant technology development program aimed, in part, at the production of instruments with these characteristics. This workshop provided an opportunity for specialists from the planetary science and DOD communities to establish contacts, to explore common technical ground in an open forum, and more specifically, to discuss the applicability of SDIO's technology base to planetary science instruments

  2. Mitchell Receives 2013 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, William B.

    2014-07-01

    The Greeley Early Career Award is named for pioneering planetary scientist Ronald Greeley. Ron was involved in nearly every major planetary mission from the 1970s until his death and was extraordinarily active in service to the planetary science community. Ron's greatest legacies, however, are those he mentored through the decades, and it is young scientists whose work and promise we seek to recognize. This year's Greeley award winner is Jonathan L. Mitchell, an assistant professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Jonathan received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, and after a postdoc at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, he joined the UCLA faculty, where he holds a joint appointment in Earth and space sciences and in atmospheric sciences.

  3. Planetary exploration and science recent results and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2014-01-01

    This contributed monograph is the first work to present the latest results and findings on the new topic and hot field of planetary exploration and sciences, e.g., lunar surface iron content and mare orientale basalts, Earth's gravity field, Martian radar exploration, crater recognition, ionosphere and astrobiology, Comet ionosphere, exoplanetary atmospheres and planet formation in binaries. By providing detailed theory and examples, this book helps readers to quickly familiarize themselves with the field. In addition, it offers a special section on next-generation planetary exploration, which opens a new landscape for future exploration plans and missions. Prof. Shuanggen Jin works at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Dr. Nader Haghighipour works at the University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA. Prof. Wing-Huen Ip works at the National Central University, Taiwan.

  4. 75 FR 57520 - NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-112)] NASA Advisory Council; Planetary Science Subcommittee; Supporting Research and Technology Working Group; Meeting AGENCY: National... announces a meeting of the Supporting Research and Technology Working Group of the Planetary Science...

  5. Using Primary Literature for Teaching Undergraduate Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.

    2013-05-01

    Articles from the primary scientific literature can be a valuable teaching tool in undergraduate classrooms. At Colgate University, I emphasize selected research articles in an upper-level undergraduate course in planetary sciences. In addition to their value for conveying specific scientific content, I find that they also impart larger lessons which are especially apt in planetary sciences and allied fields. First, because of the interdisciplinary nature of planetary sciences, students discover that contributions to outstanding problems may arrive from unexpected directions, so they need to be aware of the multi-faceted nature of scientific problems. For instance, after millennia of astrometric attempts, the scale of the Solar System was determined with extraordinary precision with emerging radar technology in the 1960's. Second, students learn the importance of careful work, with due attention to detail. After all, the timescales of planetary formation are encoded in systematic isotopic variations of a few parts in 10,000; in students' own experiences with laboratory data they might well overlook such a small effect. Third, students identify the often-tortuous connections between measured and inferred quantities, which corrects a common student misconception that all quantities of interest (e.g., the age of a meteorite) can be measured directly. Fourth, research articles provide opportunities for students to practice the interpretation of graphical data, since figures often represent a large volume of data in succinct form. Fifth, and perhaps of greatest importance, by considering the uncertainties inherent in reported data, students come to recognize the limits of scientific understanding, the extent to which scientific conclusions are justified (or not), and the lengths to which working scientists go to mitigate their uncertainties. These larger lessons are best mediated by students' own encounters with the articles they read, but require instructors to make

  6. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include the following: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included

  7. Techniques for Engaging the Public in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; Smith Hackler, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Public audiences are often curious about planetary science. Scientists and education and public engagement specialists can leverage this interest to build scientific literacy. This poster will highlight research-based techniques the authors have tested with a variety of audiences, and are disseminating to planetary scientists through trainings.Techniques include:Make it personal. Audiences are interested in personal stories, which can capture the excitement, joy, and challenges that planetary scientists experience in their research. Audiences can learn more about the nature of science by meeting planetary scientists and hearing personal stories about their motivations, interests, and how they conduct research.Share relevant connections. Most audiences have very limited understanding of the solar system and the features and compositions of planetary bodies, but they enjoy learning about those objects they can see at night and factors that connect to their culture or local community.Demonstrate concepts. Some concepts can be clarified with analogies, but others can be demonstrated or modeled with materials. Demonstrations that are messy, loud, or that yield surprising results are particularly good at capturing an audience’s attention, but if they don’t directly relate to the key concept, they can serve as a distraction.Give them a role. Audience participation is an important engagement technique. In a presentation, scientists can invite the audience to respond to questions, pause to share their thoughts with a neighbor, or vote on an answer. Audiences can respond physically to prompts, raising hands, pointing, or clapping, or even moving to different locations in the room.Enable the audience to conduct an activity. People learn best by doing and by teaching others; simple hands-on activities in which the audience is discovering something themselves can be extremely effective at engaging audiences.This poster will cite examples of each technique, resources that

  8. Terahertz heterodyne technology for astronomy and planetary science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Heterodyne detection techniques play an important role in high-resolution spectroscopy in astronomy and planetary science. In particular, heterodyne technology in the Terahertz range has rapidly evolved in recent years. Cryogenically cooled receivers approaching quantum-limited sensitivity have been

  9. Career and Workforce Impacts of the NASA Planetary Science Summer School: TEAM X model 1999-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie L.; Budney, Charles; Mitchell, Karl; Wessen, Alice; JPL Education Office, JPL Team X

    2016-10-01

    Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. PSSS utilizes JPL's emerging concurrent mission design "Team X" as mentors. With this model, participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. Applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, doctoral or graduate students, and faculty teaching such students. An overview of the program will be presented, along with results of a diversity study conducted in fall 2015 to assess the gender and ethnic diversity of participants since 1999. PSSS seeks to have a positive influence on participants' career choice and career progress, and to help feed the employment pipeline for NASA, aerospace, and related academia. Results will also be presented of an online search that located alumni in fall 2015 related to their current occupations (primarily through LinkedIn and university and corporate websites), as well as a 2015 survey of alumni.

  10. Enabling interoperability in planetary sciences and heliophysics: The case for an information model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Raugh, Anne C.; Cecconi, Baptiste; Guinness, Edward A.; Isbell, Christopher E.; Mafi, Joseph N.; Gordon, Mitchell K.; Hardman, Sean H.; Joyner, Ronald S.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Data System has developed the PDS4 Information Model to enable interoperability across diverse science disciplines. The Information Model is based on an integration of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) level standards for trusted digital archives, information model development, and metadata registries. Where controlled vocabularies provides a basic level of interoperability by providing a common set of terms for communication between both machines and humans the Information Model improves interoperability by means of an ontology that provides semantic information or additional related context for the terms. The information model was defined by team of computer scientists and science experts from each of the diverse disciplines in the Planetary Science community, including Atmospheres, Geosciences, Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Navigational and Ancillary Information, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Ring-Moon Systems, and Small Bodies. The model was designed to be extensible beyond the Planetary Science community, for example there are overlaps between certain PDS disciplines and the Heliophysics and Astrophysics disciplines. "Interoperability" can apply to many aspects of both the developer and the end-user experience, for example agency-to-agency, semantic level, and application level interoperability. We define these types of interoperability and focus on semantic level interoperability, the type of interoperability most directly enabled by an information model.

  11. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...; Issues and Status --Planetary Protection for Cached Mars Samples --Planetary Science Update --Mars... later than the close of business November 5, 2013. Foreign Nationals must provide following information: full name, gender, date/place of birth, citizenship, home address, visa information (number, type...

  12. Spice Products Available to The Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the availability of SPICE products to the Planetary Science Community. The topics include: 1) What Are SPICE Data; 2) SPICE File Types; 3) SPICE Software; 4) Examples of What Can Be Computed Using SPICE Data and Software; and 5) SPICE File Avalability.

  13. Teaching Planetary Science as Part of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam H.

    2017-10-01

    In Spring 2016 and 2017, UCLA offered a course titled "EPSS C179/279 - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Theory and Applications". The course is designed for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the science, technical, engineering, and mathematical fields. Each year, students designed an observing sequence for the Green Bank telescope, observed known planetary systems remotely, wrote a sophisticated and modular data processing pipeline, analyzed the data, and presented their results. In 2016, 15 students participated in the course (9U, 5G; 11M, 3F) and observed 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field. In 2017, 17 students participated (15U, 2G; 10M, 7F) and observed 10 planetary systems in the Kepler field, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. In order to select suitable targets, students learned about planetary systems, planetary habitability, and planetary dynamics. In addition to planetary science fundamentals, students learned radio astronomy fundamentals, collaborative software development, signal processing techniques, and statistics. Evaluations indicate that the course is challenging but that students are eager to learn because of the engrossing nature of SETI. Students particularly value the teamwork approach, the observing experience, and working with their own data. The next offering of the course will be in Spring 2018. Additional information about our SETI work is available at seti.ucla.edu.

  14. VESPA: developing the planetary science Virtual Observatory in H2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Capria, Teresa; Rossi, Angelo Pio

    2016-04-01

    The Europlanet H2020 programme will develop a research infrastructure in Horizon 2020. The programme includes a follow-on to the FP7 activity aimed at developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (VO). This activity is called VESPA, which stands for Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access. Building on the IDIS activity of Europlanet FP7, VESPA will distribute more data, will improve the connected tools and infrastructure, and will help developing a community of both users and data providers. One goal of the Europlanet FP7 programme was to set the basis for a European Virtual Observatory in Planetary Science. A prototype has been set up during FP7, most of the activity being dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), plasma physics (SPASE), and space archive services (IPDA). It remains consistent with extensions of IVOA standards.

  15. Aerocapture Technology Development for Planetary Science - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Within NASA's Science Mission Directorate is a technological program dedicated to improving the cost, mass, and trip time of future scientific missions throughout the Solar System. The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program, established in 2001, is charged with advancing propulsion systems used in space from Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3 to TRL6, and with planning activities leading to flight readiness. The program's content has changed considerably since inception, as the program has refocused its priorities. One of the technologies that has remained in the ISPT portfolio through these changes is Aerocapture. Aerocapture is the use of a planetary body's atmosphere to slow a vehicle from hyperbolic velocity to a low-energy orbit suitable for science. Prospective use of this technology has repeatedly shown huge mass savings for missions of interest in planetary exploration, at Titan, Neptune, Venus, and Mars. With launch vehicle costs rising, these savings could be the key to mission viability. This paper provides an update on the current state of the Aerocapture technology development effort, summarizes some recent key findings, and highlights hardware developments that are ready for application to Aerocapture vehicles and entry probes alike. Description of Investments: The Aerocapture technology area within the ISPT program has utilized the expertise around NASA to perform Phase A-level studies of future missions, to identify technology gaps that need to be filled to achieve flight readiness. A 2002 study of the Titan Explorer mission concept showed that the combination of Aerocapture and a Solar Electric Propulsion system could deliver a lander and orbiter to Titan in half the time and on a smaller, less expensive launch vehicle, compared to a mission using chemical propulsion for the interplanetary injection and orbit insertion. The study also identified no component technology breakthroughs necessary to implement Aerocapture on such a mission

  16. Teaching Planetary Sciences at the Universidad del País Vasco in Spain: The Aula Espazio Gela and its Master in Space Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.

    2011-12-01

    Planetary science is a highly multidisciplinary field traditionally associated to Astronomy, Physics or Earth Sciences Departments. Spanish universities do not generally offer planetary sciences courses but some departments give courses associated to studies on Astronomy or Geology. We show a different perspective obtained at the Engeneering School at the Universidad del País Vasco in Bilbao, Spain, which offers a Master in Space Science and Technology to graduates in Engineering or Physics. Here we detail the experience acquired in two years of this master which offers several planetary science courses: Solar System Physics, Astronomy, Planetary Atmospheres & Space Weather together with more technical courses. The university also owns an urban observatory in the Engineering School which is used for practical exercises and student projects. The planetary science courses have also resulted in motivating part of the students to do their master thesis in scientific subjects in planetary sciences. Since the students have very different backgrounds their master theses have been quite different: From writing open software tools to detect bolides in video observations of Jupiter atmosphere to the photometric calibration and scientific use or their own Jupiter and Saturn images or the study of atmospheric motions of the Venus' South Polar Vortex using data from the Venus Express spacecraft. As a result of this interaction with the students some of them have been engaged to initiate Ph.D.s in planetary sciences enlarging a relative small field in Spain. Acknowledgements: The Master in Space Science and Technology is offered by the Aula Espazio Gela at the Universidad del País Vasco Engineer School in Bilbao, Spain and is funded by Diputación Foral de Bizkaia.

  17. The Art Of Planetary Science: An Exhibition - Bringing Together The Art And Science Communities To Engage The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Jamie; Keane, Jamies; Peacock, Sarah; Schaefer, Ethan; Tanquary, Hannah

    2014-11-01

    The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) presents the 2nd Annual The Art of Planetary Science: An Exhibition (TAPS) on 17-19 October 2014. This art exhibition and competition features artwork inspired by planetary science, alongside works created from scientific data. It is designed to connect the local art and science communities of Tucson, and engage the public together in celebration of the beauty and elegance of the universe. The exhibition is organized by a team of volunteer graduate students, with the help of LPL’s Space Imaging Center, and support from the LPL administration. Last year’s inaugural event featured over 150 works of art from 70 artists and scientists. A variety of mediums were represented, including paintings, photography, digital prints, sculpture, glasswork, textiles, film, and written word. Over 300 guests attended the opening. Art submission and event attendance are free, and open to anyone.The primary goal of the event is to present a different side of science to the public. Too often, the public sees science as dull or beyond their grasp. This event provides scientists the opportunity to demonstrate the beauty that they find in their science, by creating art out of their scientific data. These works utilized, for example, equations, simulations, visual representations of spacecraft data, and images of extra-terrestrial material samples. Viewing these works alongside more traditional artwork inspired by those same scientific ideas provided the audience a more complex, multifaceted view of the content that would not be possible viewing either alone. The event also provides a way to reach out specifically to the adult community. Most science outreach is targeted towards engaging children in STEM fields. While this is vital for the long term, adults have more immediate control over the perception of science and public policy that provides funding and research opportunities to scientists. We hope this event raises

  18. Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS): A Low-Resource Combined Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehill, L. C.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Dallmann, N. A.; Feldman, W. C.; Mesick, K.; Nowicki, S.; Storms, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS) is an innovative, low-resource gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer for planetary science missions, enabled by new scintillator and photodetector technologies. Neutrons and gamma rays are produced by cosmic ray interactions with planetary bodies and their subsequent interactions with the near-surface materials produce distinctive energy spectra. Measuring these spectra reveals details of the planetary near-surface composition that are not accessible through any other phenomenology. EPICS will be the first planetary science instrument to fully integrate the neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers. This integration is enabled by the elpasolite family of scintillators that offer gamma-ray spectroscopy energy resolutions as good as 3% FWHM at 662 keV, thermal neutron sensitivity, and the ability to distinguish gamma-ray and neutron signals via pulse shape differences. This new detection technology will significantly reduce size, weight, and power (SWaP) while providing similar neutron performance and improved gamma energy resolution compared to previous scintillator instruments, and the ability to monitor the cosmic-ray source term. EPICS will detect scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers rather than traditional photomultiplier tubes, offering dramatic additional SWaP reduction. EPICS is under development with Los Alamos National Laboratory internal research and development funding. Here we report on the EPICS design, provide an update on the current status of the EPICS development, and discuss the expected sensitivity and performance of EPICS in several potential missions to airless bodies.

  19. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  20. Planetary Science Educational Materials for Out-of-School Time Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Clark, Joelle G.

    2017-10-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) is a five-year NASA-funded (NNX16AC53A) interdisciplinary and cross-institutional partnership to develop and disseminate STEM out-of-school time (OST) curricular and professional development units that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. The Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) and Department of Physics and Astronomy (P&A) at Northern Arizona University, the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center (USGS ASC), and the Museum of Science Boston (MoS) are partners in developing, piloting, and researching the impact of three out-of-school time units. Planetary scientists at USGS ASC and P&A have developed two units for middle grades youth and one for upper elementary aged youth. The two middle school units focus on greywater recycling and remote sensing of planetary surfaces while the elementary unit centers on exploring space hazards. All units are designed for small teams of ~4 youth to work together to investigate materials, engineer tools to assist in the explorations, and utilize what they have learned to solve a problem. Youth participate in a final share-out with adults and other youth of what they learned and their solution to the problem. Curriculum pilot testing of the two middle school units has begun with out-of-school time educators. A needs assessment has been conducted nationwide among educators and evaluation of the curriculum units is being conducted by CSTL during the pilot testing. Based on data analysis, the project is developing and testing four tiers of professional support for OST educators. Tier 1 meets the immediate needs of OST educators to teach curriculum and include how-to videos and other direct support materials. Tier 2 provides additional content and pedagogical knowledge and includes short content videos designed to specifically address the content of the curriculum. Tier 3 elaborates on best practices

  1. Planetary Sciences, Geodynamics, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Evolution: Developments and Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research frontiers in geophysics are being expanded, with development of new fields resulting from technological advances such as the Earth observation satellite network, global positioning system, high pressure-temperature physics, tomographic methods, and big data computing. Planetary missions and enhanced exoplanets detection capabilities, with discovery of a wide range of exoplanets and multiple systems, have renewed attention to models of planetary system formation and planet’s characteristics, Earth’s interior, and geodynamics, highlighting the need to better understand the Earth system, processes, and spatio-temporal scales. Here we review the emerging interconnections resulting from advances in planetary sciences, geodynamics, high pressure-temperature physics, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions.

  2. Hayes Receives 2012 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    I am deeply honored to be the inaugural recipient of the Ronald Greeley Early Career Award. Ron was an icon in the field of planetary science, and the establishment of this award is a fitting way to pay tribute to his legacy. I applaud Laurie Leshin, Bill McKinnon, and the rest of the AGU Planetary Science section officers and selection committee for taking the time to organize this memorial. Ron is remembered not only for his fundamental scientific contributions but also for his mentorship and support of early-career scientists, both his own students and postdocs and those of his colleagues.

  3. Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real

  4. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD): Effective Education and Outreach Website at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/PSRdiscoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website reports the latest research about planets, meteorites, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. In-depth articles explain research results and give insights to contemporary questions in planetary science.

  5. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  6. Earthbound Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVS) As Planetary Science Testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the technology of unmanned vehicles have greatly expanded the range of contemplated terrestrial operational environments for their use, including aerial, surface, and submarine. The advances have been most pronounced in the areas of autonomy, miniaturization, durability, standardization, and ease of operation, most notably (especially in the popular press) for airborne vehicles. Of course, for a wide range of planetary venues, autonomy at high cost of both money and risk, has always been a requirement. Most recently, missions to Mars have also featured an unprecedented degree of mobility. Combining the traditional planetary surface deployment operational and science imperatives with emerging, very accessible, and relatively economical small UAV platforms on Earth can provide flexible, rugged, self-directed, test-bed platforms for landed instruments and strategies that will ultimately be directed elsewhere, and, in the process, provide valuable earth science data. While the most direct transfer of technology from terrestrial to planetary venues is perhaps for bodies with atmospheres (and oceans), with appropriate technology and strategy accommodations, single and networked UAVs can be designed to operate on even airless bodies, under a variety of gravities. In this presentation, we present and use results and lessons learned from our recent earth-bound UAV volcano deployments, as well as our future plans for such, to conceptualize a range of planetary and small-body missions. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of students and colleagues at our home institutions, and the government of Costa Rica, without which our UAV deployments would not have been possible. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA.

  7. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  8. Remote Sensing Data Analytics for Planetary Science with PlanetServer/EarthServer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Figuera, Ramiro Marco; Flahaut, Jessica; Martinot, Melissa; Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter; Pham Huu, Bang; Besse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Planetary Science datasets, beyond the change in the last two decades from physical volumes to internet-accessible archives, still face the problem of large-scale processing and analytics (e.g. Rossi et al., 2014, Gaddis and Hare, 2015). PlanetServer, the Planetary Science Data Service of the EC-funded EarthServer-2 project (#654367) tackles the planetary Big Data analytics problem with an array database approach (Baumann et al., 2014). It is developed to serve a large amount of calibrated, map-projected planetary data online, mainly through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) (e.g. Rossi et al., 2014; Oosthoek et al., 2013; Cantini et al., 2014). The focus of the H2020 evolution of PlanetServer is still on complex multidimensional data, particularly hyperspectral imaging and topographic cubes and imagery. In addition to hyperspectral and topographic from Mars (Rossi et al., 2014), the use of WCPS is applied to diverse datasets on the Moon, as well as Mercury. Other Solar System Bodies are going to be progressively available. Derived parameters such as summary products and indices can be produced through WCPS queries, as well as derived imagery colour combination products, dynamically generated and accessed also through OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS). Scientific questions translated into queries can be posed to a large number of individual coverages (data products), locally, regionally or globally. The new PlanetServer system uses the the Open Source Nasa WorldWind (e.g. Hogan, 2011) virtual globe as visualisation engine, and the array database Rasdaman Community Edition as core server component. Analytical tools and client components of relevance for multiple communities and disciplines are shared across service such as the Earth Observation and Marine Data Services of EarthServer. The Planetary Science Data Service of EarthServer is accessible on http://planetserver.eu. All its code base is going to be available on GitHub, on

  9. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  10. Planetary Science Education - Workshop Concepts for Classrooms and Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiol, S.; Rosenberg, H.; Rohwer, G.; Balthasar, H.; van Gasselt, S.

    2014-12-01

    In Germany, education in astronomy and planetary sciences is limited to very few schools or universities and is actively pursued by only selected research groups. Our group is situated at the Freie Universität Berlin and we are actively involved in space missions such as Mars Express, Cassini in the Saturnian system, and DAWN at Vesta and Ceres. In order to enhance communication and establish a broader basis for building up knowledge on our solar-system neighborhood, we started to offer educational outreach in the form of workshops for groups of up to 20 students from primary/middle schools to high schools. Small group sizes guarantee practical, interactive, and dialog-based working environments as well as a high level of motivation. Several topical workshops have been designed which are targeted at different age groups and which consider different educational background settings. One workshop called "Impact craters on planets and moons" provides a group-oriented setting in which 3-4 students analyze spacecraft images showing diverse shapes of impact craters on planetary surfaces. It is targeted not only at promoting knowledge about processes on planetary surfaces but it also stimulates visual interpretation skills, 3D viewing and reading of map data. A second workshop "We plan a manned mission to Mars" aims at fostering practical team work by designing simple space mission scenarios which are solved within a team by collaboration and responsibility. A practical outdoor activity called "Everything rotates around the Sun" targets at developing a perception of absolute - but in particular relative - sizes, scales and dimensions of objects in our solar system. Yet another workshop "Craters, volcanoes and co. - become a geologist on Mars" was offered at the annual national "Girls' Day" aiming at motivating primary to middle school girls to deal with topics in classical natural sciences. Small groups investigated and interpreted geomorphologic features in image data of

  11. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  12. Special issue on enabling open and interoperable access to Planetary Science and Heliophysics databases and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The large amount of data generated by modern space missions calls for a change of organization of data distribution and access procedures. Although long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations, high-level functions need to be developed on top of these repositories to make Planetary Science and Heliophysics data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations. Interoperable software and interfaces have recently been developed in many scientific domains. The Virtual Observatory (VO) interoperable standards developed for Astronomy by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) can be adapted to Planetary Sciences, as demonstrated by the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) team within the Europlanet-H2020-RI project. Other communities have developed their own standards: GIS (Geographic Information System) for Earth and planetary surfaces tools, SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) for space plasma, PDS4 (NASA Planetary Data System, version 4) and IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) for planetary mission archives, etc, and an effort to make them interoperable altogether is starting, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources.

  13. On-Orbit Planetary Science Laboratories for Simulating Surface Conditions of Planets and Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Our work has identified the use of on-orbit centrifuge science laboratories as a key enabler towards low-cost, fast-track physical simulation of off-world environments for future planetary science missions.

  14. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  15. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  16. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  17. Preparing Science Teachers: Strong Emphasis on Science Content Course Work in a Master's Program in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajhar, Edward A.; Blackwell, E.; Quesada, D.

    2010-05-01

    In South Florida, science teacher preparation is often weak as a shortage of science teachers often prompts administrators to assign teachers to science classes just to cover the classroom needs. This results is poor preparation of students for college science course work, which, in turn, causes the next generation of science teachers to be even weaker than the first. This cycle must be broken in order to prepare better students in the sciences. At St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, our School of Science has teamed with our Institute for Education to create a program to alleviate this problem: A Master of Science in Education with a Concentration in Earth/Space Science. The Master's program consists of 36 total credits. Half the curriculum consists of traditional educational foundation and instructional leadership courses while the other half is focused on Earth and Space Science content courses. The content area of 18 credits also provides a separate certificate program. Although traditional high school science education places a heavy emphasis on Earth Science, this program expands that emphasis to include the broader context of astronomy, astrophysics, astrobiology, planetary science, and the practice and philosophy of science. From this contextual basis the teacher is better prepared to educate and motivate middle and high school students in all areas of the physical sciences. Because hands-on experience is especially valuable to educators, our program uses materials and equipment including small optical telescopes (Galileoscopes), several 8-in and 14-in Celestron and Meade reflectors, and a Small Radio Telescope installed on site. (Partial funding provided by the US Department of Education through Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program grant P120A050062.)

  18. Inclusive Planetary Science Outreach and Education: a Pioneering European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, A.; Ballesteros, F.; García-Frank, A.; Gil, S.; Gil-Ortiz, A.; Gómez-Heras, M.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Parro, L. M.; Parro, V.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Raposo, V.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Universal access to space science and exploration for researchers, students and the public, regardless of physical abilities or condition, is the main objective of work by the Space Inclusive Network (SpaceIn). The purpose of SpaceIn is to conduct educational and communication activities on Space Science in an inclusive and accessible way, so that physical disability is not an impediment for participating. SpaceIn members aim to enlarge the network also by raising awareness among individuals such as undergraduate students, secondary school teachers, and members of the public with an interest and basic knowledge on science and astronomy. As part of a pilot experience, current activities are focused on education and outreach in the field of comparative Planetary Science and Astrobiology. Themes include the similarities and differences between terrestrial planets, the role of water and its interaction with minerals on their surfaces, the importance of internal thermal energy in shaping planets and moons and the implications for the appearance of life, as we know it, in our planet and, possibly, in other places in our Solar System and beyond. The topics also include how scientific research and space missions can shed light on these fundamental issues, such as how life appears on a planet, and thus, why planetary missions are important in our society, as a source of knowledge and inspiration. The tools that are used to communicate the concepts include talks with support of multimedia and multi-sensorial material (video, audio, tactile, taste, smell) and field trips to planetary analogue sites that are accessible to most members of the public, including people with some kind of disability. The field trips help illustrate scientific concepts in geology e.g. lava formations, folds, impact features, gullies, salt plains; biology, e.g. extremophiles, halophites; and exploration technology, e.g. navigation in an unknown environment, hazard and obstacle avoidance

  19. Publications of the planetary biology program for 1975: A special bibliography. [on NASA programs and research projects on extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, K. A. (Compiler); Young, R. S. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The Planetary Biology Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the first and only integrated program to methodically investigate the planetary events which may have been responsible for, or related to, the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe. Research supported by this program is divided into the seven areas listed below: (1) chemical evolution, (2) organic geochemistry, (3) life detection, (4) biological adaptation, (5) bioinstrumentation, (6) planetary environments, and (7) origin of life. The arrangement of references in this bibliography follows the division of research described above. Articles are listed alphabetically by author under the research area with which they are most closely related. Only those publications which resulted from research supported by the Planetary Biology Program and which bear a 1975 publication date have been included. Abstracts and theses are not included because of the preliminary and abbreviated nature of the former and the frequent difficulty of obtaining the latter.

  20. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Developing Inquiry Based Lesson Plans to Teach Planetary Science In Elementary And Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.; Dominey, W.; Ramsey, J.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the development of a detailed set of new 5E lesson plans to

  1. The restructuring of analogical reasoning in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard J.

    Despite its ubiquity in planetary science, analogue-based reasoning largely has geomorphology and posit rules of use that facilitate the evaluation of Q y, I present four hypotheses concerning aeolian, fluvial and periglacial processes on Mars. Each of these hypotheses is evaluated in terms of the analogical rules presented. The fourth hypothesis is original to this thesis and suggests that a periglacial landscape comprising pingos and small-scale polygonal ground exists in an impact crater located in northwest Utopia Planitia.

  2. Institute of Geophyics and Planetary Physics. Annual report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, F.J. [ed.

    1995-09-29

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, and Irvine and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the six branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, high-pressure sciences, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and is structured around three research centers. The Center for Geosciences, headed by George Zandt and Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Center for High-Pressure Sciences, headed by William Nellis, sponsors research on the properties of planetary materials and on the synthesis and preparation of new materials using high-pressure processing.

  3. Public Engagement with the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Andrew; Shupla, Christine; Smith Hackler, Amanda; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Joseph, Emily C. S.

    2016-10-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's (LPI) public engagement programs target audiences of all ages and backgrounds; in 2016 LPI has expanded its programs to reach wider, more diverse audiences. The status, resources, and findings of these programs, including evaluation results, will be discussed in this poster. LPI's Cosmic Explorations Speaker Series (CESS) is an annual public speaker series to engage the public in space science and exploration. Each thematic series includes four to five presentations held between September and May. Past series' titles have included "Science" on the Silver Screen, The Universe is Out to Get Us and What We Can (or Can't) Do About It, and A User's Guide to the Universe: You Live Here. Here's What You Need to Know. While the presentations are available online after the event, they are now being livestreamed to be accessible to a broader national, and international, audience. Sky Fest events, held four to five times a year, have science content themes and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. Themes include both planetary and astronomy topics as well as planetary exploration topics (e.g., celebrating the launch or landing of a spacecraft). Elements of the Sky Fest program are being conducted in public libraries serving audiences underrepresented in STEM near LPI. These programs take place as part of existing hour-long programs in the library. During this hour, young people, typically 6-12 years old, move through three stations where they participate in hands-on activities. Like Sky Fest, these programs are thematic, centered on one over-arching topic such as the Moon or Mars. Beginning in Fall 2016, LPI will present programs at a revitalized park in downtown Houston. Facilities at this park will enable LPI to bring both the Sky Fest and CESS programs into the heart of Houston, which is one of the most diverse cities in the US and the world.

  4. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  5. Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial in the field of planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A.

    2012-12-01

    Information technology applied to geospatial analyses has spread quickly in the last ten years. The availability of OpenData and data from collaborative mapping projects increased the interest on tools, procedures and methods to handle spatially-related information. Free Open Source Software projects devoted to geospatial data handling are gaining a good success as the use of interoperable formats and protocols allow the user to choose what pipeline of tools and libraries is needed to solve a particular task, adapting the software scene to his specific problem. In particular, the Free Open Source model of development mimics the scientific method very well, and researchers should be naturally encouraged to take part to the development process of these software projects, as this represent a very agile way to interact among several institutions. When it comes to planetary sciences, geospatial Free Open Source Software is gaining a key role in projects that commonly involve different subjects in an international scenario. Very popular software suites for processing scientific mission data (for example, ISIS) and for navigation/planning (SPICE) are being distributed along with the source code and the interaction between user and developer is often very strict, creating a continuum between these two figures. A very widely spread library for handling geospatial data (GDAL) has started to support planetary data from the Planetary Data System, and recent contributions enabled the support to other popular data formats used in planetary science, as the Vicar one. The use of Geographic Information System in planetary science is now diffused, and Free Open Source GIS, open GIS formats and network protocols allow to extend existing tools and methods developed to solve Earth based problems, also to the case of the study of solar system bodies. A day in the working life of a researcher using Free Open Source Software for geospatial will be presented, as well as benefits and

  6. 78 FR 21421 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-048] NASA Advisory Council; Science...-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the...

  7. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  8. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  9. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  10. Investments by NASA to build planetary protection capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxbaum, Karen; Conley, Catharine; Lin, Ying; Hayati, Samad

    NASA continues to invest in capabilities that will enable or enhance planetary protection planning and implementation for future missions. These investments are critical to the Mars Exploration Program and will be increasingly important as missions are planned for exploration of the outer planets and their icy moons. Since the last COSPAR Congress, there has been an opportunity to respond to the advice of NRC-PREVCOM and the analysis of the MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group. This stimulated research into such things as expanded bioburden reduction options, modern molecular assays and genetic inventory capability, and approaches to understand or avoid recontamination of spacecraft parts and samples. Within NASA, a portfolio of PP research efforts has been supported through the NASA Office of Planetary Protection, the Mars Technology Program, and the Mars Program Office. The investment strategy focuses on technology investments designed to enable future missions and reduce their costs. In this presentation we will provide an update on research and development supported by NASA to enhance planetary protection capability. Copyright 2008 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  11. Planetary Sciences practical experiences at the Master level with small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Hueso, R.; Ordonez Etxeberria, I.; Rojas, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Master in Space Science and Technology of the Basque Country University UPV/EHU in Bilbao (Spain) has been taught during 7 years (A. Sanchez-Lavega et al., Eur. J. of Eng. Education. 2014). Along the different courses, a series of practical observations and studies of planetary sciences have been conducted with Master students, using telescopes with diameters in the range 28-50 cm pertaining to the Aula EspaZio Gela Observatory (http://www.ehu.eus/aula-espazio/presentacion.html). Simple instrumentation (cameras and a spectrograph) have been employed to study planetary atmospheres (dynamics and cloud structure) and orbital mechanics using the Galilean satellites. Here we present a sample of these studies, which have lead to publications in refereed journals and have been presented at different meetings with the coauthoring of the students. Plans for the future include involving the master students in high-resolution observations of Solar System planets using a remote controlled 36 cm telescope at the Calar Alto observatory in Southern Spain (separated 1000 km from the teaching facilities in Bilbao).

  12. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  13. Vision and Voyages: Lessons Learned from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most recent planetary decadal survey, entitled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, provided a detailed set of priorities for solar system exploration. Those priorities drew on broad input from the U.S. and international planetary science community. Using white papers, town hall meetings, and open meetings of the decadal committees, community views were solicited and a consensus began to emerge. The final report summarized that consensus. Like many past decadal reports, the centerpiece of Vision and Voyages was a set of priorities for future space flight projects. Two things distinguished this report from some previous decadals. First, conservative and independent cost estimates were obtained for all of the projects that were considered. These independent cost estimates, rather than estimates generated by project advocates, were used to judge each project's expected science return per dollar. Second, rather than simply accepting NASA's ten-year projection of expected funding for planetary exploration, decision rules were provided to guide program adjustments if actual funding did not follow projections. To date, NASA has closely followed decadal recommendations. In particular, the two highest priority "flagship" missions, a Mars rover to collect samples for return to Earth and a mission to investigate a possible ocean on Europa, are both underway. The talk will describe the planetary decadal process in detail, and provide a more comprehensive assessment of NASA's response to it.

  14. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  15. The Role of NASA's Planetary Data System in the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effort underway in NASA's planetary science community is the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mapsit/). MAPSIT is a community assessment group organized to address a lack of strategic spatial data planning for space science and exploration. Working with MAPSIT, a new initiative of NASA and USGS is the development of a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) that builds on extensive knowledge on storing, accessing, and working with terrestrial spatial data. PSDI is a knowledge and technology framework that enables the efficient discovery, access, and exploitation of planetary spatial data to facilitate data analysis, knowledge synthesis, and decision-making. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) archives >1.2 petabytes of digital data resulting from decades of planetary exploration and research. The PDS charter focuses on the efficient collection, archiving, and accessibility of these data. The PDS emphasis on data preservation and archiving is complementary to that of the PSDI initiative because the latter utilizes and extends available data to address user needs in the areas of emerging technologies, rapid development of tailored delivery systems, and development of online collaborative research environments. The PDS plays an essential PSDI role because it provides expertise to help NASA missions and other data providers to organize and document their planetary data, to collect and maintain the archives with complete, well-documented and peer-reviewed planetary data, to make planetary data accessible by providing online data delivery tools and search services, and ultimately to ensure the long-term preservation and usability of planetary data. The current PDS4 information model extends and expands PDS metadata and relationships between and among elements of the collections. The PDS supports data delivery through several node services, including the Planetary Image Atlas (https

  16. SEQ-POINTER: Next generation, planetary spacecraft remote sensing science observation design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jeffrey S.

    1994-11-01

    Since Mariner, NASA-JPL planetary missions have been supported by ground software to plan and design remote sensing science observations. The software used by the science and sequence designers to plan and design observations has evolved with mission and technological advances. The original program, PEGASIS (Mariners 4, 6, and 7), was re-engineered as POGASIS (Mariner 9, Viking, and Mariner 10), and again later as POINTER (Voyager and Galileo). Each of these programs were developed under technological, political, and fiscal constraints which limited their adaptability to other missions and spacecraft designs. Implementation of a multi-mission tool, SEQ POINTER, under the auspices of the JPL Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) is in progress. This version has been designed to address the limitations experienced on previous versions as they were being adapted to a new mission and spacecraft. The tool has been modularly designed with subroutine interface structures to support interchangeable celestial body and spacecraft definition models. The computational and graphics modules have also been designed to interface with data collected from previous spacecraft, or on-going observations, which describe the surface of each target body. These enhancements make SEQ POINTER a candidate for low-cost mission usage, when a remote sensing science observation design capability is required. The current and planned capabilities of the tool will be discussed. The presentation will also include a 5-10 minute video presentation demonstrating the capabilities of a proto-Cassini Project version that was adapted to test the tool. The work described in this abstract was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Do Interactive Globes and Games Help Students Learn Planetary Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen; De Paor, Declan; Georgen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of animations and interactive visualizations in undergraduate science education might lead one to assume that these teaching aids enhance student learning. We tested this assumption for the case of the Google Earth virtual globe with a comparison of control and treatment student groups in a general education class of over 370 students at a large public university. Earth and Planetary Science course content was developed in two formats: using Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to create interactive tours in Google Earth (the treatment group) and Portable Document Format (PDF) for on-screen reading (the control group). The PDF documents contained identical text and images to the placemark balloons or "tour stops" in the Google Earth version. Some significant differences were noted between the two groups based on the immediate post-questionnaire with the KML students out-performing the PDF students, but not on the delayed measure. In a separate but related project, we undertake preliminary investigations into methods of teaching basic concepts in planetary mantle convection using numerical simulations. The goal of this project is to develop an interface with a two-dimensional finite element model that will allow students to vary parameters such as the temperatures assigned to the boundaries of the model domain, to help them actively explore important variables that control convection.

  18. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Albee, A.L.; Stehli, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on earth and planetary science topics are presented. The subjects addressed include: role and status of earth science field work; phase relations of prealuminous granitic rocks and their petrogenetic implications; chondritic meteorites and the solar nebula; volcanic winters; mass wasting on continental margins; earthquake ground motions; ore deposits as guides to geologic history of the earth; geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal; and tectonic evolution of the Caribbean. Also discussed are: the earth's rotation; the geophysics of a restless caldera (Long Valley, California); observations of cometary nuclei; geology of Venus; seismic stratigraphy; in situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial rocks; time variations of the earth's magnetic field; deep slabs, geochemical heterogeneity, and the large-scale structure of mantle convection; early proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia; concepts and methods of high-resolution event stratigraphy

  19. Ups and downs in planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Carolyn S.

    1999-01-01

    The field of planetary science as it developed during the lifetimes of Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker has sustained a period of exciting growth. Surveying the skies for planet-crossing asteroids and comets and studying the results of their impact upon the planets, especially the Earth, was for Gene and Carolyn an intense and satisfying quest for knowledge. It all started when Gene envisioned man going to the Moon, especially himself. After that, one thing led to another: the study of nuclear craters and a comparison with Meteor Crater, Arizona; the Apollo project and a succession of unmanned space missions to the inner and outer planets; an awareness of cratering throughout our solar system; the search for near-Earth asteroids and comets; a study of ancient craters in Australia; and the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter. The new paradigm of impact cratering as a cause for mass extinction and the opening of space for the development of new life forms have been causes to champion.

  20. Sciences for Exoplanets and Planetary Systems : web sites and E-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, F.; Balança, C.; Bénilan, Y.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Marcq, E.; Navarro, T.; Renner, S.; Schneider, J.; Schott, C.

    2015-10-01

    The websites « Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires » (SESP) and « Exoplanètes » have been created in the context of the LabEx ESEP (Laboratoire d'excellence Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires) [1]. They present planetary and exoplanetary sciences with courses, interactive tools, and a didactic catalogue connected to the Encyclopedia http://exoplanet.eu [2]. These resources are directed towards undergraduate level. They will be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. In the future, we will translate some contents into English and create e-learning degree courses.

  1. Developing Science Operations Concepts for the Future of Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, A. D.; McAdam, A.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Garry, W. B.; Whelley,; Scheidt, S.; Carter, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Through fly-by, orbiter, rover, and even crewed missions, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been extremely successful in exploring planetary bodies throughout our Solar System. The focus on increasingly complex Mars orbiter and rover missions has helped us understand how Mars has evolved over time and whether life has ever existed on the red planet. However, large strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) still exist in our understanding of the evolution of the Solar System (e.g. the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, Small Bodies Analysis Group, and Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group). Sending humans to these bodies is a critical part of addressing these SKGs in order to transition to a new era of planetary exploration by 2050.

  2. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Preserve and present reliable scientific data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Vallat, C.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A.; Rios, C.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is undergoing a significant refactoring of all its components to improve the services provided to the scientific community and the public. The PSA supports ESA's missions exploring the Solar System by archiving scientific peer-reviewed observations as well as engineering data sets. This includes the Giotto, SMART-1, Huygens, Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta, Exomars 2016, Exomars RSP, BepiColombo, and JUICE missions. The PSA is offering a newly designed graphical user interface which is simultaneously meant to maximize the interaction with scientific observations and also minimise the efforts needed to download these scientific observations. The PSA still offers the same services as before (i.e., FTP, documentation, helpdesk, etc.). In addition, it will support the two formats of the Planetary Data System (i.e., PDS3 and PDS4), as well as providing new ways for searching the data products with specific metadata and geometrical parameters. As well as enhanced services, the PSA will also provide new services to improve the visualisation of data products and scientific content (e.g., spectra, etc.). Together with improved access to the spacecraft engineering data sets, the PSA will provide easier access to scientific data products that will help to maximize the science return of ESA's space missions.

  3. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  4. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  5. Preparing new Earth Science teachers via a collaborative program between Research Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana; Pagnotta, Ashley; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Shara, Michael; Flores, Kennet; Nadeau, Patricia A.; Sessa, Jocelyn; Ustunisik, Gokce; Zirakparvar, Nasser; Ebel, Denton; Harlow, George; Webster, James D.; Kinzler, Rosamond; MacDonald, Maritza B.; Contino, Julie; Cooke-Nieves, Natasha; Howes, Elaine; Zachowski, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) Program at the American Museum of Natural History is a innovative program designed to prepare participants to be world-class Earth Science teachers. New York State is experiencing a lack of qualified Earth Science teachers, leading in the short term to a reduction in students who successfully complete the Earth Science Regents examination, and in the long term potential reductions in the number of students who go on to pursue college degrees in Earth Science related disciplines. The MAT program addresses this problem via a collaboration between practicing research scientists and education faculty. The faculty consists of curators and postdoctoral researchers from the Departments of Astrophysics, Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Paleontology, as well as doctoral-level education experts. During the 15-month, full-time program, students participate in a residency program at local urban classrooms as well as taking courses and completing field work in astrophysics, geology, earth science, and paleontology. The program targets high-needs schools with diverse populations. We seek to encourage, stimulate interest, and inform the students impacted by our program, most of whom are from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds, about the rich possibilities for careers in Earth Science related disciplines and the intrinsic value of the subject. We report on the experience of the first and second cohorts, all of whom are now employed in full time teaching positions, and the majority in high needs schools in New York State.

  6. New Tools to Search for Data in the European Space Agency's Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotheer, E.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Rios, C.; Arviset, C.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Vallejo, F.; De Marchi, G.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Barthelemy, M.; Docasal, R.; Martinez, S.; Besse, S.; Lim, T.

    2016-12-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa, provides public access to the archived data of Europe's missions to our neighboring planets. These datasets are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Recently, a new interface has been released, which includes upgrades to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Additionally, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be more easily accessible via the new interface as well. In addition to a new querying interface, the new PSA also allows access via the EPN-TAP and PDAP protocols. This makes the PSA data sets compatible with other archive-related tools and projects, such as the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  8. MITEE-B: A compact ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear propulsion engine for robotic planetary science missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources

  9. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  10. Social Media and Student Engagement in a Microgravity Planetary Science Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S. S.; Lai, K.; Hoover, B.; Whitaker, A.; Tiller, C.; Benjamin, S.; Dove, A.; Colwell, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Collisional Accretion Experiment (CATE) is a planetary science experiment funded by NASA's Undergraduate Instrumentation Program (USIP). CATE is a microgravity experiment to study low-velocity collisions between cm-sized particles and 0.1-1.0 mm-sized particles in vacuum to better understand the conditions for accretion in the protoplanetary disk as well as collisions in planetary ring systems. CATE flew on three parabolic airplane flights in July, 2014, using NASA's "Weightless Wonder VI" aircraft. A significant part of the project was documenting the experience of designing, building, testing, and flying spaceflight hardware from the perspective of the undergraduates working on the experiment. The outreach effort was aimed at providing high schools students interested in STEM careers with a first-person view of hands-on student research at the university level. We also targeted undergraduates at the University of Central Florida to make them aware of space research on campus. The CATE team pursued multiple outlets, from social media to presentations at local schools, to connect with the public and with younger students. We created a website which hosted a blog, links to media publications that ran our story, videos, and galleries of images from work in the lab throughout the year. In addition the project had Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts. These social media outlets had much more traffic than the website except during the flight week when photos posted on the blog generated significant traffic. The most effective means of communicating the project to the target audience, however, was through face-to-face presentations in classrooms. We saw a large increase in followers on Twitter and Instagram as the flight campaign got closer and while we were there. The main source of followers came after we presented to local high school students. These presentations were made by the undergraduate student team and the faculty mentors (Colwell and Dove).

  11. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  12. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  13. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, T.; Chatzichristou, E.; Heward, A.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  14. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  15. Advances in Planetary Protection at the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, J. A.; Siegel, B.; Race, M.; Rummel, J. D.; Pugel, D. E.; Groen, F. J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C. A.; Carosso, N. J.

    2018-02-01

    Planetary protection knowledge gaps that can be addressed by science performed at the Deep Space Gateway in the areas of human health and performance, space biology, and planetary sciences that enable future exploration in deep space, at Mars, and other targets.

  16. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  17. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system

  18. Multidimensional Space-Time Methodology for Development of Planetary and Space Sciences, S-T Data Management and S-T Computational Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, Zdravko

    This R&D represent innovative multidimensional 6D-N(6n)D Space-Time (S-T) Methodology, 6D-6nD Coordinate Systems, 6D Equations, new 6D strategy and technology for development of Planetary Space Sciences, S-T Data Management and S-T Computational To-mography. . . The Methodology is actual for brain new RS Microwaves' Satellites and Compu-tational Tomography Systems development, aimed to defense sustainable Earth, Moon, & Sun System evolution. Especially, extremely important are innovations for monitoring and protec-tion of strategic threelateral system H-OH-H2O Hydrogen, Hydroxyl and Water), correspond-ing to RS VHRS (Very High Resolution Systems) of 1.420-1.657-22.089GHz microwaves. . . One of the Greatest Paradox and Challenge of World Science is the "transformation" of J. L. Lagrange 4D Space-Time (S-T) System to H. Minkovski 4D S-T System (O-X,Y,Z,icT) for Einstein's "Theory of Relativity". As a global result: -In contemporary Advanced Space Sciences there is not real adequate 4D-6D Space-Time Coordinate System and 6D Advanced Cosmos Strategy & Methodology for Multidimensional and Multitemporal Space-Time Data Management and Tomography. . . That's one of the top actual S-T Problems. Simple and optimal nD S-T Methodology discovery is extremely important for all Universities' Space Sci-ences' Education Programs, for advances in space research and especially -for all young Space Scientists R&D!... The top ten 21-Century Challenges ahead of Planetary and Space Sciences, Space Data Management and Computational Space Tomography, important for successfully de-velopment of Young Scientist Generations, are following: 1. R&D of W. R. Hamilton General Idea for transformation all Space Sciences to Time Sciences, beginning with 6D Eukonal for 6D anisotropic mediums & velocities. Development of IERS Earth & Space Systems (VLBI; LLR; GPS; SLR; DORIS Etc.) for Planetary-Space Data Management & Computational Planetary & Space Tomography. 2. R&D of S. W. Hawking Paradigm for 2D

  19. Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, P.; Whitby, J. A.; Managadze, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Knowing the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary objects allows the study of their origin and evolution within the context of our solar system. Exploration plans in planetary research of several space agencies consider landing spacecraft for future missions. Although there have been successful landers in the past, more landers are foreseen for Mars and its moons, Venus, the jovian moons, and asteroids. Furthermore, a mass spectrometer on a landed spacecraft can assist in the sample selection in a sample-return mission and provide mineralogical context, or identify possible toxic soils on Mars for manned Mars exploration. Given the resources available on landed spacecraft mass spectrometers, as well as any other instrument, have to be highly miniaturised.

  20. Astrobiology Science and Technology: A Path to Future Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Lavaery, D. B.

    2001-01-01

    The Astrobiology Program is described. However, science-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments is needed for a new era of planetary exploration requiring biologically relevant instrumentation and extensive, autonomous operations on planetary surfaces. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Trends in Planetary Data Analysis. Executive summary of the Planetary Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N.

    1984-09-01

    Planetary data include non-imaging remote sensing data, which includes spectrometric, radiometric, and polarimetric remote sensing observations. Also included are in-situ, radio/radar data, and Earth based observation. Also discussed is development of a planetary data system. A catalog to identify observations will be the initial entry point for all levels of users into the data system. There are seven distinct data support services: encyclopedia, data index, data inventory, browse, search, sample, and acquire. Data systems for planetary science users must provide access to data, process, store, and display data. Two standards will be incorporated into the planetary data system: Standard communications protocol and Standard format data unit. The data system configuration must combine a distributed system with those of a centralized system. Fiscal constraints have made prioritization important. Activities include saving previous mission data, planning/cost analysis, and publishing of proceedings.

  2. The "impressionist" force of creation stories in planetary sciences education and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Any truly meaningful presentation of a planetary science topic to both pupils/students and the general public should contain three modules. First, there should be all the necessary phenomenology, detailed description of "players" (i.e., planetary bodies and the sources of external influences). Second, there should be similarly complete description of "rules" (i.e., natural forces and factors). Third, one should not forget to provide a "life story", the evolutionary background (i.e., scenarios for origin, development and probable end of relevant planetary bodies). There is nothing new in this basic classification of the material presented to the class or to the general audience. It is a summary of collective wisdom of experienced teachers as well as that of non-teacher scientists engaged in public understanding of science activities. Nevertheless, there is an important caveat in this sequence. The audience could get lost a touch with the topic. This would lead to diminished attention in both the first module (overwhelming by facts and associated numbers) and in the second one (overwhelming by the complexity of interactions). It is suggested that this could be averted by partial inversion of the above working sequence in "emergency situations". For example, if the audience is distracted by some strong influence, like crucial football/ice-hockey match or a fashion display. That means, one should not present the topical material strictly in a usual 1-2-3 style (phenomenologycausality-evolution) but in modified 3-1-2-3 style (evolution-phenomenology-causality-evolution). Of course, a very natural question arises here: Is it possible, at all, to talk or write about evolution without presenting known facts and causes and effects involved beforehand? The answer, based on a large number of trial-and-error efforts, now seems to be: Yes, it is. One should take a lesson from great painters of the second half of the 19th century who have started and then pursued systematically

  3. IMPEx : enabling model/observational data comparison in planetary plasma sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génot, V.; Khodachenko, M.; Kallio, E. J.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Alexeev, I. I.; Topf, F.; Gangloff, M.; André, N.; Bourrel, N.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Kalegaev, V.

    2013-09-01

    The FP7 IMPEx infrastructure, whose general goal is to encourage and facilitate inter-comparison between observational and model data in planetary plasma sciences, is now established for 2 years. This presentation will focus on a tour of the different achievements which occurred during this period. Within the project, data originate from multiple sources : large observational databases (CDAWeb, AMDA at CDPP, CLWeb at IRAP), simulation databases for hybrid and MHD codes (FMI, LATMOS), planetary magnetic field models database and online services (SINP). Each of these databases proposes dedicated access to their models and runs (HWA@FMI, LATHYS@LATMOS, SMDC@SINP). To gather this large data ensemble, IMPEx offers a distributed framework in which these data may be visualized, analyzed, and shared thanks to interoperable tools; they comprise of AMDA - an online space physics analysis tool -, 3DView - a tool for data visualization in 3D planetary context -, and CLWeb - an online space physics visualization tool. A simulation data model, based on SPASE, has been designed to ease data exchange within the infrastructure. On the communication point of view, the VO paradigm has been retained and the architecture is based on web services and the IVOA protocol SAMP. The presentation will focus on how the tools may be operated synchronously to manipulate these heterogeneous data sets. Use cases based on in-flight missions and associated model runs will be proposed for the demonstration. Finally the motivation and functionalities of the future IMPEx portal will be exposed. As requirements to and potentialities of joining the IMPEx infrastructure will be shown, the presentation could be seen as an invitation to other modeling teams in the community which may be interested to promote their results via IMPEx.

  4. Extra Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph and Science Requirements for the James Webb Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2004-01-01

    1) Extra solar planetary imaging coronagraph. Direct detection and characterization of Jovian planets, and other gas giants, in orbit around nearby stars is a necessary precursor to Terrestrial Planet Finder 0 in order to estimate the probability of Terrestrial planets in our stellar neighborhood. Ground based indirect methods are biased towards large close in Jovian planets in solar systems unlikely io harbor Earthlike planets. Thus to estimate the relative abundances of terrestrial planets and to determine optimal observing strategies for TPF a pathfinder mission would be desired. The Extra-Solar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is such a pathfinder mission. Upto 83 stellar systems are accessible with a 1.5 meter unobscured telescope and coronagraph combination located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Incorporating radiometric and angular resolution considerations show that Jovians could be directly detected (5 sigma) in the 0.5 - 1.0 micron band outside of an inner working distance of 5/D with integration times of -10 - 100 hours per observation. The primary considerations for a planet imager are optical wavefront quality due to manufacturing, alignment, structural and thermal considerations. pointing stability and control, and manufacturability of coronagraphic masks and stops to increase the planetary-to- stellar contrast and mitigate against straylight. Previously proposed coronagraphic concepts are driven to extreme tolerances. however. we have developed and studied a mission, telescope and coronagraphic detection concept, which is achievable in the time frame of a Discovery class NASA mission. 2) Science requirements for the James Webb Space Telescope observatory. The James Webb Space Observatory (JWST) is an infrared observatory, which will be launched in 201 1 to an orbit at L2. JWST is a segmented, 18 mirror segment telescope with a diameter of 6.5 meters, and a clear aperture of 25 mA2. The telescope is designed to conduct imaging and spectroscopic

  5. Outreach in Planetary Science: myriad ways of getting involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists and engineers sometimes think that to do outreach and education activities well, they have to be exceptional at public speaking, writing, or interacting with children or laypeople. However, during my career in planetary science, I've been involved in and close to a myriad of ways of getting involved in E/PO and found that there is a path to involvement for every personality. Another common misconception is that doing E/PO will hurt one's career as a scientist or engineer. While many of us do not have a great deal of time to spend on E/PO, there are efficient ways of making an impact. This talk will discuss ways that I've found work for me and for colleagues and tips on finding your own niche in these activities.

  6. Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    "Water in the Solar System" is an out-of-school time (OST) science education activity for middle school students that was developed as part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project. The PLANETS project was selected in support of the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice, with the goal of developing and disseminating OST curriculum and related professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. "Water in the Solar System" is a science activity that addresses the abundance and availability of water in the solar system. The activity consists of three exercises based on the following guiding questions: 1) How much water is there on the Earth? 2) Where can you find water in the solar system? and 3) What properties affect whether or not water can be used by astronauts? The three exercises involve a scaling relationship demonstration about the abundance of useable water on Earth, a card game to explore where water is found in the solar system, and a hands-on exercise to investigate pH and salinity. Through these activities students learn that although there is a lot of water on Earth, most of it is not in a form that is accessible for humans to use. They also learn that most water in the solar system is actually farther from the sun, and that properties such as salinity and pH affect whether water can be used by humans. In addition to content for students, the activity includes background information for educators, and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content. "Water in the Solar System" was developed through collaboration between subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, and curriculum and professional development experts in the Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. Here we describe our process of curriculum development, education objectives of

  7. High Temperature, Controlled-Atmosphere Aerodynamic Levitation Experiments with Applications in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aerodynamic levitation laser apparatus is an instrument in which spherical samples are freely floated on top of a stream of gas while being heated with a CO2laser to temperatures up to about 3500 °C. Laser heated samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.5 mm diameter, can be levitated in a variety of chemically active or inert atmospheres in a gas-mixing chamber (e.g., Hennet et al. 2006; Pack et al. 2010). This allows for containerless, controlled-atmosphere, high temperature experiments with potential for applications in earth and planetary science. A relatively new technique, aerodynamic levitation has been used mostly for studies of the physical properties of liquids at high temperatures (Kohara et al. 2011), crystallization behavior of silicates and oxides (Arai et al. 2004), and to prepare glasses from compositions known to crystallize upon quenching (Tangeman et al. 2001). More recently, however, aerodynamic levitation with laser heating has been used as an experimental technique to simulate planetary processes. Pack et al. (2010) used levitation and melting experiments to simulate chondrule formation by using Ar-H2 as the flow gas, thus imposing a reducing atmosphere, resulting in reduction of FeO, Fe2O3, and NiO to metal alloys. Macris et al. (2015) used laser heating with aerodynamic levitation to reproduce the textures and diffusion profiles of major and minor elements observed in impact ejecta from the Australasian strewn field, by melting a powdered natural tektite mixed with 60-100 μm quartz grains on a flow of pure Ar gas. These experiments resulted in quantitative modeling of Si and Al diffusion, which allowed for interpretations regarding the thermal histories of natural tektites and their interactions with the surrounding impact vapor plume. Future experiments will employ gas mixing (CO, CO2, H2, O, Ar) in a controlled atmosphere levitation chamber to explore the range of fO2applicable to melt-forming impacts on other rocky planetary bodies

  8. A new dataset validation system for the Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Planetary Science Archive is the official archive for the Mars Express mission. It has received its first data by the end of 2004. These data are delivered by the PI teams to the PSA team as datasets, which are formatted conform to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The PI teams are responsible for analyzing and calibrating the instrument data as well as the production of reduced and calibrated data. They are also responsible of the scientific validation of these data. ESA is responsible of the long-term data archiving and distribution to the scientific community and must ensure, in this regard, that all archived products meet quality. To do so, an archive peer-review is used to control the quality of the Mars Express science data archiving process. However a full validation of its content is missing. An independent review board recently recommended that the completeness of the archive as well as the consistency of the delivered data should be validated following well-defined procedures. A new validation software tool is being developed to complete the overall data quality control system functionality. This new tool aims to improve the quality of data and services provided to the scientific community through the PSA, and shall allow to track anomalies in and to control the completeness of datasets. It shall ensure that the PSA end-users: (1) can rely on the result of their queries, (2) will get data products that are suitable for scientific analysis, (3) can find all science data acquired during a mission. We defined dataset validation as the verification and assessment process to check the dataset content against pre-defined top-level criteria, which represent the general characteristics of good quality datasets. The dataset content that is checked includes the data and all types of information that are essential in the process of deriving scientific results and those interfacing with the PSA database. The validation software tool is a multi-mission tool that

  9. Life in the Universe - Astronomy and Planetary Science Research Experience for Undergraduates at the SETI Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiar, J.; Phillips, C. B.; Rudolph, A.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Tarter, J.; Harp, G.; Caldwell, D. A.; DeVore, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    The SETI Institute hosts an Astrobiology Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Beginning in 2013, we partnered with the Physics and Astronomy Dept. at Cal Poly Pomona, a Hispanic-serving university, to recruit underserved students. Over 11 years, we have served 155 students. We focus on Astrobiology since the Institute's mission is to explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe. Our REU students work with mentors at the Institute - a non-profit organization located in California's Silicon Valley-and at the nearby NASA Ames Research Center. Projects span research on survival of microbes under extreme conditions, planetary geology, astronomy, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), extrasolar planets and more. The REU program begins with an introductory lectures by Institute scientists covering the diverse astrobiology subfields. A week-long field trip to the SETI Institute's Allen Telescope Array (Hat Creek Radio Astronomy Observatory in Northern California) and field experiences at hydrothermal systems at nearby Lassen Volcanic National Park immerses students in radio astronomy and SETI, and extremophile environments that are research sites for astrobiologists. Field trips expose students to diverse environments and allow them to investigate planetary analogs as our scientists do. Students also participate in local trips to the California Academy of Sciences and other nearby locations of scientific interest, and attend the weekly scientific colloquium hosted by the SETI Institute at Microsoft, other seminars and lectures at SETI Institute and NASA Ames. The students meet and present at a weekly journal club where they hone their presentation skills, as well as share their research progress. At the end of the summer, the REU interns present their research projects at a session of the Institute's colloquium. As a final project, students prepare a 2-page formal abstract and 15-minute

  10. Small Worlds Week: An online celebration of planetary science using social media to reach millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis

    2015-11-01

    In celebration of the many recent discoveries from New Horizons, Dawn, Rosetta, and Cassini, NASA launched Small Worlds Week, an online, social media driven outreach program leveraging the infrastructure of Sun-Earth Days that included a robust web design, exemplary education materials, hands-on fun activities, multimedia resources, science and career highlights, and a culminating social media event. Each day from July 6-9, a new class of solar system small worlds was featured on the website: Monday-comets, Tuesday-asteroids, Wednesday-icy moons, and Thursday-dwarf planets. Then on Friday, July 10, nine scientists from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, and Lunar and Planetary Institute gathered online for four hours to answer questions from the public via Facebook and Twitter. Throughout the afternoon the scientists worked closely with a social media expert and several summer interns to reply to inquirers and to archive their chats. By all accounts, Small Worlds Week was a huge success with 37 million potential views of the social media Q&A posts. The group plans to improve and replicate the program during the school year with a more classroom focus, and then to build and extend the program to be held every year. For more information, visit http:// sunearthday.nasa.gov or catch us on Twitter, #nasasww.

  11. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  12. Storyboards and Science: Introducing the Planetary Data Storyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Del Villar, A.; Alkhawaja, A.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Galica, C.; Odess, J.; Erickson, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Every discovery has a story and storytelling is an ancient form of education. The stories of scientific discovery are often very formal and technical and not always very accessible. As in the past, today most scientific storytelling is done as in-person presentations in the form of slide shows or movies that unfold according to the design of its author. Things have changed. Using today's technologies telling stories can be a rich multi-media experience with a blending of text, animations, movies and infographics. Also, with presentations on the web the presentation can provide links to more details and the audience (reader) can jump to the linked information. Even so, the most common form of today's storytelling is as a narrative that starts with a page, a link to a single movie or a slide-show. We introduce a new promising form of scientific storytelling, the storyboard. With a storyboard a story is presented as a set of panels that contain representative images of an event and may have associated notes or instructions. The panels are arranged in a timeline that allow the audience to experience the discovery in the same way it occurred. A panel can also link to a more detailed source such as a publication, the data that was collected or items derived from the research (like movies or animations). Scientific storyboards can make science discovery more accessible to people by presenting events in an easy to follow layout. Scientific storyboards can also help to teach the scientific method, by following the experiences of a researcher as they investigate a phenomenon or try to understand a new set of observations. We illustrate the unique features of scientific storyboards with the Planetary Data Storyboard using data archived by the Planetary Data System.

  13. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  14. What Governs Ice-Sticking in Planetary Science Experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.; Fraser, H. J.

    2018-06-01

    Water ice plays an important role, alongside dust, in current theories of planet formation. Decades of laboratory experiments have proven that water ice is far stickier in particle collisions than dust. However, water ice is known to be a metastable material. Its physical properties strongly depend on its environmental parameters, the foremost being temperature and pressure. As a result, the properties of ice change not only with the environment it is observed in, but also with its thermal history.The abundance of ice structures that can be created by different environments likely explains the discrepancies observed across the multitude of collisional laboratory studies in the past [1-16]; unless the ices for such experiments have been prepared in the same way and are collided under the same environmental conditions, these experiments simply do not collide the same ices.This raises several questions:1. Which conditions and ice properties are most favourable for ice sticking?2. Which conditions and ice properties are closest to the ones observed in protoplanetary disks?3. To what extent do these two regimes overlap?4. Consequently, which collisional studies are most relevant to planetary science and therefore best suited to inform models of planet formation?In this presentation, I will give a non-exhaustive overview of what we already know about the properties of ice particles, covering those used in planetary science experiments and those observed in planet forming regions. I will discuss to what extent we can already answer questions 1-3, and what information we still need to obtain from observations, laboratory experiments, and modelling to be able to answer question 4.References:1. Bridges et al. 1984 Natur 309.2. Bridges et al. 1996 Icar 123.3. Deckers & Teiser 2016 MNRAS 456.4. Dilley & Crawford 1996 JGRE 101.5. Gundlach & Blum 2015 ApJ 798.6. Hatzes et al. 1991 Icar 89.7. Hatzes et al. 1988 MNRAS 231.8. Heißelmann et al. 2010 Icar 206.9. Higa et al. 1996 P

  15. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  17. Construction of the Hunveyor-Husar space probe model system for planetary science education and analog studies and simulations in universities and colleges of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokiny, A.; Drommer, B.; Gucsik, A.; Pintér, A.; Kovács, Zs.

    Several teachers and students had the possibility to visit International Space Camp in the vicinity of the MSFC NASA in Huntsville Alabama USA where they learned the success of simulators in space science education To apply these results in universities and colleges in Hungary we began a unified complex modelling in planetary geology robotics electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system First a university experimental lander HUNVEYOR Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR then a rover named HUSAR Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover has been built For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder s rover Sojouner rover The first step was the construction of the lander a year later the rover followed The main goals are 1 to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements 2 to construct basic experiments and their instruments 3 to use the system as a space activity simulator 4 this simulator contains lander with on board computer for works on a test planetary surface and a terrestrial control computer 5 to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits 6 to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding complex planetary environmental problems 7 to build various planetary environments for application of the

  18. Model/observational data cross analysis in planetary plasma sciences with IMPEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, V. N.; Khodachenko, M.; Kallio, E. J.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Alexeev, I. I.; Gangloff, M.; Bourrel, N.; andre, N.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Topf, F.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Hakkinen, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation details how the FP7 IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) infrastructure helps scientists in inter-comparing observational and model data in planetary plasma sciences. Within the project, data originate from multiple sources : large observational databases (CDAWeb, AMDA at CDPP, CLWeb at IRAP), simulation databases for hybrid and MHD codes (FMI, LATMOS), planetary magnetic field models database and online services (SINP). To navigate in this large data ensemble, IMPEx offers a distributed framework in which these data may be visualized, analyzed, and shared thanks to a set of interoperable tools (AMDA, 3DView, CLWeb). A simulation data model, based on SPASE, has been designed to ease data exchange within the infrastructure. On the communication point of view, the Virtual Observatory paradigm is followed and the architecture is based on web services and the IVOA protocol SAMP. These choices enabled a high level versatility with the goal to allow other model or data providers to distribute their own resources via the IMPEx infrastructure. A detailed use case based on Mars data and hybrid models will be proposed showing how the tools may be operated synchronously to manipulate heterogeneous data sets. Facilitating the analysis of the future MAVEN observations is one possible application of the IMPEx infrastructure.

  19. What works in planetary science outreach and what doesn't: an attempt to create a functional framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Z.

    2014-04-01

    A thorough synthesis of experience from several decades (including 14 years on a full-time basis) of writing in the media and lecturing about the exploration of the Solar System and search for planets of other stars for the general public in Slovakia and in the Czech Republic is presented. The emphasis is given on detailed evaluation of specific feedbacks from readership and audience of various backgrounds and age groups communicated to the author. A list of 10 + 1 main pro arguments is compiled, consisting of reasonings (in addition to scientific or general knowledge/cultural value) like embodiment of our exploratory spirit, colonization, "emergency backup" world or worlds for mankind, comparative planetology as a tool for the explanation and full understanding of Earth's properties, transfer of environmentally unfriendly but irreplaceable (in mid term, at least) technologies to lifeless environments of other planetary bodies, etc. Similarly, a list of 5 main con arguments (like it is wasting of money badly needed to solve a number of urgent social problems, or it is in conflict with valued traditional beliefs) related to planetary exploration or manned and robotic space exploration in general is compiled. A short review of best practices how to counter them is presented alongside. It is demonstrated that one can construct a coherent, balanced framing of planetary science. It assertively supports the relevant efforts in both the general public and special groups involved (for example, enterpreneurs, politicians, members of the media, various activists) while treats the differing opinions and worldviews of critics with respect they deserve. The open conflict, if only in discussion, does not represent any way out. It is counterproductive in both the short-term and the long-term context. In fact, even sharply dissenting opinions often contain some points which can be used, with the help of empathy, psychology and - to be candid - a little, still tolerable dose of

  20. 3D Visualization for Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Larsen, K.; Brain, D.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed visualization tools for viewing planetary orbiters and science data in 3D for both Earth and Mars, using the Cesium Javascript library, allowing viewers to visualize the position and orientation of spacecraft and science data.

  1. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  2. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  3. Using the Planetary Science Institute’s Meteorite Mini-Kits to Address the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Cañizo, Thea L.; Buxner, Sanlyn

    2014-11-01

    Hands-on learning allows students to understand science concepts by directly observing and experiencing the topics they are studying. The Planetary Science Institute (PSI) has created instructional rock kits that have been introduced to elementary and middle school teachers in Tucson, in our professional development workshops. PSI provides teachers with supporting material and training so that they can use the kits as tools for students’ hands-on learning. Use of these kits provides an important experience with natural materials that is essential to instruction in Earth and Space Science. With a stronger knowledge of science content and of how science is actually conducted, the workshops and kits have instilled greater confidence in teachers’ ability to teach science content. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Performance Expectations includes: “What makes up our solar system?” NGSS emphasizes the Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding of the nature of scientific models.Addressing a need expressed by teachers for borrowing kits less expensive than our $2000 option, we created a Meteorite Mini-Kit. Each Mini-Kit contains eight rocks: an iron-bearing chondrite, a sliced chondrite (showing iron and chondrules), a tektite, a common Tucson rock, a river-polished rock, pumice, a small iron, and a rounded obsidian rock (false tektite). Also included in the Mini-Kits are magnets and a magnifier. The kits cost $40 to $50, depending on the sizes of the chondrites. A teacher can check out a classroom set of these which contains either 10 or 20 Mini-Kits. Each

  4. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  5. Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  6. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  7. Planetary Data Archiving Plan at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Iku; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Yukio; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Imamura, Takeshi; Sobue, Shinichi; Takashima, Takeshi; Terazono, Jun-Ya

    After the successful rendezvous of Hayabusa with the small-body planet Itokawa, and the successful launch of Kaguya to the moon, Japanese planetary community has gotten their own and full-scale data. However, at this moment, these datasets are only available from the data sites managed by each mission team. The databases are individually constructed in the different formats, and the user interface of these data sites is not compatible with foreign databases. To improve the usability of the planetary archives at JAXA and to enable the international data exchange smooth, we are investigating to make a new planetary database. Within a coming decade, Japan will have fruitful datasets in the planetary science field, Venus (Planet-C), Mercury (BepiColombo), and several missions in planning phase (small-bodies). In order to strongly assist the international scientific collaboration using these mission archive data, the planned planetary data archive at JAXA should be managed in an unified manner and the database should be constructed in the international planetary database standard style. In this presentation, we will show the current status and future plans of the planetary data archiving at JAXA.

  8. 75 FR 19661 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... includes the following topics: --Review European Space Agency-NASA Coordination on Planetary Protection... Committee; Planetary Protection Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... (NASA) announces a meeting of the Planetary Protection Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC...

  9. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, F.A.; Stehli, F.G.; Wetherill, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on the geochemistry of evaporitic lacustrine deposits, the deformation of mantle rocks, the dynamics of sudden stratospheric warmings, the equatorial undercurrent, geomorphological processes on planetary surfaces, and rare earth elements in petrogenetic studies of igneous systems. Consideration is also given to evolutionary patterns in early Cenozoic animals, the origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres, the moons of Mars, and refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

  10. Geosciences: An Open Access Journal on Earth and Planetary Sciences and Their Interdisciplinary Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martinez-Frias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of the Editorial Board and the editorial management staff of MDPI, it is my great pleasure to introduce this new journal Geosciences. Geosciences is an international, peer-reviewed open access journal, which publishes original papers, rapid communications, technical notes and review articles, and discussions about all interdisciplinary aspects of the earth and planetary sciences. Geosciences may also include papers presented at scientific conferences (proceedings or articles on a well defined topic assembled by individual editors or organizations/institutions (special publications.

  11. Materials Science Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the Department of Energy in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research. The Director of this office is appointed by the President with Senate consent. The Director advises the Secretary on the physical research program; monitors the Department's R ampersand D programs; advises the Secretary on management of the laboratories under the jurisdiction of the Department, excluding those that constitute part of the nuclear weapon complex; and advises the Secretary on basic and applied research activities of the Department. The research covers a spectrum of scientific and engineering areas of interest to the Department of Energy and is conducted generally by personnel trained in the disciplines of Solid State Physics, Metallurgy, Ceramics, Chemistry, Polymers and Materials Science. The Materials Sciences Division supports basic research on materials properties and phenomena important to all energy systems. The aim is to provide the necessary base of materials knowledge required to advance the nation's energy programs. This report contains a listing of research underway in FY 1989 together with a convenient index to the Division's programs

  12. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XX: Dale Cruikshank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2013-04-01

    In this interview, Dale Cruikshank (Fig. 1) explains how as an undergraduate at Iowa State University he was a summer student at Yerkes Observatory where he assisted Gerard Kuiper in work on his Photographic Lunar Atlas. Upon completing his degree, Dale went to graduate school at the University of Arizona with Kuiper where he worked on the IR spectroscopy of the lunar surface. After an eventful 1968 trip to Moscow via Prague, during which the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia, Dale assumed a postdoc position with Vasili Moroz at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute and more observational IR astronomy. Upon returning to the United States and after a year at Arizona, Dale assumed a position at the University of Hawai'i that he held for 17 years. During this period Dale worked with others on thermal infrared determinations of the albedos of small bodies beyond the asteroid Main Belt, leading to the recognition that low-albedo material is prevalent in the outer solar system that made the first report of complex organic solids on a planetary body (Saturn's satellite Iapetus). After moving to Ames Research Center, where he works currently, he continued this work and became involved in many outer solar system missions. Dale has served the community through his involvement in developing national policies for science-driven planetary exploration, being chair of the DPS 1990-1991 and secretary/treasurer for 1982-1985. He served as president of Commission 16 (Physics of Planets) of the IAU (2001-2003). He received the Kuiper prize in 2006.

  13. Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1993-01-01

    The project's main contributions have been in the area of student support. Throughout the project, at least one, in some cases two, undergraduate students have been supported. By working with the project, these students gained valuable knowledge involving the scientific research project, including the not-so-pleasant reporting requirements to the funding agencies. The other important contribution was towards the establishment of a graduate program in computer science at Hampton University. Primarily, the PAPER project has served as the main research basis in seeking funds from other agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, for establishing a research infrastructure in the department. In technical areas, especially in the first phase, we believe the trip to Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and gathering together all the pertinent information involving experimental computer architectures aimed for planetary explorations was very helpful. Indeed, if this effort is to be revived in the future due to congressional funding for planetary explorations, say an unmanned mission to Mars, our interim report will be an important starting point. In other technical areas, our simulator has pinpointed and highlighted several important performance issues related to the design of operating system kernels for MIMD machines. In particular, the critical issue of how the kernel itself will run in parallel on a multiple-processor system has been addressed through the various ready list organization and access policies. In the area of neural computing, our main contribution was an introductory tutorial package to familiarize the researchers at NASA with this new and promising field zone axes (20). Finally, we have introduced the notion of reversibility in programming systems which may find applications in various areas of space research.

  14. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; hide

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  15. Surface Systems R&D in NASA's Planetary Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on activities being supported by the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program, a research program whithin the NASA office of Space Science.

  16. Bringing Terramechanics to bear on Planetary Rover Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.

    2007-08-01

    Thus far, planetary rovers have been successfully operated on the Earth's moon and on Mars. In particular, the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' are still in sustained daily operations at two sites on Mars more than 3 years after landing there. Currently, several new planetary rover missions are in development targeting Mars (the US Mars Science Lab vehicle for launch in 2009 and ESA's ExoMars rover for launch in 2013), with lunar rover missions under study by China and Japan for launches around 2012. Moreover, the US Constellation program is preparing pre-development of lunar rovers for initially unmanned and, subsequently, human missions to the Moon with a corresponding team dedicated to mobility system development having been set up at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Given this dynamic environment, it was found timely to establish an expert group on off-the-road mobility as relevant for robotic vehicles that would involve individuals representing the various on-going efforts on the different continents. This was realized through the International Society of Terrain-Vehicle Systems (ISTVS), a research organisation devoted to terramechanics and to the ,science' of off-the-road vehicle development which as a result is just now establishing a Technical Group on Terrestrial and Planetary Rovers. Members represent space-related as well as military research institutes and universities from the US, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The group's charter for 2007 is to define its objectives, functions, organizational structure and recommended research objectives to support planetary rover design and development. Expected areas of activity of the ISTVS-sponsored group include: the problem of terrain specification for planetary rovers; identification of limitations in modelling of rover mobility; a survey of existing rover mobility testbeds; the consolidation of mobility predictive models and their state of validation; sensing and real

  17. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  18. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  19. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  20. CSWA Workplace Climate Survey: Gender and Racial Harassment in Planetary Science and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Christina; Erica Rodgers, Kathryn Clancy, Katharine Lee

    2018-01-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex 40% of the time, and as a result of their race 28% of the time. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  1. The MIND PALACE: A Multi-Spectral Imaging and Spectroscopy Database for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Doloboff, I.; Hara, E. K.; Uckert, K.; Sapers, H. M.; Abbey, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Multi-Instrument Database (MIND) is the web-based home to a well-characterized set of analytical data collected by a suite of deep-UV fluorescence/Raman instruments built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Samples derive from a growing body of planetary surface analogs, mineral and microbial standards, meteorites, spacecraft materials, and other astrobiologically relevant materials. In addition to deep-UV spectroscopy, datasets stored in MIND are obtained from a variety of analytical techniques obtained over multiple spatial and spectral scales including electron microscopy, optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and direct fluorescence imaging. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), are used to guide interpretation of these large multi-analytical spectral datasets. Spatial co-referencing of integrated spectral/visual maps is performed using QGIS (geographic information system software). Georeferencing techniques transform individual instrument data maps into a layered co-registered data cube for analysis across spectral and spatial scales. The body of data in MIND is intended to serve as a permanent, reliable, and expanding database of deep-UV spectroscopy datasets generated by this unique suite of JPL-based instruments on samples of broad planetary science interest.

  2. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference included sessions on: Phoenix: Exploration of the Martian Arctic; Origin and Early Evolution of the Moon; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Astrobiology: Meteorites, Microbes, Hydrous Habitats, and Irradiated Ices; Phoenix: Soil, Chemistry, and Habitability; Planetary Differentiation; Presolar Grains: Structures and Origins; SPECIAL SESSION: Venus Atmosphere: Venus Express and Future Missions; Mars Polar Caps: Past and Present; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part I; 5 Early Nebula Processes and Models; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Cosmic Gymnasts; Mars: Ground Ice and Climate Change; SPECIAL SESSION: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1, Part II; Chondrite Parent-Body Processes; SPECIAL SESSION: Icy Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn: Salubrious Surfaces; SNC Meteorites; Ancient Martian Crust: Primary Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration; SPECIAL SESSION: Messenger at Mercury: A Global Perspective on the Innermost Planet; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Small Bodies: Shapes of Things to Come; Sulfur on Mars: Rocks, Soils, and Cycling Processes; Mercury: Evolution and Tectonics; Venus Geology, Volcanism, Tectonics, and Resurfacing; Asteroid-Meteorite Connections; Impacts I: Models and Experiments; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Mars: Aqueous Processes; Magmatic Volatiles and Eruptive Conditions of Lunar Basalts; Comparative Planetology; Interstellar Matter: Origins and Relationships; Impacts II: Craters and Ejecta Mars: Tectonics and Dynamics; Mars Analogs I: Geological; Exploring the Diversity of Lunar Lithologies with Sample Analyses and Remote Sensing; Chondrite Accretion and Early History; Science Instruments for the Mars Science Lander; . Martian Gullies: Morphology and Origins; Mars: Dunes, Dust, and Wind; Mars: Volcanism; Early Solar System Chronology

  3. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  4. Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF): Providing Coordination and Support for NASA's Science Mission Directorate Education and Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Smith, D.; Shipp, S. S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Stockman, S. A.; Cooper, L. P.; Peticolas, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is working with four newly-formed Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) to increase the overall coherence of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. SEPOFs support the astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and Earth science divisions of NASA SMD in three core areas: * E/PO Community Engagement and Development * E/PO Product and Project Activity Analysis * Science Education and Public Outreach Forum Coordination Committee Service. SEPOFs are collaborating with NASA and external science and education and outreach communities in E/PO on multiple levels ranging from the mission and non-mission E/PO project activity managers, project activity partners, and scientists and researchers, to front line agents such as naturalists/interpreters, teachers, and higher education faculty, to high level agents such as leadership at state education offices, local schools, higher education institutions, and professional societies. The overall goal for the SEPOFs is increased awareness, knowledge, and understanding of scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, educators, product developers, and dissemination agents of best practices, existing NASA resources, and community expertise applicable to E/PO. By coordinating and supporting the NASA E/PO Community, the NASA/SEPOF partnerships will lead to more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of NASA science discoveries and learning experiences.

  5. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  6. ICASE Computer Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  7. NASA Science4Girls and Their Families: Connecting Local Libraries with NASA Scientists and Education Programs to Engage Girls in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Meinke, B.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; Spitz, A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Science4Girls and Their Families (NS4G) partners NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education programs with public libraries to provide hands-on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) activities and career information for girls and their families, along with training for librarians, in conjunction with Women's History Month (March). NS4G is a collaboration among education teams within the four NASA SMD education and public outreach (E/PO) Forums: Planetary, Earth, Astrophysics, and Heliophysics. It began in 2012 as an Astrophysics-led program (Astro4Girls) with 9 events around the country. Upon expanding among the four Forums, over 73 events were held in Spring 2013 (Fig. 1), with preparations underway for events in Spring 2014. All events are individually evaluated by both the student participants and participating librarians to assess their effectiveness in addressing audience needs.

  8. Using Innovative Resources and Programs to Prepare Pre- and In-Service Teachers for New Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, R. J.; Short, J.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Howes, E.; Kravitz, D.; Randle, D.; Trowbridge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Leveraging the Rose Center for Earth and Space and active research departments in Earth and Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Paleontology, the Education Department at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers an MAT program to prepare new Earth Science teachers (~100 new teachers by 2018) as well as a range of professional development (PD) opportunities for over 3,000 K-12 teachers annually, providing opportunities to learn with scientists; inquiry-based experiences; and standards-aligned resources. The AMNH produces innovative geoscience and other STEM resources supporting teacher and student science investigations with data visualizations and analysis tools, teaching case materials and other resources that provide rich nonfiction reading and writing opportunities for use in Earth and space science curricula that are integrated in the MAT and PD programs. Museum resources and the MAT and PD programs are aligned to support the recently released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards. The NGSS is a set of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas to help cultivate teachers' and K-12 students' scientific habits of mind, develop their knowledge and abilities to engage in scientific investigations, and teach them how to reason in context; goals that closely align with those of the AMNH's teacher preparation and professional development programs. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) is a required text for the MAT program, and this text as well as the NGSS Performance Expectations guide the PD programs as well. Researchers working with Museum scientists and educators find it is not enough for programs for pre- and in-service teachers to provide access to resources. Research suggests that these programs need to engage pre- and in-service teachers in using and reflecting on these types of resources, as well as take

  9. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  10. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Construction of Hierarchical Models for Fluid Dynamics in Earth and Planetary Sciences : DCMODEL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Sugiyama, K.; Odaka, M.; Ishiwatari, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Nishizawa, S.; Ishioka, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hayashi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Toward the understanding of fluid motions of planetary atmospheres and planetary interiors by performing multiple numerical experiments with multiple models, we are now proceeding ``dcmodel project'', where a series of hierarchical numerical models with various complexity is developed and maintained. In ``dcmodel project'', a series of the numerical models are developed taking care of the following points: 1) a common ``style'' of program codes assuring readability of the software, 2) open source codes of the models to the public, 3) scalability of the models assuring execution on various scales of computational resources, 4) stressing the importance of documentation and presenting a method for writing reference manuals. The lineup of the models and utility programs of the project is as follows: Gtool5, ISPACK/SPML, SPMODEL, Deepconv, Dcpam, and Rdoc-f95. In the followings, features of each component are briefly described. Gtool5 (Ishiwatari et al., 2012) is a Fortran90 library, which provides data input/output interfaces and various utilities commonly used in the models of dcmodel project. A self-descriptive data format netCDF is adopted as a IO format of Gtool5. The interfaces of gtool5 library can reduce the number of operation steps for the data IO in the program code of the models compared with the interfaces of the raw netCDF library. Further, by use of gtool5 library, procedures for data IO and addition of metadata for post-processing can be easily implemented in the program codes in a consolidated form independent of the size and complexity of the models. ``ISPACK'' is the spectral transformation library and ``SPML (SPMODEL library)'' (Takehiro et al., 2006) is its wrapper library. Most prominent feature of SPML is a series of array-handling functions with systematic function naming rules, and this enables us to write codes with a form which is easily deduced from the mathematical expressions of the governing equations. ``SPMODEL'' (Takehiro et al., 2006

  12. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for Planetary Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Bahamon, Tatiana; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Gurvits, Leonid; Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    ' atmosphere were derived. The demonstration of the capability of PRIDE as a radio science instrument for planetary atmospheric studies is developed in the framework of the upcoming ESA's JUICE mission to study Jupiter's system.

  13. The Design and Use of Planetary Science Video Games to Teach Content while Enhancing Spatial Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.

  14. Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wootton, Alan James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinars, Daniel Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spaulding, Dylan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Winget, Don [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The fifth Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting was held in Albuquerque, NM, July 20-­23, 2014. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together leading scientists in four research areas with active fundamental science research at Sandia’s Z facility: Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF), Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Material Science. The workshop was focused on discussing opportunities for high-­impact research using Sandia’s Z machine, a future 100 GPa class facility, and possible topics for growing the academic (off-Z-campus) science relevant to the Z Fundamental Science Program (ZFSP) and related projects in astrophysics, planetary science, MagLIF- relevant magnetized HED science, and materials science. The user meeting was for Z collaborative users to: a) hear about the Z accelerator facility status and plans, b) present the status of their research, and c) be provided with a venue to meet and work as groups. Following presentations by Mark Herrmann and Joel Lash on the fundamental science program on Z and the status of the Z facility where plenary sessions for the four research areas. The third day of the workshop was devoted to breakout sessions in the four research areas. The plenary-­ and breakout sessions were for the four areas organized by Dan Sinars (MagLIF), Dylan Spaulding (Planetary Science), Don Winget and Jim Bailey (Astrophysics), and Thomas Mattsson (Material Science). Concluding the workshop were an outbrief session where the leads presented a summary of the discussions in each working group to the full workshop. A summary of discussions and conclusions from each of the research areas follows and the outbrief slides are included as appendices.

  15. Magnetic Fields of Extrasolar Planets: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Ground-based observations showed that Jupiter's radio emission is linked to its planetary-scale magnetic field, and subsequent spacecraft observations have shown that most planets, and some moons, have or had a global magnetic field. Generated by internal dynamos, magnetic fields are one of the few remote sensing means of constraining the properties of planetary interiors. For the Earth, its magnetic field has been speculated to be partially responsible for its habitability, and knowledge of an extrasolar planet's magnetic field may be necessary to assess its habitability. The radio emission from Jupiter and other solar system planets is produced by an electron cyclotron maser, and detections of extrasolar planetary electron cyclotron masers will enable measurements of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields. Based on experience from the solar system, such observations will almost certainly require space-based observations, but they will also be guided by on-going and near-future ground-based observations.This work has benefited from the discussion and participants of the W. M. Keck Institute of Space Studies "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" and content within a white paper submitted to the National Academy of Science Committee on Exoplanet Science Strategy. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  17. Planetary sciences and exploration: An Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of impact craters records in the Indian shield have also been pursued and led to ... and emission of X-rays from planets as well as analytical modelling of martian ionosphere and ... Meteorite; moon; solar activity; solar system; martian atmosphere; planetary .... face layers of any meteorite reaching the earth, one.

  18. The four hundred years of planetary science since Galileo and Kepler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A

    2010-07-29

    For 350 years after Galileo's discoveries, ground-based telescopes and theoretical modelling furnished everything we knew about the Sun's planetary retinue. Over the past five decades, however, spacecraft visits to many targets transformed these early notions, revealing the diversity of Solar System bodies and displaying active planetary processes at work. Violent events have punctuated the histories of many planets and satellites, changing them substantially since their birth. Contemporary knowledge has finally allowed testable models of the Solar System's origin to be developed and potential abodes for extraterrestrial life to be explored. Future planetary research should involve focused studies of selected targets, including exoplanets.

  19. NASA's Planetary Data System: Support for the Delivery of Derived Data Sets at the Atmospheres Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Beebe, Reta; Neakrase, Lynn; Huber, Lyle; Rees, Shannon; Hornung, Danae

    2015-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System is charged with archiving electronic data products from NASA planetary missions that are sponsored by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This archive, currently organized by science disciplines, uses standards for describing and storing data that are designed to enable future scientists who are unfamiliar with the original experiments to analyze the data, and to do this using a variety of computer platforms, with no additional support. These standards address the data structure, description contents, and media design. The new requirement in the NASA ROSES-2015 Research Announcement to include a Data Management Plan will result in an increase in the number of derived data sets that are being delivered to the PDS. These data sets may come from the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration and Tools (PDART) program, other Data Analysis Programs (DAPs) or be volunteered by individuals who are publishing the results of their analysis. In response to this increase, the PDS Atmospheres Node is developing a set of guidelines and user tools to make the process of archiving these derived data products more efficient. Here we provide a description of Atmospheres Node resources, including a letter of support for the proposal stage, a communication schedule for the planned archive effort, product label samples and templates in extensible markup language (XML), documentation templates, and validation tools necessary for producing a PDS4-compliant derived data bundle(s) efficiently and accurately.

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. ... Geosciences Division, Marine, Geo and Planetary Sciences Group, Earth, Ocean, Atmosphere, Planetary Sciences and Applications Area, Space Applications Centre ...

  1. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is a vast store of planetary geospatial data that has been collected by NASA but is difficult to access and visualize. As a 3D geospatial browser, the Google Earth client is one way to visualize planetary data. KML imagery super-overlays enable us to create a non-Earth planetary globe within Google Earth, and conversion of planetary meta-data allows display of the footprint locations of various higher-resolution data sets. Once our group, or any group, performs these data conversions the KML can be made available on the Web, where anyone can download it and begin using it in Google Earth (or any other geospatial browser), just like a Web page. Lucian Plesea at JPL offers several KML basemaps (MDIM, colorized MDIM, MOC composite, THEMIS day time infrared, and both grayscale and colorized MOLA). We have created TES Thermal Inertia maps, and a THEMIS night time infrared overlay, as well. Many data sets for Mars have already been converted to KML. We provide coverage polygons overlaid on the globe, whose icons can be clicked on and lead to the full PDS data URL. We have built coverage maps for the following data sets: MOC narrow angle, HRSC imagery and DTMs, SHARAD tracks, CTX, and HiRISE. The CRISM team is working on providing their coverage data via publicly-accessible KML. The MSL landing site process is also providing data for potential landing sites via KML. The Google Earth client and KML allow anyone to contribute data for everyone to see via the Web. The Earth sciences community is already utilizing KML and Google Earth in a variety of ways as a geospatial browser, and we hope that the planetary sciences community will do the same. Using this paradigm for sharing geospatial data will not only enable planetary scientists to more easily build and share data within the scientific community, but will also provide an easy platform for public outreach and education efforts, and will easily allow anyone to layer geospatial information on top of planetary data

  2. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Morrison, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature

  3. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary

  4. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  5. Cathodoluminescence and its application in the planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gucsik, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of cathodoluminescence properties of the planetary materials. It provides a unique introduction to cathodoluminescence which is widely used in the geosciences, because it is a non-destructive and "easy to use" method.

  6. The Natural Science Program at the University of New Mexico: Geosciences Play a Central Role in Preservice Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M. W.; Ellwein, A. L.; Geissman, J. W.; McFadden, L. D.; Crossey, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    An important component for future directions of geoscience departments is public education. The role of geoscience departments in the preparation and professional development of K-12 teachers is particularly critical, and merges with other teaching missions within the University. The importance of geoscience content for teachers (and the general public) is evident in the numerous earth science related public policy issues that are the subject of ever-increasing attention (climate change, energy resources, water utilization, etc.). The earth and space sciences are not only included in both state and federal science content education standards but are also inherently interesting to students and therefore provide an important gateway to foster interest in science as well as other scientific disciplines. For over 10 years, the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (EPS) at the University of New Mexico (UNM) has housed and supported the Natural Science Program (NSP), which provides science content courses and numerous programs for K-12 pre- and in-service teachers. Classes and laboratories are integrated, and are capped at 21 students in the 200-level courses, assuring an active and supportive learning environment for students who are typically science-phobic with negative or no experiences with science. Enrollments are maintained at ~150 preservice teachers per semester. The program is staffed by two lecturers, who have advanced degrees in the geosciences as well as K-12 teaching experience, and several part time instructors, including graduate students who gain valuable teaching experience through teaching in the NSP. With continued support from the department, the NSP has expanded to develop robust and functional relationships related to science teacher professional development with Sandia National Laboratories and local school districts, initiated development of a graduate certificate in science teaching and, advanced a proposal for the development of an Energy

  7. Data Driven Professional Development Design for Out-of-School Time Educators Using Planetary Science and Engineering Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Bloom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Data driven design practices should be the basis for any effective educational product, particularly those used to support STEM learning and literacy. Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) is a five-year NASA-funded (NNX16AC53A) interdisciplinary and cross-institutional partnership to develop and disseminate STEM out-of-school time (OST) curricular and professional development units that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. The Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University, the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center, and the Museum of Science Boston are partners in developing, piloting, and researching the impact of three out of school time units. Two units are for middle grades youth and one is for upper elementary aged youth. The presentation will highlight the data driven development process of the educational products used to provide support for educators teaching these curriculum units. This includes how data from the project needs assessment, curriculum pilot testing, and professional support product field tests are used in the design of products for out of school time educators. Based on data analysis, the project is developing and testing four tiers of professional support for OST educators. Tier 1 meets the immediate needs of OST educators to teach curriculum and include how-to videos and other direct support materials. Tier 2 provides additional content and pedagogical knowledge and includes short content videos designed to specifically address the content of the curriculum. Tier 3 elaborates on best practices in education and gives guidance on methods, for example, to develop cultural relevancy for underrepresented students. Tier 4 helps make connections to other NASA or educational products that support STEM learning in out of school settings. Examples of the tiers of support will be provided.

  8. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  9. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  10. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  11. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  12. 2015 Science Mission Directorate Technology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is to enable NASA to achieve its science goals in the context of the Nation's science agenda. SMD's strategic decisions regarding future missions and scientific pursuits are guided by Agency goals, input from the science community including the recommendations set forth in the National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys and a commitment to preserve a balanced program across the major science disciplines. Toward this end, each of the four SMD science divisions -- Heliophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics -- develops fundamental science questions upon which to base future research and mission programs. Often the breakthrough science required to answer these questions requires significant technological innovation, e.g., instruments or platforms with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. SMD's targeted technology investments fill technology gaps, enabling NASA to build the challenging and complex missions that accomplish groundbreaking science.

  13. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    boundaries are rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps. Filling these gaps will require major advancements in Earth System and resilience science. The proposed concept of "planetary boundaries" lays the groundwork for shifting our approach to governance...... and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if we want to be sure...

  14. Novel Space Exploration Technique for Analysing Planetary Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dekoulis, George

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents a new reconfigurable wide-beam radio interferometer system for analysing planetary atmospheres. The system operates at frequencies, where the ionisation of the planetary plasma regions induces strong attenuation. For Earth, the attenuation is undistinguishable from the CMB at frequencies over 50 MHz. The system introduces a set of advanced specifications to this field of science, previously unseen in similar suborbital experiments. The reprogrammable dynamic range of the ...

  15. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  16. Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Fisher, John W. (Editor); Joshi, Jitendra A. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop" was held in Houston, Texas on April 27-29, 2005 to facilitate the development of planetary protection guidelines for future human Mars exploration missions and to identify the potential effects of these guidelines on the design and selection of related human life support, extravehicular activity and monitoring and control systems. This report provides a summary of the workshop organization, starting assumptions, working group results and recommendations. Specific result topics include the identification of research and technology development gaps, potential forward and back contaminants and pathways, mitigation alternatives, and planetary protection requirements definition needs. Participants concluded that planetary protection and science-based requirements potentially affect system design, technology trade options, development costs and mission architecture. Therefore early and regular coordination between the planetary protection, scientific, planning, engineering, operations and medical communities is needed to develop workable and effective designs for human exploration of Mars.

  17. Materials Sciences Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  18. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    is compatible with IVOA standards. For some major data archives with different standards adaptation tools are available to make the access transparent to the user. EuroPlaNet-IDIS has contributed to the definition of PDAP, the Planetary Data Access Protocol of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) [7] to access the major planetary data archives of NASA in the USA [8], ESA in Europe [9] and JAXA in Japan [10]. Acknowledgement: Europlanet-RI was funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program, grant 228319 "Capacities Specific Programme" - Research Infrastructures Action. Reference: [1] Details to IDIS and the Europlanet-RI via Web-site: http://www.idis.europlanet-ri.eu/ [2] Demonstrator implementation for Plasma-VO AMDA: http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/DDHTML/index.html [3] Demonstrator implementation for the IDIS-VO: http://www.idis-dyn.europlanet-ri.eu/vodev.shtml [4] Europlanet Data Model EPN-DM: http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/documents/public_documents/EPN-DM-v2.0.pdf [5] Europlanet Table Access Protocol EPN-TAP: http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/documents/public_documents/EPN-TAPV_0.26.pdf [6] International Virtual Observatory Alliance IVOA: http://www.ivoa.net [7] International Planetary Data Alliance IPDA: http://planetarydata.org/ [8] NASA's Planetary Data System: http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/ [9] ESA's Planetary Science Archive PSA: http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=PSA [10] JAXAs Data Archive and Transmission System DARTS: http://darts.isas.jaxa.jp/

  19. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  20. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  1. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  2. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoude spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  3. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  4. RIS4E Science Journalism Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, N.; Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Bass, E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Firstman, R.; Glotch, T. D.; Young, K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Remote, In-Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) team addresses the goals of the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute via four themes, one of which focuses on evaluating the role of handheld and portable field instruments for human exploration. The RIS4E Science Journalism Program highlights science in an innovative way: by instructing journalism students in the basics of science reporting and then embedding them with scientists in the field. This education program is powerful because it is deeply integrated within a science program, strongly supported by the science team and institutional partners, and offers an immersive growth experience for learners, exposing them to cutting edge NASA research and field technology. This program is preparing the next generation of science journalists to report on complex science accurately and effectively. The RIS4E Science Journalism Program consists of two components: a semester-long science journalism course and a reporting trip in the field. First, students participate in the RIS4E Science Journalism Practicum offered by the Stony Brook University School of Journalism. Throughout the semester, students learn about RIS4E science from interactions with the RIS4E science team, through classroom visits, one-on-one interviews, and tours of laboratories. At the conclusion of the course, several students, along with a professor and a teaching assistant, join the RIS4E team during the field season. The journalism students observe the entire multi-day field campaign, from set-up, to data collection and analysis, and investigation of questions that arise as a result of field discoveries. They watch the scientists formulate and test hypotheses in real time. The field component for the 2017 RIS4E Science Journalism Program took journalism students to the Potrillo Volcanic Field in New Mexico for a 10-day field campaign. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. They gained experience

  5. Planetary Nomenclature: An Overview and Update for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Tenielle; Hayward, Rose; IAU Working GroupPlanetary System Nomenclature

    2017-10-01

    The task of naming planetary surface features, rings, and natural satellites is managed by the International Astronomical Union’s (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). There are currently 15,361 IAU-approved surface feature names on 41 planetary bodies, including moons and asteroids. The members of the WGPSN and its task groups have worked since the early 1970s to provide a clear, unambiguous system of planetary nomenclature that represents cultures and countries from all regions of Earth. WGPSN members include Rita Schulz (Chair) and 9 other members representing countries around the globe. The participation of knowledgeable scientists and experts in this process is vital to its success of the IAU WGPSN . Planetary nomenclature is a tool used to uniquely identify features on the surfaces of planets or satellites so they can be located, described, and discussed in publications, including peer-review journals, maps and conference presentations. Approved names are listed in the Transactions of the IAU and on the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature website. Any names currently in use that are not listed the Gazetteer are not official. Planetary names must adhere to rules and conventions established by the IAU WGPSN (see http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/Rules for the complete list). The gazetteer includes an online Name Request Form (http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/FeatureNameRequest) that can be used by members of the professional science community. Name requests are first reviewed by one of six task groups (Mercury, Venus, Moon, Mars, Outer Solar System, and Small Bodies). After a task group has reviewed a proposal, it is submitted to the WGPSN. Allow four to six weeks for the review and approval process. Upon WGPSN approval, names are considered formally approved and it is then appropriate to use them in publications. Approved names are immediately entered into the database and shown on the website. Questions about the nomenclature

  6. Public Outreach with NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Trek family of online portals is an exceptional collection of resources making it easy for students and the public to explore surfaces of planetary bodies using real data from real missions. Exotic landforms on other worlds and our plans to explore them provide inspiring context for science and technology lessons in classrooms, museums, and at home. These portals can be of great value to formal and informal educators, as well as to scientists working to share the excitement of the latest developments in planetary science, and can significantly enhance visibility and public engagement in missions of exploration.

  7. Planetary-Whigs: Optical MEMS-Based Seismometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I, Michigan Aerospace Corporation will adapt the design of an optical MEMS seismometer for lunar and other planetary science instrumentation. The...

  8. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  9. Planetary Science from NASA's WB-57 Canberra High Altitude Research Aircraft During the Great American Eclipse of 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, C.; Caspi, A.; DeForest, C. E.; Durda, D. D.; Steffl, A.; Lewis, J.; Wiseman, J.; Collier, J.; Mallini, C.; Propp, T.; Warner, J.

    2017-12-01

    searches have been conducted. Our observations will only be the second time ever a search for Vulcanoids will have been conducted in the NIR. In this presentation, I will review our NASA flight program, and focus on the planetary science observations that came from the Great American Eclipse of 2017.

  10. Planetary Data Archiving Activities of ISRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; D, Rao J.; Thakkar, Navita; Prashar, Ajay; Manthira Moorthi, S.

    ISRO has launched its first planetary mission to moon viz., Chandrayaan-1 on October 22, 2008. This mission carried eleven instruments; a wealth of science data has been collected during its mission life (November 2008 to August 2009), which is archived at Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC). The data centre ISSDC is responsible for the Ingest, storage, processing, Archive, and dissemination of the payload and related ancillary data in addition to real-time spacecraft operations support. ISSDC is designed to provide high computation power, large storage and hosting a variety of applications necessary to support all the planetary and space science missions of ISRO. State-of-the-art architecture of ISSDC provides the facility to ingest the raw payload data of all the science payloads of the science satellites in automatic manner, processes raw data and generates payload specific processed outputs, generate higher level products and disseminates the data sets to principal investigators, guest observers, payload operations centres (POC) and to general public. The data archive makes use of the well-proven archive standards of the Planetary Data System (PDS). The long term Archive for five payloads of Chandrayaan-1 data viz., TMC, HySI, SARA, M3 and MiniSAR is released from ISSDC on19th April 2013 (http://www.issdc.gov.in) to the users. Additionally DEMs generated from possible passes of Chandrayaan-1 TMC stereo data and sample map sheets of Lunar Atlas are also archived and released from ISSDC along with the LTA. Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is the recent planetary mission launched on October 22, 2013; currently enroute to MARS, carrying five instruments (http://www.isro.org) viz., Mars Color Camera (MCC) to map various morphological features on Mars with varying resolution and scales using the unique elliptical orbit, Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM) to measure total column of methane in the Martian atmosphere, Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS) to map surface

  11. Collecting, Managing, and Visualizing Data during Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Graff, T. G.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Glotch, T. D.; Coan, D.; Reagan, M.; Evans, C. A.; Garrison, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    While the Apollo lunar surface missions were highly successful in collecting valuable samples to help us understand the history and evolution of the Moon, technological advancements since 1969 point us toward a new generation of planetary surface exploration characterized by large volumes of data being collected and used to inform traverse execution real-time. Specifically, the advent of field portable technologies mean that future planetary explorers will have vast quantities of in situ geochemical and geophysical data that can be used to inform sample collection and curation as well as strategic and tactical decision making that will impact mission planning real-time. The RIS4E SSERVI (Remote, In Situ and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration; Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute) team has been working for several years to deploy a variety of in situ instrumentation in relevant analog environments. RIS4E seeks both to determine ideal instrumentation suites for planetary surface exploration as well as to develop a framework for EVA (extravehicular activity) mission planning that incorporates this new generation of technology. Results from the last several field campaigns will be discussed, as will recommendations for how to rapidly mine in situ datasets for tactical and strategic planning. Initial thoughts about autonomy in mining field data will also be presented. The NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) missions focus on a combination of Science, Science Operations, and Technology objectives in a planetary analog environment. Recently, the increase of high-fidelity marine science objectives during NEEMO EVAs have led to the ability to evaluate how real-time data collection and visualization can influence tactical and strategic planning for traverse execution and mission planning. Results of the last few NEEMO missions will be discussed in the context of data visualization strategies for real-time operations.

  12. Connecting the Astrophysics Data System and Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.; Hughes, J. S.; Mortellaro, J.; McMahon, S. K.

    1997-07-01

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to astronomical literature through a sophisticated search engine. Over 10,000 users retrieve almost 5 million references and read more than 25,000 full text articles per month. ADS cooperates closely with all the main astronomical journals and data centers to create and maintain a state-of-the-art digital library. The Planetary Data System (PDS) publishes high quality peer reviewed planetary science data products, defines planetary archiving standards to make products usable, and provides science expertise to users in data product preparation and use. Data products are available to users on CD media, with more than 600 CD-ROM titles in the inventory from past missions as well as the recent releases from active planetary missions and observations. The ADS and PDS serve overlapping communities and offer complementary functions. The ADS and PDS are both part of the NASA Space Science Data System, sponsored by the Office of Space Science, which curates science data products for researchers and the general public. We are in the process of connecting these two data systems. As a first step we have included entries for PDS data sets in the ADS abstract service. This allows ADS users to find PDS data sets by searching for their descriptions through the ADS search system. The information returned from the ADS links directly to the data set's entry in the PDS data set catalog. After linking to this catalog, the user will have access to more comprehensive data set information, related ancillary information, and on-line data products. The PDS on the other hand will use the ADS to provide access to bibliographic information. This includes links from PDS data set catalog bibliographic citations to ADS abstracts and on-line articles. The cross-linking between these data systems allows each system to concentrate on its main objectives and utilize the other system to provide more and improved services to the users of both systems.

  13. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  14. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  15. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  16. NASA's computer science research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  17. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  18. NASA-HBCU Space Science and Engineering Research Forum Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Y.D.; Freeman, Y.B.; George, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) forum are presented. A wide range of research topics from plant science to space science and related academic areas was covered. The sessions were divided into the following subject areas: Life science; Mathematical modeling, image processing, pattern recognition, and algorithms; Microgravity processing, space utilization and application; Physical science and chemistry; Research and training programs; Space science (astronomy, planetary science, asteroids, moon); Space technology (engineering, structures and systems for application in space); Space technology (physics of materials and systems for space applications); and Technology (materials, techniques, measurements)

  19. Mitchell Receives 2013 Ronald Greeley Early Career Award in Planetary Science: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan L.

    2014-07-01

    I am honored to receive this award in memory of Ron Greeley. Although I did not have the opportunity to know him, I had the pleasure of getting to know his wife, Cynthia, at a luncheon prior to the special awards session at the AGU Fall Meeting. Cynthia is an intelligent and elegant southern woman with a confident gaze. She spoke fondly of Ron and of her sincere respect for his work ethic and dedication to planetary science. What most impressed me, though, was the respect Ron showed to her and the kids by always "giving them the evenings"; no matter how busy things got, Ron always kept his evenings open for Cynthia. This clearly meant the world to her. As a family man, I can only hope that my wife and kids will speak so kindly of me many years from now. I would like to dedicate this award to them in gratitude for their seemingly unconditional love and support.

  20. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  1. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  2. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  3. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  4. Next Generation Gamma/Neutron Detectors for Planetary Science., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy are well established techniques for determining the chemical composition of planetary surfaces, and small cosmic bodies such as...

  5. FWP executive summaries: Basic energy sciences materials sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

  6. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  7. Program summaries for 1979: energy sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the objectives of the various research programs being conducted by the Chemical Sciences, Metallurgy and Materials Science, and Process Science divisions of the BNL Dept. of Energy and Environment. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1979 are also reported along with plans for 1980. Some of the topics under study include porphyrins, combustion, coal utilization, superconductors, semiconductors, coal, conversion, fluidized-bed combustion, polymers, etc. (DLC)

  8. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  9. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroid J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope. Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile, and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  10. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: NASA Science4Girls and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. These NASA science education programs are mission- and grant-based E/PO programs are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. As such, the initiative engages girls in all four NASA science discipline areas (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Heliophysics), which enables audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  11. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  12. The University of Texas Science and Engineering Apprentice Program as a Model for an REU Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.; Blankenship, D. D.; Ellins, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics at (UTIG) is one of five research labs in the Austin area that hosts recent high school graduates for summer research projects through the Applied Research Lab Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program (SEAP). The SEAP is a program designed to provide summer research opportunities to recent high school undergraduates who excel in science and math. UTIG has been a large proponent of the SEAP and has typically mentored two to four students each year and a total alumni of about twenty. The program has successfully targeted groups that are typically underrepresented in sciences and engineering. Current statistics show that 25% of past SEAP students are members of an ethnic minority and 80% of SEAP students are female. Many of these students have stayed on after the summer program and continued to work part-time or return during summers to UTIG while completing their undergraduate careers. A significant portion of these students present results at professional meetings and ultimately commit to careers in science and engineering, both in industry and academia. SEAP students at UTIG work alongside scientists and graduate students as part of a team, and, through this interaction, improve their scientific knowledge and problem solving skills. Both graduate and undergraduate students involved in NSF-funded research grants mentor the SEAP students, giving them the opportunity to work on their own research problem while contributing data and interpretation to a more fundamental research problem. By uniting student research under the umbrella of Antarctic ice sheet research, students learn how their individual research projects relate to the more unifying science problem centered on ice sheet variability, and Antarctic continental evolution. They also gain an understanding of how research is carried out. At the same time, scientists and graduate students learn how to communicate their knowledge so that it is interesting and

  13. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  14. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects

  15. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.

  16. Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Edgar, L. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project, we have developed an out-of-school time unit for middle school students focused on planetary remote sensing. The activity is divided into two exercises, with the goal of choosing a scientifically interesting and safe landing site for a future Mars mission. Students are introduced to NASA data from several actual and proposed landing sites and must use what they learn about remote sensing to choose a site that satisfies scientific and engineering criteria. The activity also includes background information for educators, including a summary of how landing on Mars helps answer major scientific questions, brief overviews of the data sets that the students will use, summaries of the site geology, and a list of relevant vocabulary. The first exercise introduces students to the concept of reflectance spectroscopy and how it can be used to identify the "fingerprints" of different minerals on the surface of Mars. Students are provided with simplified maps of mineral spectra at the four sites, based on Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) observations, as well as a reference sheet with the spectra of common minerals on Mars. They can use this information to determine which sites have hydrated minerals, mafic minerals, or both. The second exercise adds data from the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and high resolution visible data from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Students learn about laser altimetry and how to interpret topographic contours to assess whether a landing site is too rough. The CTX data allow students to study the sites at higher resolution, with annotations that indicate key landforms of interest. These data, along with the spectroscopy data, allow students to rank the sites based on science and engineering criteria. This activity was developed as a collaboration between subject matter experts at

  17. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  18. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), in partnership with the Office of Energy Research (ER), designed, developed, and implemented the Environmental Management Science Program as a basic research effort to fund the scientific and engineering understanding required to solve the most challenging technical problems facing the government's largest, most complex environmental cleanup program. The intent of the Environmental Management Science Program is to: (1) Provide scientific knowledge that will revolutionize technologies and cleanup approaches to significantly reduce future costs, schedules, and risks. (2) Bridge the gap between broad fundamental research that has wide-ranging applications such as that performed in the Department's Office of Energy Research and needs-driven applied technology development that is conducted in Environmental Management's Office of Science and Technology. (3) Focus the nation's science infrastructure on critical Department of Energy environmental problems. In an effort to share information regarding basic research efforts being funded by the Environmental Management Science Program and the Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program), this CD includes summaries for each project. These project summaries, available in portable document format (PDF), were prepared in the spring of 1998 by the principal investigators and provide information about their most recent project activities and accomplishments.

  19. HESS Opinions: A planetary boundary on freshwater use is misleading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Maik

    2017-07-01

    In 2009, a group of prominent Earth scientists introduced the planetary boundaries (PB) framework: they suggested nine global control variables, and defined corresponding thresholds which, if crossed, could generate unacceptable environmental change. The concept builds on systems theory, and views Earth as a complex adaptive system in which anthropogenic disturbances may trigger non-linear, abrupt, and irreversible changes at the global scale, and push the Earth system outside the stable environmental state of the Holocene. While the idea has been remarkably successful in both science and policy circles, it has also raised fundamental concerns, as the majority of suggested processes and their corresponding planetary boundaries do not operate at the global scale, and thus apparently lack the potential to trigger abrupt planetary changes. This paper picks up the debate with specific regard to the planetary boundary on global freshwater use. While the bio-physical impacts of excessive water consumption are typically confined to the river basin scale, the PB proponents argue that water-induced environmental disasters could build up to planetary-scale feedbacks and system failures. So far, however, no evidence has been presented to corroborate that hypothesis. Furthermore, no coherent approach has been presented to what extent a planetary threshold value could reflect the risk of regional environmental disaster. To be sure, the PB framework was revised in 2015, extending the planetary freshwater boundary with a set of basin-level boundaries inferred from environmental water flow assumptions. Yet, no new evidence was presented, either with respect to the ability of those basin-level boundaries to reflect the risk of regional regime shifts or with respect to a potential mechanism linking river basins to the planetary scale. So while the idea of a planetary boundary on freshwater use appears intriguing, the line of arguments presented so far remains speculative and

  20. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  1. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is a close association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA is focused on developing an international standard that allows discovery, query, access, and usage of such data across international planetary data archive systems. While trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA concentrates on promoting governing data standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. This approach better supports the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System's (PDS) PDS4 standard. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. It has grown to a dozen member agencies represented by a number of different groups through the IPDA Steering Committee. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of

  2. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  3. Subsurface Prospecting by Planetary Drones, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program innovates subsurface prospecting by planetary drones to seek a solution to the difficulty of robotic prospecting, sample acquisition, and sample...

  4. The NASA Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Law, E.; Beyer, R. A.; Crombie, M. K.; Ebel, D. S. S.; Ghosh, A.; Grayzeck, E.; Morgan, T. H.; Paganelli, F.; Raugh, A.; Stein, T.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Banks, M.; Powell, K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of six science discipline nodes and two technical support nodes. Several ad hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions. The recent Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 to 2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes the history of the PDS, its functions and characteristics, and how it has evolved to its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex, evolving, archive system, the PDS must constantly respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on the challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings, suggested remediations, and a summary of what the future may hold for planetary data archiving. The findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and measurements of physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of the PDS and its impact on how archive growth, technology, and new

  5. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all

  6. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  7. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  8. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects

  9. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  10. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  11. Interoperability in planetary research for geospatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Trent M.; Rossi, Angelo P.; Frigeri, Alessandro; Marmo, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    For more than a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods for accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (e.g., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized geospatial image formats, geologic mapping conventions, U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) cartographic and metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Map Tile Services (cached image tiles), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they can be just as valuable for planetary domain. Another initiative, called VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access), will marry several of the above geoscience standards and astronomy-based standards as defined by International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). This work outlines the current state of interoperability initiatives in use or in the process of being researched within the planetary geospatial community.

  12. The science experience: The relationship between an inquiry-based science program and student outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderoso, Charie

    Science education reforms in U.S. schools emphasize the importance of students' construction of knowledge through inquiry. Organizations such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council (NRC), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) have demonstrated a commitment to searching for solutions and renewed efforts to improve science education. One suggestion for science education reform in U.S. schools was a transition from traditional didactic, textbook-based to inquiry-based instructional programs. While inquiry has shown evidence for improved student learning in science, what is needed is empirical evidence of those inquiry-based practices that affect student outcomes in a local context. This study explores the relationship between instructional programs and curricular changes affecting student outcomes in the Santa Ana Unified District (SAUSD): It provides evidence related to achievement and attitudes. SAUSD employs two approaches to teaching in the middle school science classrooms: traditional and inquiry-based approaches. The Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) program is an inquiry-based science program that utilizes resources for implementation of the University of California Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP) to support inquiry-based teaching and learning. Findings in this study provide empirical support related to outcomes of seventh-grade students, N = 328, in the LASER and traditional science programs in SAUSD.

  13. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  14. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  15. High mass resolution, high angular acceptance time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for planetary missions under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.

  16. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  17. Thinking about television science: How students understand the nature of science from different program genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2003-02-01

    Student views on the nature of science are shaped by a variety of out-of-school forces and television-mediated science is a significant force. To attempt to achieve a science for all, we need to recognize and understand the diverse messages about science that students access and think about on a regular basis. In this work I examine how high school students think about science that is mediated by four different program genres on television: documentary, magazine-format programming, network news, and dramatic or fictional programming. The following categories of findings are discussed: the ethics and validity of science, final form science, science as portrayed by its practitioners, and school science and television science. Student perceptions of the nature of science depicted on the program sample used in this study ranged from seeing science as comprising tentative knowledge claims to seeing science as a fixed body of facts.

  18. Interplanetary laser ranging : Analysis for implementation in planetary science missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range

  19. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  20. The Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) Program and NASA Astrophysics Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Dana Edward; Clark, Coral; Harman, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a three-part professional development (PD) experience for high school physics, astronomy, and earth science teachers. AAA PD consists of: (1) blended learning via webinars, asynchronous content delivery, and in-person workshops, (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong’s B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, including interactions with NASA astrophysics & planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) during science flights on SOFIA, and (3) continuing post-flight opportunities for teacher & student connections with SMEs.

  1. The Los Alamos Space Science Outreach (LASSO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, P. L.; Skoug, R. M.; Alexander, R. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Gary, S. P.

    2002-12-01

    The Los Alamos Space Science Outreach (LASSO) program features summer workshops in which K-14 teachers spend several weeks at LANL learning space science from Los Alamos scientists and developing methods and materials for teaching this science to their students. The program is designed to provide hands-on space science training to teachers as well as assistance in developing lesson plans for use in their classrooms. The program supports an instructional model based on education research and cognitive theory. Students and teachers engage in activities that encourage critical thinking and a constructivist approach to learning. LASSO is run through the Los Alamos Science Education Team (SET). SET personnel have many years of experience in teaching, education research, and science education programs. Their involvement ensures that the teacher workshop program is grounded in sound pedagogical methods and meets current educational standards. Lesson plans focus on current LANL satellite projects to study the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. LASSO is an umbrella program for space science education activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that was created to enhance the science and math interests and skills of students from New Mexico and the nation. The LASSO umbrella allows maximum leveraging of EPO funding from a number of projects (and thus maximum educational benefits to both students and teachers), while providing a format for the expression of the unique science perspective of each project.

  2. Fitting the curve in Excel® : Systematic curve fitting of laboratory and remotely sensed planetary spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCraig, M.A.; Osinski, G.R.; Cloutis, E.A.; Flemming, R.L.; Izawa, M.R.M.; Reddy, V.; Fieber-Beyer, S.K.; Pompilio, L.; van der Meer, F.D.; Berger, J.A.; Bramble, M.S.; Applin, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopy in planetary science often provides the only information regarding the compositional and mineralogical make up of planetary surfaces. The methods employed when curve fitting and modelling spectra can be confusing and difficult to visualize and comprehend. Researchers who are new to

  3. Historical Trends of Participation of Women Scientists in Robotic Spacecraft Mission Science Teams: Effect of Participating Scientist Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Julie A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Diniega, Serina; Hurley, Dana; New, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Schug, Joanna; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many planetary scientists consider involvement in a robotic spacecraft mission the highlight of their career. We have searched for names of science team members and determined the percentage of women on each team. We have limited the lists to members working at US institutions at the time of selection. We also determined the year each team was selected. The gender of each team member was limited to male and female and based on gender expression. In some cases one of the authors knew the team member and what pronouns they use. In other cases, we based our determinations on the team member's name or photo (obtained via a google search, including institution). Our initial analysis considered 22 NASA planetary science missions over a period of 41 years and only considered NASA-selected PI and Co-Is and not participating scientists, postdocs, or graduate students. We found that there has been a dramatic increase in participation of women on spacecraft science teams since 1974, from 0-2% in the 1970s - 1980s to an average of 14% 2000-present. This, however, is still lower than the recent percentage of women in planetary science, which 3 different surveys found to be ~25%. Here we will present our latest results, which include consideration of participating scientists. As in the case of PIs and Co-Is, we consider only participating scientists working at US institutions at the time of their selection.

  4. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  5. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  6. Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation in planetary geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience education is a key factor in the academic, scientific and professional progress of any modern society. Geoethics is an interdisciplinary field, which involves Earth and Planetary Sciences as well as applied ethics, regarding the study of the abiotic world. These coss-cutting interactions linking scientific, societal and cultural aspects, consider our planet, in its modern approach, as a system and as a model. This new perspective is extremely important in the context of geoducation in planetary geosciences. In addition, Earth, our home planet, is the only planet in our solar system known to harbor life. This also makes it crucial to develop any scientific strategy and methodological technique (e.g. Raman spectroscopy) of searching for extraterrestrial life. In this context, it has been recently proposed [1-3] that the incorporation of the geoethical and geodiversity issues in planetary geology and astrobiology studies would enrich their methodological and conceptual character (mainly but not only in relation to planetary protection). Modern geoscience education must take into account that, in order to understand the origin and evolution of our planet, we need to be aware that the Earth is open to space, and that the study of meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars is also essential for this purpose (Earth analogs are also unique sites to define planetary guidelines). Generic and scientific constraints involving geoethics and geoeducation should be incorporated into the teaching of all fundamental knowledge and skills for students and teachers. References: [1] Martinez-Frias, J. et al. (2009) 9th European Workshop on Astrobiology, EANA 09, 12-14 October 2009, Brussels, Belgiam. [2] Martinez-Frias, J., et al. (2010) 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Protecting the Lunar and Martian Environments for Scientific Research, Bremen, Germany, 18-25 July. [3] Walsh et al. (2012) 43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 1910.pdf

  7. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  8. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  9. Measuring Science Inquiry Skills in Youth Development Programs: The Science Process Skills Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Arnold

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on science learning in 4-H and other youth development programs. In an effort to increase science capacity in youth, it is easy to focus only on developing the concrete skills and knowledge that a trained scientist must possess. However, when science learning is presented in a youth-development setting, the context of the program also matters. This paper reports the development and testing of the Science Process Skills Inventory (SPSI and its usefulness for measuring science inquiry skill development in youth development science programs. The results of the psychometric testing of the SPSI indicated the instrument is reliable and measures a cohesive construct called science process skills, as reflected in the 11 items that make up this group of skills. The 11 items themselves are based on the cycle of science inquiry, and represent the important steps of the complete inquiry process.

  10. Engaging a Rural Community with Science through a Science Café

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public awareness about science and science issues is often lacking in the general community; in a rural community there are even fewer options for an interested person to engage with others on science topics. One approach to address this issue is through the use of the Science Café model of citizen science at the local level. The Science Café concept, for the United States, originated in Boston (http://www.sciencecafes.org/). Science Café events are held in informal settings, such as restaurants, pubs, or coffee houses with presentations being provided by experts on the subject. The format is designed to promote discussion and questions. Fort Hays State University Science and Mathematics Institute (SMEI), located in Hays, KS, is now in its fifth year of hosting a science café in a community of 20,000 people. The program in Hays started as a grassroots effort from an area high school teacher asking SMEI to organize and support the program. Attendance at the Science Café has range from 14 to 75 people (fire code capacity!), with an average attendance of 30 people. The audience for our Science Café has been citizens, college students, high school students, and university faculty. The presenters at the Hays Science Café have ranged from scientists to engineers, high school students to hobbyists. Our topics have ranged from searching for life in the universe, wind energy, paleo-life in Kansas, climate change, honey bees, and planetary science. The program has developed a strong following in the community and has led to the formation of additional Science Café programs in Kansas. Selection of topics is based on community interest and timeliness. Publicity occurs through posters, e-mail, and social media outlets. Participants have found the sessions to be of interest and a place to learn more about the world and become informed about issues in the news. The Science Café in Hays has had a positive impact on the community.

  11. The Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS): A Program Exemplifying Diversity and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vernon R.; Joseph, Everette; Smith, Sonya; Yu, Tsann-wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences and lessons learned from developing an interdisciplinary graduate program (IDP) during the last 10 y: The Howard University Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS). HUPAS is the first advanced degree program in the atmospheric sciences, or related fields such as meteorology and earth system sciences,…

  12. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  13. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  14. Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  16. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  17. A decision model for planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Brigadier, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Many techniques developed for the solution of problems in economics and operations research are directly applicable to problems involving engineering trade-offs. This paper investigates the use of utility theory for decision making in planetary exploration space missions. A decision model is derived that accounts for the objectives of the mission - science - the cost of flying the mission and the risk of mission failure. A simulation methodology for obtaining the probability distribution of science value and costs as a function spacecraft and mission design is presented and an example application of the decision methodology is given for various potential alternatives in a comet Encke mission.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  19. Re-designing an Earth Sciences outreach program for Rhode Island public elementary schools to address new curricular standards and logistical realities in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, N.; Vachula, R. S.; Pascuzzo, A.; Prilipko Huber, O.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to middle and high school students, elementary school students in Rhode Island (RI) have no access to dedicated science teachers, resulting in uneven quality and scope of science teaching across the state. In an attempt to improve science education in local public elementary schools, the Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences (DEEPS) at Brown University initiated a student-driven science-teaching program that was supported by a NSF K-12 grant from 2007 to 2014. The program led to the development of an extensive in-house lesson plan database and supported student-led outreach and teaching in several elementary and middle school classrooms. After funding was terminated, the program continued on a volunteer basis, providing year-round science teaching for several second-grade classrooms. During the 2016-2017 academic year, New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were introduced in RI public schools, and it became apparent that our outreach efforts required adaptation to be more efficient and relevant for both elementary school students and teachers. To meet these new needs, DEEPS, in collaboration with the Providence Public School District, created an intensive summer re-design program involving both graduate and undergraduate students. Three multi-lesson units were developed in collaboration with volunteer public school teachers to specifically address NGSS goals for earth science teaching in 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades. In the 2017-2018 academic year DEEPS students will co-teach the science lessons with the public school teachers in two local elementary schools. At the end of the next academic year all lesson plans and activities will be made publically available through a newly designed DEEPS outreach website. We herein detail our efforts to create and implement new educational modules with the goals of: (1) empowering teachers to instruct science, (2) engaging students and fostering lasting STEM interest and competency, (3) optimizing

  20. Using Sandia's Z Machine and Density Functional Theory Simulations to Understand Planetary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The use of Z, NIF, and Omega have produced many breakthrough results in high pressure physics. One area that has greatly benefited from these facilities is the planetary sciences. The high pressure behavior of planetary materials has implications for numerous geophysical and planetary processes. The continuing discovery of exosolar super-Earths demonstrates the need for accurate equation of state data to better inform our models of their interior structures. Planetary collision processes, such as the moon-forming giant impact, require understanding planetary materials over a wide-range of pressures and temperatures. Using Z, we examined the shock compression response of some common planetary materials: MgO, Mg2SiO4, and Fe2O3 (hematite). We compare the experimental shock compression measurements with density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. The combination of experiment and theory provides clearer understanding of planetary materials properties at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Access and scientific exploitation of planetary plasma datasets with the CDPP/AMDA web-based tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    The field of planetary sciences has greatly expanded in recent years with space missions orbiting around most of the planets of our Solar System. The growing amount and wealth of data available make it difficult for scientists to exploit data coming from many sources that can initially be heterogeneous in their organization, description and format. It is an important objective of the Europlanet-RI (supported by EU within FP7) to add value to space missions by significantly contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data; to enable space researchers to take full advantage of the potential value of data sets. To this end and to enhance the science return from space missions, innovative tools have to be developed and offered to the community. AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis, http://cdpp-amda.cesr.fr/) is a web-based facility developed at CDPP Toulouse in France (http://cdpp.cesr.fr) for on line analysis of space physics data (heliosphere, magnetospheres, planetary environments) coming from either its local database or distant ones. AMDA has been recently integrated as a service to the scientific community for the Plasma Physics thematic node of the Europlanet-RI IDIS (Integrated and Distributed Information Service, http://www.europlanet-idis.fi/) activities, in close cooperation with IWF Graz (http://europlanet-plasmanode.oeaw.ac.at/index.php?id=9). We will report the status of our current technical and scientific efforts to integrate in the local database of AMDA various planetary plasma datasets (at Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth and Moon, Jupiter, Saturn) from heterogeneous sources, including NASA/Planetary Data System (http://ppi.pds.nasa.gov/). We will also present our prototype Virtual Observatory activities to connect the AMDA tool to the IVOA Aladin astrophysical tool to enable pluridisciplinary studies of giant planet auroral emissions. This presentation will be done on behalf of the CDPP Team and Europlanet-RI IDIS plasma node

  2. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  3. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  4. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  5. Selecting and implementing scientific objectives. [for Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Stembridge, C. H.; Doms, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used to select and implement scientific objectives for the Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters are described. Attention is given to the scientific tradeoffs and engineering considerations must be addressed at various stages in the mission planning process, including: the limitations of ground and spacecraft communications systems, ageing of instruments in flight, and instrument calibration over long distances. The contribution of planetary science workshops to the definition of scientific objectives for deep space missions is emphasized.

  6. The Orbital and Planetary Phase Variations of Jupiter-sized Planets: Characterizing Present and Future Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Laura C.; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert; Knowles, Ben; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marley, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of how the brightness and color of a planet varies with viewing angle is essential for the design of future direct imaging missions and deriving constraints on atmospheric properties. However, measuring the phase curves for the solar system gas giants is impossible from the ground. Using data Cassini/ISS obtained during its flyby of Jupiter, I measured Jupiter's phase curve in six bands spanning 400-1000 nm. I found that Jupiter's brightness is less than that of a Lambertian scatterer and that its color varies more with phase angle than predicted by theoretical models. For hot Jupiters, the light from the planet cannot be spatially isolated from that of the star. As a result, determining the planetary phase curve requires removing the phase-dependent contributions from the host star. I consider the effect of varying the stellar model and present a parameterization of the Doppler beaming amplitude that depends upon the planetary mass, orbital period, and the stellar temperature. I consider the detectability of Doppler beaming amplitudes with data from TESS and find that TESS will be less sensitive to this signal than Kepler. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program and the New Mexico Higher Education Department Graduate Scholarship Program.

  7. Science Meets Literacy and Art at the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaConte, K. M.; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! program is designed to engage and inspire children in Earth and space science in the library and other informal learning environments. Eight online thematic Explore! modules make up-to-date science accessible to rural communities - often where the library is the closest center of public learning - and other underserved audiences. The program prepares librarians to engage their communities in science through experiences with the modules, interactions with scientists, exploration of the resources available within the library learning environment, and development of local partnerships. Through hands-on science activities, art, and reading, Explore! reaches library patrons between the ages of 8 and 13 through librarian-led, locally facilitated programs across the nation. For example, NASA Lunar Science Institute research into lunar formation, evolution, and orbital dynamics are woven into a comic book that serves as a journal and art piece for participants in Marvel Moon programs (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/explore/marvelMoon). In another example, children compare cloud types and atmospheric structure on Earth and Jupiter, and then they consider artwork of Jupiter's clouds and the future discoveries of NASA's upcoming Juno mission as they write "Jovian Poetry" (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/explore/solar_system/activities/weatherStations). Explore! program facilitators are provided resources for making use of children's science books and local professional scientists and engineers.

  8. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of all known planet host stars, including the Sun, will eventually evolve into red giants and finally end their lives as white dwarfs: extremely dense Earth-sized stellar embers. Only close-in planets will be devoured during the red-giant phase. In the solar system, Mars, the asteroid belt, and all the giant planets will escape evaporation, and the same is true for many of the known exo-planets. It is hence certain that a significant fraction of the known white dwarfs were once host stars to planets, and it is very likely that many of them still have remnants of planetary systems. The detection of metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is the unmistakable signpost of such evolved planetary systems. The strong surface gravity of white dwarfs causes metals to sink out of the atmosphere on time-scales much shorter than their cooling ages, leading unavoidably to pristine H/He atmospheres. Therefore any metals detected in the atmosphere of a white dwarf imply recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. In fact, planetary debris is also detected as circumstellar dust and gas around a number of white dwarfs. These debris disks are formed from the tidal disruption of asteroids or Kuiper belt-like objects, stirred up by left-over planets, and are subsequently accreted onto the white dwarf, imprinting their abundance pattern into its atmosphere. Determining the photospheric abundances of debris-polluted white dwarfs is hence entirely analogue to the use of meteorites, "rocks that fell from the sky", for measuring the abundances of planetary material in the solar system. I will briefly review this new field of exo-planet science, and then focus on the results of a large, unbiased COS snapshot survey of relatively young ( 20-100Myr) white dwarfs that we carried out in Cycle 18/19. * At least 30% of all white dwarfs in our sample are accreting planetary debris, and that fraction may be as high as 50%. * In most cases where debris pollution is detected

  9. The Unlikely Origins of NASA’s “Search for Origins” Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Mario R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Program for many years was by far one of the most important scientific initiatives in NASA’s history, linking together priority research campaigns in planetary science, astrophysics, and the biological sciences. It served also as an overarching description to the agency stakeholders of a new generation of major space missions and technology investments. Moreover, the Program, although no longer formally in existence, significantly influences multiple major science priorities for NASA even today. Remarkably, inception of NASA’s Origins Program — The Search for Our Cosmic Roots — two decades ago was initiated by the country’s political leadership, not by the scientific community, the National Academy of Sciences, or by an advisory panel of experts. Instead, it was an initiative by the White House in response to the stunning announcement of ‘evidence’ for life found on a Martian meteorite not long after the discovery of the first extrasolar planet orbiting a sun-like star. A White House memo dated in September 1996, written by John H. Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology to Dan Goldin, NASA Administrator at that time, called for a “Space Summit” that would include experts on three broad topics: the universe, planets, and life.The summit was jointly organized by NASA and the National Research Council, and was chaired by Vice-President Al Gore in late October 1996. Three dozen biologists, planetary scientists, astronomers, and cosmologists participated. The outcome was the Origins Program, which has been a prominent part of NASA’s science program ever since, theme which is captured by the simple and profound questions: How Did We Get Here? and Are We Alone?This particular initiative and its genesis demonstrates that science discoveries, followed by political activism and then executive orders can impact and shape for decades the paths to major science priorities, practices, and implementation. In this

  10. Development and Implementation of Science and Technology Ethics Education Program for Prospective Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hyang-yon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a science and technology (ST) ethics education program for prospective science teachers, (2) to examine the effect of the program on the perceptions of the participants, in terms of their ethics and education concerns, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the program design. The program utilized…

  11. Fusion Energy Sciences Program at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, Ramon J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-15

    This presentation provides a strategic plan and description of investment areas; LANL vision for existing programs; FES portfolio and other specifics related to the Fusion Energy Sciences program at LANL.

  12. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study

  13. Lessons from NASA Applied Sciences Program: Success Factors in Applying Earth Science in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L. A.; Cox, L.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program collaborates with organizations to discover and demonstrate applications of NASA Earth science research and technology to decision making. The desired outcome is for public and private organizations to use NASA Earth science products in innovative applications for sustained, operational uses to enhance their decisions. In addition, the program facilitates the end-user feedback to Earth science to improve products and demands for research. The Program thus serves as a bridge between Earth science research and technology and the applied organizations and end-users with management, policy, and business responsibilities. Since 2002, the Applied Sciences Program has sponsored over 115 applications-oriented projects to apply Earth observations and model products to decision making activities. Projects have spanned numerous topics - agriculture, air quality, water resources, disasters, public health, aviation, etc. The projects have involved government agencies, private companies, universities, non-governmental organizations, and foreign entities in multiple types of teaming arrangements. The paper will examine this set of applications projects and present specific examples of successful use of Earth science in decision making. The paper will discuss scientific, organizational, and management factors that contribute to or impede the integration of the Earth science research in policy and management. The paper will also present new methods the Applied Sciences Program plans to implement to improve linkages between science and end users.

  14. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  15. Exploring Art and Science Integration in an Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotta, Alanna

    Science, technology, engineering, arts and math (STEAM) education integrates science with art, presenting a unique and interesting opportunity to increase accessibility in science for learners. This case study examines an afterschool program grounded in art and science integration. Specifically, I studied the goals of the program, it's implementation and the student experience (thinking, feeling and doing) as they participated in the program. My findings suggest that these programs can be powerful methods to nurture scientific literacy, creativity and emotional development in learners. To do so, this program made connections between disciplines and beyond, integrated holistic teaching and learning practices, and continually adapted programming while also responding to challenges. The program is therefore specially suited to engage the heads, hands and hearts of learners, and can make an important contribution to their learning and development. To conclude, I provide some recommendations for STEAM implementation in both formal and informal learning settings.

  16. USRA's NCSEFSE: a new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Goldstein, J.; Vanhala, H.; Hamel, J.; Miller, E. A.; Pulkkinen, K.; Richards, S.

    2005-08-01

    A new National Center for Space, Earth, and Flight Sciences Education (NCSEFSE) has been created in the Washington, DC metropolitan area under the auspices of the Universities Space Research Association. The NCSEFSE provides education and public outreach services in the areas of NASA's research foci in programs of both national and local scope. Present NCSEFSE programs include: Journey through the Universe, which unites formal and informal education within communities and connects a nationally-distributed network of communities from Hilo, HI to Washington, DC with volunteer Visiting Researchers and thematic education modules; the Voyage Scale Model Solar System exhibition on the National Mall, a showcase for planetary science placed directly outside the National Air and Space Museum; educational module development and distribution for the MESSENGER mission to Mercury through a national cadre of MESSENGER Educator Fellows; Teachable Moments in the News, which capitalizes on current events in space, Earth, and flight sciences to teach the science that underlies students' natural interests; the Voyages Across the Universe Speakers' Bureau; and Family Science Night at the National Air and Space Museum, which reaches audiences of 2000--3000 each year, drawn from the Washington metropolitan area. Staff scientists of NCSEFSE maintain active research programs, presently in the areas of planetary atmospheric composition, structure, and dynamics, and in solar system formation. NCSEFSE scientists thus are able to act as authentic representatives of frontier scientific research, and ensure accuracy, relevance, and significance in educational products. NCSEFSE instructional designers and educators ensure pedagogic clarity and effectiveness, through a commitment to quantitative assessment.

  17. The Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences: A Program Exemplifying Diversity and Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morria, V. R.; Demoz, B.; Joseph, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Howard University Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS) is the first advanced degree program in the atmospheric sciences instituted at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU) or at a Minority-Serving Institution (MSI). MSI in this context refers to academic institutions whose histories are grounded in serving minority students from their inception, rather than institutions whose student body demographics have evolved along with the "browning of America" and now meet recent Federal criteria for "minority-serving". HUPAS began in 1996 when initiatives within the Howard University Graduate School overlapped with the motivations of investigators within a NASA-funded University research center for starting a sustainable interdisciplinary program. After twenty years, the results have been the production of greater institutional depth and breadth of research in the geosciences and significant production of minority scientists contributing to the atmospheric sciences enterprise in various sectors. This presentation will highlight the development of the Howard University graduate program in atmospheric sciences, its impact on the national statistics for the production of underrepresented minority (URM) advanced degree holders in the atmospheric sciences, and some of the program's contributions to the diversity in geosciences and the National pipeline of talent from underrepresented groups. Over the past decade, Howard University is leading producer of African American and Hispanic female doctorates in atmospheric sciences - producing nearly half of all degree holders in the Nation. Specific examples of successful partnerships between this program and federal funding agencies such as NASA and NOAA which have been critical in the development process will also be highlighted. Finally, some of the student recruitment and retention strategies that have enabled the success of this program and statistics of student graduation will also be shared and

  18. Teachers' participation in research programs improves their students' achievement in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Samuel C; Dubner, Jay; Miller, Jon; Glied, Sherry; Loike, John D

    2009-10-16

    Research experience programs engage teachers in the hands-on practice of science. Program advocates assert that program participation enhances teachers' skills in communicating science to students. We measured the impact of New York City public high-school science teachers' participation in Columbia University's Summer Research Program on their students' academic performance in science. In the year before program entry, students of participating and nonparticipating teachers passed a New York State Regents science examination at the same rate. In years three and four after program entry, participating teachers' students passed Regents science exams at a rate that was 10.1% higher (P = 0.049) than that of nonparticipating teachers' students. Other program benefits include decreased teacher attrition from classroom teaching and school cost savings of U.S. $1.14 per $1 invested in the program.

  19. Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal Year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Materials Sciences Division constitutes one portion of a wide range of research supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This report contains a listing of research underway in FY 1983 together with a convenient index to the program

  20. Development and Implementation of Science and Technology Ethics Education Program for Prospective Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hyang-yon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a science and technology (ST) ethics education program for prospective science teachers, (2) to examine the effect of the program on the perceptions of the participants, in terms of their ethics and education concerns, and (3) to evaluate the impact of the program design. The program utilized problem-based learning (PBL) which was performed as an iterative process during two cycles. A total of 23 and 29 prospective teachers in each cycle performed team activities. A PBL-based ST ethics education program for the science classroom setting was effective in enhancing participants' perceptions of ethics and education in ST. These perceptions motivated prospective science teachers to develop and implement ST ethics education in their future classrooms. The change in the prospective teachers' perceptions of ethical issues and the need for ethics education was greater when the topic was controversial.

  1. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  2. Planetary magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.W.; Michel, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent planetary probes have resulted in the realization of the generality of magnetospheric interactions between the solar wind and the planets. The three categories of planetary magnetospheres are discussed: intrinsic slowly rotating magnetospheres, intrinsic rapidly rotating magnetospheres, and induced magnetospheres. (BJG)

  3. Considerations in the Design of Future Planetary Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary laser altimeters have generally been designed to provide high accuracy measurements of the nadir range to an uncooperative surface for deriving the shape of the target body, and sometimes specifically for identifying and characterizing potential landing sites. However, experience has shown that in addition to the range measurement, other valuable observations can be acquired, including surface reflectance and surface roughness, despite not being given high priority in the original altimeter design or even anticipated. After nearly 2 decades of planetary laser altimeter design, the requirements are evolving and additional capabilities are becoming equally important. The target bodies, once the terrestrial planets, are now equally asteroids and moons that in many cases do not permit simple orbital operations due to their small mass, radiation issues, or spacecraft fuel limitations. In addition, for a number of reasons, it has become necessary to perform shape determination from a much greater range, even thousands of kilometers, and thus ranging is becoming as important as nadir altimetry. Reflectance measurements have also proved important for assessing the presence of ice, water or CO2, and laser pulse spreading informed knowledge of surface roughness; all indicating a need for improved instrument capability. Recently, the need to obtain accurate range measurement to laser reflectors on landers or on a planetary surface is presenting new science opportunities but for which current designs are far from optimal. These changes to classic laser altimetry have consequences for many instrument functions and capabilities, including beam divergence, laser power, number of beams and detectors, pixelation, energy measurements, pointing stability, polarization, laser wavelengths, and laser pulse rate dependent range. We will discuss how a new consideration of these trades will help make lidars key instruments to execute innovative science in future planetary

  4. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  5. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions: geometry and visualization support to studies, operations and data analysis within your reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marc

    2018-05-01

    JUICE is a mission chosen in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2024 program of the SRE. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on the three Galilean Moons. Currently the mission is under study activities during its Definition Phase. For this period the future mission scenarios are being studied by the Science Working Team (SWT). The Mission Analysis and Payload Support (MAPPS) and the Solar System Science Operations Laboratory (SOLab) tools are being used to provide active support to the SWT in synergy with other operational tools used in the Department in order to evaluate the feasibility of those scenarios. This contribution will outline the capabilities, synergies as well as use cases of the mentioned tools focusing on the support provided to JUICEís study phase on the study of its critical operational scenarios and the early developments of its Science Ground Segment demonstrating the added value that such a tool provides to planetary science missions.

  6. Teachers' voices: A comparison of two secondary science teacher preparation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas Labuda, Kathryn

    This dissertation, using cross-case qualitative methodology, investigates the salient and latent features of two philosophically different university-based secondary science teacher preparation programs. Written documents from the two programs and from the Salish I Research project provided the salient data. New teachers' interview transcripts provided the latent data. This study provides the opportunity to hear teachers voice their perceptions of preparation programs. Three questions were investigated in this research study. First, What are the salient features of two different secondary science teacher preparation programs? Second, What are the latent features of two different secondary science teacher programs as perceived by new teachers? Third, How do new secondary science teachers from different programs perceive their preservice programs? The last question incorporates teachers' perceptions of gaps and coherence in the programs and teachers' recommendations to improve their preservice programs. Salient features of the programs revealed differences in the types of certification, and the amounts and types of required course work. Both programs certified teachers at the secondary science level, but only M program certified their teachers as elementary science specialists. Program M required more semester hours of education and science course work than Program S. Although teachers from both programs perceived little coherence between their science and education courses, S-teachers presented a more fragmented picture of their education program and perceived fewer benefits from the program. Lack of relevance and courses that focused on elementary teaching were perceived as part of the problem. M-teachers perceived some cohesion through the use of cohorts in three consecutive semesters of science methods courses that provided multiple field experiences prior to student teaching. S-teachers did not perceive an organized philosophy of their program. M

  7. Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the 1985-1986 progress of the Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program (MFSF). The program was established in January of 1985 by the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage talented undergraduate and first-year graduate students to enter qualified graduate programs in the sciences related to fusion energy development. The program currently has twelve fellows in participating programs. Six new fellows are being appointed during each of the program's next two award cycles. Appointments are for one year and are renewable for two additional years with a three year maximum. The stipend level also continues at a $1000 a month or $12,000 a year. The program pays all tuition and fee expenses for the fellows. Another important aspect of the fellowship program is the practicum. During the practicum fellows receive three month appointments to work at DOE designated fusion science research and development centers. The practicum allows the MFSF fellows to directly participate in on-going DOE research and development programs

  8. 75 FR 22576 - Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.120A] Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program... the fiscal year (FY) 2009 grant slate for the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program. SUMMARY: The Secretary intends to use the grant slate developed in FY 2009 for the Minority Science and...

  9. Incorporating Geographic Information Science in the BSc Environ-mental Science Program in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2018-05-01

    Critical human capacity in Geographic Information Science (GISc) is developed at the Botswana International University of Science and Technology, a specialized, research university. Strategies employed include GISc courses offered each semester to students from various programs, the conduct of field-based projects, enrolment in online courses, geo-spatial initiatives with external partners, and final year research projects utilizing geospatial technologies. A review is made of available GISc courses embedded in the Bachelor of Science Environmental Science program. GISc courses are incorporated in three Bachelor degree programs as distinct courses. Geospatial technologies are employed in several other courses. Student researches apply GIS and Remote Sensing methods to environmental and geological themes. The overarching goals are to equip students in various disciplines to utilize geospatial technologies, and enhance their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  11. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  12. Climate Science Program at California State University, Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele Cox, H.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.; Foley, B.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its interdisciplinary nature, climate science poses wide-ranging challenges for science and mathematics students seeking careers in this field. There is a compelling need for universities to provide coherent programs in climate science in order to train future climate scientists. With funding from NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE), California State University, Northridge (CSUN), is creating the CSUN Climate Science Program. An interdisciplinary team of faculty members is working in collaboration with UCLA, Santa Monica College and NASA/JPL partners to create a new curriculum in climate science. The resulting sequence of climate science courses, or Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC), is integrated into a Bachelor of Science degree program in the Applied Mathematical Sciences offered by the Mathematics Department at CSUN. The PMCC consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change and related careers. The students who choose to follow this program will be guided to enroll in the following sequence of courses for their 12 units of upper division electives: 1) A newly created course junior level course, Math 396CL, in applied mathematics which will introduce students to applications of vector calculus and differential equations to the study of thermodynamics and atmospheric dynamics. 2) An already existing course, Math 483, with new content on mathematical modeling specialized for this program; 3) An improved version of Phys 595CL on the mathematics and physics of climate change with emphasis on Radiative Transfer; 4) A choice of Geog 407 on Remote Sensing or Geog 416 on Climate Change with updated content to train the students in the analysis of satellite data obtained with the NASA Earth Observing System and instruction in the analysis of data obtained within a Geographical

  13. The Specification of Science Education Programs in the Local Public Library: Focusing on the Programs In G-city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ja Ahn*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of 'G' has been made a number of achievements with its science program as a part of public library's cultural program during the last 5 years. Recently, the national science centre has been established in the same city, the debate is now needed whether the science program in the public library have reasons to be maintained or to be reduced. The aim of this research is on the operating strategies of the science program in the public library. The research methods include case studies of operational strategies in domestic and foreign science centre, the level of satisfaction of local citizen on the science program, the vision of science program in the advancement of public library in the century. In results, the research proposes that the science program in public library should be maintained, but with locally characterised programs. In addition, the study also advised on the provision of scientific information, the strengthened search functions, and the development of user-centred services for those in science fields.

  14. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  15. Planetary Gearbox Fault Detection Using Vibration Separation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; Ehinger, Ryan T.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Studies were performed to demonstrate the capability to detect planetary gear and bearing faults in helicopter main-rotor transmissions. The work supported the Operations Support and Sustainment (OSST) program with the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) and Bell Helicopter Textron. Vibration data from the OH-58C planetary system were collected on a healthy transmission as well as with various seeded-fault components. Planetary fault detection algorithms were used with the collected data to evaluate fault detection effectiveness. Planet gear tooth cracks and spalls were detectable using the vibration separation techniques. Sun gear tooth cracks were not discernibly detectable from the vibration separation process. Sun gear tooth spall defects were detectable. Ring gear tooth cracks were only clearly detectable by accelerometers located near the crack location or directly across from the crack. Enveloping provided an effective method for planet bearing inner- and outer-race spalling fault detection.

  16. Heliophysics: The New Science of the Sun-Solar System Connection. Recommended Roadmap for Science and Technology 2005-2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This is a Roadmap to understanding the environment of our Earth, from its life-sustaining Sun out past the frontiers of the solar system. A collection of spacecraft now patrols this space, revealing not a placid star and isolated planets, but an immense, dynamic, interconnected system within which our home planet is embedded and through which space explorers must journey. These spacecraft already form a great observatory with which the Heliophysics program can study the Sun, the heliosphere, the Earth, and other planetary environments as elements of a system--one that contains dynamic space weather and evolves in response to solar, planetary, and interstellar variability. NASA continually evolves the Heliophysics Great Observatory by adding new missions and instruments in order to answer the challenging questions confronting us now and in the future as humans explore the solar system. The three heliophysics science objectives: opening the frontier to space environment prediction; understanding the nature of our home in space, and safeguarding the journey of exploration, require sustained research programs that depend on combining new data, theory, analysis, simulation, and modeling. Our program pursues a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical processes that underlie the exotic phenomena of space.

  17. Advanced Science for Kids: Multicultural Assessment and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettac, Teresa; Huckabee, Colleen; Musser, Louise; Patton, Paulette; Yates, Joyce

    1997-01-01

    Describes Advanced Science for Kids (ASK), a multicultural approach to assessment and programming for a middle school advanced science program. ASK is designed to provide alternative approaches to identification and assessment, facilitate authentic instruction and assessment, and provide minority students with academic and social support as they…

  18. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Programs Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search photo Fermilab Friends for Science Education, in partnership with Fermilab and area educators, designs

  19. The LSSTC Data Science Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam; Walkowicz, Lucianne; LSSTC DSFP Leadership Council

    2017-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Corporation (LSSTC) Data Science Fellowship Program (DSFP) is a unique professional development program for astronomy graduate students. DSFP students complete a series of six, one-week long training sessions over the course of two years. The sessions are cumulative, each building on the last, to allow an in-depth exploration of the topics covered: data science basics, statistics, image processing, machine learning, scalable software, data visualization, time-series analysis, and science communication. The first session was held in Aug 2016 at Northwestern University, with all materials and lectures publicly available via github and YouTube. Each session focuses on a series of technical problems which are written in iPython notebooks. The initial class of fellows includes 16 students selected from across the globe, while an additional 14 fellows will be added to the program in year 2. Future sessions of the DSFP will be hosted by a rotating cast of LSSTC member institutions. The DSFP is designed to supplement graduate education in astronomy by teaching the essential skills necessary for dealing with big data, serving as a resource for all in the LSST era. The LSSTC DSFP is made possible by the generous support of the LSST Corporation, the Data Science Initiative (DSI) at Northwestern, and CIERA.

  20. Gail Harlamoff: Executive Director, Life Lab Science Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Gail Harlamoff is Executive Director of the Life Lab Science Program, a nationally recognized, award-winning nonprofit science and environmental organization located on the UC Santa Cruz campus. Founded in 1979, Life Lab helps schools develop gardens and implement curricula to enhance students’ learning about science, math, and the natural world. The program has trained tens of thousands of educators in more than 1400 schools across the country. Life Lab’s specialized initiatives inc...

  1. Origins of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Hartmann, William K.

    2014-11-01

    The roots of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) extend deep into the rich fabric of G. P. Kuiper’s view of the Earth as a planet and planetary systems as expected companions to most stars, as well as the post-war emergent technology of infrared detectors suitable for astronomy. These concepts and events began with Kuiper’s theoretical work at Yerkes Observatory on the origin of the Solar System, his discovery of two planetary satellites and observational work with his near-infrared spectrometer on the then-new McDonald 82-inch telescope in the mid- to late-1940s. A grant for the production of a photographic atlas of the Moon in the mid-1950s enabled him to assemble the best existing images of the Moon and acquire new photographs. This brought E. A. Whitaker and D. W. G. Arthur to Yerkes. Others who joined in the lunar work were geologist Carl S. Huzzen and grad student E. P. Moore, as well as undergrad summer students A. B. Binder and D. P. Cruikshank (both in 1958). The Atlas was published in 1959, and work began on an orthographic lunar atlas. Kuiper’s view of planetary science as an interdisciplinary enterprise encompassing astronomy, geology, and atmospheric physics inspired his vision of a research institution and an academic curriculum tuned to the combination of all the scientific disciplines embraced in a comprehensive study of the planets. Arrangements were made with the University of Arizona (UA) to establish LPL in affiliation with the widely recognized Inst. of Atmospheric Physics. Kuiper moved to the UA in late 1960, taking the lunar experts, graduate student T. C. Owen (planetary atmospheres), and associate B. M. Middlehurst along. G. van Biesbroeck also joined the migration to Tucson; Binder and Cruikshank followed along as new grad students. Astronomy grad student W. K. Hartmann came into the academic program at UA and the research group at LPL in 1961. Senior faculty affiliating with LPL in the earliest years were T. Gehrels, A. B

  2. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  3. General Atomics Sciences Education Foundation Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patricia S.

    1997-11-01

    Scientific literacy for all students is a national goal. The General Atomics (GA) Foundation Outreach Program is committed to playing a major role in enhancing pre-college education in science, engineering and new technologies. GA has received wide recognition for its Sciences Education Program, a volunteer effort of GA employees and San Diego science teachers. GA teacher/scientist teams have developed inquiry-based education modules and associated workshops based on areas of core competency at GA: Fusion -- Energy of the Stars; Explorations in Materials Science; Portrait of an Atom; DNA Technology. [http://www.sci-ed-ga.org]. Workshops [teachers receive printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on" modules] have been presented for 700+ teachers from 200+ area schools. Additional workshops include: University of Denver for Denver Public Schools; National Educators Workshop; Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials; Update '96 in Los Alamos; Newspapers in Education Workshop (LA Times); American Chemical Society Regional/National meetings, and California Science Teachers Association Conference. Other outreach includes High School Science Day, school partnerships, teacher and student mentoring and the San Diego Science Alliance [http://www.sdsa.org].

  4. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  5. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  6. Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science, GEMS: A Science Outreach Program for Middle-School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubetz, Terry A.; Wilson, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Girls in Engineering, Mathematics and Science (GEMS) is a science and math outreach program for middle-school female students. The program was developed to encourage interest in math and science in female students at an early age. Increased scientific familiarity may encourage girls to consider careers in science and mathematics and will also help…

  7. Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D.; Brady, A.; Danyluk, A.; Adams, J.; Lawrence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer computer science majors. This article illustrates how quality computer science programs can be realized in a wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the State University of New York…

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Journal of Earth System Science was earlier a part of the Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences – Section A begun in 1934, and later split in 1978 into theme journals. This journal was published as Proceedings – Earth and Planetary Sciences since 1978, and in 2005 was renamed 'Journal of Earth System ...

  9. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  11. High-Performance, Space-Storable, Bi-Propellant Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    Bipropellant propulsion systems currently represent the largest bus subsystem for many missions. These missions range from low Earth orbit satellite to geosynchronous communications and planetary exploration. The payoff of high performance bipropellant systems is illustrated by the fact that Aerojet Redmond has qualified a commercial NTO/MMH engine based on the high Isp technology recently delivered by this program. They are now qualifying a NTO/hydrazine version of this engine. The advanced rhenium thrust chambers recently provided by this program have raised the performance of earth storable propellants from 315 sec to 328 sec of specific impulse. The recently introduced rhenium technology is the first new technology introduced to satellite propulsion in 30 years. Typically, the lead time required to develop and qualify new chemical thruster technology is not compatible with program development schedules. These technology development programs must be supported by a long term, Base R&T Program, if the technology s to be matured. This technology program then addresses the need for high performance, storable, on-board chemical propulsion for planetary rendezvous and descent/ascent. The primary NASA customer for this technology is Space Science, which identifies this need for such programs as Mars Surface Return, Titan Explorer, Neptune Orbiter, and Europa Lander. High performance (390 sec) chemical propulsion is estimated to add 105% payload to the Mars Sample Return mission or alternatively reduce the launch mass by 33%. In many cases, the use of existing (flight heritage) propellant technology is accommodated by reducing mission objectives and/or increasing enroute travel times sacrificing the science value per unit cost of the program. Therefore, a high performance storable thruster utilizing fluorinated oxidizers with hydrazine is being developed.

  12. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  13. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  14. Origins Space Telescope: Science Case and Design Reference Mission for Concept 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Cooray, Asantha; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Melnick, Gary; Leisawitz, David; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Bergin, Edwin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The science case for OST covers four themes: Tracing the Signature of Life and the Ingredients of Habitable Worlds; Charting the Rise of Metals, Dust and the First Galaxies, Unraveling the Co-evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies and Understanding Our Solar System in the Context of Planetary System Formation. Using a set of proposed observing programs from the community, we estimate a design reference mission for OST mission concept 1. The mission will complete significant programs in these four themes and have time for other programs from the community. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  15. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    This program summary book is a compendium of project summaries submitted by principal investigators in the Environmental Management Science Program and Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program). These summaries provide information about the most recent project activities and accomplishments. All projects will be represented at the workshop poster sessions, so you will have an opportunity to meet with the researchers. The projects will be presented in the same order at the poster session as they are presented in this summary book. Detailed questions about an individual project may be directed to the investigators involved.

  16. Betsy Pugel, Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Betsy Pugel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfacesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and ...

  17. Infrared observations of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, G.S.; Baines, K.H.; Bergstralh, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research in to obtain infrared data on planetary atmospheres which provide information on several aspects of structure and composition. Observations include direct mission real-time support as well as baseline monitoring preceding mission encounters. Besides providing a broader information context for spacecraft experiment data analysis, observations will provide the quantitative data base required for designing optimum remote sensing sequences and evaluating competing science priorities. In the past year, thermal images of Jupiter and Saturn were made near their oppositions in order to monitor long-term changes in their atmospheres. Infrared images of the Jovian polar stratospheric hot spots were made with IUE observations of auroral emissions. An exploratory 5-micrometer spectrum of Uranus was reduced and accepted for publication. An analysis of time-variability of temperature and cloud properties of the Jovian atomsphere was made. Development of geometric reduction programs for imaging data was initiated for the sun workstation. Near-infrared imaging observations of Jupiter were reduced and a preliminary analysis of cloud properties made. The first images of the full disk of Jupiter with a near-infrared array camera were acquired. Narrow-band (10/cm) images of Jupiter and Saturn were obtained with acousto-optical filters

  18. An Overview of the Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Gaddis, Lisa; Law, Emily; Beyer, Ross A.; Crombie, Kate; Ebel, Denton; Ghosh, Amitahba; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Paganelli, Flora; Raugh, Anne C.; Stein, Thomas; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Weber, Renee; E Banks, Maria; Powell, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has since evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of 6 science discipline nodes and 2 technical support nodes. Several ad-hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions.The new PDS Roadmap Study for 2017-2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes PDS history, its functions and characteristics, and its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex evolving system, the PDS must respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings and suggested remediations that could be used to respond to these findings, and a summary of the potential future of planetary data archiving. These findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of PDS and the impact of this on how archive growth, technology, and new developments are enabled and managed within

  19. Strategic plan for the restructured US fusion energy sciences program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This plan reflects a transition to a restructured fusion program, with a change in focus from an energy technology development program to a fusion energy sciences program. Since the energy crisis of the early 1970's, the U.S. fusion program has presented itself as a goal- oriented fusion energy development program, with milestones that required rapidly increasing budgets. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 also called for a goal-oriented development program consistent with the Department's planning. Actual funding levels, however, have forced a premature narrowing of the program to the tokamak approach. By 1995, with no clear, immediate need driving the schedule for developing fusion energy and with enormous pressure to reduce discretionary spending, Congress cut fusion program funding for FY 1996 by one-third and called for a major restructuring of the program. Based on the recommendations of the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), the Department has decided to pursue a program that concentrates on world-class plasma, science, and on maintaining an involvement in fusion energy science through international collaboration. At the same time, the Japanese and Europeans, with energy situations different from ours, are continuing with their goal- oriented fusion programs. Collaboration with them provides a highly leveraged means of continued involvement in fusion energy science and technology, especially through participation in the engineering and design activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program, ITER. This restructured fusion energy sciences program, with its focus on fundamental fusion science and technology, may well provide insights that lead to more attractive fusion power plants, and will make use of the scientific infrastructure that will allow the United States to launch a fusion energy development program at some future date

  20. Programs of the Office of the Science Advisor (OSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of the Science Advisor provides leadership in cross-Agency science and science policy. Program areas: Risk Assessment, Science and Technology Policy, Human Subjects Research, Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Scientific Integrity.

  1. Climate Change Science Program Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Collection consists of publications and other resources produced between 2007 and 2009 by the CCSP with the intention of...

  2. Math and science education programs from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet reviews math and science education programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The programs can be categorized into six groups: teacher programs; science laboratories for students; student programs; education outreach programs; INEL Public Affairs Office; and programs for college faculty and students

  3. A Program to Prepare Graduate Students for Careers in Climate Adaptation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntly, N.; Belmont, P.; Flint, C.; Gordillo, L.; Howe, P. D.; Lutz, J. A.; Null, S. E.; Reed, S.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Wang, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We describe our experiences creating a graduate program that addresses the need for a next generation of scientists who can produce, communicate, and help implement actionable science. The Climate Adaptation Science (CAS) graduate program, funded by the National Science Foundation Research Traineeship (NRT) program, prepares graduate students for careers at the interfaces of science with policy and management in the field of climate adaptation, which is a major 21st-century challenge for science and society. The program is interdisciplinary, with students and faculty from natural, social, and physical sciences, engineering, and mathematics, and is based around interdisciplinary team research in collaboration with partners from outside of academia who have climate adaptation science needs. The program embeds students in a cycle of creating and implementing actionable science through a two-part internship, with partners from government, non-governmental organizations, and industry, that brackets and informs a year of interdisciplinary team research. The program is communication-rich, with events that foster information exchange and understanding across disciplines and workplaces. We describe the CAS program, our experiences in developing it, the research and internship experiences of students in the program, and initial metrics and feedback on the effectiveness of the program.

  4. The second workshop of neutron science research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Hideshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tone, Tatsuzo [eds.

    1997-11-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) has been proposing the Neutron Science Research Program to explore a broad range of basic research and the nuclear technology including actinide transmutation with use of powerful spallation neutron sources. For this purpose, the JAERI is conducting the research and development of an intense proton linac, the development of targets, as well as the conceptual design study of experimental facilities required for applications of spallation neutrons and secondary particle beams. The Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative was established in May 1996 to promote aggressively and systematically the Neutron Science Research Program. The second workshop on neutron science research program was held at the JAERI Tokai Research Establishment on 13 and 14 March 1997 for the purpose of discussing the results obtained since the first workshop in March 1996. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. McDonald Observatory Planetary Search - A high precision stellar radial velocity survey for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.

    1993-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search program surveyed a sample of 33 nearby F, G, and K stars since September 1987 to search for substellar companion objects. Measurements of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of better than 10 m/s were performed as routine observations to detect Jovian planets in orbit around solar type stars. Results confirm the detection of a companion object to HD114762.

  6. Planetary Space Weather Service: Part of the the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Manuel; Andre, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Over the next four years the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure will set up an entirely new European Planetary Space Weather service (PSWS). Europlanet RI is a part of of Horizon 2020 (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu). The Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools

  7. Department of Energy - Office of Science Early Career Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, James

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/

  8. Immersive Interaction, Manipulation and Analysis of Large 3D Datasets for Planetary and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, O.; Calef, F.; Manning, E. M.; Ardulov, V.

    2017-12-01

    We will present implementation and study of several use-cases of utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) for immersive display, interaction and analysis of large and complex 3D datasets. These datasets have been acquired by the instruments across several Earth, Planetary and Solar Space Robotics Missions. First, we will describe the architecture of the common application framework that was developed to input data, interface with VR display devices and program input controllers in various computing environments. Tethered and portable VR technologies will be contrasted and advantages of each highlighted. We'll proceed to presenting experimental immersive analytics visual constructs that enable augmentation of 3D datasets with 2D ones such as images and statistical and abstract data. We will conclude by presenting comparative analysis with traditional visualization applications and share the feedback provided by our users: scientists and engineers.

  9. Is Pluto a planet? Student powered video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; McFadden, T.

    2013-12-01

    Is Pluto a planet? Some creative low income Bay-area middle-schoolers put a musical spin on this hot science debate with a video rap ';battle' over tiny Pluto's embattled planetary standing. The students' timing was perfect, with NASA's New Horizons mission set to conduct the first reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons in July 2015. Pluto - the last of the nine original planets to be explored by spacecraft - has been the subject of scientific study and speculation since Clyde Tombaugh discovered it in 1930, orbiting the Sun far beyond Neptune. Produced by the students and a very creative educator, the video features students 'battling' back and forth over the idea of Pluto being a planet. The group collaborated with actual space scientists to gather information and shot their video before a 'green screen' that was eventually filled with animations and visuals supplied by the New Horizons mission team. The video debuted at the Pluto Science Conference in Maryland in July 2013 - to a rousing response from researchers in attendance. The video marks a nontraditional approach to the ongoing 'great planet debate' while educating viewers on a recently discovered region of the solar system. By the 1990s, researchers had learned that Pluto possessed multiple exotic ices on its surface, a complex atmosphere and seasonal cycles, and a large moon (Charon) that likely resulted from a giant impact on Pluto itself. It also became clear that Pluto was no misfit among the planets - as had long been thought - but the largest and brightest body in a newly discovered 'third zone' of our planetary system called the Kuiper Belt. More recent observations have revealed that Pluto has a rich system of satellites - five known moons - and a surface that changes over time. Scientists even speculate that Pluto may possess an internal ocean. For these and other reasons, the 2003 Planetary Decadal Survey ranked a Pluto/Kuiper Belt mission as the highest priority mission for NASA's newly created

  10. A concept for performance management for Federal science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kevin G.

    2017-11-06

    The demonstration of clear linkages between planning, funding, outcomes, and performance management has created unique challenges for U.S. Federal science programs. An approach is presented here that characterizes science program strategic objectives by one of five “activity types”: (1) knowledge discovery, (2) knowledge development and delivery, (3) science support, (4) inventory and monitoring, and (5) knowledge synthesis and assessment. The activity types relate to performance measurement tools for tracking outcomes of research funded under the objective. The result is a multi-time scale, integrated performance measure that tracks individual performance metrics synthetically while also measuring progress toward long-term outcomes. Tracking performance on individual metrics provides explicit linkages to root causes of potentially suboptimal performance and captures both internal and external program drivers, such as customer relations and science support for managers. Functionally connecting strategic planning objectives with performance measurement tools is a practical approach for publicly funded science agencies that links planning, outcomes, and performance management—an enterprise that has created unique challenges for public-sector research and development programs.

  11. Science at the ends of the Earth: astrobiology field expeditions as outreach tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Linda

    paper will report on and evaluate communication, education, and outreach initiatives conducted in conjunction with ASTEP field campaigns, addressing the costs and benefits of linking students, teachers, and other interested citizens with researchers in the field. This paper will highlight success stories, lessons learned, and promising practices regarding educational programs in scientific research environments. SUMMARY The Astrobiology Program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate studies the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Astrobiology research addresses three fundamental questions: How does life begin and evolve? Is there life beyond Earth and how can we detect it? What is the future of life on Earth and in the universe? Goals of the Astrobiology Program range from determining the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond to understanding the emergence of life from cosmic and planetary precursors, the interaction of past life on Earth with its changing environment, the formation and evolution of planets, links between planetary and biological evolution, the effects of climate and geology on habitability, and life's precursors and habitats in the outer solar system. Research dedicated to fulfilling these goals is conducted on Earth and in space, with a growing number of astrobiology investigations flying on planetary exploration missions. The field of astrobiology is an endeavor that brings together researchers in a broad range of disciplines including Earth and planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, microbiology and evolutionary biology, and cosmochemistry. Since 1995, the field of astrobiology has grown rapidly, and the pace of discovery has been brisk. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is now a serious scientific question. Research findings over the past decade that are relevant to this question include the controversial 1996 claim of fossil evidence for microbial life in a

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files(TM) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA SCIence Files (tm) is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 60-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 3-5. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files (tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  13. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  14. The NASA computer science research program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.

  15. Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a two-phased curricula aimed at high school students in Hawaii’s Upward Bound (UB) programs. The course, called “Tour Through the Solar System”, was tested in the summer 2008-2009 programs of two of the four Hawaii UB programs. Authorized by Congress in 1965, UB is a federal program funded by the U.S. Department of Education to serve students underrepresented in higher education. Students enrolled in UB are predominantly low income, or from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor’s degree. UB programs make a measurable improvement in retaining high school students in the education pipeline in part by using innovative educational and outreach programs to spark students’ interest in learning while building academic self-confidence. Curricula developed for UB are sustainable because there are 964 programs in the United States, and U territories. Education and outreach products can be presented at regional and national meetings, which directors of the UB programs attend. Broad regulations and varied instruction formats allow curriculum developers a flexible and creative framework for developing classes. For instance, regulations stipulate that programs must provide participants with academic instruction in mathematics, laboratory sciences, composition, literature, and foreign languages in preparation for college entrance. UB meets these guidelines through school-year academic activities and a six-week summer school program. In designing our curricula the primary goals were to help students learn how to learn and encourage them to develop an interest in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math using NASA planetary data sets in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) environment. Our focus on planetary science stems from our familiarity with the data sets, our view that NASA data sets are a naturally inspirational tool to engage high school students, and its cross-disciplinary character: encompassing geology, chemistry, astronomy

  16. BURECS: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Climate Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.; Christ, A. J.; Ehrenfeucht, S.

    2017-12-01

    The current structure of many undergraduate programs, particularly those at large research universities, requires students to engage with a major or academic emphasis early in their university careers. This oftentimes curbs exploration outside the major and can inhibit interdisciplinary collaboration. The Boston University Research Education and Communication of Science (BURECS) program seeks to bridge this institutional divide by fostering interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration on climate change-related issues by students from across Boston University (B.U.). Every year, approximately fifteen first-year students from B.U.'s College of Arts and Sciences, College of Communication, and School of Education are selected to join BURECS, which includes a climate science seminar, a hands-on lab course, a supported summer internship with Boston-area researchers, and the opportunity to participate in Antarctic field work during subsequent B.U. Antarctic Research Group expeditions. Currently in its third year, BURECS is funded through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Professors Program.

  17. Encouraging planetary sciences students at the Master level with observations using small telescopes that lead to their publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Ordoñez-Etxeberria, I.; del Rio Gaztelurrutia, T.; Illarramendi, M. A.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    We present a set of practical experiments carried out with the students of the Master in Space Science and Technology of the University of the Basque Country (A. Sanchez-Lavega et al., Eur. J. of Eng. Education. 2014) using small telescopes that have been published in refereed journals. The telescopes (from 15 to 50 cm in aperture) and instruments pertain to the Aula EspaZio Gela Observatory (http://www.ehu.eus/aula-espazio/presentacion.html). The students have participated in some cases as co-authors of the publications or in presentations at meetings which encourages them to continue their scientific career towards PhD studies. Dedicated observations with these small telescopes with the participation of the planetary amateur community have also been employed in scientific research and publications. A series of examples are presented.

  18. Biological life support systems for a Mars mission planetary base: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, Ch.

    The study develops approaches to designing biological life support systems for the Mars mission - for the flight conditions and for a planetary base - using experience of the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBP SB RAS) with the Bios-3 system and ESA's experience with the MELISSA program. Variants of a BLSS based on using Chlorella and/or Spirulina and higher plants for the flight period of the Mars mission are analyzed. It is proposed constructing a BLSS with a closed-loop material cycle for gas and water and for part of human waste. A higher-plant-based BLSS with the mass exchange loop closed to various degrees is proposed for a Mars planetary base. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange are considered, depending on the duration of the Mars mission, the diet of the crew, and some other conditions. Special consideration is given to problems of reliability and sustainability of material cycling in BLSS, which are related to production of additional oxygen inside the system. Technologies of constructing BLSS of various configurations are proposed and substantiated. Reasons are given for using physicochemical methods in BLSS as secondary tools both during the flight and the stay on Mars.

  19. Subsurface Science Program Bibliography, 1985--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Subsurface Science Program sponsors long-term basic research on (1) the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that control the reactivity, mobilization, stability, and transport of chemical mixtures in subsoils and ground water; (2) hydrogeology, including the hydraulic, microbiological, and geochemical properties of the vadose and saturated zones that control contaminant mobility and stability, including predictive modeling of coupled hydraulic-geochemical-microbial processes; and (3) the microbiology of deep sediments and ground water. TWs research, focused as it is on the natural subsurface environments that are most significantly affected by the more than 40 years of waste generation and disposal at DOE sites, is making important contributions to cleanup of DOE sites. Past DOE waste-disposal practices have resulted in subsurface contamination at DOE sites by unique combinations of radioactive materials and organic and inorganic chemicals (including heavy metals), which make site cleanup particularly difficult. The long- term (10- to 30-year) goal of the Subsurface Science Program is to provide a foundation of fundamental knowledge that can be used to reduce environmental risks and to provide a sound scientific basis for cost-effective cleanup strategies. The Subsurface Science Program is organized into nine interdisciplinary subprograms, or areas of basic research emphasis. The subprograms currently cover the areas of Co-Contaminant Chemistry, Colloids/Biocolloids, Multiphase Fluid Flow, Biodegradation/ Microbial Physiology, Deep Microbiology, Coupled Processes, Field-Scale (Natural Heterogeneity and Scale), and Environmental Science Research Center

  20. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  1. Design of Hybrid Mobile Communication Networks for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard L.; Ossenfort, John; Lee, Charles; Walker, Edward; Stone, Thom

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Exploration System Project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for support of science and simulation activities on at least six occasions. This work has been conducted over the past five years resulting in evolving architectural complexity, improved component characteristics and better analysis and test methods. A rich set of data and techniques have resulted from the development and field testing of the communication network during field expeditions such as the Haughton Mars Project and NASA Mobile Agents Project.

  2. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  3. A Mentoring Program in Environmental Science for Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a four-year program, combining educational and career support and research activities, to recruit and retain students from underrepresented groups in environmental sciences. Specifically, the program: ○ Assigns each student a faculty or graduate student mentor with whom the student conducts research activities. ○ Includes a weekly group meeting for team building and to review professional development and academic topics, such as time management and research ethics. ○ Requires students to make multiple formal presentations of their research proposals and results. ○ Provides scholarships and stipends for both the academic year and to engage students in summer research. The program seeks to achieve several goals including: ● Enhance academic performance. ● Encourage continued study in environmental science. ● Facilitate students completing their studies at UVM. ● Increase students’ interest in pursuing science careers. ● Create a more welcoming academic environment. To assess progress toward achievement of these goals, we conducted individual structured interviews with participating undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members at two points in time. First, interviews were conducted in the fall of 2007 after two years, and again in spring 2009, after four years. An independent research consultant, Dr. Livingston, conducted the interviews. In 2009, over the course of three days, the interviews included three graduate student and two faculty mentors, and six of the seven undergraduate students. Of the six students, three were juniors and three were graduating seniors. Results of the 2009 interviews echoed those of 2007. Both students and their mentors are quite satisfied with the program. The student presentations, weekly meetings, mentoring relationships, and summer research experiences all get high ratings from program participants. Students give high praise to their mentors and the program directors for providing

  4. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  5. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Clark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs--"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist"--that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities.

  6. Response to science education reforms: The case of three science education doctoral programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai

    Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question

  7. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  8. The ASI science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlo

    2002-03-01

    Italy came in the space business in 1963, being the third nation in the world, after the Soviet Union and the United States, to put an artificial satellite into orbit. In 1988 the Italian Space Agency (ASI) was constituted, with the mandate of planning, coordinating and executing civil space activities in Italy. The core of national space activities is science, for which Italy spends about 25% of the ASI budget, both in national and international programs. The community served by the scientific directorate of ASI is a very wide one, ranging from the science of the Universe and the exploration of the Solar System to life sciences, from Earth observation to the development of new technologies. The success of Italian space research appears under many different points of view. The national satellite BeppoSAX, named after Giuseppe Beppo Occhialini, widely contributed to solve the γ-ray burst puzzle, obtaining the relevant acknowledgment of the ``Bruno Rossi Prize''. Italian researchers kept the PI-ship of various payloads on board ESA missions, such as Epic for XMM-Newton, Ibis for Integral, Virtis and Giada for Rosetta, PFS and Marsis for Mars Express. Also in the field of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) two important experiments are foreseen in the next future, with Italian PIs: SPOrt on board the International Space Station, dedicated to the polarization of CMB, and LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) on board the ESA Planck satellite, to study CMB anisotropy. Meanwhile, a great success has been obtained with the balloon experiment Boomerang. Moreover, ASI started a national scientific and technological small mission program. The first three missions are on their way: Agile (a γ-ray observatory), David (an experiment to test very high frequency data transmission), and a third one, devoted to Earth science. .

  9. 1998 Environmental Management Science Program Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is a collaborative partnership between the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science (DOE-SC), and the Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to sponsor basic environmental and waste management related research. Results are expected to lead to reduction of the costs, schedule, and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. The EMSP research portfolio addresses the most challenging technical problems of the EM program related to high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, mixed waste, nuclear materials, remedial action, decontamination and decommissioning, and health, ecology, or risk. The EMSP was established in response to a mandate from Congress in the fiscal year 1996 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. Congress directed the Department to ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs, develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective''. This mandate followed similar recommendations from the Galvin Commission to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. The EMSP also responds to needs identified by National Academy of Sciences experts, regulators, citizen advisory groups, and other stakeholders

  10. Undergraduates' Perceived Gains and Ideas about Teaching and Learning Science from Participating in Science Education Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined what undergraduate students gain and the ideas about science teaching and learning they develop from participating in K-12 science education outreach programs. Eleven undergraduates from seven outreach programs were interviewed individually about their experiences with outreach and what they learned about science teaching and…

  11. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the inter-national space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Med-ical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  12. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  13. PLANETARY CARTOGRAPHY AND MAPPING: WHERE WE ARE TODAY, AND WHERE WE ARE HEADING FOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naß

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance. It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission’s lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs are stored in archives – and eventually into maps and higher-level data products – to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  14. Planetary Cartography and Mapping: where we are Today, and where we are Heading For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naß, A.; Di, K.; Elgner, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Hare, T.; Hargitai, H.; Karachevtseva, I.; Kersten, E.; Manaud, N.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Skinner, J., Jr.; Wählisch, M.

    2017-07-01

    Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning) and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance). It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission's lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs) are stored in archives - and eventually into maps and higher-level data products - to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  15. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.

    1978-01-01

    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  16. Spreading the passion for scientifically useful planetary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardasis, E.; Vourliotis, E.; Bellias, I.; Maravelias, G.; Vakalopoulos, E.; Papadeas, P.; Marouda, K.; Voutyras, O.

    2015-10-01

    Τhe "March 2015 - Planetary Observation Project (POP)" was a series of talks and hands-on workshops focused on planetary observation organized in March 2015 by the planetary section of the Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association. Building on our previous experience (Voutyras et al. 2013), which also includes more than 500 attendants in our 2013-2014 series of lectures in Astronomy, we identified that there is a lack of more focused lectures/workshops on observing techniques. In particular, POP's structure included two talks and two workshops aiming to inspire and educate astronomy enthusiasts. The talks tried to stimulate the participants about the importance of ground-based observations by presenting the most current scientific news and puzzling problems that we are facing in the observation of planets. During the hands-on workshops the beauty of planetary observation was used to inspire participants. However, we trained participants on observing techniques and image processing to enable them to produce scientifically useful results. All POP's events were open to the public and free, meaning both out-of-charge and freely available material provided to the participants (through our website). The project offered attendants unique experiences that may have a significant impact with potential lifelong benefits. In this work we present an overview of the project structure that may work as a prototype for similar outreach programs.

  17. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  18. The Lunar Scout Program: An international program to survey the Moon from orbit for geochemistry, mineralogy, imagery, geodesy, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donald A. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Program was one of a series of attempts by NASA to develop and fly an orbiting mission to the moon to collect geochemical, geological, and gravity data. Predecessors included the Lunar Observer, the Lunar Geochemical Orbiter, and the Lunar Polar Orbiter - missions studied under the auspices of the Office of Space Science. The Lunar Scout Program, however, was an initiative of the Office of Exploration. It was begun in late 1991 and was transferred to the Office of Space Science after the Office of Exploration was disbanded in 1993. Most of the work was done by a small group of civil servants at the Johnson Space Center; other groups also responsible for mission planning included personnel from the Charles Stark Draper Laboratories, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Boeing, and Martin Marietta. The Lunar Scout Program failed to achieve new start funding in FY 93 and FY 94 as a result of budget downturns, the de-emphasis of the Space Exploration Initiative, and the fact that lunar science did not rate as high a priority as other planned planetary missions, and was cancelled. The work done on the Lunar Scout Program and other lunar orbiter studies, however, represents assets that will be useful in developing new approaches to lunar orbit science.

  19. Magellan Project: Evolving enhanced operations efficiency to maximize science value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Allan R.; Neuman, James C.; Mckinney, J. Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalies and to perform activities for which the spacecraft was not designed. Commanding the spacecraft was originally time consuming because the standard development process was envisioned as manual tasks. The Program understood that reducing mission operations costs were essential for an extended mission. Management created an environment which encouraged automation of routine tasks, allowing staff reduction while maximizing the science data returned. Data analysis and trending, command preparation, and command reviews are some of the tasks that were automated. The SCT has accommodated personnel reductions by improving operations efficiency while returning the maximum science data possible.

  20. The Intersections of Science and Practice: Examples From FitnessGram® Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J

    2017-12-01

    The FitnessGram® program has provided teachers with practical tools to enhance physical education programming. A key to the success of the program has been the systematic application of science to practice. Strong research methods have been used to develop assessments and standards for use in physical education, but consideration has also been given to ensure that programming meets the needs of teachers, students, parents, and other stakeholders. This essay summarizes some of these complex and nuanced intersections between science and practice with the FitnessGram® program. The commentaries are organized into 5 brief themes: science informing practice; practice informing science; balancing science and practice; promoting evidence-based practice; and the integration of science and practice. The article draws on personal experiences with the FitnessGram® program and is prepared based on comments shared during the 37th Annual C. H. McCloy Research Lecture at the 2017 SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators Convention.

  1. Confirmation and characterization of young planetary companions hidden in the HST NICMOS archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent

    2013-10-01

    We propose to conduct WFC3 high contrast observations of six faint planetary candidates orbiting young {1 to 100 Myrs} stars identified in archival HST NICMOS coronagraphic data as part of our team's program AR-12652. Such rare objects are of the utmost importance to comparative exo-planetology as their physical properties reflect the initial conditions of still poorly constrained planetary formation mechanisms. Moreover directly imaged systems are precious artifacts in the expanding exo-planetary treasure trove as they are readily available for spectroscopic characterization. Our statistical analysis, which combines population synthesis models and empirical inspections of the entire NICMOS field of view for all sources observed in coronaraphic mode, almost guarantees that one of these six faint candidates is associated with its putative host star. We will conduct our observation in four near infrared filter, F125W, F160W to establish the baseline luminosity of our candidates and in F127M and F139M in order to probe the depth their water absorption features, characteristic of substellar /exo-planetary like atmospheres. Because of the youth of our targets, this program, which only requires a modest 12 HST orbits, will almost certainly identify and image a young or adolescent exo-planet.

  2. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  3. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-06-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bio-assays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  4. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  5. Inspiring science achievement: a mixed methods examination of the practices and characteristics of successful science programs in diverse high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Cavlazoglu, Baki; LeBlanc, Jennifer; Stuessy, Carol L.

    2017-08-01

    While the achievement gap in science exists in the US, research associated with our investigation reveals some high school science programs serving diverse student bodies are successfully closing the gap. Using a mixed methods approach, we identified and investigated ten high schools in a large Southwestern state that fit the definition of "highly successful, highly diverse". By conducting interviews with science liaisons associated with each school and reviewing the literature, we developed a rubric identifying specific characteristics associated with successful science programs. These characteristics and practices included setting high expectations for students, providing extensive teacher support for student learning, and utilizing student-centered pedagogy. We used the rubric to assess the successful high school science programs and compare them to other high school science programs in the state (i.e., less successful and less diverse high school science programs). Highly successful, highly diverse schools were very different in their approach to science education when compared to the other programs. The findings from this study will help schools with diverse students to strengthen hiring practices, enhance teacher support mechanisms, and develop student-focused strategies in the classroom that increase science achievement.

  6. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  7. Mapping Out-of-School-Time Youth Science Programs: Organizational Patterns and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, S. L.; Archie, T.; Thiry, H.

    2012-12-01

    Out-of-school-time (OST) experiences promise to enrich young (K-12) people's experience of science, technology and engineering. Belief is widespread that OST programs are ideal locations to learn science, and that youth participation may enhance the science workforce and increase access to science for girls and minorities. Yet we know little about the scope or nature of science-focused OST youth programming. Variety poses a challenge for researchers, with OST sites in schools, museums, zoos, science and nature centers, aquariums, planetariums, and community centers; and formats including after-school clubs, camps, workshops, festivals, research apprenticeships, and more. Moreover, there is no single national network through which researchers might reach and recruit nationally representative samples of programs. Thus, to date there has been no systematic study of the broader national landscape of OST STEM programming. Our national study, Mapping Out-of-School-Time Science (MOST-Science), examines a national sample of OST programs focused on science, engineering, and/or technology. Here we describe first findings about the characteristics of these programs and their home organizations, including aspects of program design, structure, funding, staffing, and youth audience. Using an electronic survey, we collected data from 417 programs and classified their host institutions into eight organizational types: aquariums and zoos, museums, non-profits, national youth organizations, K-12 school districts, colleges and universities, government labs, and private sector organizations. We then examine key attributes of the youth programs hosted by these institution and discuss differences based on organizational types, including scientific organizations that are especially well equipped to offer research and field experiences. Programs engaging youth in research and field experiences are offered across all organizational types. Yet they vary notably in the size and demographics

  8. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  9. For the love of Earth: Report of the commission on developing countries and the changes in planetary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A purely third-world program for studying changes in the planetary environment is proposed. This program rejects the idea that world ecological problems can be solved by simply readjusting the economies of developed countries, and affirms that sustainable development requires more fundamental modifications. A sustainable future is advocated on the basis of equity, economy, and ecology. The work conducted by the commission proposing the program is reviewed. This work rests on three basic propositions: that the problems of the planetary environment can be catastrophic for a number of developing countries; that the points of view of third-world countries must be integrated into any international program concerned with changes in the planetary environment; and that the social problems linked to such questions must be understood and resolved. The work presented is the result of a 10-month study program in the Caribbean and Central America, South America, Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The first part of the review describes the point of view of those countries on the crisis in the planetary environment and development, and its national and global causes. The second part concerns the roles, problems, and possibilities of social research on the questions of environment and development, in particular those appropriate to the developing world. The third part exposes the research program itself, including poverty, abundance, and needs; economic order and modes of development; political order; systems and technologies; and processes of cultural evolution. 151 refs

  10. A new program in earth system science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  11. The planetary spatial data infrastructure for the OSIRIS-REx mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaGiustina, D. N.; Selznick, S.; Nolan, M. C.; Enos, H. L.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return a pristine sample of carbonaceous material from primitive asteroid (101955) Bennu. Understanding the geospatial context of Bennu is critical to choosing a sample-site and also linking the nature of the sample to the global properties of Bennu and the broader asteroid population. We established a planetary spatial data infrastructure (PSDI) support the primary objective of OSIRIS-REx. OSIRIS-REx is unique among planetary missions in that all remote sensing is performed to support the sample return objective. Prior to sampling, OSIRIS-REx will survey Bennu for nearly two years to select and document the most valuable primary and backup sample sites. During this period, the mission will combine coordinated observations from five science instruments into four thematic maps: deliverability, safety, sampleability, and scientific value. The deliverability map assesses the probability that the flight dynamics team can deliver the spacecraft to the desired location. The safety map indicates the probability that physical hazards are present at the sample-site. The sampleability map quantifies the probability that a sample can be successfully collected from the surface. Finally, the scientific value map shows the probability that the collected sample contains organics and volatiles and also places the sample site in a definitive geological context relative to Bennu's history. The OSIRIS-REx Science Processing and Operations Center (SPOC) serves as the operational PSDI for the mission. The SPOC is tasked with intake of all data from the spacecraft and other ground sources and assimilating these data into a single comprehensive system for processing and presentation. The SPOC centralizes all geographic data of Bennu in a relational database and ensures that standardization and provenance are maintained throughout proximity

  12. Planetary protection issues related to human missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.; Arnould, J.

    2008-09-01

    In accordance with the United Nations Outer Space Treaties [United Nations, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, UN doc A/RES/34/68, resolution 38/68 of December 1979], currently maintained and promulgated by the Committee on Space Research [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], missions exploring the Solar system must meet planetary protection requirements. Planetary protection aims to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and to protect the Earth environment from potential biological contamination carried by returned samples or space systems that have been in contact with an extraterrestrial environment. From an exobiology perspective, Mars is one of the major targets, and several missions are currently in operation, in transit, or scheduled for its exploration. Some of them include payloads dedicated to the detection of life or traces of life. The next step, over the coming years, will be to return samples from Mars to Earth, with a view to increasing our knowledge in preparation for the first manned mission that is likely to take place within the next few decades. Robotic missions to Mars shall meet planetary protection specifications, currently well documented, and planetary protection programs are implemented in a very reliable manner given that experience in the field spans some 40 years. With regards to sample return missions, a set of stringent requirements has been approved by COSPAR [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], and technical challenges must now be overcome in order to preserve the Earth’s biosphere from any eventual contamination risk. In addition to the human dimension of

  13. Mexico's Program for Science and Technology, 1978 to 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Edmundo

    1979-01-01

    Describes briefly the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) of Mexico, and outlines Mexico's Program for Science and Technology which includes 2,489 projects in basic and applied sciences at a cost of $260 million from 1978 to 1982. (HM)

  14. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  15. Moral Perceptions of College Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Eric

    This thesis argues that college-level science education is in need of explicit moral focuses centered on society's use of scientific knowledge. Many benefits come with scientific advancements but unfortunately the misuse of scientific knowledge has led to planetary crises that should be a concern for all who inhabit the Earth (e.g., climate change). The teaching of the misuses of science is often left out of college science classrooms and the purpose of this thesis is to see what effect college science students' education has had on their moral perception of these pressing issues. To evaluate how college science students morally perceive these global issues within their educational experiences, two focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed. Students converged on three themes when thinking of society's misuse of science: 1) there is something wrong with the way science is communicated between science and non-science groups; 2) misusing science for private benefit is not right, and 3) it is important for people to comprehend sustainability along different scales of understanding and action. This thesis concludes that although to some extent students were familiar with moral features that stem from society's misuse of science, they did not attribute their learning of those features from any of their required coursework within their programs of study.

  16. Planetary mapping—The datamodel's perspective and GIS framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, S.; Nass, A.

    2011-09-01

    Demands for a broad range of integrated geospatial data-analysis tools and methods for planetary data organization have been growing considerably since the late 1990s when a plethora of missions equipped with new instruments entered planetary orbits or landed on the surface. They sent back terabytes of new data which soon became accessible for the scientific community and public and which needed to be organized. On the terrestrial side, issues of data access, organization and utilization for scientific and economic analyses are handled by using a range of well-established geographic information systems (GIS) that also found their way into the field of planetary sciences in the late 1990s. We here address key issues concerning the field of planetary mapping by making use of established GIS environments and discuss methods of addressing data organization and mapping requirements by using an easily integrable datamodel that is - for the time being - designed as file-geodatabase (FileGDB) environment in ESRI's ArcGIS. A major design-driving requirement for this datamodel is its extensibility and scalability for growing scientific as well as technical needs, e.g., the utilization of such a datamodel for surface mapping of different planetary objects as defined by their respective reference system and by using different instrument data. Furthermore, it is a major goal to construct a generic model which allows to perform combined geologic as well as geomorphologic mapping tasks making use of international standards without loss of information and by maintaining topologic integrity. An integration of such a datamodel within a geospatial DBMS context can practically be performed by individuals as well as groups without having to deal with the details of administrative tasks and data ingestion issues. Besides the actual mapping, key components of such a mapping datamodel deal with the organization and search for image-sensor data and previous mapping efforts, as well as the

  17. Science Educational Outreach Programs That Benefit Students and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Peter; Gracia, Brant; Wessel, Aimee; Jarmoskaite, Inga; Polioudakis, Damon; Stuart, Yoel; Gonzalez, Tony; MacKrell, Al; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Beckham, Josh T.; Montgomery, Michael; Tasneem, Tania; Jones, Jack; Simmons, Sarah; Roux, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Both scientists and the public would benefit from improved communication of basic scientific research and from integrating scientists into education outreach, but opportunities to support these efforts are limited. We have developed two low-cost programs—"Present Your PhD Thesis to a 12-Year-Old" and "Shadow a Scientist”—that combine training in science communication with outreach to area middle schools. We assessed the outcomes of these programs and found a 2-fold benefit: scientists improve their communication skills by explaining basic science research to a general audience, and students' enthusiasm for science and their scientific knowledge are increased. Here we present details about both programs, along with our assessment of them, and discuss the feasibility of exporting these programs to other universities. PMID:26844991

  18. Early-career experts essential for planetary sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michelle; Lynch, Abigail J.; Fernández-Llamazares, Alvaro; Balint, Lenke; Basher, Zeenatul; Chan, Ivis; Jaureguiberry, Pedro; Mohamed, A.A.A.; Mwampamba, Tuyeni H.; Palomo, Ignacio; Pliscoff, Patricio; Salimov, R.A.; Samakov, Aibek; Selomane, Odirilwe; Shrestha, Uttam B.; Sidorovich, Anna A.

    2017-01-01

    Early-career experts can play a fundamental role in achieving planetary sustainability by bridging generational divides and developing novel solutions to complex problems. We argue that intergenerational partnerships and interdisciplinary collaboration among early-career experts will enable emerging sustainability leaders to contribute fully to a sustainable future. We review 16 international, interdisciplinary, and sustainability-focused early-career capacity building programs. We conclude that such programs are vital to developing sustainability leaders of the future and that decision-making for sustainability is likely to be best served by strong institutional cultures that promote intergenerational learning and involvement.

  19. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program: Accomplishments Since 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, Jon; Gibbs, Kristina; Ray, Hami; Bridges, Desireemoi; Bailey, Brad; Smith, Jeff; Sato, Kevin; Taylor, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) provides undergraduate students entering their junior or senior years with professional experience in space life science disciplines. This challenging ten-week summer program is held at NASA Ames Research Center. The primary goal of the program is to train the next generation of scientists and engineers, enabling NASA to meet future research and development challenges in the space life sciences. Students work closely with NASA scientists and engineers on cutting-edge research and technology development. In addition to conducting hands-on research and presenting their findings, SLSTP students attend technical lectures given by experts on a wide range of topics, tour NASA research facilities, participate in leadership and team building exercises, and complete a group project. For this presentation, we will highlight program processes, accomplishments, goals, and feedback from alumni and mentors since 2013. To date, 49 students from 41 different academic institutions, 9 staffers, and 21 mentors have participated in the program. The SLSTP is funded by Space Biology, which is part of the Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Application division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The SLSTP is managed by the Space Biology Project within the Science Directorate at Ames Research Center.

  20. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index

  1. An archiving system for Planetary Mapping Data - Availability of derived information and knowledge in Planetary Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the late 1950s a huge number of planetary missions started to explore our solar system. The data resulting from this robotic exploration and remote sensing varies in data type, resolution and target. After data preprocessing, and referencing, the released data are available for the community on different portals and archiving systems, e.g. PDS or PSA. One major usage for these data is mapping, i.e. the extraction and filtering of information by combining and visualizing different kind of base data. Mapping itself is conducted either for mission planning (e.g. identification of landing site) or fundamental research (e.g. reconstruction of surface). The mapping results for mission planning are directly managed within the mission teams. The derived data for fundamental research - also describable as maps, diagrams, or analysis results - are mainly project-based and exclusively available in scientific papers. Within the last year, first steps have been taken to ensure a sustainable use of these derived data by finding an archiving system comparable to the data portals, i.e. reusable, well-documented, and sustainable. For the implementation three tasks are essential. Two tasks have been treated in the past 1. Comparability and interoperability has been made possible by standardized recommendations for visual, textual, and structural description of mapping data. 2. Interoperability between users, information- and graphic systems is possible by templates and guidelines for digital GIS-based mapping. These two steps are adapted e.g. within recent mapping projects for the Dawn mission. The third task hasn`t been implemented thus far: Establishing an easily detectable and accessible platform that holds already acquired information and published mapping results for future investigations or mapping projects. An archive like this would support the scientific community significantly by a constant rise of knowledge and understanding based on recent discussions within

  2. Optical Science Discovery Program: Pre-College Outreach and So Much More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Miriam

    2010-03-01

    Recruiting and retaining women into the physical sciences is an ongoing struggle for universities, with the gap between men and women in physics remaining strong. Research shows a precipitous drop in female participation in the physical sciences around the 7th grade year of primary education, where girls begin losing interest during middle school, the drain continuing throughout high school with another significant drop at the bachelors level. To combat the loss of women in the physical sciences, the Oregon Center for Optics at the University of Oregon has created the Optical Science Discovery Program (OSDP), a precollege outreach program that targets girls in middle and high school. This program uses optical sciences as the medium through which girls explore experimental science. The program consists of a one-week intensive summer camp, a mentored monthly science club, summer internships and mentoring opportunities for camp alumni. By utilizing media often at the core of teenage life (e.g. Facebook, MySpace) we also aim to interact with program participants in a familiar and informal environment. Mentoring of OSDP activities is carried out by faculty and students of all levels. This in turn allows other education and outreach efforts at the University of Oregon to incorporate OSDP activities into their own, contributing to our broader university goals of surmounting barriers to higher education and creating a more scientifically literate populace. This talk will describe the OSDP program and its incorporation into the broader spectrum of outreach and education efforts.

  3. Hybrid-Mentoring Programs for Beginning Elementary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, EunJin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines four induction models and teacher changes in science teaching practices, as a result of several mentoring programs. It explores three different computer-mediated mentoring programs, and a traditional offline induction program--in terms of interactivity, inquiry-based teaching, and topics of knowledge. Fifteen elementary science…

  4. Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal Year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. The report is divided into six sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research program, Section D has information on DOE collaborative research centers, Section E gives distributions of funding, and Section F has various indexes

  5. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument.

  6. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  7. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  8. The Changing Roles of Science Specialists during a Capacity Building Program for Primary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra; Xu, Lihua; Kelly, Leissa

    2017-01-01

    Science education starts at primary school. Yet, recent research shows primary school teachers lack confidence and competence in teaching science (Prinsley & Johnston, 2015). A Victorian state government science specialist initiative responded to this concern by providing professional learning programs to schools across Victoria. Drawing on…

  9. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program.

  10. Summary and abstracts of the Planetary Data Workshop, June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hare, Trent; Beyer, Ross

    2014-01-01

    The recent boom in the volume of digital data returned by international planetary science missions continues to both delight and confound users of those data. In just the past decade, the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA’s official archive of scientific results from U.S. planetary missions, has seen a nearly 50-fold increase in the amount of data and now serves nearly half a petabyte. In only a handful of years, this volume is expected to approach 1 petabyte (1,000 terabytes or 1 quadrillion bytes). Although data providers, archivists, users, and developers have done a creditable job of providing search functions, download capabilities, and analysis and visualization tools, the new wealth of data necessitates more frequent and extensive discussion among users and developers about their current capabilities and their needs for improved and new tools. A workshop to address these and other topics, “Planetary Data: A Workshop for Users and Planetary Software Developers,” was held June 25–29, 2012, at Northern Arizona University (NAU) in Flagstaff, Arizona. A goal of the workshop was to present a summary of currently available tools, along with hands-on training and how-to guides, for acquiring, processing and working with a variety of digital planetary data. The meeting emphasized presentations by data users and mission providers during days 1 and 2, and developers had the floor on days 4 and 5 using an “unconference” format for day 5. Day 3 featured keynote talks by Laurence Soderblom (U.S. Geological Survey, USGS) and Dan Crichton (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL) followed by a panel discussion, and then research and technical discussions about tools and capabilities under recent or current development. Software and tool demonstrations were held in break-out sessions in parallel with the oral session. Nearly 150 data users and developers from across the globe attended, and 22 National Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) and non-NASA data providers

  11. Functional Programming in Computer Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Loren James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Marion Kei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-19

    We explore functional programming through a 16-week internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Functional programming is a branch of computer science that has exploded in popularity over the past decade due to its high-level syntax, ease of parallelization, and abundant applications. First, we summarize functional programming by listing the advantages of functional programming languages over the usual imperative languages, and we introduce the concept of parsing. Second, we discuss the importance of lambda calculus in the theory of functional programming. Lambda calculus was invented by Alonzo Church in the 1930s to formalize the concept of effective computability, and every functional language is essentially some implementation of lambda calculus. Finally, we display the lasting products of the internship: additions to a compiler and runtime system for the pure functional language STG, including both a set of tests that indicate the validity of updates to the compiler and a compiler pass that checks for illegal instances of duplicate names.

  12. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-12-01

    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  13. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  14. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. The report is divided into six sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Sections D and E have information on DOE collaborative research centers, Section F gives distribution of funding, and Section G has various indexes

  15. Characteristics of Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the First Four Months of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Borucki, William J.; Ciardi, David; Howard, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates with transit-like signatures detected in this period. These are associated with 997 host stars. Distributions of the characteristics of the planetary candidates are separated into five class sizes: 68 candidates of approximately Earth-size (R_p < 1.25 R_⊕), 288 super-Earth-size (1.25 R_⊕ ≤ R_p < 2 ...

  16. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2010 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Satheesh, Dr Sreedharan Krishnakumari Ph.D.(Kerala), FNA, FNASc, FTWAS. Date of birth: 1 May 1970. Specialization: Aerosols, Radiation, Climate Address: CAOS & Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact:

  17. ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.

    1994-01-01

    The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.

  18. Suborbital Science Program: Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelFrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the suborbital science program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Program Objectives are given in various areas: (1) Satellite Calibration and Validation (Cal/val)--Provide methods to perform the cal/val requirements for Earth Observing System satellites; (2) New Sensor Development -- Provide methods to reduce risk for new sensor concepts and algorithm development prior to committing sensors to operations; (3) Process Studies -- Facilitate the acquisition of high spatial/temporal resolution focused measurements that are required to understand small atmospheric and surface structures which generate powerful Earth system effects; and (4) Airborne Networking -- Develop disruption-tolerant networking to enable integrated multiple scale measurements of critical environmental features. Dryden supports the NASA Airborne Science Program and the nation in several elements: ER-2, G-3, DC-8, Ikhana (Predator B) & Global Hawk and Reveal. These are reviewed in detail in the presentation.

  19. Science in the General Educational Development (GED) curriculum: Analyzing the science portion of GED programs and exploring adult students' attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Joya Reena

    The General Educational Development (GED) tests enable people to earn a high school equivalency diploma and help them to qualify for more jobs and opportunities. Apart from this main goal, GED courses aim at enabling adults to improve the condition of their lives and to cope with a changing society. In today's world, science and technology play an exceedingly important role in helping people better their lives and in promoting the national goals of informed citizenship. Despite the current efforts in the field of secondary science education directed towards scientific literacy and the concept of "Science for all Americans", the literature does not reflect any corresponding efforts in the field of adult education. Science education research appears to have neglected a population that could possibly benefit from it. The purpose of this study is to explore: the science component of GED programs, significant features of the science portion of GED curricula and GED science materials, and adult learners' attitudes toward various aspects of science. Data collection methods included interviews with GED students and instructors, content analysis of relevant materials, and classroom observations. Data indicate that the students in general feel that the science they learn should be relevant to their lives and have direct applications in everyday life. Student understanding of science and interest in it appears to be contingent to their perceiving it as relevant to their lives and to society. Findings indicate that the instructional approaches used in GED programs influence students' perceptions about the relevance of science. Students in sites that use strategies such as group discussions and field trips appear to be more aware of science in the world around them and more enthusiastic about increasing this awareness. However, the dominant strategy in most GED programs is individual reading. The educational strategies used in GED programs generally focus on developing reading

  20. The effects of a science intervention program on the attitudes and achievement of high school girls in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley, Carrie Capers

    This study investigated the effects of a high school science intervention program that included hands-on activities, science-related career information and exposure, and real-world experiences on girls' attitudes and achievement in science. Eighty-four girls, 44 ninth-graders and 40 tenth-graders, and 105 parents participated in the study. Survey data was collected to assess the girls' attitudes toward science in seven distinct areas: social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, leisure interest in science, and career interest in science. Additional questionnaires were used to determine the extent of the girls' participation in sports and the attitudes of their parents toward science. The girls' cumulative science semester grade point averages since the seventh grade were used to assess academic science achievement. This study found no evidence that participation in the program improved the girls' attitudes or achievement in science. Parent attitudes and years of participation in sports were not accurate predictors of science achievement. Additionally, no significant relationship was detected between the girls' and their parents' perceptions of science. However, the study did suggest that extended participation in sports may positively affect science achievement for girls. This study holds implications for educational stakeholders who seek to implement intervention methods and programs that may improve student attitudes and achievement in science and attract more youth to future science-related careers.

  1. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Space Human Activity and Education of Spiritual Persons of Space Other Planetary Future in the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polischuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In clause an object of research are prospects of the further space human activity and education of spiritual persons аnother the planetary future, knowledge of the Universe and social progress of a human civilization during an anthropological space age. Proves, that only in unity of reason and spirituality of mankind probably space other planetary future of a human civilization. It is found out, that the strategic purpose of philosophy of formation – is a formation of space other planetary type of the person as image of the person of the future. The concept of the perfect high spiritual moral person as image of the person of space other planetary future which education system and philosophy of formation should bring up already today is offered. Also new anthropological space concepts which can be used in philosophy of formation and to space science are entered.

  3. NASA's "Eyes On The Solar System:" A Real-time, 3D-Interactive Tool to Teach the Wonder of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is using video game technology to immerse students, the general public and mission personnel in our solar system and beyond. "Eyes on the Solar System," a cross-platform, real-time, 3D-interactive application that can run on-line or as a stand-alone "video game," is of particular interest to educators looking for inviting tools to capture students interest in a format they like and understand. (eyes.nasa.gov). It gives users an extraordinary view of our solar system by virtually transporting them across space and time to make first-person observations of spacecraft, planetary bodies and NASA/ESA missions in action. Key scientific results illustrated with video presentations, supporting imagery and web links are imbedded contextually into the solar system. Educators who want an interactive, game-based approach to engage students in learning Planetary Science will see how "Eyes" can be effectively used to teach its principles to grades 3 through 14.The presentation will include a detailed demonstration of the software along with a description/demonstration of how this technology is being adapted for education. There will also be a preview of coming attractions. This work is being conducted by the Visualization Technology Applications and Development Group at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the same team responsible for "Eyes on the Earth 3D," and "Eyes on Exoplanets," which can be viewed at eyes.nasa.gov/earth and eyes.nasa.gov/exoplanets.

  4. NASA Life Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This Life Science Program video examines the variety of projects that study both the physiological and psychological impacts on astronauts due to extended space missions. The hazards of space radiation and microgravity effects on the human body are described, along with these effects on plant growth, and the performance of medical procedures in space. One research technique, which is hoped to provide help for future space travel, is the study of aquanauts and their life habits underwater.

  5. Science and students: Yucca Mountain project's education outreach program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.V.; Larkin, E.L.; Reilly, B.; Austin, P.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is very concerned about the lack of understanding of basic science. Increasingly, critical decisions regarding the use of energy, technology, and the environment are being made. A well-educated and science-literate public is vital to the success of these decisions. Science education and school instruction are integral parts of the DOE's public outreach program on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Project staff and scientists speak to elementary, junior high, high school, and university students, accepting all speaking invitations. The objectives of this outreach program include the following: (1) educating Nevada students about the concept of a high-level nuclear waste repository; (2) increasing awareness of energy and environmental issues; (3) helping students understand basic concepts of earth science and geology in relation to siting a potential repository; and (4) giving students information about careers in science and engineering

  6. Evaluating a Graduate Professional Development Program for Informal Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jeremy Paul

    This study is an examination and evaluation of the outcomes of a series of courses that I helped build to create a graduate certificate. Specifically, I wanted to evaluate whether or not the online iteration of the Informal Science Institutions Environmental Education Graduate Certificate Program truly provided the long term professional development needed to enhance the skills of the formal and informal educators participating so that they could contribute meaningfully to the improvement of science literacy in their respective communities. My role as an internal evaluator provided an extraordinary opportunity to know the intent of the learning opportunities and why they were constructed in a particular fashion. Through the combination of my skills, personal experiences both within the certificate's predecessor and as an educator, I was uniquely qualified to explore the outcomes of this program and evaluate its effectiveness in providing a long-term professional development for participants. After conducting a literature review that emphasized a need for greater scientific literacy in communities across America, it was evident that the formal education enterprise needs the support of informal educators working on the ground in myriad different settings in ways that provide science as both content and process, learning science facts and doing real science. Through a bridging of informal science educators with formal teachers, it was thought each could learn the culture of the other, making each more fluent in accessing community resources to help make these educators more collaborative and able to bridge the classroom with the outside world. This bridge promotes ongoing, lifelong learning, which in turn can help the national goal of greater scientific literacy. This study provided insight into the thinking involved in the learners' growth as they converted theory presented in course materials into practice. Through an iterative process of reviewing the course

  7. The perspectives and experiences of African American students in an informal science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulls, Domonique L.

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are the fastest growing sectors of the economy, nationally and globally. In order for the United States (U.S.) to maintain its competitiveness, it is important to address STEM experiences at the precollege level. In early years, science education serves as a foundation and pipeline for students to pursue STEM in college and beyond. Alternative approaches to instruction in formal classrooms have been introduced to engage more students in science. One alternative is informal science education. Informal science education is an avenue used to promote science education literacy. Because it is less regulated than science teaching in formal classroom settings, it allows for the incorporation of culture into science instruction. Culturally relevant science teaching is one way to relate science to African American students, a population that continually underperforms in K-12 science education. This study explores the science perspectives and experiences of African American middle school students participating in an informal science program. The research is framed by the tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy and shaped by the following questions: (1) What specific aspects of the Carver Program make it unique to African American students? (2) How is culturally relevant pedagogy incorporated into the informal science program? (3) How does the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy into the informal science program influence African American students' perceptions about science? The findings to the previously stated questions add to the limited research on African American students in informal science learning environments and contribute to the growing research on culturally relevant science. This study is unique in that it explores the cultural components of an informal science program.

  8. Customizing Process to Align with Purpose and Program: The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, V. A.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    How did the 2003 Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Ocean Sciences Program customize evaluative methodology and instruments to align with program goals and processes? How is data captured to document cognitive and affective impact? How are words and numbers utilized to accurately illustrate programmatic outcomes? How is compliance with implicit and explicit funding regulations demonstrated? The 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program case study provides insightful responses to each of these questions. MS PHD'S was developed by and for underrepresented minorities to facilitate increased and sustained participation in Earth system science. Key components of this initiative include development of a community of scholars sustained by face-to-face and virtual mentoring partnerships; establishment of networking activities between and among undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students, scientists, faculty, professional organization representatives, and federal program officers; and provision of forums to address real world issues as identified by each constituent group. The evaluative case study of the 2003 MS PHD'S in Ocean Sciences Program consists of an analysis of four data sets. Each data set was aligned to document progress in the achievement of the following program goals: Goal 1: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will successfully market, recruit, select, and engage underrepresented student and non-student participants with interest/ involvement in Ocean Sciences; Goal 2: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by quantitative analysis of user-feedback; Goal 3: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will provide meaningful engagement for participants as determined by qualitative analysis of user-feedback, and; Goal 4: The MS PHD'S Ocean Sciences Program will develop a constituent base adequate to demonstrate evidence of interest, value, need and sustainability in

  9. The Maryland nuclear science baccalaureate degree program: The university perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear utilities' efforts in response to industry-wide pressures to provide operations staff with degree opportunities have encountered formidable barriers. This paper describes, from the university's perspective, the development and operation of the University of Maryland University College (UMUC) special baccalaureate program in nuclear science. This program has successfully overcome these problems to provide degree education on-site, on-line, and on time. Program delivery began in 1984 with one utility and a single site. It is currently delivered at eight sites under contract to six utilities with a total active student count of over 500. The first graduates are expected in 1989. The program is an accredited university program and enjoys licensure approval from the six states within which it operates. In addition to meeting US Nuclear Regulatory Commission proposed guidelines for degreed operators, the program increasingly appears as part of utility management development programs for all plant personnel and a factor in employee retention. The owner utilities, the University of Maryland, and the growing user's group are committed to the academic integrity, technical capability, and responsiveness of the program. The full support of this partnership speaks well for the long-term service of the Bachelor of Science in Nuclear Science program to the nuclear power industry

  10. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    ]. Current Plan: At the 1st flyby of Enceladus at high plume altitude (~150 km), we would survey the status of the plume and jets by making in situ measurements of the gas and dust densities, compositions, and velocities. We would also collect solid ice/volatile samples based upon prior ground planning. The 2nd and final flyby (determined via optimal trajectory from the 1st flyby) will be conducted at low altitude (~20 km), and would perform in situ measurements and collect solid ice and volatile samples. During the 5 year return cruise, we would maintain the samples in their captured state (frozen) under desiccating conditions of low temperature and pressure. After a direct Earth reentry, we would transport the frozen samples from the sample return capsule into a sealed sample transport container, which would then be transported to a higher Biosafety Level (BSL) facility from JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) for sample return capsule de-integration and sample distribution. Planetary Protection: Several options for sample return have been conceived and some even demonstrated on previous flight missions (STARDUST, Genesis and Hayabusa). To date, a flight qualified sample containment system does not exist in the US, and it would be cost prohibitive to flight-qualify such a system for use by LIFE under a Discovery Program. Harsh sterilization of the samples would destroy valuable molecular information, defeating the very purpose of returning samples to assess the habitability of Enceladus. The LIFE team has found a viable approach by teaming with JAXA/ISAS. Their Hayabusa II sample containment is a third generation device that can be further improved to meet these NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements in an Integrated Sample Subsystem for LIFE. Another aspect of LIFE is the initial de-integration and certification of the returned samples in a higher BSL facility. JAMSTEC is the world’s leading oceanography organization. They are

  11. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  12. An Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science at James Madison University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Over the past decade a core group of faculty at James Madison University has created an interdisciplinary program in materials science that provides our students with unique courses and research experiences that augment the existing, high-quality majors in physics and astronomy, chemistry and biochemistry, geology and environmental science, mathematics and statistics, and integrated science and technology. The university started this program by creating a Center for Materials Science whose budget is directly allocated by the provost. This source of funds acts as seed money for research, support for students, and a motivating factor for each of the academic units to support the participation of their faculty in the program. Courses were created at the introductory and intermediate level that are cross-listed by the departments to encourage students to enroll in them as electives toward their majors. Furthermore, the students are encouraged to participate in undergraduate research in materials since this is the most fundamental unifying theme across the disciplines. This talk will cover some of the curricular innovations that went into the design of the program to make it successful, examples of faculty and student research and how that feeds back into the classroom, and success stories of the interactions that have developed between departments because of this program. Student outcomes and future plans to improve the program will also be discussed.

  13. Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at

  14. A Mathematical Sciences Program at an Upper-Division Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1978-01-01

    The conception, objectives, contents, and limitations of a degree program in the mathematical sciences at Pennsylvania State University, Capitol Campus, are discussed. Career goals that may be pursued include: managerial, science, education, actuarial, and computer. (MP)

  15. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  16. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA s Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA s and NLSI s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE s High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 168 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research in person.

  17. A Prototype for Education Programs using Planetari and Space Centres as Key Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L; Brumfitt, A.; Honan, P.

    Few hands on space experiments designed for school education allow the students and teachers to participate in the discovery of new science. One particularly experiment which flew on STS107 Columbia was designed specifically to do just this. A key feature of the project was to use a Zoo and a University as key tools in providing through life development and support. The project, "Spiders in Space" ran over a four year period resulted in the student and scientist team publishing over twenty refereed papers on their research findings. Throughout the project teacher and student performance, satisfaction, knowledge, abilities and competency were monitored and critically evaluated. The progressive gathering and feedback was used to improve the program and adapt the learning experience to the student needs and abilities. Based on the experience gained with the Spider Experiment on STS-107, the originating team of scientists and teachers have formulated a structure on which to facilitate the design of similar space education cross discipline projects. The project architecture presented uses as key tools Planetaria, Space science education centres, zoos and Universities in the successful delivery of the programs.The engagement of these key tools facilitates a cost effective and educationally sound support network for thousands of schools to have some ownership of their space program. These key tools provide both continuing professional development for teachers wishing to enter the program and field laboratory support for the student classes engaged in it. The resulting programs are designed to foster collaboration between space research and education on an international scale. The sample new program is presented which demonstrates the application of scientific principles by making students and teachers an integral part of current space research. Issues such as environment, climate control and biological diversity are investigated with a view to providing research outcomes

  18. Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. Final Report to the National Science Foundation. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Harold; diSessa, Andy

    During the summer of 1976, the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory sponsored a Student Science Training Program in Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science for high ability secondary school students. This report describes, in some detail, the style of the program, the curriculum and the projects the students under-took. It is hoped that this…

  19. AIAA Educator Academy - Mars Rover Curriculum: A 6 week multidisciplinary space science based curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Curiosity mission has captured the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The AIAA and the University of Houston have developed a flexible curriculum program that offers children in-depth science and language arts learning culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students learn to research Mars in order to pick a science question about Mars that is of interest to them. They learn principles of spacecraft design in order to build a model of a Mars rover to carry out their mission on the surface of Mars. The model is a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the structure and organization of the 6 week curriculum. A set of 30 new 5E lesson plans have been written to support this project as a classroom activity. The challenge of developing interactive

  20. Virtual Planetary Space Weather Services offered by the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, N.; Grande, M.; Achilleos, N.; Barthélémy, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Benson, K.; Blelly, P.-L.; Budnik, E.; Caussarieu, S.; Cecconi, B.; Cook, T.; Génot, V.; Guio, P.; Goutenoir, A.; Grison, B.; Hueso, R.; Indurain, M.; Jones, G. H.; Lilensten, J.; Marchaudon, A.; Matthiä, D.; Opitz, A.; Rouillard, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Soucek, J.; Tao, C.; Tomasik, L.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. PSWS will make twelve new services accessible to the research community, space agencies, and industrial partners planning for space missions. These services will in particular be dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support of the NASA MAVEN and European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express and ExoMars missions), comets (building on the outstanding success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer mission), and one of these services will aim at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts in the Solar System. This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather as well as to space situational awareness in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. PSWS will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. PSWS will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in Europe at the end

  1. The women in science and engineering scholars program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Etta Z.; Guy, Lori Ann

    1989-01-01

    The Women in Science and Engineering Scholars Program provides scientifically talented women students, including those from groups underrepresented in the scientific and technical work force, with the opportunity to pursue undergraduate studies in science and engineering in the highly motivating and supportive environment of Spelman College. It also exposes students to research training at NASA Centers during the summer. The program provides an opportunity for students to increase their knowledge of career opportunities at NASA and to strengthen their motivation through exposure to NASA women scientists and engineers as role models. An extensive counseling and academic support component to maximize academic performance supplements the instructional and research components. The program is designed to increase the number of women scientists and engineers with graduate degrees, particularly those with an interest in a career with NASA.

  2. Development of a Planetary Web GIS at the ``Photothèque Planétaire'' in Orsay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, C.

    2012-09-01

    The “Photothèque Planétaire d'Orsay” belongs to the Regional Planetary Image Facilities (RPIF) network started by NASA in 1984. The original purpose of the RPIF was mainly to provide easy access to data from US space missions throughout the world. The “Photothèque” itself specializes in planetary data processing and distribution for research and public outreach. Planetary data are heterogeneous, and combining different observations is particularly challenging, especially if they belong to different data-sets. A common description framework is needed, similar to the existing Geographical Information Systems (GIS) that have been developed for manipulating Earth data. In their present state, GIS software and standards cannot directly be applied to other planets because they still lack flexibility in managing coordinate systems. Yet, the GIS framework serves as an excellent starting point for the implementation of a Virtual Observatory for Planetary Sciences, provided it is made more generic and inter-operable. The “Photothèque Planétaire d'Orsay” has produced some planetary GIS examples using historical and public data-sets. Our main project is a Web-based visualization system for planetary data, which features direct point-and-click access to quantitative measurements. Thanks to being compatible with all recent web browsers, our interface can also be used for public outreach and to make data accessible for education and training.

  3. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  4. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  5. A Big Data Task Force Review of Advances in Data Access and Discovery Within the Science Disciplines of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Beebe, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    One of the basic problems the NASA Science Miss